Contemporary Issues in Sport Management: A Critical Introduction
Publication Year: 2016
Contemporary Issues in Sports Management offers a rich and dynamic introduction to the management of sport. An essential companion for all students embarking on a sports management course or module, it draws on research expertise from around the world and integrates these perspectives into engaging and accessible chapters. This book offers: • Contemporary and international case studies followed by ‘Tools for analysis’ so students can put the methodology into practice. • A range of pedagogical features including learning objectives, learning outcomes and short ‘Thinking points’ • Useful websites and further reading at the end of each chapter • A discussion of up-to-date issues including corruption in sport, sport policy, doping, athlete transgressions and much more. This book will lead students on a comprehensive exploration of global, national issues, and ...
- Front Matter
- Subject Index
- : Global Issues
- Chapter 1: Glocal Sport: Impact on Corporations and Institutions
- Chapter 2: The Commercialization of Sport
- Chapter 3: Technology and Innovation
- Chapter 4: Corruption in Sport
- Chapter 5: The Global Economics of Sport
- Chapter 6: Ethical Behavior and Values in Sport
- Chapter 7: Politics and Sport Governance
- Chapter 8: International Sport Law
- Chapter 9: Media and Communications
- Chapter 10: Human Resource Management in Sport
- Chapter 11: Strategic Management
- Chapter 12: Animals in Sport
- : National Issues
- Chapter 13: Sport Policy
- Chapter 14: Mega Sport Events
- Chapter 15: Sport Participation
- Chapter 16: Leadership
- Chapter 17: Gender
- Chapter 18: Performance Management
- Chapter 19: Doping
- Chapter 20: Gambling and the Sports Betting Industry
- Chapter 21: Funding for Sport
- Chapter 22: Match Fixing in International Sport
- Chapter 23: Disability Sport
- : Organizational Issues
- Chapter 24: Ownership
- Chapter 25: Social Media Challenges
- Chapter 26: Managing Social Media in Sport
- Chapter 27: Brand Management in Sport
- Chapter 28: Crisis Management
- Chapter 29: Sexuality: Homohysteria and Coming Out in Sport
- Chapter 30: Fan Loyalty in Sport
- Chapter 31: Trust and Control in Sport Organizations
- Chapter 32: Sponsorship in Sport
- Chapter 33: Athlete Transgressions: Implications for Sport Managers
- Chapter 34: Corporate Social Responsibility of and through Sport
- : Employability
- Chapter 35: Conclusions: The Employability ‘Race’ in Sport Management
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Introduction © Terri Byers 2016
Foreword © Earle F. Zeigler 2016
Chapter 1 © Oliver Rick, Callie Batts-Maddox and David L. Andrews 2016
Chapter 2 © Patrick A. Reid and Daniel S. Mason 2016
Chapter 3 © Antonio Davila and George Foster 2016
Chapter 4 © Wladimir Andreff 2016
Chapter 5 © Chris Gratton, Donfeng Liu, Girish Ramchandani and Darryl Wilson 2016
Chapter 6 © Gabriela Tymowski, Terri Byers and Fred Mason 2016
Chapter 7 © Russell Holden 2016
Chapter 8 © Kevin Carpenter 2016
Chapter 9 © Andrea Geurin-Eagleman 2016
Chapter 10 © Shannon Kerwin 2016
Chapter 11 © Danny O’Brien and Ben Corbett 2016
Chapter 12 © Andrew Byers and Dene Stansall 2016
Chapter 13 © Jiandong Yi 2016
Chapter 14 © Kamilla Swart 2016
Chapter 15 © Jason Bocarro and Michael Edwards 2016
Chapter 16 © Mark McDonald and Kirsty Spence 2016
Chapter 17 © Annelies Knoppers and Agnes Elling-Machartzi 2016
Chapter 18 © Leigh Robinson and Mathieu Winand 2016
Chapter 19 © Aaron Smith and Bob Stewart 2016
Chapter 20 © David Forrest 2016
Chapter 21 © Elwyn Cox 2016
Chapter 22 © Andrew Harvey and Haim Levi 2016
Chapter 23 © Ian Brittain 2016
Chapter 24 © John Beech 2016
Chapter 25 © Sebastian Kopera 2016
Chapter 26 © Olan Scott, Katherine Bruffy and Michael Naylor 2016
Chapter 27 © Jonathon Edwards 2016
Chapter 28 © Stacey Hall 2016
Chapter 29 © Ryan Scoats and Eric Anderson 2016
Chapter 30 © Joerg Koenigstorfer 2016
Chapter 31 © Terri Byers and Alex Thurston 2016
Chapter 32 © Nicolas Chanavat and Guillaume Bodet 2016
Chapter 33 © Kate Westberg, Constantino Stavros, Bradley Wilson and Aaron Smith 2016
Chapter 34 © Christos Anagnostopoulos and Dimitrios Kolyperas 2016
Chapter 35 © Terri Byers 2016
First published 2016
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Library of Congress Control Number: 2015941454
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ISBN 978-1-4462-8219-9 (pbk)
Editor: Chris Rojek
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About the Editor and Contributorss[Page vii]Editor
Terri Byers joined the University of New Brunswick in July 2014, after 19 years of teaching and researching in the United Kingdom. She has authored/co-authored a variety of publications, including books such as Key Concepts in Sport Management (Sage), as well as journal articles in European Sport Management Quarterly, International Sport Management and Marketing, Corporate Governance and the Journal of Leisure Research. She has won over $1m CAD in funding for her research and worked on projects totalling more than $2m CAD. Current research interests are devoted to non-participation in sport and how sport organizations innovate to increase participation.Contributors
Christos Anagnostopoulos is an Associate Professor in Sport Management at Molde University College (Norway) and an Associate Lecturer in Management at the University of Central Lancashire (Cyprus). He holds a PhD from Coventry University and a Master’s from his research into sport management and the business of football from Birkbeck, University of London. He is an Early Researcher Awardholder of the European Association for Sport Management, and head of the sports unit at the Athens Institute for Education and Research. His research falls within the fields of organizational behaviour and strategic management. He is notably interested in corporate social responsibility in and through sport, as well as in the management of team sport organizations.
Eric Anderson is an American sociologist known for his research on sport, masculinities, sexualities and homophobia. He shows an increasingly positive relationship between gay male athletes and sport, as well as a growing movement of young heterosexual men’s masculinity becoming softer and more inclusive.
Wladimir Andreff is Professor Emeritus at the University Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne, Honorary President of the International Association of Sports Economists and the European Sports Economics Association, and incumbent [Page viii]President of the Scientific Council at the Observatory of the Sports Economy (French Ministry for Sports). He has published over 130 scientific articles, edited four volumes (including Contemporary Issues in Sports Economics: Participation and Professional Team Sports, Edward Elgar, 2011) and authored five books on sports economics (most recently, Mondialisation économique du sport, De Boeck, 2012).
David Andrews is Professor of Physical Cultural Studies in the Department of Kinesiology at the University of Maryland. Utilizing a form of radical contextualism derived from cultural studies’ conjoined intellectual and political sensibilities, his work looks to illuminate and complicate the role of physical culture in the (re)production of the late capitalist formation. His publications include The Blackwell Companion to Sport (edited with Ben Carrington, 2013, Blackwell), and Sport and Neoliberalism: Politics, Consumption, and Culture (edited with Michael Silk, 2012, Temple University Press).
Callie Batts-Maddox received her PhD in Physical Cultural Studies from the University of Maryland. She lived in north India for two years while conducting research for her doctoral dissertation, and also spent time working as a youth baseball coach and yoga instructor in Delhi. Her previous work has appeared in Sport in Society, the International Journal of Cultural Studies, the Review of Education, Pedagogy and Cultural Studies and the Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change.
John Beech is an Honorary Research Fellow at Coventry University in the United Kingdom, where he was previously Head of Leisure, Sport and Tourism Management. He regularly lectures in Austria, Croatia, Germany and Finland, and is an International Professor at the Russian International Olympic University in Sochi, Russia. He received the Football Supporters’ Federation Writer of the Year Award for the season 2009/10, and his research has been reported in the Financial Times, the Times, the Independent, the Observer, the Glasgow Herald, the Daily Express, France’s Le Parisien, Germany’s Frankfurter Algemeine Zeitung and Handelsblatt, Austria’s Die Presse, and Spain’s Expansión.
Jason Bocarro is an Associate Professor in the Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management at North Carolina State University. He has published over 40 peer-reviewed research journal publications spanning a number of disciplines, including medicine, sociology, public health, psychology, parks and recreation, exercise science and education, as well as book chapters and practitioner-based publications. His research has been featured in Time Magazine, the Guardian, national public radio and USA Today.
Guillaume Bodet is Professor of Sport Marketing and Management within the School of Sport Sciences at Université Claude Bernard Lyon-1 (Université de Lyon). He is a member of the Centre for Research on Innovation in Sport (CRIS EA 647) [Page ix]and the Laboratory of Vulnerability and Innovation in Sport (L-Vis) as well as a Visiting Fellow at Loughborough University, UK. His research primarily deals with consumer behaviour regarding sport organizations, sporting events and sport brands. He has published many articles in peer-reviewed journals such as European Sport Management Quarterly, the International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services and Psychology and Marketing.
Ian Brittain is a research fellow in the Centre for Business in Society at Coventry Business School. He is an internationally recognized expert in the study of disability and paralympic sport and has attended the last four summer Paralympic Games in Sydney, Athens, Beijing and London. He is an experienced researcher and has published widely in a variety of books/book chapters and journals. He has also presented at a variety of national and international conferences, and has been successful in a number of large grant applications, including two Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowships for Dr Leonardo Mataruna from Brazil and Professor Jill Le Clair from Canada, for which he acts as Scientist in Charge.
Katherine Bruffy is a Lecturer on Sport Management and Programme Leader in the Department of Sport at the Unitec Institute of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand. Katie’s passion for sport began as a youth swimmer and continued through her time as a collegiate synchronized swimmer. She began teaching in higher education in 2006 at the Ohio State University, where she also earned her PhD researching sport nostalgia. Particular research areas of interest include sport marketing, consumer behaviour, governance and sport development. Katie has worked within these research areas as a consultant for the Skycity Breakers Basketball Team, Auckland Mystics Netball Team and Auckland Cricket.
Andrew Byers, as a specialist in reproductive biology, has an interest in all aspects of animal breeding. His current research focus is on the effect of environmental pollutants which impact on reproductive health, but more broadly he has an interest in issues around animal health, welfare and ethical breeding practices. He has worked as an academic at a number of UK universities and is currently affiliated with the University of Nottingham School of Veterinary Medicine and Science.
Kevin Carpenter is an independent legal and sports consultant with experience across a broad range of disciplines, including regulatory, commercial, dispute resolution, competition and intellectual property. He advises individuals, sports governing bodies and public organizations on all aspects of sports law, business and policy. He has a focus on integrity, governance, regulatory and disciplinary matters, and makes regular public appearances internationally delivering presentations and commenting in the media on topical sports issues. He has published across a range of journals and produces a regular blog that is published by the international sports law resource LawInSport.
[Page x]Ben Corbett spent 15 years in the sports industry before completing his PhD in Strategic Sport Management at Griffith University. He is currently a Lecturer at the Institute for Sports Business at Loughborough University in London. Ben’s research interests include strategy, governance and high performance management.
Elwyn Cox is an experienced business consultant, project manager, curriculum advisor and lecturer. He has lectured at the University of Winchester for over 10 years, moving from the Business School to develop a Sport Management programme. Providing high-quality learning experiences for students has been his passion and his research has centred on practical pedagogic issues. He has also presented internationally on his views and research. Current projects include establishing a specialist sport sponsorship research centre focusing on the hybrid sport sponsor, and local sponsors in financing UK sport.
Antonio Davila has a dual appointment as Professor of Entrepreneurship and Professor of Accounting and Control at IESE Business School. He is the Alcatel Lucent Chair of Technology Management and has also been a professor at the Harvard Business School during 2013 and 2014, teaching in the MBA core curriculum. Before coming to IESE, he was a faculty member at the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University, after receiving his doctorate from the Harvard Business School. He teaches courses in innovation management, entrepreneurship, management accounting and control, and sports management at the Master’s, doctoral and executive education level.
Jonathon Edwards is an Assistant Professor in the Faculty of Kinesiology at the University of New Brunswick (UNB), Canada. He teaches courses in sport marketing and sponsorship that include branding and brand management for the MBA in the Sport and Recreation Management programme at UNB. Jonathon uses applied qualitative research to explore sport delivery systems through institutional theory, and has published in a variety of sport management journals, spoken at a number of academic and practitioner’s conferences, and conducted research on behalf of national sport organizations.
Michael Edwards is an Associate Professor in the Department of Parks, Recreation and Tourism Management at North Carolina State University. His research interests centre on social inequality in access to physical activity and sport environments, and sport’s impact on community health and development. In 2011, he received the Oak Ridge Association Ralph E. Powe Junior Faculty Achievement Award, being recognized as one of the top 30 junior researchers in the USA. He has also spent over a decade managing professional baseball organizations in the United States and has received national recognition as Minor League Baseball Executive of the Year on two occasions.
[Page xi]Agnes Elling-Machartzi, PhD, has 25 years’ experience in sport and academia, and is currently at the Mulier Institute’s Centre for Research on Sports in Society in the Netherlands. Her research interests include sports and social inclusion/exclusion (gender, sexuality, ethnicity) and changing socio-psychological meanings in grassroots and elite sports biographies. Widely published in Dutch and English, Agnes is currently involved in a three-year research project on the development of women’s football and (new) media, funded by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO).
David Forrest is a Professor of Economics at the University of Liverpool Management School. He has contributed extensively to the academic literature on both sports economics and the economics of gambling, and is a board member at both the Journal of Sports Economics and International Gambling Studies. He advises international agencies and sports federations on match-fixing issues. As a member of Britain’s Responsible Gambling Strategy Board, he is also active in evaluating policies towards issues related to problem gambling.
George Foster is the Konosuke Matsushita Professor of Management at the Graduate School of Business, Stanford University. His areas of research, teaching and advising include entrepreneurship, sports management and globalization. He is the author or co-author of seven books or major reports and over 50 articles. He was a two-term member of the Global Agenda Council on Sports and Society for the World Economic Forum and has led or co-led two major World Economic Reports (‘Global Entrepreneurship and the Successful Growth Strategies of Early-Stage Companies’ and ‘Entrepreneurial Ecosystems Around the Globe and Company Growth Dynamics’). One hallmark of his teaching at Stanford is the multiple senior executives from entrepreneurial ventures and the sports landscape that co-teach individual sessions. Over 60 executives regularly join his MBA classes each year for individual sessions. He has directed multiple executive programmes for the NFL and the NBPA, and is a co-author with Bill Walsh (the three-time Super Bowl winning coach) of The Business of Sports.
Andrea Geurin-Eagleman is a Senior Lecturer in Sport Management at Griffith University in Brisbane, Australia. She has published extensively on the topics of sport communication and marketing, specifically focusing on media portrayals of athletes of differing race, gender and nationality, as well as athletes’ and sport organisations’ use of social media. Her work has appeared in over 30 peer-reviewed academic journal articles and she has presented her research at numerous conferences around the world. She currently serves on the editorial boards of seven academic journals, and in 2015 was named a North American Society for Sport Management (NASSM) Research Fellow, recognizing her outstanding research contributions in the field of sport management.
Chris Gratton is Emeritus Professor of Sport Economics and Director of the Sport Industry Research Centre at Sheffield Hallam University. He currently has six academic books in print, the latest of which is The Global Economics of Sport, which was published in 2012. His main research interests are: the estimation of the economic benefits of hosting major sports events; the estimation of the economic importance of sport including the construction of sport satellite accounts; and the analysis and modelling of large sport participation surveys.
[Page xii]Stacey Hall is an Associate Professor of Sport Management at the University of Southern Mississippi (USM). She has been published in international sport management, homeland security and emergency management journals, and has co-authored two textbooks—Global Sport Facility Operations Management and Security Management for Sports and Special Events. Stacey has also been referred to as one of the leading experts in sport security, with interviews in USA Today, ESPN the Magazine, CBS New York and ESPN Outside the Lines.
Andrew Harvey is a Researcher and Programme Manager at Birkbeck Sports Business Centre, University of London. In 2013 he won research funds from the European Commission to conduct an original empirical study of 1,500 professional football players across Europe as part of a project led by FIFPro, the world professional footballers’ union. The results of the project informed a Good Practice Guide, entitled “Protect our Game.” Andy has appeared regularly on television and radio to discuss his research findings. He is currently Programme Manager for the FIFPro Executive Education programme, and in addition to researching match-fixing, has published widely on sport, gender and sexuality.
Russell Holden runs In the Zone Sport and Politics Consultancy, providing insight into the interplay between sport and politics both in the UK and overseas, and offering teaching, research, consultancy and broadcasting expertise. He previously taught at Cardiff Metropolitan University and regularly lectures at the University of Worcester and Southampton Solent University. He has written widely on the politics of sport, more especially on the political economy of cricket, and has co-edited a special edition of Sport and Society (“Sport, Community and Citizenship” (Routledge)). He is also the co-founder of the United Kingdom Political Studies Association Sport and Politics Research Group.
Shannon Kerwin is an assistant professor in the Department of Sport Management at Brock University who teaches and conducts research in the area of management and leadership in sport, specifically looking at how personal and organizational values align in order to enhance important organizational outcomes, the role of conflict in the effectiveness of volunteer boards of directors, and how leadership is developed and fostered within the context of team/organizational culture.
Annelies Knoppers is a Professor in the Department of Governance and Organization Studies at the University of Utrecht in the Netherlands. Her research focus is on diversity and gender in sport organizations with the [Page xiii]use of critical theory. Her emphasis is specifically on the gendering of positions of leadership. She has conducted this research in the USA and the Netherlands and has looked at coaches and sport managers in both paid and voluntary positions. After conducting more than 25 years of research on this topic, she has concluded that very little has changed in that time because the same issues keep reappearing. Possibly the users of this text can make a significant difference on this issue!
Joerg Koenigstorfer is a full Professor and holds the Chair of Sport and Health Management at Technische Universität München (Germany). In his research, Joerg investigates the managerial decisions of sport and health companies, and their impact on consumers and welfare. The results of these studies have been published in scientific journals (such as the Journal of Marketing Research, Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, Appetite, British Journal of Nutrition, Physiology and Behavior, Journal of Sport Management) and cited by various mass media outlets.
Dimitrios Kolyperas is a Lecturer in the Marketing and Retail division of Stirling Management School, Stirling University. His PhD focused on corporate social responsibility in football clubs as well as sports marketing. Dimitrios also holds an MBA from Cardiff University. His current research interests concentrate on sport management and marketing, corporate governance, as well as corporate social responsibility. He is currently the Programme Director of the BA in Marketing at Stirling University while remaining a fan of sport, in particular basketball.
Sebastian Kopera is an Assistant Professor at the Jagiellonian University in Kracow, where he researches and teaches e-business and e-commerce issues in sport and tourism industries. His current interests focus on the application of social media as a tool supporting innovation-oriented knowledge transfer and acquisition.
Haim Levi is a Research Associate at the Birkbeck Sport Business Centre, University of London, specialising on issues relating to sporting integrity. He has worked on several anti-match-fixing related projects, among them the Transparency International initiative ‘Staying on Side’ which was funded by the European Commission, as well as the international football players’ union FIFPro’s initiative (Protect Our Game Good Practice Guide for Professional Football Players’ Associations) to tackle match-fixing in football. Haim had written business school case studies on a variety of sport governance and regulatory issues for classrooms in different academic and executive education programmes. He is currently part of the Financial Crime team at Deloitte UK.
Dongfeng Liu is Professor and Associate Dean at the School of Economics and Management at Shanghai University of Sport in China. His main research interests include sport events management, sports events evaluation, sport and urban development, and sport policy studies. He has over 30 publications to his name including books, refereed journal articles, refereed conference articles, and industry reports.
[Page xiv]Daniel S. Mason is a Professor of Physical Education and Recreation and adjunct with the School of Business at the University of Alberta. His research focuses on sports leagues and franchises, cities, events and infrastructure development. His work has been published in the Journal of Sport Management, Journal of Urban Affairs, Economic Development Quarterly, Managing Leisure, Economic Inquiry, Contemporary Economic Policy, Tourism Management and Urban Studies. He was named a North American Society for Sport Management Research Fellow in 2004.
Fred Mason is an Associate Professor in Kinesiology at the University of New Brunswick, and teaches sport history, sport sociology and media studies related to sport. He has longstanding interests in the history of para sports, and in how sports media coverage connects to gender, disability and multi-cultural discourses. His work has been published in a variety of journals including the International Review for the Sociology of Sport, Sport in Society, Sport History Review, the Canadian Bulletin of Medical History and the Electronic Green Journal. He is currently engaged in a multi-year ethnographic project on ultrarunning in Canada.
Mark McDonald is an Associate Professor in the Mark H. McCormack Department of Sport Management at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, where he received a PhD in 1996. He has given more than 45 academic presentations and published 28 journal articles in such respected journals as the Journal of Sport Management, Sport Marketing Quarterly, International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship and European Sport Management Quarterly. He also received the NASSM Distinguished Sport Management Educator award in 2009. His research interests include experiential learning pedagogy, leadership, and leadership development.
Michael Naylor is currently a sport management Lecturer at Auckland University of Technology in New Zealand. Previously, he spent time in the United States and Canada as both a practitioner and scholar in the sport industry. His research interests include sport marketing, consumer psychology and social media. The projects he undertakes are based in a variety of participant and supporter contexts around the world.
Danny O’Brien is an Associate Professor and Head of Programme, Sport Management, in the School of Health Sciences at Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia. Danny has presented his work at over 30 international conferences and published many book chapters and articles in journals such as the Journal of Sport Management, Sport Management Review, European Sport Management Quarterly, Annals of Tourism Research, Journal of Sustainable Tourism and European Journal of Marketing. He is also an active reviewer for several sport management journals and is the Associate Editor for Sport Management Review.
Girish Ramchandani is a Reader at Sheffield Hallam University’s Sport Industry Research Centre. His principal area of research is the evaluation of [Page xv]major sports events, and he has published widely on their economic, sport development, and elite performance outcomes. He is currently engaged by UK Sport to evaluate around 40 international sporting events until 2019.
Patrick A. Reid is a doctoral student in the Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation at the University of Alberta. He has been involved in sport management for more than 40 years. As a former Vice President of the Canadian Amateur Hockey Association and former Director General of the Sport Medicine and Science Council of Canada, Pat is currently assisting the City of Edmonton as the Executive Director of the Edmonton Combative Sports Commission, which governs professional mixed martial arts, boxing and wrestling events in the city.
Oliver Rick is currently on the faculty of the University of Massachusetts, Boston. He is a graduate of the Physical Cultural Studies programme, and has published on a broad number of topics in sports management. In particular his research interests have focused on global sport media and policy. In addition, during his time at the University of Maryland, Rick has crafted a second research focus, studying urban physical activity practices, cultures and policies. Building on this research he has several forthcoming publications that critically analyze the development of bicycling within urban settings, as well as the impacts of active transportation and recreation policies.
Leigh Robinson is Head of Sport at the University of Stirling. She works extensively with Olympic sport organizations and has a specialist research profile in the area of the effectiveness of National Federations and National Olympic Committees in developing sport systems. Leigh is editor (along with others) of The Routledge Handbook of Sport Management, Managing Olympic Sport Organisations and Managing Voluntary Sport Organisations. She is also a member of the board for sportscotland and the Director for Governance and Compliance for Commonwealth Games Scotland.
Ryan Scoats is a PhD candidate at the University of Winchester, where he also lectures part-time. His work focuses on the meanings people attach to threesomes and their interpretations of their experiences. Other research interests include masculinities, sport, sexualities, identity and consensual non-monogamy.
Olan Scott is an Assistant Professor in Sport Management at University of Canberra. He gained his PhD from Griffith University, Australia, where he explored the framing of sport broadcasts through the analysis of commentator narrative. Olan is heavily involved in industry-focused research including social media marketing, fan engagement and other media-related projects with organizations in Australia, Canada and New Zealand. Olan has attracted funding from industry partners and competitive grants (both internal and external). He is also a board member of the Canberra Cavalry Australian Baseball League team since 2015. He has been a lecturer in a variety of sport management courses, including sports marketing, sport management and development, and social media.
[Page xvi]Aaron Smith is Professor and Deputy Pro-Vice Chancellor, Industry Engagement, at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. He has research interests in the management of psychological, organizational and policy change in business and sport. Aaron holds doctorates in both organizational change and cognitive science, and has written on cognitive and popular science as well as philosophy of science. He has also consulted in policy, governance, marketing, leadership, change management, human resource and performance management for a diverse range of organizations.
Kirsty Spence, Associate Professor, has worked in the Department of Sport Management at Brock University, in St Catharine’s, Ontario, Canada, since 2004. Kirsty has accrued experience developing leaders within a university setting through developing and teaching curricula using experiential learning pedagogy as well as through research publications. Her teaching and research work has been specifically guided by use of Ken Wilber’s All Quadrant, All Level (Integral) Model and the Leadership Development Framework (LDF) for over a decade. Kirsty was also certified as Master Integral Coach™ through Integral Coaching Canada® in 2011, which has also served as an excellent complement to inform her teaching and research practices.
Dene Stansall is horse racing consultant for the campaign group Animal Aid. He has written and lectured extensively on issues relating to the use of horses in sport, and counselled the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals’ (RSPCA) Scientific, Academic and Technical Committee. He has also addressed the Associate Parliamentary Group on Animal Welfare in the UK Parliament. He is frequently requested to comment in the mainstream media.
Constantino Stavros is an Associate Professor in Marketing, at the School of Economics, Finance and Marketing at RMIT University, located in Melbourne, Australia. He possesses a global understanding of marketing, particularly in the application of strategic concepts in communication, and the development and function of marketing both through and of sport.
Bob Stewart is Professor of Sport Policy in the College of Sport and Exercise Science at Victoria University, Melbourne Australia. Bob has a special interest in player regulation in professional team sports, and the ways in which the forces of neoliberalism and hyper-commercialism shape the structure and conduct of contemporary sport. Bob is the sole author of Sport Funding and Finance (Routledge, 2015); co-author – with Aaron C.T. Smith – of Rethinking Drug Use in Sport: Why the War Will Never be Won (Routledge, 2014); editor of The Games are Not the Same: The Political Economy of Football in Australia (Melbourne University Press, 2007); and lead author of Australian Sport: Better by Design? The Evolution of Sport Policy in Australia (Routledge, 2004).
Kamilla Swart is an Associate Professor in the Tourism and Event Management Department, Faculty of Business and Management Sciences, Cape Peninsula University of Technology. Her research interests include sport and event [Page xvii]tourism, with a specific focus on mega-events and event policies, strategies and evaluations. She was instrumental in driving the 2010 Fe´de´ration Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup Research Agenda and served as the City of Cape Town’s Research Coordinator for 2010.
Alex Thurston is a final year PhD candidate at Loughborough University, studying sport policy and small voluntary sport clubs. He completed a Master’s at Coventry Business School examining control in swimming clubs using qualitative methods.
Gabriela Tymowski is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Kinesiology at the University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, Canada. Her teaching and research expertise lies in the field of applied ethics with a focus on vulnerable populations, primarily children and animals, in sport. She has studied and/or lectured in Australia, England, the USA, South Korea, Barbados and Greece with the International Olympic Academy. Her most recent publication is ‘The virtue of compassion: Animals in sport, hunting as sport, and entertainment’ (edited by J. Gillett and M. Gilbert, Sport, Animals and Society, Routledge, 2014).
Kate Westberg is an Associate Professor in Marketing at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia. Kate’s research focuses on the controversial issues that can arise in professional sport and the resulting implications for managing the sport brand and key stakeholders. In addition to athlete transgressions, she is also interested in exploring the implications resulting from the association of sport with ‘risky consumption’ products such as gambling, alcohol and unhealthy food.
Bradley Wilson has a keen interest in sponsorship, branding, understanding image transfer and methods advancements research. He has multiple affiliations (as Associate Professor of Communication, Branding and Urban Creative Cultures, Facultad de Administración, Universidad de los Andes, Colombia; Senior Lecturer in Advertising. School of Media and Communication, RMIT University, Australia; and Visiting Professor of Department of Services Management, Universität Bayreuth, Germany) and also serves on four editorial advisory boards.
Darryl Wilson is a Principal Lecturer at Sheffield Hallam University. He teaches economics and research on the Sport Business Management-related degrees. His current research interests include measuring success at major sporting events, with a particular focus on the Commonwealth Games, and he has published several journal articles in this area.
Mathieu Winand is a Lecturer in Sport Management in the School of Sport at the University of Stirling and Programme Director of the MSc in Sport Management. He is also an Associate Researcher at the Belgian Olympic Chair, Université Catholique de Louvain. His expertise is in the area of sport governance, performance management, innovation in sport and sport policy.
[Page xviii]Jiandong Yi is Deputy Director of the general planning and legal affairs department of the Beijing 2022 Olympic Winter Games Bid Committee and Director of the Research Centre of Sport Governance and Sport Development in Wuhan Sport University. In 2012–2013 he was a Visiting Scholar at the Weatherhead East Asian Institute of Columbia University and focused on the area of sports economics and management. Previously he gained his doctoral degree in Humane and Sociological Science of Sports at Beijing Sport University (1999–2002). His research interests include sports system reform, sporting culture and sport governance. He is currently hosting a major national research project on the reform of western sport governance and modernization of China’s sport governance.
There has never been a more appropriate time to have a book like Contemporary Issues in Sport Management appear. Hence I congratulate the editor Terri Byers for her enterprise and zeal. The use of a “three-layer approach,” to identify the current issues facing sport management and those who manage it, is both important and timely.
As we can appreciate, sport as a phase of human physical activity has assumed greater or lesser importance, starting with primitive societies and continuing in later societies up to the present day. Sport of varying types has been used by people of all ages in a variety of ways as the human species has evolved and these creatures lived out their lives. Sport has literally become a social force, impacting on society both generally and as a vital concern, for those desiring to employ it professionally in a variety of ways.
However, as is the case with so many facets of life on Earth, such involvement can be used beneficially or misused to the subsequent improvement or detriment of humankind. It is my belief that we are using it well in some ways, but that we are also abusing it badly in others! In the case of competitive sport, I believe we have gradually and increasingly done the latter (i.e. perhaps approaching a stage where we could overall be doing more harm than good with it). Conversely, in the case of related physical activity (i.e. regular exercise or “physical activity education”) in the developed world, I believe humans are too often “abusing it by first not understanding it and then by not using it more intelligently”! (Ironically, in the “undeveloped world,” people often get too much “exercise” just to stay alive!)
As I see it, we are often abusing sport, or certain people are “using us,” but not to the world’s best advantage. People are not getting the most value from it. Indeed they may often even be experiencing negative effects or disvalue from it. In the case of exercise, in the so-called advanced societies, we are using it insufficiently and therefore not to its best advantage either. How this has happened since earliest times is difficult to understand.
Please understand this: I don’t for a moment argue here that the proper use of sport and related activity throughout the planet’s affairs could be a panacea for all of the world’s ills, the elixir that would create a heretofore unknown era of good will and peace worldwide. I do believe, however, that wisely employed it could enrich lives “healthwise” and “recreationally” for many more millions than it is doing so presently. In addition, I would also assert that the wise use of exercise, sport and sound health practices throughout people’s entire lives would indubitably go a long way toward keeping them happier and healthier in lives that become extended by years because of this type of life practice.
[Page xx]What I am arguing is that, employed properly and correctly, sport and physical activity—as one of a number of vital social forces (e.g. nationalism, ecology)—could contribute to the improvement of the current situation enormously. Moreover, I believe that the active use of competitive sport worldwide to promote what have been called moral values, traits or attributes, as opposed to so-called socio-instrumental values, would create a social force of such strength and power that humankind might be helped as it confronts the social and physical devastation looming ahead. At the very least, I believe such active promotion would delay to a considerable degree the onset of what promises to become an increasingly destructive societal situation.
Such an “untenable societal scenario” has been described vividly by Walter Truett Anderson in the essay “Futures of the Self,” taken from The Future of the Self: Inventing the Postmodern Person (1997). He sketched four different scenarios as postulations for the future of earthlings in this ongoing adventure of civilization. Anderson’s “One World, Many Universes” version is the most likely to occur. This is a scenario characterized by high economic growth, steadily increasing technological progress and globalization combined with high psychological development. Such psychological maturity, he predicts, will be possible for a certain segment of the world’s population because “active life spans will be gradually lengthened through various advances in health maintenance and medicine” (Anderson, 1997: 251–3).
The systemic-change force mentioned above that is shaping the future, this all-powerful force, may well exceed Earth’s ability to cope. As gratifying as such factors as “globalization along with economic growth” and “psychological development” may seem to the folks in a coming “One-World, Many Universes” scenario, there is a flip side to this prognosis. Anderson identifies this image as “The Dysfunctional Family” scenario. All of these benefits of so-called progress are highly expensive and available now only to relatively few of the seven billion plus people on Earth. Anderson foresees this as “a world of modern people happily doing their thing; of modern people still obsessed with progress, economic gain, and organizational bigness; and of postmodern people being trampled and getting angry” (ibid.: 51). As people get angrier, present-day terrorism in North America could seem like child’s play.
Hence, the charge I have given myself is to make the case that the social phenomenon known as competitive sport is largely being used incorrectly, and the social phenomenon known as developmental physical activity (and related health education) is being employed insufficiently and inadequately. Both of these activities promoted one way or another through physical activity education and related health instruction could combine to provide much greater value to humankind. They could be a social force that used properly could go a long way to the creation of a better, more peaceful world. Presently I believe that the relationship between these two aspects (i.e. sport and exercise) of a potentially most powerful social force is “out of joint” in the developed world. It must be rectified for the ultimate good of humankind!
So far so good, you may say. But just how does this situation that I describe have a relationship to this new introductory text edited by Terri Byers? It does in this way. Those experienced management scholars, who [Page xxi]have been invited to contribute to this text, have provided a wide variety of contexts and settings that individually and totally identify the necessary theory and practice that professional students must understand if they hope to obtain employment and subsequent success in the field of sport and physical activity management.
As I said at the outset, sport and related physical activity have become a vital force, a sine qua non if I may, as the world moves ahead in this twenty-first century. Everything considered, I feel that I must conclude by saying that we can use it very well, well, fairly well or not well at all. The many chapters and cases in this book can provide you with a solid and complete underpinning as you enter a lifelong career as a young professional. The editor has constructed a text that enables us as readers to understand a wide variety of issues that are important to the business and management of sport, but without neglecting the implications of our actions as managers within our field (sport), society and different groups. The book also encourages sound business skills with responsible decision-making practices to encourage you not only to “make an impact” but to also think critically about what impact you are making!
The editor Terri Byers gets you off to a “rousing start”! Whatever happens thereafter is up to you.Hon. Past President, North American Society for Sport Management (1986)
Firstly, my biggest thank you goes to all the chapter authors who have provided their expertise and enthusiasm to this edited text. There are over 50 authors who have contributed to this text and I am indebted to them for their insightful contributions. Those who read this book should appreciate the international scope of expertise these academics and industry professionals have brought to an increasingly complex subject—the management of sport. Included in that are my sincere thanks to Earle F. Zeigler for his thoughtful foreword: his experience of our sport management community is legendary! Many thanks also to Sage, especially Chris Rojek, Gemma Shields, Delayna Spencer and Tom Bedford, for the opportunity to produce something ‘a little bit different’, and for all the support provided throughout the writing and production of this text.
In addition I would like to thank colleagues and friends for supporting me, whether they realized it or not! My gratitude goes to Trevor Slack, who has always encouraged and inspired me to write and work hard—it was over 20 years ago that the Slack family took me under their wing as a graduate student in England and I have always been grateful for their continued support. Special thanks go to CARNiVAL (EU-funded project) partners Jöerg Koenigstorfer, Kamilla Swart and Jason Bocarro for their input into this book and their collegiality over the past years, which has made international collaborations like this possible and enjoyable. Thanks also to the reviewers who provided encouraging feedback on the chapter drafts.
Finally and most importantly, thank you to Andrew and Lochlan—family make everything worthwhile.