This engaging textbook synthesizes the current knowledge about how grandparents operate in the family and in society. Using a number of case studies, the book covers topics such as: the grandparent-grandchild bond; grandparent development; grandparent-parent relationships; normative and non-normative grandparenting activities; the variety of grandparenting activities according to race, gender and age; the relationship of grandparents to the community; clinical grandparenting; and the legal rights of grandparents.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- The Search
- The Grandparent Study
- Public Response
- Raising Public Consciousness about Grandparenting
- The Grandparenting Movement
- Grandparents Today
- Chapter 2: Cultural and Historical Variations
- Biological Factors and Personality Traits
- Social Identity and Status
- Variations on the Theme of Grandparenting
- Biological Commonality
- A Historical Lesson
- Chapter 3: Research
- Early Scholarly Views of Grandparenting
- Contemporary Research
- Children's View of Grandparents
- Grandparents' Perceptions of Grandparenthood
- The Grandparent Study
- Consensus of Early Research
- Categories of Research
- Life Cycle Research
- Grandparent Learning
- Research Problems, Pitfalls, and Caveats
- Chapter 4: Formation of Identity
- Evolution of Grandparent Development
- A Developmental View of Grandparenthood
- Continuity: A Developmental Stage for Grandparenting
- The Process of Grandparent Development
- The Grandparenting Drive
- Foundations of the Grandparenting Drive: The Nature of the Species
- Chapter 5: Functionality
- Unfolding of the Grandparenting Drive
- Factors Affecting Functional Identity
- The Substance of Grandparenthood
- Chapter 6: Roles
- Social and Symbolic Roles
- Instrumental Roles
- Sentimental, Emotionally Based Roles
- Spiritual Roles
- Chapter 7: Effectivity
- Characteristics of Effective Grandparents
- Chapter 8: Family Diversity
- Grandparent Remarriage
- A “Family Balance” Factor
- Chapter 9: Raising Grandchildren
- Grandparents' Experience of Raising Grandchildren
- Society's Response to Grandparent Caretakers
- Continuity and Custody
- Grandparents' Response to Grandparent Caretaking: Parent or Grandparent?
- What Happens to Grandparents' Magic?
- Grandchildren's Experience
- Grandparent Support Groups
- Help for Caregiving Grandparents
- Enhancing the Capabilities of Caregiving Grandparents
- Chapter 10: Clinical Grandparenting
- Clinical Grandparent Assessment
- History of Clinical Grandparenting
- Grandparents and Family Pathology
- Current Research Efforts
- Clinical Classification of Grandparent Disorders
- Functional Grandparenting
- Dysfunctional Grandparenting
- Grandparent Identity Disorder
- Grandparent Activity Disorder
- Grandparent Communication Disorder
- Legal Aspects of Parent-Grandparent Problems
- Chapter 11: Legal Issues
- History of Grandparent Visitation Laws
- The Need for a Uniform State Visitation Law
- Educating Professionals
- Children's Responses to Grandparent Visitation Issues
- Chapter 12: Intergenerational Involvement
- Other People's Grandchildren
- The Intergenerational Movement
- Benefits of Intergenerational Involvement
Copyright © 1996 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information address:
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Contemporary grandparenting / Arthur Kornhaber.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8039-5805-6 (alk. paper) — ISBN 0-8039-5806-4 (pbk.: alk. paper).
1. Grandparenting. 2. Grandparent and child. I. title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
97 98 99 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Sage Copy Editor: Joyce Kuhn
Sage Production Editor: Diane S. Foster
Sage Typesetter: Janelle LeMaster
You probably already know a great deal more about grandparenting than you realize. As someone's grandchild, chances are you have firsthand familiarity with the emotional aspects of the relationship. That's because grandparenting is more a matter of the heart than of the mind. Considering the subjective nature of this topic, I therefore want to alert you to how aspects of your life experience may color the way you read and react to this book.
First, as someone's grandchild, you have had the experience, for better or worse, of being grandparented. The thoughts, feelings, and perceptions of your grandchildhood will influence your affinity for the subject of grandparenting. Personal experience will especially affect your ability to relate to the nonscientific, intangible, emotional, and spiritual aspects of grandparenthood.
For example, if you were lucky enough to have a dedicated and loving grandparent or a close relationship with a beloved elder, you will probably react to the subject positively, maybe even with enthusiasm. You can assess intellectual facts in the light of your positive experience and accept the emotional and spiritual aspects of the relationship at face value, with little skepticism. In fact, you might even find some of the material commonplace. You may find yourself asking, “Why is he pressing this point, which is so evident?” It's important to remember, especially where emotional issues are involved, that what is clear to one person may be obscure to someone else.
[Page x]If you never had a loving relationship with an older person, you might find yourself dismissing the material as mushy or sentimental. “Not enough hard data,” you might say. Without the emotional and spiritual experience of having been grandparented, you will understandably want more intellectual “proof” of case study and observational survey data on what takes place between the old and the young. Consider one grandfather's statement:
I learned what the word spiritual meant when I saw my first grandson being born. The only other time I ever felt like that was when I was in the military. Once, in basic training, I slept under the stars in the Texas desert and stared at the heavens most of the night. What a wonder!
As any researcher knows, emotions, like wonder, do not lend themselves to measurement or demonstration. The national divorce rate is easy to compute, but there is no technique available to quantify the pain and suffering of the families involved. Nor can we measure positive emotions. The birth of a baby adds one more number to the census record, but how do you record the joy of the parents?
Take love, for another example. Unconditional love is a unique bond that supplies the emotional bedrock of the grandchild-grandparent relationship. Although the existence of love can be demonstrated in people's attitudes and behavior, it is hard to prove because it is a subjective experience and eludes objective measure. A child's statement “I love my grandparents a lot” is not quantifiable. Researchers can measure grandparent “closeness” in terms of physical distance. But a method for quantifying emotional and spiritual “closeness” has yet to be devised. Measuring emotions takes time. To gain even an inkling of the qualitative aspects of grandparent-grandchild relationships, researchers must spend a considerable amount of time interviewing and observing grandparents, parents, and grandchildren.
That's one reason why research in this area is so difficult and so challenging. Hagestad (1985) has said,
[Page xi]As a researcher, I have become skeptical about using standardized opinion and attitude measures to assess intergenerational continuity. In some families, observed differences among family members on such measures may not make a difference because the issues at hand hold no salience for family interaction. (p. 39)
Census figures, telephone interviews, and written questionnaires are helpful sources if their purpose is clearly stated and the results are not inappropriately generalized. As many researchers have learned, however, these methodologies are not appropriate for researching concepts like love, joy, wonder, a sense of ancestry, and family continuity. Such research calls for a variety of inquiry; long-term, personal, longitudinal studies, the only kind that have at least some chance of illuminating the complexities of grandparenting issues in more than a unidimensional way, combined with shorter highly focused studies examining specific issues. Thus the theoretical basis of the Grandparent Study that was started in 1970 (and supplies the information on which this book is based), rests upon both long-term, highly personal interviews of grandparents, parents, and children followed over a long period of time (see Introduction) coupled with shorter-term studies probing specific issues like clinical grandparenting, long-distance grandparenting, grandparents raising grandchildren, and so forth.
You will note that most of the important studies cited in this work—including the Grandparent Study—have substantial subjective and dynamic components. For example, as the Grandparent Study has evolved over the years, we have been led to explore increasingly subjective areas, searching beyond the biological, psychological, and social facets of the grandparent/grandchild relationship into its emotional and spiritual underpinnings.
Because hard scientific data is not easy to come by in matters of the heart, involvement in the Grandparent Study has taught us to study a broad spectrum of factors: personal experience, anecdotal, emotional, and natural history as well as empirical facts and quantitative survey data. Indeed, you will find much emotional and natural history and many case studies contained in this book. As far as the grandparent/parent/grandchild relationship is concerned, [Page xii]hard data isn't necessarily the most informative, and the language of science often lacks the right words to convey the meaning of this subject.
Therefore, to get the most out of this book, I recommend that readers do two exercises. The first is an exercise of imagination. Find a restful, quiet place. Sit upright for a moment. Take several deep, slow breaths to clear your mind. Then bring some images of your childhood into your mind's eye. Allow yourself to feel the feelings that accompany the images. Reflect upon the elders you knew. How did you feel about them? What did you learn from them? Try having a conversation with them in your mind.
The second exercise is active. If your grandparents are available, talk with them. If you are a parent, observe how your own parents act as grandparents. Ask your children about their grandparents. Look outside your family, too. How do you see your friends and neighbors acting out this role? If you have not had a close relationship with a grandparent or elder (note that in this book the term “elder” connotes respect) during your lifetime, visit an intergenerational program in your community.
Something more to consider as you read is the possibility that you will be a grandparent one day. Some readers may already be grandparents. Others may never be biological grandparents but will certainly have the opportunity to perform aspects of this role for children within and outside their biological families.
Certainly you will grow old. This means that you will have to deal with the same issues and experience the joys and sorrows that challenge today's grandparents. As you mature you will find that the quality, the meaning, and the power of your old age will depend on two factors:
- How the present generation of elders, as the first ever to face these issues, will deal with the reality of living longer, healthier lives than any generation before them
- How you plan to forge your future as an elder
At some point in the future, the flame of the grandparenting movement in America will be passed on to you. What will you face when your time comes? Will society have a rite of passage to [Page xiii]celebrate your passage into grandparenthood? Will your place in society as an elder be waiting for you when you arrive, or will you have to create one for yourself? Will you have important, meaningful roles to play for your family? Will family members be eager to receive what you have to give? Will society confirm the wisdom and experience that you have accumulated during your lifetime? Will you have the opportunity in your community to apply what you know?
Whatever your stage of life, pondering these questions while you read this book will help to raise your consciousness about these issues. This process will be invaluable in preparing you, as a member of a new generation, to face challenges and share the gifts that come with age so as to enhance yourself, your family, and society.
Old wine, after all, is the best.—, M.D.[Page xiv]
This book is the result of an investigation into the nature of the grandparent-grandchild bond started in 1970. Since that time, I have learned about this issue via direct contact with people of all ages and in a variety of settings, both formal and informal; I have been taught by thousands of grandparents, parents, children, and professionals from a surprising number of diverse fields of work and study. They are all contributors to this work. Thanks.
I want to make special mention of the work and selfless dedication of Carol M. Kornhaber, my wife, who has been my partner in the research and the director of the Foundation for Grandparenting for many years. Her unique and intuitive insight and understanding about human relationships is reflected in these pages. Thanks.
This book necessitated a great deal of literary research. I couldn't have done this without the assistance of my oldest daughter Sabra Goodman, her husband Jay, and her children (my grandsons Justin and Tyler). Together we embarked on a library adventure in Boston to find writings about grandparenting. Everyone pitched in. The children helped us carry books, copy articles …and eat fast food for lunch. Thanks.
The creation of this book was a team effort. I want to especially thank the coach of our team, my friend and publisher Judy Rothman, for her vision in seeing the necessity for the book, her support during its creation, her personal warmth and kindness, and her very competent orchestration of the whole production process. Writing in a textbook format is not one of my gifts. Judy understood that I [Page xvi]didn't want to write a boring textbook, especially on a subject so close to my heart as grandparenting, and that I needed help. Like a good coach, Judy saw to it that I had the received assistance in the person of editor Mitch Allen. Through a process of advice and challenge Mitch helped me both conceptually and editorially to understand what writing a textbook was all about. By the way, he received his Ph.D. during the process. Congratulations!
Jim Nageotte, Sage editor, also contributed his many editorial talents to the final stages of the project, bringing order and consistency to the manuscript. Thanks, Jim. I wish you a bright future in publishing and as a new father. I also want to thank all of the other members of Sage who were so encouraging, caring, and competent during the production process.
I especially want to thank the fifth member of our editorial team, Jo Ann Baldinger, a Santa Fe neighbor, for her contribution to this work. Jo Ann, using her excellent editing skills, helped remove the rough edges from the manuscript and challenged me to clarify ambiguous statements and vague formulations.
A special thanks to my daughter, Mila LeChanu, Ph.D., who was immeasurably helpful in defining and conceptualizing the concepts and sequential flow in the chapters on grandparent development. I'm happy to have reached a stage of life when I can enjoy one of my children's analytical eye in my own field of interest.
Together I believe our team has achieved the purpose of creating a work that is new in many ways, interesting, informative, and hopefully exciting to read.
Afterword: Great-Grandparenthood[Page 198]
Great-grandparenthood is an emerging stage of late grandparenthood that has only lately, because of the growing numbers of great-grandparents, begun to lend itself to study. Today, little is known about this stage of grandparent development. Great-grandparenthood and great-grandchildhood traditionally were used to assure privilege and political power. For example, upon the death of Louis XIV, his great-grandson Louis XV became King of France. In Japan, in 858, Fujiwara Yoshifusa (804–872) had his grandson, the infant Emperor Seiwa, placed on the throne with himself as regent, followed by his great-grandsons until the end of the 11th century. In this way, Fujiwara used the position of regent to control the country.
Today, one important reality that the new generation of grandparents must accept is the possibility that they will become great-grandparents. Is this stage of development a continuation of grand-parenting, or is it a new life stage? Time, and increased study, will tell.
What is known today is that 40% of those over 65 years of age have great-grandchildren (Atchley, 1980). Yet little is known about this stage of life as it affects the individual, the family, and society. Today's laws that allow grandparents to go to court for visitation rights do not automatically apply to great-grandparents.
Token mention is made of the great-grandparent role in the literature (Kahana & Kahana, 1971; Kivnick, 1982; Neugarten & [Page 199]Weinstein, 1964; Wood & Robertson, 1976). Investigators typically describe the role as similar to that of the grandparent, with increased age, decreased health, and thus less vitality. Such factors as proximity, family dynamics, age, vitality, gender, personal characteristics, order of grandchildren, and grandchild age affect grandparenthood and great-grandparenthood in similar ways.
Doka and Mertz (1988) interviewed 40 great-grandparents about the meaning and significance of great-grandparenthood. Most (93%) found the role to be significant and emotionally fulfilling, providing a sense of personal and family renewal. Others reported that it provided a diversion to their lives (38%) and a mark of longevity (10%). Two styles of great-grandparenthood were defined: remote and close. Remote great-grandparents (78%) performed a symbolic rather than instrumental function. All but 2 individuals in this group reported feeling emotionally close to their great-grandchildren. This finding confirms the discussion in Chapter 4 concerning grandparents' need to feel connected to their grandchildren even when they are not physically close, emphasizing their symbolic role. Close great-grandparents did what grandparents usually do. They were supportive to grandparents and parents. Summing up, Doka and Hertz stated, “Great-grandparents …remained active members of larger family units and sought to help and provide for their families to the degree to which they were able” (p. 194).
Wentowski (1985) studied 19 great-grandmothers' perceptions of their roles. All appreciated their great-grandchildren and matched their level of activity to their level of vitality. Great-grandparents also appreciated the love and affection they received from their families in a study by Boyd (1969). A study by Bekker and Taylor (1966) found that students with great-grandparents had more positive attitudes toward the aged.
The Grandparent Study interviewed 30 great-grandmothers and 30 great-grandfathers. All reported that their relationships with grandchildren grew closer after children learned to walk and talk. Great-grandfathers reported closeness with adolescents. Proximity, as Doka and Mertz (1988) found, is an important factor in great-grandparents' involvement. Health and vitality determined the extent of involvement.
[Page 200]All great-grandparents claimed symbolic roles—living ancestor, family historian, role model—and were aware of their importance to the family in this role. “I am the living embodiment of our family,” a 98-year-old great-grandmother said. “Give me a glass of sherry and I can tell you about horse-and-buggy times and who in the family did what to who and when …and the children love to hear it.”
Instrumental roles were carried out according to levels of vitality. An 83-year-old great-grandfather from New York City said, “I can't ride the subway any more, so I can't take the ‘grands’ to Yankee Stadium, but I can watch the game on TV with them and tell them about the time I tried out for the Yankees.”
The study of grandparenthood as a life stage is in its infancy. This book sets forth the first steps taken in exploring the vast dimensions and implications of this culminating role in life.
It is impossible to predict what effects the new generation of young, educated, healthy, and vital grandparents will have on society. They will be 90 million strong in America after the turn of the century. What will be the nature of their grandparent identity? Will becoming a grandparent be viewed as a cause for celebration, or a dreaded sign of old age? Will grandparents have a respected status in society, or will they be ignored? How will they integrate grandparenting activity into their busy lives? What priorities will they give to their grandparent roles? How will they deal with the possibility that they may have to nurture people throughout their lives, children and grandchildren as well as parents?
What impact will these future grandparents have on our society? After all, they have the wisdom, experience, and financial clout to change things for the better if they make that a life priority. And what will the emerging generation of great-grandparents be like? What influences will they bring to bear on their families and society?
What kind of society will the new generations of grandparents be living in? Will they be able to influence positive social values that ensure security and happiness for grandchildren? Will they support the efforts of their children?
[Page 202]It is my hope that grandparents will recognize the importance of their roles and understand the significance of the new phase of life they have entered: the developmental stage I call Continuity. In its ideal state, grandparenthood is an end point of human development, the culmination of a lifelong quest for a state of intellectual, emotional, psychological, cognitive, and spiritual maturity. Philosophically, this stage is characterized by an increasingly selfless orientation and a lessening of investment in earthly things. Spiritually, there is a growing awareness of mortality and the numinous, a concern for the young, and a desire to leave a positive legacy.
Cognitively, grandparenthood involves positive, constructive attitudes and self-confidence that may be expressed in assertive behavior. The confidence arises from an enhanced ability to view oneself objectively—to “know” the self. These attitudes may be expressed through either individual action at the personal or family level or joint action at the community or national level. Psychologically, grandparenthood involves forming a strong grandparental identity and manifesting it through a way of being in the world, serving as a positive force and example for those who come after.
From the moment of birth, each of us is striving, consciously or unconsciously, to attain these developmental goals. This is the challenge and the agenda for growth that await all grandparents—present and future, biological and nonbiological. The history of grandparenting is being made at this moment.
References[Page 203]1955). Some remarks on the role of grandparents in the psychology of neuroses. In H.Abraham (Ed.), Selected papers of Karl Abraham (Vol. 2, pp. 44–48). New York: Basic Books. (Original work published 1913)(1991). Youth's attitudes toward the elderly: The impact of intergenerational partners. Journal of Applied Gerontology, 10, 372–384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/073346489101000310, , & (1991). Grandparenting for the ‘90s: Parenting is forever. Escondido, CA: Erdmann., & (1987). Remotivation group interaction: Increasing children's contact with the elderly. Elementary School Guidance and Counseling, 21, 216–220., & (American Bar Association. (1989). Grandparent visitation disputes (Rep. No. 89-83439). Washington, DC: Author.1981). Other ways of growing old. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press., & (1956). The social structure of grandparenthood. American Anthropologist, 58, 656–663. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/aa.1956.58.4.02a00060(1982, December 16). Statement. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Services, Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives, Washington, DC.(1980). The social forces in later life ((3rd ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.1982). Grandparent adolescent relations: Beyond the nuclear family. Adolescence, 17(67), 575–584.(1990). The grandfather-grandchild relationship: Meaning and exchange. Family Perspective, 24(3), 201–215.(1991, November). Grandfather-grandchild interaction: Does grandchild gender make a difference? Paper presented at the 53rd Annual Council on Family Relations, Denver., & (1985). The grandparent-grandchild relationship: Family resource in an era of voluntary bonds. Family Relations, 34, 343–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/583572(1966). Attitudes toward the aged in a multigenerational sample. Journal of Gerontology, 21, 115–118., & ([Page 204]1959). Sexual functions in women and their disturbances. In S.Arieti (Ed.), American handbook of psychiatry (pp. 727–748). New York: Basic Books.(1970). Parenthood during the life cycle. In E. J.Anthony & T.Benedek (Eds.), Parenthood: Its psychology and pathology (pp. 199–206). Boston: Little, Brown.(1985). Diversity and symbolism in grandparental roles. In V.Bengston & J. F.Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 11–27). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1990). Families and aging: Diversity and heterogeneity. In R. H.Binstock &. L. K.George (Eds.), Handbook of aging and social sciences (, , & (3rd ed., p. 263). New York: Academic Press.1984). Multigeneration family concepts and findings. In V.Garms-Homolva, E. M.Horning, & D.Schaeffer (Eds.), Intergenerational relationships (pp. 201–214). New York: G. J. Hogrefe., , & , Jr. (1993). A comparison of kinship foster homes and family foster homes. In R. P.Barth, J. D.Berrick, & N.Gilbert (Eds.), Child welfare research review (pp. 134–165). New York: Columbia University Press., , & (1986, May/June). Grandparents in NICUs. American Journal of Maternal and Child Development, pp. 190–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005721-198605000-00011, & (1984). An evaluative study of the role of the grandparent in the best interest of the child. American Journal of Family Therapy, 12(4), 46–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01926188408250197(1983). Adoptive parents: The psychoanalytic study of the child (Vol. 38). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1960). A family concept of schizophrenia. In D. D.Jackson (Ed.), Etiology of schizophrenia (pp. 346–372). New York: Basic Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10605-012(1978). Family therapy in clinical practice. New York: Jason Aronson.(1969). The valued grandparent: A changing social role. In W.Donohue, J.Kornbluh, & B.Powers (Eds.), Living in the multigenerational family (pp. 79–111). Ann Arbor, MI: Institute of Gerontology.(1989). Black families in therapy: A multisystems approach. New York: Guilford.(1992). Grandparents rearing grandchildren. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Smith College School for Social Work, Northhampton, MA.(1979). Aged parents and aging children. In P. K.Ragan (Ed.), Aging parents (pp. 267–287). Los Angeles: University of Southern California Press.(1970). Two worlds of children. New York: Russell Sage.(1977, January 2). The calamitous decline of the American family. Washington Post, p. 6.(1979). Beyond the deficit model in child and family policy. Teachers College Record, 81(1), 21–26.(Brookdale Grandparent Caregiver Information Project. (1992). Berkeley: University of California Center on Aging.1992). Black grandparents rearing children of drug-addicted parents: Stressors, outcomes, and social service needs. The Gerontologist, 32(6), 744–751. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/32.6.744(1985). Black grandmothers: Issues of timing and continuity of roles. In V. L.Bengston &. J. F.Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 61–77). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & ([Page 205]1993). Challenges and rewards: African American grandparents as surrogate parents. In L. M.Burton (Ed.), Families and aging. Amityville, NY: Baywood.& (1973). Aging and mental health: Positive psychological approaches. St. Louis, MO: C. V. Mosby., & (1985, May). Of gifts and grandfathering. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Gerontologic Society, Boston.(1986). Clinical vignettes: A range of grandparental experience. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 29(1), 57–68.(1989). Readiness for grandfatherhood and the shifting tide. In S. H.Cath, A.Gurwit, & L.Gunsberg (Eds.), Fathers and their families (pp. 99–118). Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.(1986a). Grandparents and family crisis. Generations. 10(4), 26–28., & , Jr. (1986b). The new American grandparent: A place in the family, a life apart. New York: Basic Books., & , Jr. (1844–1846). Thanksgiving day [Poem in Flowers for Children]. (Quoted in Bartlett's 1980, Familiar Quotations,(15th ed., p. 257, Boston: Little Brown).Child Welfare League. (1994). Kinship care. Washington, DC: Author.1993). A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 975–990. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820240059008, , & (1981). Mothers, grandmothers, and daughters. New York: John Wiley., & (1985). Christian perspectives on the role of grandparents. In V. L.Bengston & J. F.Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 195–207). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., &. (1991). Adolescent grandchildren's relationships with maternal and paternal grandmothers and grandfathers. Journal of Adolescence, 14, 373–387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0140-1971%2891%2990005-C, & (1991, December 16). Grandparents: The silent saviors. U.S. News & World Report, pp. 80–89.(1987). The experience of grandfatherhood. In C.Lewis & M.O'Brien (Eds.), Reassessing fatherhood. London: Sage.(1970). Coming of age. Paris: Editions Gallimard.(1985, April). Grandparent visitation rights: Rendering family dissolution more pronounced?American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 55(2), 277–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1985.tb03442.x(1945). The psychology of women (Vol. 2, pp. 483–486). New York: Grune & Stratton.(1988). The meaning and significance of great-grand-parenthood. The Gerontologist, 28(2), 192–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/28.2.192, & (1978). Aging in minority populations: An examination of the double jeopardy hypothesis. Journal of Gerontology, 33(3), 426–436., & (1990). The physical and mental health and educational status of children placed with relatives: Final report. Baltimore: University of Maryland School of Medicine.(1950). Childhood and society (p. 173). New York: W. W. Norton.(1959). Identity and the life cycle. New York: W. W. Norton.(1982). The life cycle completed. New York: W. W. Norton.([Page 206]1986). Vital involvement in old age: The experience of old age in our time. New York: W. W. Norton., , & (1978). Teaching foster grandparents to train severely handicapped persons. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11(1), 111–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1901/jaba.1978.11-111, & (1991). The impact of grandparents on children's outcomes in China. Marriage and Family Review, 16(3), 369–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J002v16n03_09(1983). Transition to grandmotherhood. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 16(1), 67–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/GU3R-506F-2UMW-6L8R(1991). Divided families. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press., & (1984). Recycling the American family after divorce. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., Jr., & (1983). Grandfather-granddaughter incest: A trigenerational view. Child Abuse and Neglect, 7, 163–170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2883%2990068-6, , & (1982). The intrapsychic experiences accompanying the transition into grandparenthood. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43(06), 1979B.(1976). Theoretical aspects and clinical relevance of the multigenerational model of family therapy. In C.Whitaker & R.Guerin (Eds.), Family therapy: Theory and practice (pp. 91–96). New York: Gardner., & (1983). The relationship of contact with grandparents and ethnic background to adolescents’ attitudes toward older persons. Dissertation Abstracts International, 44(05), 1536A.(1975). A key to the comparative style of the life cycle. In N.Datan & L. H.Ginsberg (Eds.), Life span developmental psychology: Normative life crises (pp. 167–184). New York: Academic Press.(1977). The cross-cultural perspective: Notes toward a comparative psychology of aging. In J. E.Birren & K. W.Schaie (Eds.), Handbook of the psychology of aging (pp. 75–93). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.(1985). Deculturation and the American grandparent. In V. L.Bengston &. J. F.Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 173–181). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1965). The importance of grandparents in family life. Family Process, 4, 228–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1965.00228.x(1985). Continuity and connectedness. In V. L.Bengston & J. F.Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 31–48). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1988). Demographic change and the life course. Some emerging trends in the family realm. Family Relations, 37, 405–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584111(1986). Grandparenthood, life context and family development. American Behavioral Scientist, 29(4), 471–484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000276486029004008, & (1982, October). Issues in the study of intergenerational continuity. Paper presented at the National Council of Family Relations Theory and Methods Workshop, Washington, DC., & (1980). The role of grandmothers in transsexualism. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137(4), 497–498., , Jr., & (1994). Wide-open grandparent visitation statutes: Is the door closing?University of Cincinnati Law Review, 62, 1659–1694.(1982). The relationship with grandparents: Contact, importance, role conceptions. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 15, 233–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/8G9X-RTFN-F0CD-3DBC, & ([Page 207]Hawk v. Hawk, 855 S.W. 2d 573 (Tenn. 1993).1993). The transition to step-grandparenthood. Journal of Divorce and Remarriage, 19, 25–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J087v19n03_03, , & (1977, March). Attitudes of Minneapolis elementary school and senior citizens toward each other (Rep. No. C-76-34). Minneapolis, MN: Minneapolis Public Schools, Department of Research and Evaluation., & (1992). Adult grandchildren and their parents: The enduring bond. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 34(3), 209–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/PU9M-96XD-CFYQ-A8UK(1995). Adult grandchildren and their grandparents. The enduring bond. In J.Hendrek (Ed.), The ties of later life (pp. 155–170). Amityville, NY: Baywood.(1978). Young adults' relations with their grandparents: An exploratory study. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 10, 299–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/8PWQ-NDRJ-13FD-2FL6(1868). L'art de ê grandpere (p. 22). (J.Rouff et cie). Paris: Cloitre Saint-Honore.(1990). Childhood bereavement reactions to the death of a grandparent. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(4), 1092B.(Ivester, M. C., & King, K. (Eds.). (1977). Attitudes of adolescents toward the aged [Special issue]. The Gerontologist, 17(1), 21–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/17.1.851989). Study of the relationship among dysfunctional attitudes, family characteristics and depression across three generations. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(10), 4545B.(1993). Grandparents who parent their grandchildren. The Gerontologist, 34(2), 206–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/34.2.206(1983). A cultural analysis of the grandmother. Research on Aging, 5(4), 547–567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027583005004007(1985). Grandparenting options in divorcing families: An anthropological perspective. In V. L.Bengston & J. F.Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 81–96). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1988). Active and latent functions of grandparenting during the divorce process. The Gerontologist, 28(2), 185–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/28.2.185(1957). The life and work of Sigmund Freud. New York: Basic Books.(1640). Discoveries made upon men and matter. (Quoted in Bartlett's 1980, Familiar Quotations,(15th ed., p. 257, Boston: Little Brown).1968). The Indian heritage of America. New York: Bantam Books., Jr. (1970). Grandparenthood from the perspective of the developing grandchild. Developmental Psychology, 3, 98–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0029423, & (1971). Theoretical and research perspectives on grandparenthood. Aging and Human Development, 2, 261–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/AG.2.4.c, & (1977). Family structure and the mental health of children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 1012–1022. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1977.01770210026002, , & (1992a). Quality in grandparent-grandchild relationships. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 35(2), 83–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/H177-W9EX-483T-PKKU(1992b). Shared activities of grandparents and grandchildren. Psychological Reports, 70, 221–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.19220.127.116.11(1987). Group psychotherapy with grandparents rearing their emotionally disturbed grandchildren. Group, 11(1), 15–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01456797, & (1988). The extended family revisited: Grandparents rearing grandchildren. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 19, 26–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00713733, & ([Page 208]King v. King, 828 S. W. 2d 630 (Ky.) cert, denied 113 S. Ct. 378 (1992).1988). Grandparents raising grandchildren [Newsletter]. Colleyville, TX.(1991). Centrality of the grandfather role among older rural black and white men. Journal of Gerontology, 46(5), 250–258.(1980). The meaning of grandparenthood. Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press.(1982). Grandparenthood: An overview of meaning and mental health. The Gerontologist, 22, 59–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/22.1.59(1961). Narrative of a child analysis. New York: Dell.(1976). Young girls: A portrait of adolescence. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1982). The vital connection between the old and the young. The birth of the intergenerational movement in America. [Address.] Administration on Aging National Meeting, Washington, DC.(1983a, February). Grandparents: The other victims of divorce. Reader's Digest, pp. 79–84.(1983b, July). Grandparents are coming of age in America. Children Today, pp. 36–40.(1984, June). America's forgotten resource: Grandparents. U.S. News & World Report, p. 52.(1985a). Between parents and grandparents. New York: St. Martin's.(1985b). Grandparenthood and the “new social contract.” In V. L.Bengtson & J. F.Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 159–171). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1986a). Grandparenting: Normal and pathological. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19–37.(1986b). Grandparents as clinical collaborators. Proceedings of the World Congress of Child Psychiatry, Paris.(1987). Are your children problem parents?Grandparents, 1(1), 21–23.(1990). Les grands-parents. In S.Lebovici et M.Weil-Halpem (Eds.), Le monde du bébé (pp. 217–222). Paris: Presse Medicale.(1992, January 10). Talking to God. Newsweek, pp. 34–41.(1993a). Bringing young and old together: Intergenerational programs. Natural Health. 2(4), 27–29.(1993b). Raising grandchildren. Vital Connections, 14, 1–4.(1981a, May 3). Bringing back Grandma. Newsweek, p. 42., & (1981b). Grandparents/grandchildren: The vital connection. Garden City, NY: Doubleday., & (1980). An exploratory study of children's perceptions of grandparent-grandchild relationships. Dissertation Abstracts International, 41(04), 1794A.(1990). Grandparents and adult grandchildren: What they do for one another. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 31(2), 101–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/RTH3-C7WY-17GG-D9KQ(1994). Familial dysalbuminaemic hyperthyroxinaemia and inherited partial TBG deficiency: First report. Clinical Endocrinology, 40(6), 751–758. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2265.1994.tb02508.x, , , , & (1990–1991, December-January). Unplanned parenthood. Modern Maturity, pp. 31–36.([Page 209]1987). Social support among Black, Mexican and Chinese elderly. In D. E.Gelfand & C. M.Barresi (Eds.), Ethnic dimensions of aging (pp. 130–144). New York: Springer., & (1985). Caring for patients with dementia. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 11(11), 29–32., , & (1974). The father: His role in child development. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.(1994). Familial aggregation of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dementia and Parkinson's disease: Evidence of shared genetic susceptibility. Neurology, 44(10), 1872–1877. http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.44.10.1872, , , & (1984). The impact of divorce on grandparenthood: An exploratory study. The Gerontologist, 24, 41–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/24.1.41, & (1985). Adolescent's relationships with grandparents: An empirical contribution to conceptual clarification. Journal of Gerontology, 40(5), 621–626., & (1978). The art of living. (Quoted in E. F.Murphy, ed., Crown Treasury of Relevant Quotations, 1978, New York: Crown)(1990). A portrait of African American families in the United States. In S.Rix (Ed.), The American woman, 1990–91: A status report (pp. 71–93). New York: W. W. Norton.(1978, November/December). Prenatal classes for expectant grandparents. American Journal of Maternal and Child Care, pp. 336–337., & (1985). Styles of grandparenting among white ethnics. In V. L.Bengston & J. F.Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 49–60). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1989). Women and the family life cycle. In B.Carter & M.McGoldrick (Eds.), The changing family life cycle: A framework for family therapy ((2nd ed., pp. 31–69). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.McGoldrick, J. P., Pearce, J., & Giordano, N. (Eds.). (1982). Ethnicity and family therapy (pp. 84–107). New York: Guilford.1985). The birth of the first grandchild: A longitudinal study of the transition to grandparenthood. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(02), 675B.(1972). Blackberry winter. New York: William Morrow.(1975). Psychological factors in maternal grandparents of asthmatic children. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 6(1), 15–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01434428(1988). Early grandmotherhood: An exploratory study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(06), 2416B.(1993). Grandmothers as caregivers. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1984). An exploration of family interaction with the elderly by race, socioeconomic status and residence. The Gerontologist, 24, 48–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/24.1.48, & (1989). Intergenerational programming in public policy. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society, 20(3–4), 97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J274v20n03_10, & (1978). Mince pie. (Quoted in E. F.Murphy, ed., Crown Treasury of Relevant Quotations, 1978, New York: Crown)([Page 210]1994). Coronary risk factors in adolescents related to their knowledge of familial coronary heart disease and hypercholesterolemia: The Muscatine study. Pediatrics, 93(3), 444–451., , , & (1993). Grandparent affected by parental divorce: A population at risk?Journal of Counseling and Development, 72, 62–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28ISSN%291556-6678, & (1964). The changing American grandparent. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 26(2), 199–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/349727, & (1989). A history of intergenerational programs. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society, 20(3–4), 1–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J274v20n03_01(New Mexico Department of Mental Health. (1994). Children, youth and families bulletin. Albuquerque: Author.1993). Intergenerational transmission of child abuse: Rates, research, and clinical implications. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 1315–1324.(1993). Grandparent-headed families: New therapeutic challenges. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 23(3), 147–159. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00707146, & (1986). The role of grandparenting in building family strengths. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press., & (1994). Predictors of nurturant parenting in teen mothers living in three-generational families. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 24(4), 215–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02353198, , & (1976). The little Nell complex: An oedipal variant. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 10, 275–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00048677609159511(1960). Women of tropical Africa. Mouton: University of California Press.(1981). Child custody: Why not let the parents decide?Judges Journal, 20, 4.(1990). Black grandmothers in multigenerational households: Diversity in family structure and parenting involvement in the Woodlawn community. Child Development, 61, 434–442. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1131105, , , & (1991). Black grandparents as parents. (Available from the author, 2034 Blake Street, Berkeley, CA 94704)(1991). The forgotten grievers: Grandparents' reaction to the death of grandchildren. Death Studies, 15, 157–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481189108252420, & (1992). Experiences of parents and grandparents in the context of preterm birth. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(4), 1288A.(Psychiatric dictionary. (1989).6th edition(R. J.Campbell, Ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.1979). Foster grandparents in a residential treatment center. Child Welfare, 58(6), 409–411.(1976). Conjoint family therapy. In R. G.Hirschowitz & B.Levy (Eds.), The changing mental health scene (p. 115). New York: Spectrum., & (1978). Intergenerational treatment approach: An alternative model of working with abusive/neglectful and delinquent prone families. Family Therapy, 5(2), 134., & (1972, April). Male parental behavior in adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mullatta). Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Western Psychological Association, Portland, OR., & ([Page 211]1992). Children and grandparents: Roles, influences and relationships. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 34(3), 227–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/8CW7-91WF-E5QC-5UFN, & (1975). Interaction in three-generation families: Parents as mediators. Toward a theoretical perspective. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 6, 103–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/GPFM-TFM5-9Y8Y-LHAK(1976). Significance of grandparents: Perceptions of young adult grandchildren. The Gerontologist, 16(2), 137–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/16.2.137(1967). Nonhormonal basis of maternal behavior in the rat. Science, 156, 1512–1514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.156.3781.1512(1983, October). The head of the family: Authority and responsibility in the lineage. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Gerontological Society of America, Chicago., & (Rossi, A., Kagan, J., & Haraven, T. H. (Eds.). (1978). The family. New York: W. W. Norton.1991). The process of community involvement. Communication Monographs, 58(1), 63–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637759109376214(1990). Grandfathers: Psychological inquiry into the grandfather experience. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(12), 3093A.(1973). Grandparents, relatives and concerned others. In L.Salk, What every child would like his parents to know (pp. 105–113). New York: Warner.(1970). Evaluation of a foster grandparent program. In A.Kadushin (Ed.), Child welfare services: A sourcebook (pp. 98–101). New York: Macmillan.(1992). Grandparents raising grandchildren. Creative Grandparenting, 2(4), 2–3.(1992). Grandparenthood and modernization: The changing status of male and female elders in Tiriki, Kenya, and Irigwe, Nigeria. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 7, 331–361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01848698(1977). The words (B.Frechtman, Trans.). New York: Fawcett World Library.(1983). Grandparent-grandchild interaction in a Mexican-American group. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Science, 5(2), 181–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/07399863830052004, & (1986). Overview: The psychology of grandparenthood. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 19(1), 3–17., , , & (1980). Older people and their families: The new pioneers. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 42, 9–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351929(1988). Grandparent-adolescent relationships as mediated by lineage and gender. Dissertation Abstracts International, 49(2), 351A.(1974). The client as helper: A means to promote psychological growth. The Counseling Psychologist, 4(3), 58–64. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001100007400400308(1994). Grandchildren of children at risk for abuse and neglect: A policy analysis. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of South Florida.(1988). Grandchildren of alcoholics. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, Inc.(1978]. Philadelphia Quaker [Poem]. (Quoted in E. F.Murphy, ed., Crown Treasury of Relevant Quotations, 1978, New York: Crown)[1988). Kinship and class in the West Indies. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511558153([Page 212]1988). The Italian American family. In C. H.Mindel, R. W.Habenstein, & R.Wright, Jr. (Eds.), Ethnic families in America: Patterns and variations (pp. 110–160). New York: Elsevier., & (1973). The black woman in America. Chicago: Nelson Hall.(1989). The loss of a grandchild through divorce. Dissertation Abstracts International, 50(04), 1104A.(1963). The family in cross-cultural perspective. New York: Holt, Rinehart &. Winston.(1987). Legal overview of grandparents' visitation rights. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress., & (1991). Mothers and daughters. Parent's Magazine, 66(5), 83–87.(1943). Grandma made Johnny delinquent. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 13, 343–346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1943.tb06003.x(1993). Strengths and needs of black grandparents. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 36(4), 255–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/LXR8-DPM4-0J29-UVE3, , , & (1989). Grandparents and learning. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 29(3), 163–169. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/TDRX-Y18H-6EEE-6H0W, & (1990). Raising expectations for grandparents: A three-generational study. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 3(3), 161–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/6P8W-KHL8-Q1T2-CVTH, & (1992a). Achieving grandparent potential. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1992b). Becoming a better grandparent. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1992c). Grandparents and intergenerational relationships. Educational Gerontology, 18, 607–624. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0360127920180602, & (Grandparents in Japan: A three-generational study. International Journal of Aging., , , , , , , & (in press).1993). Grandparent raising grandchildren: Goals and support groups. Educational Gerontology, 19, 705–715. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0360127930190802, & (1985). Older grandparents' perception of generativity in the grandparent-grandchild relationship. Dissertation Abstracts International, 46(09), 2827A.(1990). The grandchild-grandparent bond: Its relationship to child adjustment in intact and divorced/separated family structures. Dissertation Abstracts International, 51(6), 3150B.(1968). Temperament and behavior disorders in children. New York: New York University Press., , & (1986a). Age and sex differences in perception of grandparenting. Journal of Gerontology, 41(3), 417–423.(1986b). Gender differences in satisfaction with grandparenting. Psychology and Aging, 1(3), 215–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7918.104.22.168(1989). Gender and perceptions of grandparenthood. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 29(4), 269–282. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/H9XB-9VL6-KFCQ-L60E(1990). The grandparent role: A double bind. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 31(3), 169–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/80J9-FGK7-2966-QHCB([Page 213]1988). New demographics and old designs: The Chinese family and induced population transition. Social Science Quarterly, 69, 605–628., & (1992). Grandmotherhood: Contemporary meaning among African American middle class grandmothers. Social Work, 37(3), 216–222., & (1987). Grandparents as interactive and social support agents for families with young infants. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 25(4), 259–277. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/91M7-1JMA-UQV6-0VH3, & (1988). The role of grandfathers in the context of the family. In P.Bronstein & C. P.Cowan (Eds.), Fatherhood today: Men's changing roles in the family (pp. 236–250). New York: John Wiley., &. (1957). The family life of old people. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.(1983). Grandparents: The family watchdogs. In T.Brubaker (Ed.), Family relationships in later life (pp. 63–74). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1985). The contingencies of grandparenting. In V. L.Bengston & J. F.Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 135–149). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1989). The significance of stepgrandparents. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 29(2), 119–134. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/YE9C-UQCW-JXE9-52MP, & (U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1990). Statistical abstract of the United States. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.U.S. Bureau of the Census. (1993). Marital status and living arrangements. Current population reports (Series No. P20-478). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.U.S. House of Representatives. (1992). Grandparents: New roles and responsibilities (Comm. Publication No. 102-876). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.1946). The social function of the grandmother. Social Forces, 24, 389–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2572209(1994). Group psychotherapy with inner-city grandmothers raising their grandchildren. International Journal of Group Psychotherapy, 44(1), 101–122., & (1982, December 16). Statement. Hearing before the Subcommissioner on Human Services, Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives, Washington, DC.(1937). The grandmother: A problem in childrearing. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 7, 378–382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/%28ISSN%291939-0025(1985). Judaic perspectives on grandparenthood. In V. L.Bengston & J. F.Robertson (Eds.), Grandparenthood (pp. 185–194). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1985). Older women's perceptions of great-grandmotherhood: A research note. The Gerontologist, 25, 593–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/25.6.593(1994, April). What is this thing called kinship care? Paper presented at the Generations United Conference, Washington, DC.(1976). A family is a four-dimensional relationship. In C.Whitaker & R.Guerin (Eds.), Family therapy: Theory and practice (pp. 189–191). New York: Gardner.(1976). Adopted grandparents: A link between the past and the future. Educational Gerontology, 1, 243–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0360127760010304, , & (Wiener, J. M. (Ed.). (1991). Textbook of child and adolescent psychiatry. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.[Page 214]1987). Grandparents and grandchildren: An often neglected relationship between significant others. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 289–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1987.tb01287.x(1960). Family and class in a London suburb. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul., & (1978). On Human nature, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1978). Studies in Chinese society. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.(1976). The significance of grandparenthood. In J.Gubrium (Ed.), Time, roles and self in old age (pp. 278–304). New York: Human Sciences Press., & (1989). Death of a grandparent. Journal of Nervous Disorders and Mental Disease, 177(11), 675–680. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-198911000-00003, et. al. (Suggested Readings1980). Grandparents of handicapped children: Notes for practice (Rep. No. 0037-8046780/2503). Indianapolis: National Association of Social Workers.(1986). Grandmother's and mother's disciplining in three-generational families. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50(1), 80–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.124, & (1989). Current concepts: Depression in the elderly. New England Journal of Medicine, 320(3), 164–167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM198901193200306(1991). Marked questions on elderly depression. Science News, 140(20), 310–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3975802(1981). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(Brubaker, T. H. (Ed.). (1985). Later life families. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.1990, November/December). Restoring the soul of the family. Family Therapy Networker, pp. 46–52., & (1982). Observations on changing relationships for older married women. American Journal of Psychoanalysis, 42(2), 133–142. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01250748, & (1973). The old ones of New Mexico. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.(1989). Grandparents with Alzheimer's disease: Effects of parental burden on grandchildren. Family Therapy, 16(1), 79–85., & (1993). Filially bereaved grandparents (Rep. No. 932675). Ann Arbor: UMI Dissertation Services.(1984). Reflections on the last stage: Psychoanalytic study of the child (Vol. 39). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1979). Grandparent visitation: Vagaries and vicissitudes. Journal of Divorce, 70(1–2), 643–651., , , , & (1983). Seven central nurturant factors in grandparenting as defined by grandchildren. Dissertation Abstracts International, 43(07), 2388B.(1989). Fostering intergenerational relationships for at-risk youths. Children Today, 18(2), 10–15.(1975). Management problems of mentally retarded children and their families. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 22(3), 561–570.([Page 215]1990, August 13). Caring for “orphans of the living.”The Christian Science Monitor, p. 12.(1982). In a different voice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1988). Aging parents as family resources. The Gerontologist, 28(6), 786–791. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/28.6.786, & (1985). Parents and grandparents view the autistic child. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 15(2), 127–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01531599, , & (1979). The grandparent-grandchild relationship and life satisfaction, death anxiety, and attitude toward the future. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40(03), 1333B.(1989). The family life cycle of poor black families. In B.Caret & M.McGoldrick (Eds.), The changing family life cycle: A framework for family therapy ((2nd ed., pp. 513–553). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.1992). A comparative study of grandparent strengths and needs among anglo and black families. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53(2), 447A.(1980). Divorce mediation. Toronto, Canada: Personal Library Publishers.(1991). The grandparent-grandchild connection. Marriage and Family Review, 16(3–4), 267–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J002v16n03_04(1988). Grandparenthood, life review, and psychosocial development. Journal of Gerontological Social Work, 12(3–4), 63–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J083v12n03_05(1988). What it really means to grandparent. Grandparents, 1(3), 24–27.(1989a). Grandparents and Infants. French Journal of Child Psychiatry, 10(2), 97–110.(1989b). Infants and grandparents. In E.Rexford, A.Sandford, & T.Shapiro (Eds.), Infant psychiatry (pp. 217–241). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1989c). Spirit. New York: St. Martin's.(1985). Family interfaces: Transgenerational patterns. New York: Brunner/Mazel.(1990). Planning for contact between the generations: An effective approach. The Gerontologist, 30(4), 553–557. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/30.4.553, , & (1990). The meaning of grandparenthood and its relationship to demographic, relationship and social participation variables. Journal of Gerontology, 45(6), 244–246., & (1982). Parent-absent children: A demographic analysis of children and adolescents living apart from their parents. Family Relations, 31, 567–573. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/583934, & (1974, Spring). Professors as grandparents. Grand Valley College Review, pp. 16–21.(1985). The changing nature of grandparenthood. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, 19(4), 81–92.(1990). National Association for Perinatal Addiction resources: Intergenerational programs. New York: Haworth., & (1989). Intergenerational marketing. Marketing Communications, 14(5), 74–78.([Page 216]1993). Low-birth-weight infants born to adolescent mothers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269(11), 1396–1400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03500110064036, et al. (1958). The grandparent syndrome. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 27, 518–538.(1979). Grandparental influences on locus of control. Dissertation Abstracts International, 40(06), 3206A.(1977). Grandmotherhood: A study of role conception. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 39, 165–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351072(1967). The phenomenology of the social world. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.(1975). Grandparent presence as a variable in child development. Child Development, 35(7), 42–60.(1991, March). Grandparents of disabled grandchildren: Hopes, fears, and adaptation. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, pp. 147–152.(1991). The impact of grandparent death on the transition to motherhood: Implications for the family emotional climate at the time of birth. Dissertation Abstracts International, 52(3), 1739B.(1982). Contemporary grandparenthood: A systematic transition. Annals of the American Academy of Political Science, 464, 91–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002716282464001009, & (1983). The relationship of community. Journalism Monographs, 84, 34–39., & (1993). Differential effects of parent and grandparent drug use on behavior problems of male and female children. Developmental Psychology, 29(1), 31–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.199, , & (1981). Helping black grandparents and older parents cope with child rearing: A group method. Child Welfare, 60, 691–701., & (1989). Grandparents' visitation rights: Legalizing the ties that bind. American Psychologist, 44(9), 1217–1222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1217, , , & (1983). Grandparents as support and socialization agents. In M.Lewis (Ed.), Beyond the dyad (pp. 143–176). New York: Plenum., & (1989). Grandmothers' responsibility in raising two-year olds facilitates their grandchildren's adaptive behavior. Psychology and Aging, 4(1), 119–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-79188.8.131.52, & (1991). Grandmothers' advice about disciplining children. Psychology and Aging, 6(2), 182–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-79184.108.40.206, & (1993, April). A nursing success story: Moral support for grandparents who care. American Journal of Nursing, pp. 52–56.(1978). Concurrent grandparent death and birth of schizophrenic offspring: An intriguing finding. Family Process, 17, 457–463. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1978.00457.x(1988). The long-distance grandmother. Vancouver, BC, Canada: Hartley & Marks.(1990). The grandparent book. San Francisco: Gateway Books.(1982). The legal right of grandparents: A preliminary discussion. The Gerontologist, 22, 67–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/22.1.67, & (1992, July 7). Questionnaire probes patients' quality of life. Wall Street Journal, p. 2.(
About the Author[Page 231]
Arthur Kornhaber, M.D., is a clinician, researcher, and medical writer. A child and family psychiatrist, he is vice president and national medical director of the St. Francis Academy (a national nonprofit mental health organization), and president and founder of the Foundation for Grandparenting.
Dr. Kornhaber is a foremost international authority on grandparenting and the grandparent-grandchild relationship, and the author of many books, scientific papers, and lay articles dealing with child and family issues. He writes and speaks widely to lay and professional audiences to raise “grandparent consciousness.” A recipient of various awards, he is a national and international consultant on social and psychiatric issues to the media, the United States Congress, and the White House.