Consumer Society: Critical Issues and Environmental Consequences
Publication Year: 2010
Has consumer culture got out of hand? Are the costs of universal access and pollution too great to bear?This comprehensive, lively and informative book will quickly be recognized as a benchmark in the field. It brings together a huge set of resources for thinking about consumer culture and examining its origins and consequences within a global context. Adept in handling a complex range of theories, Consumer Society scrupulously uses examples throughout to inform and enhance understanding. Smart writes with verve and feeling and has produced a book that simultaneously covers and enlarges our understanding of consumer culture. Clear, engaging and original, this book will be important reading for all those interested in our global culture of consumption including students of sociology, social geography and cultural ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Consuming: Historical and Conceptual Issues
- Chapter 2: Consumer Choice: Rhetoric and Reality
- Chapter 3: Cultivating Consumers: Advertising, Marketing, and Branding
- Chapter 4: Designing Obsolescence, Promoting Consumer Demand
- Chapter 5: Globalization and Modern Consumer Culture
- Chapter 6: Consequences of Consumerism
- Chapter 7: An Unsustainable All-Consuming World
- Chapter 8: Consuming Futures I: Business as Usual
- Chapter 9: Consuming Futures II: ‘Green’ and Sustainable Alternatives
© Barry Smart 2010
First published 2010
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
Mathura Road, Post Bag 7
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number 2009934785
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-84787-050-6 (pbk)
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed by MPG Books Group, Bodmin, Cornwall
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
I would like to thank colleagues and students who have contributed to the development of various sections of the book and Doug Kellner in particular for his detailed comments on the manuscript as a whole.
In Chapters 2, 5, 7, and 8 I have drawn on and developed material from two essays, ‘(Dis)interring postmodernism or a critique of the political economy of consumer choice’, published in Reconstructing Postmodernism Critical Debates (2007) edited by Jason Powell and Tim Owen, and ‘Made in America: the unsustainable all-consuming global free-market “utopia”’, published in Globalization and Utopia: Critical Essays (2009) edited by Patrick Hayden and Chamsy El-Ojeili. I would like to thank the respective editors for their comments on the essays. Also the analysis in one section of Chapter 5 benefited from helpful comments I received from Roland Robertson and Richard Giulianotti on an earlier journal article ‘Not playing around: global capitalism, modern sport and consumer culture’, published in Global Networks (2007).
Finally, I would like to thank Chris Rojek for his editorial advice and support, Jai Seaman and Katherine Haw for providing help whenever I needed it.
[Page vii]We must not forget that the boiling heat of modern capitalistic culture is connected with heedless consumption of resources, for which there are no substitutes.
Max Weber, the Congress of Arts and Science, Universal Exposition, St Louis, 1904
Too much and too long we seem to have surrendered personal excellence and community values in the mere accumulation of material things. Our Gross National Product, now, is over $800 billion dollars a year, but that Gross National Product, if we judge the United States of America by that …counts air pollution and cigarette advertising, and ambulances to clear our highways of carnage. It counts special locks for our doors and the jails for the people who break them. It counts the destruction of the redwood and the loss of our natural wonder in chaotic sprawl. It counts napalm and counts nuclear warheads and armored cars for the police to fight the riots in our cities. It counts …the television programs which glorify violence in order to sell toys to our children. Yet the gross national product does not allow for the health of our children, the quality of their education or the joy of their play … It measures neither our wit nor our courage, neither our wisdom nor our learning, neither our compassion nor our devotion to our country, it measures everything in short, except that which makes life worthwhile. Robert F Kennedy, the University of Kansas March 18th 1968
We know that our present mode of life is without future; that the children we will bring into the world will use neither oil nor a number of now-familiar metals during their adult lives … We know that our world is ending; that if we go on as before, the oceans and the rivers will be sterile, the soil infertile, the air unbreathable in the cities … We know that for a hundred and fifty years industrial society has developed through the accelerated looting of reserves whose creation required tens of millions of years. Andre Gorz (1975)Ecology as Politics*
And to those nations like ours that enjoy relative plenty, we say we can no longer afford indifference to suffering outside our borders; nor can we consume the world's resources without regard to effect, for the world has changed, and we must change with it.
Barack Obama, 44th President of the USA, Inauguration Speech, January 20th 2009
* Reproduced with permission from Pluto Press, http://www.plutobooks.com[Page viii]
References[Page 226]2009) http://www.adbusters.org. Accessed 8 June 2009.(n.d.) (1991) The Culture Industry: Selected Essays on Mass Culture. London: Routledge.(1997) Dialectic of Enlightenment. London: Verso.and (2004) ‘Rising struggles, falling water’, India Resource Center. Available at: http://www.indiaresource.org/campaigns/coke/2004/risingstruggles.html. Accessed 23 September 2008.(Advertising Age (2008a) ‘World's top 50 agency companies’, DataCenter. Available at: http://adage.com/datacenter/datapopup.php?article_id=126706. Accessed 17 March 2009.Advertising Age (2008b) Global Marketers: Part 1 Global ad Spending by Marketer, 22nd Annual Report. pp. 1–15. Available at: http://adage.com/images/random/datacenter/2008/globalmarketing2008.pdf. Accessed 17 March 2009.Advertising Association (2007) ‘Statistics’. Available at: http://www.adassoc.org.uk/html/statistics.html. Accessed 30 August 2007.Advertising Association (2008) The Advertising Statistics Yearbook 2008. Available at: http://www.adassoc.org.uk/Ad_stats_yearbook_2008_-_8june08.pdf. Accessed 17 March 09.Alcohol Concern (2004) Advertising Alcohol: Fact Sheet Summary. Available at: http://www.alcoholconcern.org.uk/files/20040506_085240_Advertising%20factsheet%20April%20 2004.pdf. Accessed 11 August 2008.2006) Plastic Debris in the World's Oceans, Greenpeace. Available at: http://www.unep.org/regionalseas/marinelitter/publications/docs/plastic_ocean_report.pdf. Accessed 2 May 2009., , and (2006) Well Dressed? The Present and Future Sustainability of Clothing and Textiles in the United Kingdom. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Institute for Manufacturing. American Legacy Foundation. Available at: http://www.americanlegacy.org/whoweare.aspx. Accessed 10 August 2008., , and (Amis, J. and Cornwall, T.B. (eds) 2005 Global Sport Sponsorship. London: Berg.2007) ‘Jottings on the conjuncture’, New Left Review, 48 (November—December). Available at: http://www.newleftreview.org/?view=2695. Accessed 23 April 2008.(1993) ‘The Japanification of American fast food’, Mangajin, 25 (April). Available at: http://www.mangajin.com/mangajin/samplemj/japnfctn/japnfctn.htm. Accessed 15 September 2008.(Anonymous (1999) ‘Tobacco use: United States, 1900–1999’, Oncology, 13 (12). Available at: http://www.cancernetwork.com/display/article/10165/81348. Accessed 9 August 08.1990) Sportsbiz: Inside the Sports Business. London: Hutchinson.(2009) The Age of Stupid. Available at http://www.ageofstupid.net/the_film. Accessed 22 March 2009.(2006) ‘Brand management and the productivity of consumption’, in J.Brewer and F.Trentmann (eds), Consuming Cultures, Global Perspectives: Historical Trajectories, Transnational Exchanges. Oxford: Berg. pp. 71–94.([Page 227]1984) From Red to Green. London: Verso.(Baker, A. (ed.) (2000) Serious Shopping: Essays in Psychotherapy and Consumerism. London: Free Association Books.2008) ‘It's worse than we feared and there's more pain to come, but it will pass’, The Times, 16 July: 6–7.(2007) ‘The problem with school “choice”’, BBC News, March. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/6413811.stm. Accessed 1 August 2008.(1970) Monopoly Capital: An Essay on the American Economic and Social Order. Harmondsworth: Penguin.and (2007) Consumed: How Markets Corrupt Children, Infantalize Adults, and Swallow Citizens Whole. London: W.W. Norton.(2009) ‘The global macroeconomic rebound effect of energy efficiency policies: An analysis 2012–2030 using E3MG’, UK Energy Research Centre, 4CMR, University of Cambridge, 14 May. Available at: http://www.landecon.cam.ac.uk/research/eeprg/4cmr/news/pdf/Rebound_Barker%20&%20Dagoumas_Rebound_14052009V3.pdf. Accessed 1 June 2009.and (2002) Blue Gold: The Fight to Stop the Corporate Theft of the World's Water. London: Earthscan.and (1998) The Consumer Society: Myths and Structures. London: Sage.(2009) Towards a Global Green Recovery: Recommendations for Immediate G20 Action. Report submitted to the G20 London Summit. Available at: http://www.pik-potsdam.de/global-greenrecovery. Accessed 2 April 2009., , , , , and (1992) Intimations of Postmodernity. London: Routledge.(1998) Work, Consumerism and the New Poor. Buckingham: Open University Press.(2000) Liquid Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.(2004a) Wasted Lives: Modernity and Its Outcasts. Cambridge: Polity Press.(2004b) ‘The consumerist syndrome in contemporary society: An interview’, with , Journal of Consumer Culture, 4 (3): 291–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1469540504046516(2007a) Liquid Times: Living in An Age of Uncertainty. Cambridge: Polity Press.(2007b) Consuming Life. Cambridge: Polity Press.(BBC (2004) ‘Store wars: fast fashion’, 9 June. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/3086669.stm. Accessed 8 August 2009.BBC (2006) ‘Code for hospitals’ patient ads’, 20 November. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/6164214.stm. Accessed 4 August 2008.BBC (2009a) ‘US car scrappage scheme unveiled’, 24 July. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/8167828.stm. Accessed 5 August 2009.BBC (2009b) ‘Go-ahead for new Heathrow runway’, 15 January. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/politics/7829676.stm. Accessed 28 February 2009.BBC (2009c) ‘Fast fashion from UK to Uganda’, 20 February. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/7899227.stm. Accessed 8 August 2009.BBC Asia-Pacific News (2008) ‘Record car ownership in Beijing’. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/low/asia-pacific/7186635.stm. Accessed 24 April 2008.BBC News Online (2004) Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/4097471.stm. Accessed 30 August 2007.1992) Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.(2000) The Brave New World of Work. Cambridge: Polity Press.(2005) Power in the Global Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.([Page 228]Beck, U., Sznaider, N. and Winter, R. (eds) (2003) Global America? The Cultural Consequences of Globalization. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.2006) ‘Cola wars in Mexico’, In These Times, October 6. Available at: http://www.inthesetimes.com/article/2840. Accessed 18 September 2008.(1976) The Cultural Contradictions of Capitalism. New York: Basic Books.(2008) ‘End of consumerism’, Off-grid. Available at: http://www.off-grid.net/2008/07/30/end-of-consumerism. Accessed 6 March 2009.(1996) Habits of the Heart: Individualism and Commitment in American Life. London: University of California Press., , , and (2006) Pulling Apart: A State-by-State Analysis of Income Trends. Center on Budget and Policy Priorities and Economic Policy Institute. Washington DC. Available at: http://www.cbpp.org/1-26-06sfp.pdf. Accessed 14 November 2008., and (2008) ‘Civic choices: Retrieving perspectives on rationality, consumption, and citizenship’, in K.Soper and F.Trentmann (eds), Citizenship and Consumption. Basingstoke: Palgrave. pp. 19–33.and (2002) ‘Jamming culture: Adbusters’ hip media campaign against consumerism’, in T.Princen, M.Maniates and K.Conca (eds), Confronting Consumption. London: MIT Press. pp. 237–53.(1998) Acts of Resistance: Against the New Myths of Our Time. Cambridge: Polity Press.(2003) Firing Back: Against the Tyranny of the Market 2. London: Verso.(1981) The Structures of Everyday Life: Civilization and Capitalism, 15th-18th Centuries, Vol 1. London: William Collins & Sons.(1974) Capitalism and Material Life, 1400–1800. New York: Harper & Row.(2004) The Marketplace of Revolution: How Consumer Politics Shaped American Independence. New York: Oxford University Press.(Brewer, J. and Porter, R. (eds) (1993) Consumption and the World of Goods. New York: Routledge.2006) ‘Introduction: Space, time and value in consuming cultures’, in J.Brewer and F.Trentmann (eds), Consuming Cultures, Global Perspectives: Historical Trajectories, Transnational Exchanges. Oxford: Berg. pp. 1–17.and (1989) ‘Reading consumer culture’, in S.J.Bronner (ed.), Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America 1880–1920. London: W.W. Norton, pp. 13–53.(2009) Speech to US Congress, Washington, 4 March. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/gordon-brown/4938252/Gordon-Browns-speech-to-Congress-the-full-text.html. Accessed 5 March 2009.(2006) Plan B 2.0: Rescuing a Planet under Stress and a Civilization in Trouble. New York: W.W. Norton.(2002) ‘Taming “wild” capitalism’, Discourse and Society, 13 (2): 167–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0957926502013002405(2007) ‘Produsage: Towards a broader framework for user-led content creation’. Paper presented at Creativity & Cognition Conference, Washington, DC, 14 June. Available at: http://produsage.org/presentations. Accessed 28 April 2009.(2004) The Disneyization of Society. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220122(2004) Willing Slaves: How the Overwork Culture is Ruling Our Lives. London: HarperCollins.(2009) ‘Beyond Westminster's bankrupted practices, a new idealism is emerging’, 31 May. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2009/may/31/reform-transition-a-new-politics. Accessed 4 June 2009.([Page 229]2007) The Smoke of the Gods: A Social History of Tobacco. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.(2001) ‘Address to a joint session of congress and the American people’, 20 September. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010920-8.html. Accessed 7 November 2008.(2006) Press conference, 20 December. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2006/12/20061220-1.html. Accessed 7 November 2008.(2008) Press conference, 15 July. Available at: http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2008/07/20080715-1.html. Accessed 16 July 2008.(1999) Financing the American Dream: A Cultural History of Consumer Credit. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2007) ‘Destructive creation’, SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance No. 653, April. Scandinavian Working Papers in Economics. Available at: http://swopec.hhs.se/hastef/abs/hastef0653.htm. Accessed 10 August 2007.(1989) The Romantic Ethic and the Spirit of Modern Consumerism. Oxford: Blackwell.(2009) ‘Shoe brands get tough on leather suppliers to save Amazon rainforest’, Guardian, 4 August: 3.and (1996) The Rise of the Network Society, Vol. 1, The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell.(1998) End of Millennium, Vol. III. The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture. Oxford: Blackwell.(CBC News (2009) ‘I want to grow trade not contract it: Obama’, 19 February. Available at: http://www.cbc.ca/money/story/2009/02/19/obama-economy.html. Accessed 27 March 2009.2005) Wellsprings: A Natural History of Bottled Spring Waters. New Jersey: Rutgers University Press.(2001) China, the United States and the Global Economy. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.and (2009) Marketing Plan 2009 for The Body Shop in the UK. Available at: http://d.scribd.com/docs/eue8fowr6i158pctvdk.pdf. Accessed 6 March 2009., , and (China Daily (2008) ‘McDonald's growing in China’. Available at: http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/bizchina/2008-09/08/content_7007412.htm. Accessed 15 September 2008.China Daily (2004) ‘China spends 32% more on ads’. Available at: http://bizchina.china-daily.com.cn/openews.shtml?id=339. Accessed 1 September 2008.1999) Profit over People: Neoliberalism and Global Order. London: Seven Stories Press.(2009) ‘The man who could change the world’, The Climate Challenge Nobel Laureate Symposium, The Times, 26 May: 8.(Churchill Insurance (2006) ‘British women waste £7.3 billion on unworn clothes’. Available at: http://www.churchill.com/pressReleases/06012006.htm. Accessed 12 December 2008.2002) ‘The distancing of waste: Overconsumption in a global economy’, in T.Princen, M.Maniates and K.Conca (eds), Confronting Consumption. London: MIT Press, pp. 155–76.(2009) ‘American debut: Topshop bites into the big apple’, Guardian, 3 April: 25.(2006) ‘Consumers, clients, or citizens? Politics, policy and practice in the reform of social care’, European Societies, 8 (3): 423–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14616690600821966(2006) The End of the Line: How Overfishing is Changing the World and What We Eat. London: The New Press.([Page 230]2008) ‘Our American way of life is unsustainable — evidence’, Energy Bulletin, 18 August. Available at: http://www.energybulletin.net/node/46276. Accessed 14 September 2008.(Coalition Against Coke Contracts (2006) ‘Kerala throws out Coca-Cola and Pepsi’, 9 August. Available at: http://caccuc.blogspot.com/2006/08/kerala-throws-out-coca-cola-and-pepsi.html. Accessed 23 September 2008.Coca-Cola (2005) News Release: Coca-Cola renews worldwide football association through Elite FIFA Partner Agreement. Available at: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/presscenter/nr_20051122_corporate_fifa_agreement.html. Accessed 1 October 2008.Coca-Cola Per Capita Consumption (n.d.) Available at: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/ourcompany/ar/percapitaconsumption_north_america.html. Accessed 19 September 2008.Coca-Cola Heritage (n.d.) ‘The Chronicle of Coca-Cola: A global business’. Available at: http://www.thecoca-colacompany.com/heritage/chronicle_global_business.html. Accessed 9 September 2008.2005) ‘Message in a bottle: How Coca-Cola gave back to Plachimada’, Counterpunch, 16–17 April. Available at: http://www.counterpunch.org/cockburn04162005.html. Accessed 22 September 2008.(2007) ‘Earth's natural wealth: An audit’, New Scientist, 194 (2605). Available at: http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19426051.200-earths-natural-wealth-an-audit.html?full=true. Accessed 25 May 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0262-4079%2807%2961315-3(1987) ‘Effects of cigarette advertising on consumer behavior’. Available at: http://tobaccodocuments.org/landman/2500082202-2253.html#images. Accessed 11 August 2008.(2005) ‘The new politics of consumption: Promoting sustainability in the American marketplace’, Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 1 (1): 58–76. Available at: http://ejournal.nbii.org/archives/vol1iss1/0410-011.cohen.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2009., and (2002) ‘Consumption and environment in a global economy’, in T.Princen, M.Maniates and K.Conca (eds), Confronting Consumption. London: MIT Press, pp. 133–53.(Congressional Budget Office (2007) Trends in Earnings Variability Over the Past 20 Years, The Congress of the United States. Available at: http://www.cbo.gov/ftpdocs/80xx/doc8007/04-17-EarningsVariability.pdf. Accessed 14 November 2008.1997) The Sociology of Consumption. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446216903(Credit Action (2006) ‘Credit card holders affordability study’. Available at: http://www.creditaction.org.uk/credit-card-holders-affordability-study.html. Accessed 2 December 2008.Credit Action (2008) ‘Debt statistics, November’. Available at: http://www.creditaction.org.uk/debt-statistics.html. Accessed 2 December 2008.Crossik, G. and Jaumin, S. (eds) (1999) Cathedrals of Consumption: The European Department Store 1850–1939. Aldershot: Ashgate.2008) ‘Fewer parents getting secondary school of their choice for children’, Guardian, Tuesday 4 March. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2008/mar/04/schools.publicschools. Accessed 13 January 2009.and (1996) Beyond Growth: The Economics of Sustainable Development. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.(2008a) ‘On a road to disaster’, New Scientist Special Issue, The Folly of Growth, 200 (2678): 46–7.(2008b) ‘A steady-state economy’, Sustainable Development Commission, 24 April: 1–10. Available at: http://www.sd-commission.org.uk/publications/downloads/Herman_Daly_thinkpiece.pdf. Accessed 6 April 2009.([Page 231]2007) ‘Introduction’, in M.Davis and D.B.Monk (eds), Evil Paradises: Dreamworlds of Neoliberalism. London: The New Press. pp. ix-xvi.and (2005) The Consumer Trap: Big Business Marketing in American Life. Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Press.(2004) ‘Consumerism and its discontents’, Monitor on Psychology, 35 (6). Available at: http://www.apa.org/monitor/jun04/discontents.html.(2007) ‘Executive pay: Big paychecks’, Forbes. Available at: http://www.forbes.com/2007/05/03/ceo-executive-compensation-lead-07ceo-cx_sd_0503ceo compensationintro.html. Accessed 13 November 2008.(DEFRA (2007) Waste Strategy for England 2007, UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs, Cm 7086. Available at: http://www.defra.gov.uk/ENVIRONMENT/waste/strategy/strategy07/pdf/waste07-strategy.pdf. Accessed 15 May 2009.2009) ‘Sustainable hedonism: The pleasures of living within environmental limits’, in K.Soper, M.Ryle and L.Thomas (eds), The Politics and Pleasures of Consuming Differently. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 113–29.(Demos (2006) ‘America's growing economic divide: By the numbers’, http://Inequality.org. Available at: http://www.demos.org/inequality/ByNumbersMay31.pdf. Accessed 20 February 2009.2003) Tobacco Marketing and Young People. The Centre for Tobacco Control Research, The University of Strathclyde. Available at: http://www.tobaccopapers.com/casestudies/Yth-Smoking.pdf. Accessed 12 August 2008., and (2008) The 11th Hour. Available at: http://wip.warnerbros.com/11thhour/mainsite/site.html. Accessed 10 June 2008.(2009) ‘No fish by 2048? The end of the line — interview with journalist Charles Clover’, 1 May. The Village Voice — Fork in the Road. Available at: http://blogs.village-voice.com/forkintheroad/archives/2009/05/_photo_courtesy.php. Accessed 6 June 2009.(2003) Voluntary Simplicity: Responding to Consumer Culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.and (1979) The World of Goods: Towards an Anthropology of Consumption. New York: Basic Books. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203434857and (Drobnick, J. (ed.) (2006) The Smell Culture Reader. London: Berg.2000) ‘Credit cards: Use and consumer attitudes 1970–2000’, Federal Reserve Bulletin, September: 623–34. Available at: http://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/bulletin/2000/0900lead.pdf. Accessed 28 February 2008.(1992) How Much Is Enough? The Consumer Society and The Future of the Earth. Worldwatch Institute. New York: W.W. Norton & Company Inc.(2007) ‘Bottled water: Pouring resources down the drain?’, Environmental Ethics, 1: 7–13. Availableat: http://www.environmentalethics-sihe.co.uk/pdfs/ALYSARTICLE_Edit.pdf. Accessed 23 September 2008.(2008) ‘The fall of the American consumer’, The Nation, 11 March. Available at: http://www.thenation.com/doc/20080324/ehrenreich. Accessed 18 September 2008.(2009) ‘It's not the bankers Labour is watching, it's you’, Guardian, 11 May: 28.(Energy Information Administration (2009) ‘US energy-related carbon dioxide emissions declined by 2.8 per cent in 2008’, Official Energy Statistics from the US Government, 20 May Available at: http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/press/press318.html. Accessed 2 June 2009.2005) ‘A new world economy: The balance of power will shift to the East as China and India evolve’, Business Week, 22 August. Available at: http://www.business-week.com/magazine/content/05_34/b3948401.htm. Accessed 22 April 2008.(2004) ‘Food losses in food service institutions: Examples from Sweden’, Food Policy, 29 (3): 203–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2004.03.004and ([Page 232]2003) ‘Introduction: Voluntary simplicity — psychological implications, societal consequences’, in D.Doherty and A.Etzioni (eds), Voluntary Simplicity: Responding to Consumer Culture. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 1–27.(Euromonitor International (2008) Shopping for Pleasure: The Development of Shopping as a Leisure Pursuit. London: Euromonitor International.European Union (2007) ‘Restructuring forum: The challenges of the automotive industry — Towards a European partnership for the anticipation of change’, Brussels, 17 and 18 October. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/restructuring/docs/partnership_en.pdf. Accessed 18 March 2009.European Union (2009) ‘Annex 3: Guidance on scrapping schemes for vehicles’. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/automotive/pagesbackground/competitiveness/com_2009_104/annex_3.pdf. Accessed 18 March 09.1998) The American Century. New York: Alfred A Knopf.(2001) Captains of Consciousness: Advertising and the Social Roots of the Consumer Culture, 25th Anniversary Edition. New York: Basic Books.(1992) Channels of Desire: Mass Images and the Shaping of American Consciousness. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.and (1989) ‘Compulsive buying: A phenomenological exploration’, The Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (2): 147–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jcr.1989.16.issue-2and (2007) ‘The “bird of gold”: The rise of India's consumer market’, McKinsey Global Institute. Available at: http://www.mckinsey.com/mgi/reports/pdfs/india_consumer_market/MGI_india_consumer_executive_summary.pdf. Accessed 23 April 2008.et al. (2001) ‘Bottled water: Understanding a social phenomenon’, Discussion paper commissioned by WWF. Available at: http://assets.panda.org/downloads/bottled_water.pdf. Accessed 22 September 2008.(FIFA (2006) ‘2006 FIFA World Cup in numbers’. Available at: http://www.fifa.com/aboutfifa/marketingtv/factsfigures/numbers.html. Accessed 3 October 2008.2008) ‘This is the dawning of the age of austerity, says Asda’, Guardian, 12 December: 37.(2005) ‘What a waste — Japan faces up to food waste mountain’, 2 June, Just-food. Available at: http://www.just-food.com/features_detail.asp?art=980. Accessed 9 December 2008.(2006) Consuming Passions: Leisure and Pleasure in Victorian Britain. London: Harper Press.(2009) ‘The perfect storm’, in L.Starke (ed.), State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World. A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. New York: W.W. Norton & Co. pp. 5–12.and (2008) ‘For sale, hardly worn: two million tonnes of clothes’, The Times, Times2, 15 December: 2–3.(2006) ‘US: Growing worry for businesses: Old computers’, New York Times, 4 April. Available at: http://www.corpwatch.org/article.php?id=13459. Accessed 9 December 2008.(Food http://navigator.com (2004) ‘US wastes half its food’, 26 November. Available at: http://www.foodnavigator-usa.com/news/ng.asp?id=56376. Accessed 9 December 2008.Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO) (2008) ‘Number of hungry people rises to 963 million’, Newsroom, 9 December. Available at: http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/8836/icode. Accessed 18 December 2008.2006) ‘The household debt bubble’, Monthly Review, 58 (1). Available at: http://www.monthlyreview.org/0506jbf.htm. Accessed 11 September 2008.([Page 233]1998) ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.(1998) The Conquest of Cool: Business Culture, Counterculture and the Rise of Hip Consumerism. London: University of Chicago Press.(2001) One Market Under God: Extreme Capitalism, Market Populism and the End of Economic Democracy. London: Seeker & Warburg.(2006) ‘Down the drain’, Waste Management World, May—June: 62–65. Available at: http://www.container-recycling.org/assets/pdfs/media/2006-5-WMW-DownDrain.pdf. Accessed 23 September 2008.(2009) ‘One in five children is failing to get place at school of choice’, The Times, 2 March: 5.(2004) ‘Linking globalization, consumption and governance’, in L.Starke (ed.), State of the World 2004: Progress Towards a Sustainable Society. A Worldwatch Institute Report. London: Earthscan. pp. 144–61.(1982) Capitalism and Freedom. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(2006) The Moral Consequences of Economic Growth. New York: Vintage Books.(Friends of the Earth (2005) Briefing Good Neighbours? Community Impacts of Supermarkets. Available at: http://www.foe.co.uk/resource/briefings/good_neighbours_community.pdf. Accessed 14 August 2008.2002) ‘Can Japanese brands go global?’. Available at: http://www.brandchannel.com/features_effect.asp?pf_id=130. Accessed 9 October 2008.(Futerra Sustainability Communications (2008) The Greenwash Guide. Available at: http://www.futerra.co.uk/downloads/Greenwash_Guide.pdf. Accessed 7 March 2009.G20 (2009) ‘London summit — leader's Statement 2nd April’. Available at: http://www.londonsummit.gov.uk/resources/en/PDF/final-communique. Accessed 3 April 2009.2006) The Unmanageable Consumer,and (2nd edn.London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462130492005) ‘US annual advertising spending since 1919’. Available at: http://www.galbithink.org/ad-spending.htm. Accessed 6 August 2008.(1963) The Affluent Society. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1969) The New Industrial State. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1975) Economics and the Public Purpose. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1985) The Affluent Society, 4th edn with a new introduction. London: Andre Deutsch.(1992) The Great Crash 1929. London: Penguin Books.(2004) ‘Rethinking the good life’, in L.Starke (ed.), State of the World 2004: Progress Towards a Sustainable Society. A Worldwatch Institute Report. London: Earthscan. pp. 164–79.and (2004) ‘The state of consumption today’, in L.Starke (ed.), State of the World 2004: Progress Towards a Sustainable Society. A Worldwatch Institute Report. London: Earthscan. pp. 3–21., and (2008) ‘Seeding the sustainable economy’, in L.Starke (ed.), State of the World 2008: Special Focus — Innovations for a Sustainable Economy. A Worldwatch Institute Report. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 3–17.and (2006) ‘“The Doctors’ choice is America's choice”: The physician in US cigarette advertisements, 1930–1953’, American Journal of Public Health, 96 (2): 222–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2005.066654and (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.(2009) The Politics of Climate Change. Cambridge: Polity Press.([Page 234]2008) ‘Stemming the tide of “Greenwash”’, Consumer Policy Review, 1 May. Available at: http://www.allbusiness.com/environment-natural-resources/environmentalism/11462838-1.html. Accessed 7 March 2009.(2003) ‘Dystopian nightmares and educated hopes: The return of the pedagogical and the promise of democracy’, Policy Futures in Education, 1 (3): 467–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.2304/pfie.2003.1.3(2007) The University in Chains: Confronting the Military-Industrial-Academic Complex. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.(2009) World's Water 2008–9: The Biennial Report on Freshwater Resources. Pacific Institute for Studies in Development, Environment and Security. London: Island Press., , , , and (Glickman, L. (ed.) (1999) Consumer Society in American History: A Reader. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Global Footprint Network (2006) National Footprint Accounts, 2006 Edition. Available at: http://www.footprintnetwork.org.Global Footprint Network (2008) ‘World footprint: Do we fit on the planet?’. Available at: http://www.footprintnetwork.org/en/index.php/GFN/page/world_footprint. Accessed 11 February 2009.Global Industry Analysts Inc. (2008) Deodorants: A Global Strategic Business Report. Available at: http://www.strategyr.com/Deodorants_Market_Report.asp. Accessed 8 August 2008.2009) Ecological Intelligence: Knowing the Hidden Impacts of What We Buy. London: Allen Lane.(1982) Farewell to the Working Class: An Essay on Post-Industrial Socialism. London: Pluto Press.(1983) Ecology as Politics. London: Pluto Press.(1985) Paths to Paradise: On the Liberation From Work. London: Pluto Press.(1989) Critique of Economic Reason. London: Verso.(1999) Reclaiming Work: Beyond the Wage-Based Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1999) False Dawn: The Delusions of Global Capitalism. London: Granta Books.(2008) ‘Does choose & book fail to deliver the expected choice to patients? A survey of patients’ experience of outpatient appointment booking’, BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 8 (36). Available at: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=2529277. Accessed 9 January 2009., and (Greenpeace, (n.d.) ‘Where does e-waste end up?’. Available at: http://www.greenpeace.org/international/campaigns/toxics/electronics/where-does-e-waste-end-up. Accessed 6 August 2009.Greenpeace (2005) ‘Toxic tech: Pulling the plug on dirty electronics’. Available at: http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/international/press/reports/toxic-tech-pulling-the-plug-o.pdf. Accessed 30 July 2009.Greenpeace, (2009) ‘Slaughtering the Amazon, summary’. Available at: http://www.greenpeace.org/raw/content/usa/press-center/reports4/slaughtering-the-amazon.pdf. Accessed 5 June 2009.2004) Buying Time and Getting By: The Voluntary Simplicity Movement. New York: State University of New York Press.(2009) ‘Journey to world top emitter — an analysis of the driving forces of China's recent CO2 emissions surge’, Geophysical Research Letters, 36, L04709: doi:10.1029/2008GL036540. http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2008GL036540, , and (1998) ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. London: University of California Press.([Page 235]2007) The New Green Consumer Guide. London: Simon & Schuster.(2006) ‘NHS to fund 40pc of private surgery’, Telegraph.co.uk. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/uknews/1510704/NHS-%27to-fund-40pc-of-private-surgery%27.html. Accessed 5 August 2008.(2008) Criminal Identities and Consumer Culture: Crime, Exclusion and the New Culture of Narcissism. Cullompton, Devon: Willan Publishing., and (2009) ‘US auto sales continued to drop in February’, Advertising Age, March. Available at: http://adage.com/article?article_id=135014. Accessed 4 March 2009.(2003) ‘Downshifting in Britain: A sea change in the pursuit of happiness’, The Australia Institute Discussion Paper No. 58. Available at: http://www.tai.org.au/file.php?file=DP58.pdf. Accessed 29 May 2009.(2003) ‘Downshifting in Australia: A sea-change in the pursuit of happiness’, The Australia Institute Discussion Paper No. 50. Available at: http://www.tai.org.au/documents/downloads/DP50.pdf. Accessed 26 May 2009.and (2005) ‘Wasteful consumption in Australia’, The Australia Institute Discussion Paper No. 77. Available at: http://www.tai.org.au/documents/downloads/DP77.pdf. Accessed 26 May 2009., and (Hankyu Inc. (n.d.) ‘Hankyu Department Stores Inc., Early History’. Available at: http://www.enotes.com/company-histories/hankyu-department-stores-inc/early-history. Accessed 21 April 2008.Hansen, F., Rasmussen, J., Martensen, A. and Tufte, B. (eds) (2002) Children, Advertising, and Media. Copenhagen: Copenhagen Business School Press.2005) China. London: Lonely Planet., , , , , and (2008) Center for Sales, Advertising and Marketing History. Duke University Rare Book, Manuscript, and Special Collections Library. Available at: http://library.duke.edu/digital collections/eaa. Accessed 7 August 2008.(1989) The Condition of Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell.(2003) The New Imperialism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1986) Critique of Commodity Aesthetics: Appearance, Sexuality and Advertising in Capitalist Society. Cambridge: Polity Press.(2008) ‘NHS hospitals can seek sponsors and advertise in fight to attract patients’, The Times, 20 March. Available at: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/life_and_style/health/article3587138.ece. Accessed 4 August 2008.(2008) ‘Primark sacks suppliers over use of child labour’, Timesonline, 16 June. Available at: http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/retailing/article4147524.ece. Accessed 24 June 2008.(2006) ‘The world in 2050: Implications of global growth for carbon emissions and climate change policy’, PriceWaterhouseCoopers. Available at: http://www.pwc.com/extweb/pwcpublications.nsf/docid/DFB54C8AAD6742DB852571F5006DD532/-file/world2050carbon.pdf. Accessed 12 April 2009.(2004) The Real Thing: Truth and Power at the Coca-Cola Company. New York: Random House.(Health Insider (2007) ‘Choose and Book use by GPs falls’. Available at: http://www.e-health-insider.com/news/item.cfm?ID=2636. Accessed 3 March 2009.2008) Green Capitalism: Manufacturing Scarcity in an Age of Abundance. London: Openmute.(2007) ‘The power of persuasion’, Guardian, 21 May: 8.([Page 236]2005) ‘Consumption and Industrial Ecology’, Journal of Industrial Ecology, (19–2): 1–6.(2000) ‘Japanese men smelling of roses’, BBC News Asia-Pacific, 17 April. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/716709.stm. Accessed 8 August 2008.(2007) ‘Arts supremo attacks Brown over funding’, Observer, 8 April. Available at: http://politics.guardian.co.uk/arts/story/0,2052523,00.html. Accessed 10 August 2007.and (1995) Social Limits to Growth. London: Routledge.(1992) The Art and Science of Dumpster Diving. Port Townsend, WA: Loompanics Unlimited.(2005) ‘An interview with Juliet Schor’, Journal of Consumer Culture, 5 (5): 5–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1469540505049847(Hoover Institution (2006) ‘Facts on policy: Consumer spending’. Available at: http://www.hoover.org/research/factsonpolicy/facts/4931661.html. Accessed 11 September 2008.2008) ‘Credit crunch: Lowest ever consumer confidence’, Guardian, 9 July. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2008/jul/09/creditcrunch.economics. Accessed 30 July 2008.(1940) ‘The concept of consumers’ sovereignty’, Economic Journal, 50 (197): 66–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2225739(2005) ‘Household debt and income inequality, 1963–2003’, Economics Department, Working Papers in Economics, Boston College, pp. 1–43. Available at: http://escholarship.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1173&context=econ_papers. Accessed 28 November 2008.(IIAR (2008) ‘Compulsive shopping and spending’, Illinois Institute for Addiction Recovery. Available at: http://www.addictionrecov.org/spendaddict.aspx. Accessed 9 December 2008.1985) Tools for Conviviality. London: Marion Boyars.(Interbrand, (2008) Best Global Brands 2008. Available at: http://www.interbrand.com/images/BGB_reports/BGB_2008_EURO_Format.pdf. Accessed 15 March 2009. pp. 1–85.International Air Transport Association (IATA) (2008) ‘Economic briefing: The impact of recession on air traffic volumes’. Available at: http://www.iata.org/NR/rdonlyres/7E25AD13-E0AD-4166-ABD8-CFA192D51AB4/0/IATA_Economics_Briefing_Impact_of_Recession_Dec08.pdf. Accessed 28 February 2009.International Cooperative Alliance (n.d.) Available at: http://www.ica.coop/coop/index.html. Accessed 9 June 2009.International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD) (1999) ‘Ten hot SD issues for the Millennium’, Developing Ideas Digest Issues, January/February http://www.iisd.org/didigest/jan99/default.htm. Accessed 18 August 2008.International Monetary Fund (2009) ‘World economic outlook’. Available at: http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/survey/so/2009/RES012809A.html. Accessed 13 February 2009.International Scientific Congress (2009) ‘Climate change: Global risks, challenges and decisions’, University of Copenhagen, 10–12 March. Available at: http://climatecongress.ku.dk/newsroom/congress_key_messages. Accessed 20 March 2009.IOC Athens (2004) ‘Marketing report’. Available at: http://www.olympic.org/uk/organisation/facts/introduction/100years_uk.asp. Accessed 3 October 2008.2001) ‘Painting South Africa red’. Available at: http://www.brandchannel.com/features_effect.asp?fa_id=40. Accessed 18 September 2008.(2008a) ‘The challenge of sustainable lifestyles’, in L.Starke (ed.), State of the World 2008: Special Focus — Innovations for a Sustainable Economy. A Worldwatch Institute Report. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 45–60.(2008b) ‘What politicians dare not say’, New Scientist Special Issue The Folly of Growth, 200 (2678): 42–3.([Page 237]2009) Prosperity Without Growth? The Transition to a Sustainable Economy. London: Sustainable Development Commission. Available at: http://www.sd-commission.org.uk/publications/downloads/prosperity_without_growth_report.pdf. Accessed 31 March 2009.(1991) Postmodernism, Or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism. London: Verso.(2008) ‘Kraft reformulates Oreo, scores in China’, The Wall Street Journal, 1 May. Available at: http://s.wsj.net/article/SB120958152962857053.html. Accessed 16 September 2008.(1999) Cathedrals of Consumption: The European Department Store 1850–1939. Aldershot: Ashgate.and (2008) ‘In banks we trust should not be the mantra for 2009’, Guardian, 31 December: 29.(2000) ‘Advertising at the edge of the apocalypse’, in R.Anderson and L.Strate (eds), Critical Studies in Media Commercialism. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 27–39.(‘Trends in inequality using consumer expenditures: 1960–1993’, Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/ore/pdf/st950100.pdf. Accessed 20 February 2009.and (n.d.)2003–2005) ‘Intolerable beauty: Portraits of American mass consumption’. Available at: http://www.chrisjordan.com. Accessed 21 March 2008.(2006–2009) ‘Running the Numbers: An American self-portrait’. Available at: http://www.chrisjordan.com. Accessed 12 June 2009.(2007) ‘Running the numbers an interview by Nicole Pasulka’, Morning News, 23 July. Available at: http://www.themorningnews.org/archives/galleries/running_the_numbers/11rtn.php. Accessed 12 March 2008.(2009) ‘Running the numbers II: Portraits of global mass culture’. Available at: http://www.chrisjordan.com/current_set2.php?id=9. Accessed 15 May 2009.(Just-auto, (2009) ‘UK: West European car sales plunged 25.4% in January’. Available at: http://www.just-auto.com/article.aspx?id=97898. Accessed 4 March 2009.2005) ‘China's consumer market: Opportunities and risk’, Deloitte Research. Available at: http://www.bglegis.com/China_Consumer.pdf. Accessed 29 September 2008.(2007) ‘China & India: Comparing the world's hottest consumer markets’, Deloitte Consumer Business. Available at: http://www.deloitte.com/dtt/cda/doc/content/China%20and%20India_July%202007.pdf. Accessed 29 September 2008.(2002) ‘Water profiteers’, India Resource Center, 28 May. Available at: http://www.indiaresource.org/issues/water/2003/waterprofiteers.html. Accessed 23 September 2008.(2007) Planet India: The Turbulent Rise of the World's Largest Democracy. London: Pocket Books.(2008) ‘The gospel of consumption and the better future we left behind’, Orion Magazine, May/June. Available at: http://www.orionmagazine.org/index.php/articles/article/2962. Accessed 28 April 2009.(2009) ‘Shifting values in response to climate change’, in L.Starke (ed.), State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World. A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 122–5.(2004) ‘Coca-Cola India’, Tuck School of Business, Dartmouth College. Available at: http://mba.tuck.dartmouth.edu/pdf/2004-1-0085.pdf. Accessed 23 September 2008.and (2004) ‘Advertising industry and culture in post-WTO China’, Media International Australia, 111 (5): 104–17.and (1992) ‘Popular culture and the construction of postmodern identities’, in S.Lash and J.Friedman (eds), Modernity and Identity. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 141–77.([Page 238]2007) ‘Best global brands’, Special Report, Business Week, 6 August: 56–64. Available at: http://www.ourfishbowl.com/images/press_releases/businessweek_bgb07_article.pdf. Accessed 4 March 2008.(2001) NoLogo. London: Flamingo.(2007) The Shock Doctrine: The Rise of Disaster Capitalism. London: Allen Lane.(2006) ‘Estimated prevalence of compulsive buying behavior in the United States’, American Journal of Psychiatry, 163 (October): 1806–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.10.1806, , , and (1985) The Mailing of America: An Inside Look at the Great Consumer Paradise. New York: William Morrow & Company.(1993) ‘Critic's notebook: On remembered joys of the LP recording’, New York Times, 12 July. Available at: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE7D61 F38F931A25754C0A965958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Accessed 19 September 2008.(Labour Behind the Label (n.d.) Available at: http://www.labourbehindthelabel.org. Accessed 15 April 2008.2000) The Loss of Happiness in Market Democracies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(2008) ‘Fun, games and money, the business of sport’, The Economist, 31 July. Available at: http://www.economist.com/specialreports/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11825627. Accessed 1 October 2008.(1994) Economies of Signs and Space. London: Sage.and (2007) ‘War over school boundaries divides Brighton’, Guardian, 1 March. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2007/mar/01/schooladmissions. topstories3. Accessed 1 August 2008.and (2003) ‘Happiness: Has social science a clue?’, Lionel Robbins Memorial Lectures 2002/3’, 3–5 March, London School of Economics. Available at: http://cep.lse.ac.uk/events/lectures/layard/RL030303.pdf. Accessed 15 December 2008.(2005) Happiness: Lessons From A New Science. London: Allen Lane.(1989) ‘Strategists of display and the production of desire’, in S.J.Bronner (ed.), Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America 1880–1920. London: W.W. Norton, pp. 99–132.(1993) Land of Desire: Merchants, Power, and the Rise of a New American Culture. New York: Pantheon Books.(2009) ‘I'm a planet-saving kinda guy: Interview with Tony Blair’, Sunday Times, 5 July: 5.(1989) ‘Beyond Veblen: Rethinking consumer culture in America’, in S.J.Bronner (ed.), Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America 1880–1920. London: W.W. Norton, pp. 73–97.(1955) ‘Price competition in 1955’, Journal of Retailing, XXXI (1): 5–10.(2005) Social Communication in Advertising: Consumption in the Mediated Marketplace,, , and (3rd edn.Abingdon: Routledge.2007) Not Buying It: My Year Without Shopping. London: Pocket Books.(1983) ‘The globalization of markets’, Harvard Business Review, 61 (5–6): 92–102.(2006a) ‘Not safe in their hands’, Red Pepper, March. Available at: http://www.redpepper.org.uk. Accessed 8 June 2006.(2006b) ‘The great NHS “deficits” con’, Red Pepper, May. Available at: http://www.redpepper.org.uk/toc/x-may2006-toc.html. Accessed 8 June 2006.([Page 239]1995) ‘Birth of the Kettering doctrine: Fordism, Sloanism and the discovery of tetraethyl lead’, Business and Economic History, 24 (1): 72–87. Available at: http://www.h-net.org/~business/bhcweb/publications/BEHprint/v024n1/p0072-p0087.pdf. Accessed 5 May 2009.(London Greenpeace (1998) ‘“What's wrong with the Body Shop?” Campaign leaflet’, Available at: http://www.mcspotlight.org/beyond/companies/bodyshop.html. Accessed 1 March 2009.2000) ‘Economic stagnation set to continue in Japan’, World Socialist Web Site. Available at: http://www.wsws.org/articles/2000/jun2000/jap-j03.shtml. Accessed 1 May 2009.(2009) ‘Climate change's pressures on biodiversity’, in L.Starke (ed.), State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World. A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 67–70.(2009) The Vanishing Face of Gaia. London: Allen Lane.(1999) ‘A road map for natural capitalism’, Harvard Business Review, 77 (3): 145–58. Available at: http://www.natcap.org/images/other/HBR-RMINatCap.pdf. Accessed 22 May 2009., and (2005) ‘Ruminations on smell as a sociocultural phenomenon’, Current Sociology, 53 (3): 397–417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011392105051333(1941) The American Century. New York: Farrar & Rinehart.(1999) Turbo Capitalism: Winners & Losers in the Global Economy. London: Orion Business Books.(1993) Political Writings. London: UCL Press.(1984) The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Manchester: Manchester University Press.(2009) ‘BP sheds 620 jobs at solar power business’, Guardian, 2 April: 26.(2009) ‘China's exports slide as global crisis extends its reach’, The Times, 12 March: 53.(Macy's Inc. (n.d.) ‘Macy's: A History’. Available at: http://www.macysinc.com/company/his_macys.asp. Accessed 21 April 2008.2008) ‘Tata: a growing global giant’, BBC News. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/7313059.stm. Accessed 24 April 2008.(1999) Global Sport: Identities, Societies, Civilizations. Cambridge: Polity Press.(Mail Online, (2007) ‘Model figures: Kate Moss helps Topshop lift sales by 10%’. Available at: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-489645/Model-figures-Kate-Moss-helps-Topshop-lift-sales-10.html. Accessed 29 August 2008.2001) Financial Globalisation and the Opening of the Japanese Economy. London: Routledge.(2008) ‘The digital shop window: Gimmick or godsend?’, Screens.tv. Available at: http://www.screens.tv/article/1139/The_digital_shop_window:_gimmick_or_god send%3F.html. Accessed 29 August 2008.(2002) ‘In search of consumptive resistance: The voluntary simplicity movement’, in T.Princen, M.Maniates and K.Conca (eds), Confronting Consumption. London: MIT Press. pp. 195–235.(1968) One Dimensional Man: The Ideology of Industrial Society. London: Sphere Books.(2007) ‘Interest in “going green” fuels big oil attempts to look eco-friendly’, The Panelist, 24 August. Available at: http://thepanelist.com/Hot_Topics/Alternative_Energy/_20070824536. Accessed 7 March 2009.([Page 240]2003) ‘Burgers on the brain’, New Scientist, 177 (2380). Available at: http://www.organicconsumers.org/foodsafety/fastfood032103.cfm#burgers. Accessed 11 August 2008.(1963) The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. New York: International Publishers Co. Inc.(1973[1857–8]) Grundrisse: Foundations of the Critique of Political Economy, translated with a Foreword by MartinNicolaus. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1976) Collected Works, Volume 5, 1845–1847. London: Lawrence and Wishart.and (1968) The Communist Manifesto. Harmondsworth: Penguin.and (2004) The Marketing of Unhealthy Food to Children in Europe, a report of Phase 1 of the ‘Children, obesity and associated avoidable diseases’ project, Belgium: European Heart Network. pp. 1–21. Available at: http://www.ehnheart.org/files/English-141257A.pdf. Accessed 23 April 2009., , , and (1998) ‘Consumption of materials in the United States, 1900–1995’, Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, 23: 107–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/energy.1998.23.issue-1and (2004) Shanghai. London: Lonely Planet.(1999) ‘Noam Chomsky and the struggle against neoliberalism’, Monthly Review, April. Available at: http://www.chomsky.info/onchomsky/19990401.html. Accessed 7 February 2009.(McDonald's (2008) ‘Canada 2008 FAQs’. Available at: http://www.mcdonalds.ca/en/aboutus/faq.aspx. Accessed 15 September 2008.2008) ‘The hidden face of Primark’, Observer, 22 June. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/jun/22/india.humanrights. Accessed 24 June 2008.(1983) The Birth of a Consumer Society: The Commercialization of Eighteenth Century England. London: Hutchinson., and (1999) The Kids Market: Myths and Realities. Ithaca, NY: Paramount Market Publishing.(1998) The Eatons: The Rise and Fall of Canada's Royal Family. Toronto: Stoddart Publishing.(Medical News Today (2009) ‘Doctors still having problems with choose and book, British Medical Association research shows’. Available at: http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/136841.php. Accessed 3 March 2009.2001) ‘Theocracy in America: What gentile life in Mormon Utah can teach us about church and state’, Washington Monthly, April. Available at: http://www.washington-monthly.com/features/2001/0104.mencimer.html. Accessed 21 April 2008.(2008) ‘The mall of America’, http://Washingtonpost.com, 21 February: A15. Available at: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/02/20/AR2008022002269.html. Accessed 23 April 2008.(1998) Consumerism as a Way of Life. London: Sage.(1997) ‘Mobilizing the consumer: Assembling the subject of consumption’, Theory, Culture and Society, 14 (1): 1–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327697014001001and (1996) Human Action, Bettina B Greaves. Irvington: Foundation for Economic Education. Available at: http://www.mises.org/humanaction/chap15sec4.asp. Accessed 18 July 2008.(2006) ‘CEO-to-worker imbalance grows’, Economic Snapshots, Economic Policy Institute. Available at: http://www.epi.org/content.cfm/webfeatures_snapshots_20060621. Accessed 4 March 2008.(2006/2007) The State of Working America. Economic Policy Institute. New York: Cornell University Press., and ([Page 241]2007) Thorstein Veblen's Contribution to Environmental Sociology: Essays in the Political Ecology of Wasteful Industrialism. New York: Mellen Press.(2001) ‘Thorstein Veblen: Pioneer in environmental sociology’, Organization and Environment, 4 (14): 89–408.(Modern Advertising (2007) Available at: http://english.maad.com.cn/content.asp?articleid=100#. Accessed 6 August 2008.2000) The Captive State: The Corporate Takeover of Britain. London: Macmillan.(2006) Heat. London: Allen Lane.(2007) ‘Eco-junk’, Guardian, 24 July. Available at: http://www.monbiot.com/archives/2007/07/24/eco-junk. Accessed 2 February 2009.(2008) ‘This is what denial does’, Guardian, 14 October. Available at: http://www.monbiot.com/archives/2008/10/14/this-is-what-denial-does. Accessed 18 March 2009.(2009) ‘Scrap it’, Guardian, 10 March. Available at: http://www.monbiot.com/archives/2009/03/10/scrap-it. Accessed 18 March 2009.(1997) ‘The logic of neo-liberalism and the political economy of consumer-debt led growth’, in S.Lee and S.McBride (eds), Neo-Liberalism, State Power and Global Governance. Dordrecht: Springer, pp. 157–72.(2009) ‘Goodbye GM’, Huffington Post. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/michael-moore/goodbye-gm_b_209603.html. Accessed 5 June 2009.(2008) ‘Sorry Asia, you smell: the not-so-subtle ploy to sell three billion deodorants’, The Times, 26 May: 5.(2006) ‘Landfill crisis: What a waste’, Independent, 22 January. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/landfill-crisis-what-a-waste-524082.html. Accessed 13 May 2009.(2003) ‘Mecca Cola challenges US rival’, BBC News Online, 8 January. Available at: http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/2640259.stm. Accessed 10 September 2008.(2007) ‘Happiness’. Available at: http://www.davidmyers.org/Brix?pageID=48. Accessed 11 November 2008.(2006) ‘Fueled by developing Asia, global economy continues to expand’. Eco-Economy Indicators, Earth Policy Institute 12 October. Available at: http://www.earth-policy.org/index.php?/indicators/C53/. Accessed 3 July 2009.(2008) ‘The limits of growth — Part II’, Yale Global Online, 24 November. Available at: http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=11645. Accessed 27 March 2009. pp. 1–4.(2007) ‘Consuming interests: Water, rum, and Coca-Cola from ritual propitiation to corporate expropriation in Highland Chiapas’, Cultural Anthropology, 22 (4): 621–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/can.2007.22.issue-4(Nationwide (2009) ‘Nationwide consumer confidence index in partnership with TNS’, January. Available at: http://www.nationwide.co.uk/NR/rdonlyres/E7FABB29-D8E94D3D-8FAB-C0ABD2F3F0A2/0/January_NCCI_4February2008.pdf. Accessed 3 March 2009.Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (2007) ‘Global CO2 emissions: increase continued in 2007’. Available at: http://www.pbl.nl/en/publications/2008/Global CO2emissionsthrough2007.html. Accessed 2 June 2009.New York Times (2006) ‘Coca-Cola Profit up 10% on Strength in Overseas Markets’, 20 April, Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/20/business/20cokehtml. Accessed 2 July 2009.New Scientist (2008) The Folly of Growth: Special Issue, 200 (2678).NHS Direct (n.d.) ‘Patient Choice’. Available at: http://www.nhsdirect.nhs.uk/articles/article.aspx?articleId=572. Accessed 5 August 2008.2008) ‘Consumer confidence, concerns and spending intentions: A global Nielsen consumer report’. Available at: http://www2.acnielsen.com/reports/index_consumer.shtml. Accessed 30 May 2008.([Page 242]2007) Break Through: From the Death of Environmentalism to the Politics of Possibility. New York: Houghton Mifflin.and (2006) ‘Dinner has come so far it has put the climate in danger’, The Times, 21 July: 28.(Ofcom, (2004) Child Obesity — Food Advertising in Context. Available at: http://www.ofcom.org.uk/research/tv/reports/food_ads/report.pdf. Accessed 22 August 2008.2006) The Challenge of Affluence: Self-Control and Well-Being in the United States and Britain since 1950. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(Olympic Sponsorship (n.d.) ‘TOP Programme: Coca-Cola’. Available at: http://www.olympic.org/uk/organisation/facts/programme/coke_uk.asp. Accessed 1 October 2008.2003) ‘US and British consumer confidence hit new lows’, Irish Examiner, 29 March. Available at: http://archives.tcm.ie/irishexaminer/2003/03/29/story489194688.asp. Accessed 30 July 2008.(Optimum Population Trust (n.d.) Available at: http://www.optimumpopulation.org. Accessed 25 March 2009.1960) The Hidden Persuaders. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1963) The Waste Makers. Harmondsworth: Pelican Books.(2009) ‘Green energy feels the chill in harsh economic climate’, The Times, 11 April: 34–5.(2008) ‘The end of credit card consumerism’, US http://News.com, Business & Economy. Available at: http://www.usnews.com/articles/business/economy/2008/08/08/the-end-of-credit-card-consumerism.html. Accessed 10 February 2009.(2005) John Kenneth Galbraith: His Life, His Politics, His Economics. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(2002) ‘Could automative processor obsolescence be history?’, Xilinx, White Paper (v1.0), 25 October. Available at: http://www.xilinx.com/bvdocs/whitepapers/wp169.pdf. Accessed 9 December 2008.(2002) ‘Wealth distribution — the evidence’, Institute for Public Policy Research, Centre for Asset-based Welfare — Evidence Report. Available at: http://www.ippr.org.uk/uploadedFiles/projects/Wealth%20Distribution.pdf. Accessed 28 February 2008.(2006) When the Rivers Run Dry: Water — The Defining Crisis of the Twenty-First Century. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.(2000) For God, Country and Coca-Cola: The Definitive History of The Great American Soft Drink and The Company That Makes It. New York: Basic Books.(1922) Post-industrialism. London: Allen and Unwin.(1993) ‘Retrospectives — consumer sovereignty’, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7 (1): 183–91.(Pew Research Center (2006) ‘Luxury or necessity? Things we can't live without: The list has grown in the past decade’, Pew Research Center: A Social Trends Report. Available at: http://pewresearch.org/assets/social/pdf/Luxury.pdf. Accessed 12 November 2008.Philo, G. and Miller, D. (eds) (2001) Market Killing: What the Free Market Does and What Social Scientists Can Do About It. London: Longman.2001) The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.(2007) Interview. Available at: http://www.smartplanet.com/news/people/10000120/interview-consume-less-live-better-says-jonathon-porritt.html. Accessed 10 June 2008.(2009) ‘Political policies for a sustainable future’, Environmentally Sustainable Populations Conference: The scientific case for population policy, Optimum Population Trust, 26 March. Available at: http://www.optimumpopulation.org/opt.events.html. Accessed 24 July 2009.([Page 243]2002) ‘Consumption and its externalities: Where economy meets ecology’, in T.Princen, M.Maniates and K.Conca (eds), Confronting Consumption. London: MIT Press. pp. 23–42.(Princen, T., Maniates, M. and Conca, K. (eds) (2002) Confronting Consumption. London: MIT Press.2006) ‘Distance travelled in the NHS in England for inpatient treatment’, Centre for Market and Public Organisation Working Paper Series No. 06/162, Bristol Institute of Public Affairs, University of Bristol. Available at: http://www.bristol.ac.uk/cmpo/publications/papers/2006/wp162.pdf. Accessed 9 January 2008., , and (1987) ‘Did Henry Ford pay efficiency wages?’, Journal of Labor Economics, 5 (4): 57–86. Part 2, The New Economics of Personnel. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/jole.1987.5.issue-S4and (2000) ‘Productivity and the workweek’. Available at: http://swiss.csail.mit.edu/~rauch/worktime. Accessed 5 June 2008.(2004) ‘Moving towards a less consumptive economy’, in L.Starke (ed.), State of the World 2004: Progress Towards a Sustainable Society. A Worldwatch Institute Report. London: Earthscan. pp. 96–119.(2009) ‘Global auto industry in crisis’, Worldwatch Institute, 18 May. Available at: http://webmail.port.ac.uk/gw/webacc?action=Item.Read&User.context=on 2hrbQh7li6jkaJu1&Item.drn=20832z2z0&merge=msgitem&Url.Folder.type=Folder. UNIVERSAL. Accessed 22 May 2009.(2007) ‘The predicaments of plenty: Interwar intellectuals and American consumerism’, The Journal of American Culture, 30 (1): 54–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jacc.2007.30.issue-1(2008) Improving Access to Medicines for NHS Patients. A Report for the Secretary of State for Health. Available at: http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_089927. Accessed 9 January 2009.(2009) ‘Britain's biggest shopping centres: A story in data’, The Times Magazine, 14 February: 27.and (1995) Expressing America: A Critique of the Global Credit Card Society. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.(1998) The McDonaldization Thesis: Explorations and Extensions. London: Sage.(2005) Enchanting A Disenchanting World: Revolutionizing the Means of Consumption,(2nd edn.London: Pine Forge Press.2007) ‘You can almost hear it pop’, New York Times, 16 December. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/16/opinion/16roach.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Accessed 10 September 2008.(1999) Global Problems and the Culture of Capitalism. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.(1990) ‘Mapping the global condition: Globalization as the central concept’, Theory, Culture and Society, 7 (2–3): 15–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327690007002002(2001) ‘Globalization theory 2000+: Major problematics’, in G.Ritzer and B.Smart (eds), Handbook of Social Theory. London: Sage, pp. 458–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781848608351(2004) ‘The consumerist syndrome in contemporary society: An interview with Zygmunt Bauman’, Journal of Consumer Culture, 4 (3): 291–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1469540504046516(2008) Clothing: A Global History. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1972) Where the Wasteland Ends: Politics and Transcendence in Post-Industrial Society. New York: Doubleday.([Page 244]2001) Money, Economy and State: A Treatise on Economic Principles. Auburn, AL: The Ludwig von Mises Institute.(2008) ‘The coming financial pandemic, National Post, 5 March. Available at: http://www.nationalpost.com/news/story.html?id=350930. Accessed 10 September 2008.(2005) First in Thirst: How Gatorade Turned the Science of Sweat into a Cultural Phenomenon. New York: Amacom Books.(2006) ‘Investors fret about nike's star endorsements’, MSN Money. Available at: http://articles.moneycentral.msn.com/Investing/CNBC/TVReports/NikeStarEndorsements.aspx. Accessed 15 August 2008.(1997) Stuff: The Secret Lives of Everyday Things, NEW Report No. 4. Seattle, WA: Northwest Environment Watch.and (2007) Consumer Culture: History, Theory and Politics. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212684(2009) ‘The implications of population growth and urbanization for climate change’, Environment and Urbanization, 21 (2): 545–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956247809344361(2005) ‘Addressing sustainability and consumption’, Journal of Macromarketing, 25 (1): 76–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0276146705274987and (2009) ‘Farming and land use to cool the planet’, in L.Starke (ed.), State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World. A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 30–50.and (1989) ‘Country stores, county fairs, and mail-order catalogues: Consumption in rural America’, in S.J.Bronner (ed.), Consuming Visions: Accumulation and Display of Goods in America 1880–1920. London: W.W. Norton, pp. 339–75.(2001) Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All American Meal. London: Allen Lane.(2007) ‘Making smoking history worldwide’, Harvard Public Health Review, Spring/Summer. Available at: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/review/spring07/spr07tobacco.html. Accessed 13 August 2008.(1992) The Overworked American: The Unexpected Decline of Leisure. New York: Basic Books.(1995) A Sustainable Economy for the 21st Century. New York: Seven Stories Press.(1998) The Overspent American: Why We Want What We Don't Need. NewYork: Basic Books.(2002) ‘Understanding the new consumerism: Inequality, emulation and the erosion of well-being’. Available at: http://webhost.ua.ac.be/psw/pswpapers/PSWpaper%202002-02%20schor.pdf. Accessed 13 March 2009.(2004a) Born to Buy: The Commercialized Child and the New Consumer Culture. NewYork: Scribner.(2004b) ‘The politics of consumption: An interview with Denis Soron’, Aurora Online. Available at: http://aurora.icaap.org/index.php/aurora/article/view/13/24. Accessed 7 April 2009.(2005) ‘Prices and quantities: Unsustainable consumption and the global economy’, Ecological Economics, 55 (3): 309–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.07.030(2007) ‘US consumer credit rises in August’, MarketWatch. Available at: http://www.marketwatch.com/news/story/economic-report-us-consumer-credit/story.aspx?guid=%7B68E0E9B6-9CFB-4192-8188-C601EDB2DAA2%7D. Accessed 11 September 2008.(1973) Small is Beautiful: Economics as if People Mattered. New York: Harper & Row.(1954) ‘The crisis of the tax state’, International Economic Papers, 4: 5–38.([Page 245]1975) Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy. New York: Harper.(2005) The Paradox of Choice: Why More Is Less. New York: Harper Perennial.(2002) ‘America's consumption trap’, New America Foundation, 31 August. Available at: http://www.newamerica.net/publications/policy/americas_consumption_trap. Accessed 10 September 2008.(2006) ‘The scramble for schools’. Guardian, g2, 14 March. pp. 6–9.(2005) ‘From department store to shopping mall: New research in the transnational history of large-scale retail’, Economic History Yearbook. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. pp. 9–16.(2001) ‘Street and office: Two sources of identity’, in W.Hutton and A.Giddens (eds), On the Edge: Living with Global Capitalism. London: Vintage.(2005) ‘Behind consumption and consumerism: Effects of consumerism’. Available at: http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Consumption.asp. Accessed 30 July 2008.(2006) ‘Behind consumption and consumerism: Obesity’. Available at: http://www.globalissues.org/TradeRelated/Consumption/Obesity.asp. Accessed 31 July 2008.(2008a) ‘Children as consumers’. Available at: http://www.globalissues.org/article/237/children-as-consumers#Advertisingtochildrenisbigbusiness. Accessed 30 April 2009.(2008b) ‘Consumption and consumerism’. Available at: http://www.globalissues.org/issue/235/consumption-and-consumerism. Accessed 10 October 2008.(2008c) ‘World military spending’. Available at: http://www.globalissues.org/article/75/world-military-spending. Accessed 9 December 2008.(2006) ‘Heaven knows I'm miserable now’, Marketing Theory, 6 (4): 485–505. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1470593106069933, and (2007) Material Culture in America: Understanding Everyday Life. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.and (2009) ‘School admission figures show 92,000 children missing out on first choice’, Guardian, 12 March. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/education/2009/mar/12/school-admissions-first-choice. Accessed 14 March 2009.(2007) ‘McDonald's goes slow in China franchising’, International Herald Tribune, 7 February. Available at: http://www.iht.com/articles/2007/02/07/bloomberg/sxmcdo.php. Accessed 18 September 2008.(2005) The Chinese Century: The Rising Chinese Economy and Its Impact on the Global Economy, the Balance of Power, and Your Job. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Wharton School Publishing/Pearson Education Inc.(1998) ‘Inconspicuous Consumption: The Sociology of Consumption and the Environment’, published by the Department of Sociology, Lancaster University, http://www.comp.lancs.ac.uk/sociology/papers/Shove-Warde-Inconspicuous-Consumption.pdf.and (2008) ‘More time or more stuff’. Available at: http://www.sierraclub.org/sustainable_consumption/downloads/MoreTimeMoreStuff.pdf. Accessed 11 November 2008.(2006) The UK Interdependence Report: How the World Sustains the Nation's Lifestyles and the Price it Pays. London: New Economics Foundation. Available at: http://www.neweconomics.org/gen/uploads/f2abwpumbr1-wp055y2l10s5514042006174517.pdf. Accessed 22 February 2009., and , (2009) The Consumption Explosion. The Third UK Interdependence Report, London, New Economics Foundation, http://www.neweconomics.org/gen/uploads/qxva43auphuy4x45yk433355240922009112524.pdf., , and (2002) Globalization: Capitalism and Its Alternatives. Oxford: Oxford University Press.([Page 246]2007) ‘Which drives the economy: Consumer spending or saving/investment?’, Initiative for Policy Dialogue. Available at: http://www2.gsb.columbia.edu/ipd/j_gdp.html. Accessed 2 December 2008.(2007) ‘Waste: Commentary: Ten thousand songs in your pocket. Ten thousand years in a landfill’, Mother Jones, March/April. Available at: http://www.motherjones.com/commentary/columns/2007/03/iwaste.html. Accessed 19 August 2008.(2006) Made to Break: Technology and Obsolescence in America. London: Harvard University Press.(1997) Consumer, Culture and Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1992) Modern Conditions, Postmodern Controversies. London: Routledge.(Smart, B. (ed.) (1999) Resisting McDonaldization. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/97814462176272002) ‘Accounting for anxiety: Economic and cultural imperatives transforming university life’, in D.Hayes and R.Wynyard (eds), The McDonaldization of Higher Education. London: Bergin and Garvey. pp. 43–56.(2003) Economy, Culture and Society: A Sociological Critique of Neo-Liberalism. Buckingham: Open University Press.(2005) The Sport Star: The Cultural Economy of Sporting Celebrity. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446215630(2007a) ‘(Dis)interring postmodernism, or a critique of the political economy of consumer choice’, in J.Powell and T.Owen (eds), Reconstructing Postmodernism: Critical Debates. New York: Nova Science Publishers. pp. 167–86.(2007b) ‘Not playing around: Global capitalism, modern sport and consumer culture’, Global Networks, 7 (2): 113–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/glob.2007.7.issue-2(2009) ‘Made in America: The unsustainable all-consuming global free-market “utopia”’, in P.Hayden and C.el-Ojeili (eds), Globalization and Utopia. London: Palgrave. pp. 157–83.(1976) An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, edited by R.H.Campbell, A.S.Skinner and W.B.Todd, Oxford: Clarendon Press.(2007) ‘Stop shopping … or the planet will go pop’, The Observer, Sunday 8 April. p. 8. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2007/apr/08/greenpolitics.observerpolitics. Accessed 14 August 2008.(2007) ‘Sales of music, long in decline, plunge sharply’, The Wall Street Journal, 21 March. Available at: http://online.wsj.com/article/SB117444575607043728.html?mod=home_whats_news_us. Accessed 19 August 2008.(2006) ‘Effects of alcohol advertising on drinking among youth’, Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine. 160: 18–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.160.1.18, , , and (2007a) ‘Re-thinking the good life: The citizenship dimension of consumer disaffection with consumerism’, Journal of Consumer Culture, 7 (2): 205–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1469540507077681(2007b) ‘The other pleasures of post-consumerism’, Soundings, 35 (March): 31–40. Available at: http://www.lwbooks.co.uk/journals/articles/soper.html. Accessed 23 October 2008.(2008a) Paper to Sustainable Development Commission Meeting on ‘Living well (within limits) — exploring the relationship between growth and wellbeing’, 24 July. Available at: http://www.sd-commission.org.uk/publications/downloads/kate_soper_thinkpiece.pdf. Accessed 3 April 2009.(2008b) ‘“Alternative hedonism” and the citizen-consumer’, in K.Soper and F.Trentmann (eds), Citizenship and Consumption. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 191–205.(2009) ‘Introduction: The mainstreaming of counter-consumerist concern’, in K.Soper, M.Ryle and L.Thomas (eds), The Politics and Pleasures of Consuming Differently. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 1–21.([Page 247]2006) ‘“Alternative hedonism” and the critique of “consumerism”’, Cultures of Consumption Working Papers Series. Available at: http://www.consume.bbk.ac.uk/working_papers/SoperAHWorkingPaperrevised.doc. Accessed 6 November 2008.and (2008) The New Paradigm for Financial Markets: The Credit Crisis of 2008 And What It Means. New York: Public Affairs.(2009) ‘The rebound effect: Mechanisms, evidence, and implication’, UK Energy Research Centre, 4CMR University of Cambridge, 14 May. Available at: http://www.landecon.cam.ac.uk/research/eeprg/4cmr/news/pdf/Rebound_Steve%20Sorrell.pdf. Accessed 1 June 2009.(2007) ‘China pays steep price as textile exports boom’, Wall Street Journal Online, 22 August: A1. Available at: http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB118580938555882301.html. Accessed 27 August 2007.(2008) ‘Coca-Cola continues unethical and dishonest practices in India’, India Resource Center, 12 September. Available at: http://www.indiaresource.org/campaigns/coke/2008/kaladeraunethical.html. Accessed 25 September 2008.(Starke, L. (ed.) (2004) State of the World: Progress Towards A Sustainable Society. A Worldwatch Institute Report. London: Earthscan.Starke, L. (ed.) (2008) State of the World 2008: Special Focus — Innovations for a Sustainable Economy. A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. New York: W.W. Norton.Starke, L. (ed.) (2009) State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World. A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. New York: W.W. Norton.2001) Consumerism in World History: The Global Transformation of Desire. London: Routledge.(2007) Stern Review: The Economics of Climate Change, Executive Summary. Available at: http://www.gruene.ch/d/pdf/klima_stern_report.pdf. Accessed 12 April 2009.(2002) Globalization and Its Discontents. London: Penguin.(1924) ‘Things are in the saddle’, Atlantic Monthly, November: 577–88.(2009) Waste: Uncovering the Global Food Scandal. London: Penguin.(Sustainable Consumption Roundtable (2006) I Will If You Will: Towards Sustainable Consumption. London: Sustainable Development Commission. Available at: http://www.sd-commission.org.uk/publications/downloads/I_Will_If_You_WiU.pdf. Accessed 12 March 2009.2000) Advertising and the Mind of the Consumer,and (2nd edn.London: Kogan Page.1995) ‘Note on the trash crisis’, National Pollution Prevention Center for Higher Education, University of Michigan. Available at: http://www.umich.edu/~nppcpub/resources/compendia/CORPpdfs/CORPtrash.pdf. Accessed 13 May 2009.(1990) ‘Advertising in China: Viability and structure’, European Journal of Marketing, 24 (10): 19–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/03090569010140679(2008) ‘A new bottom line for progress’, in L.Starke (ed.), State of the World 2008: Special Focus — Innovations for a Sustainable Economy. AWorldwatch Institute Report. NewYork: W.W. Norton. pp. 18–31.(1999) The Waste Crisis: Landfills, Incinerators and the Search for a Sustainable Future. New York: Oxford University Press.(Teel, S.J. (ed.) (2000) ‘Economic impact of the Coca-Cola system on China’, Peking University, Tsinghua University and University of South Carolina. Available at: http://mooreschool.sc.edu/export/sites/default/moore/research/presentstudy/Coca-Cola/China/china.full.aug.pdf. Accessed 25 September 2008.[Page 248]Telegraph.co.uk (2007) ‘Thousands join queue to dress like Kate’. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/fashion/main.jhtml?xml=/fashion/2007/05/01/ efmoss01.xml. Accessed 28 August 2008.The Body Shop (n.d.) (2008) http://www/thebodyshop.co.uk/_en_gb/services/affiliates.aspx. Accessed 6 March 2009.The Climate Group Report (2009) Technology for a Low Carbon Future. Available at: http://www.theclimategroup.org/assets/resources/Technology_for_a_low_carbon_future_report.pdf. Accessed 28 July 2009.The Conference Board (2008) ‘The consumer confidence press release’. Available at: http://www.conference-board.org/economics/ConsumerConfidence.cfm. Accessed 2 December 2008.The Conference Board (2009) ‘The consumer confidence press release’. Available at: http://www.conference-board.org/economics/ConsumerConfidence.cfm. Accessed 3 March 2009.The Economist (2008) ‘Sponsorship form’. Available at: http://www.economist.com/special reports/displaystory.cfm?story_id=11825607. Accessed 1 October 2008.The Economist (2009) ‘Troubled tigers: Asia needs a new engine of growth’. Available at: http://www.economist.com/printedition/displayStory.cfm?Story_ID=13022067. Accessed 13 February 2009.The Kings Fund (2006) ‘Local variations in NHS spending priorities’. Available at: http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/briefings/local_variations.html. Accessed 4 August 2008.The Register (2006) ‘Slow start for choose and book’. Available at: http://www.theregister.co.uk/2006/02/17/choose_and_book_takeup. Accessed 3 March 2009.2007) ‘Challenging Coke's thirst for water: The Apizaco story’, Grassroots International, 2 July. Available at: http://www.grassrootsonline.org/blog/challenging-cokes-thirst-water-apizaco-story. Accessed 19 September 2008.and (1983) The Third Wave. London: Pan Books.(2006) Contemporary Economic Sociology: Globalization, Production, Inequality. Abingdon: Routledge.(2005) ‘Top ten power brands’, http://Foodprocessing.com. Available at: http://www.foodprocessing.com/articles/2005/562.html?page=7. Accessed 16 September 2008.(2002) ‘Consumer spending: An engine for US job growth’, Monthly Labour Review, 125 (11): 12–22. Available at: http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2002/11/art2full.pdf. Accessed 28 February 2008.(2002) ‘Environmentally damaging consumption: The impact of American markets on tropical ecosystems in the twentieth century’, in T.Princen, M.Maniates and K.Conca (eds), Confronting Consumption. London: MIT Press, pp. 177–95.(2008) ‘Recession forces many to give up private schools’, Telegraph.co.uk. Available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/education/educationnews/3508764/Recession-forces-many-to-give-up-private-schools.html. Accessed 3 March 2009.(University of Alabama Media Relations (2001) ‘When more doctors smoked Camels’. Available at: http://main.uab.edu/show.asp?durki=46398. Accessed 12 August 2008.UNICEF (n.d.) ‘Child protection from violence, exploitation and abuse’. Available at: http://www.unicef.org/protection/index_childlabour.html. Accessed 20 February 2009.United Nations Development Programme (1998) Human Development Report: Consumption for Human Development. Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/reports/global/hdr1998. Accessed 8 September 2008.United Nations Development Programme (2006) Human Development Report: Beyond Scarcity: Power, Poverty and the Global Water Crisis. Available at: http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR06-complete.pdf. Accessed 10 April 2009.[Page 249]United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (1992) ‘Rio declaration on environment and development’. Available at: http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=78&ArticleID=1163. Accessed 27 March 2009.United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) (2006) ‘Basel Conference addresses electronic wastes challenge’. Available at: http://www.unep.org/Documents.Multilingual/Default.asp?DocumentID=485&ArticleID=5431&l=en. Accessed 30 July 2009.UN Wire (2002) ‘Bush outlines alternative plan to Kyoto Protocol’, United Nations Foundation. Available at: http://www.unwire.org/unwire/20020215/23928_story.asp. Accessed 17 February 2009.US Department of Agriculture (2005) ‘Orange juice — production, consumption, exports, and imports statistics’. Available at: http://indexmundi.com/en/commodities/agricultural/orange-juice. Accessed 9 May 2009.US Federal Reserve (2008a) ‘Statistical release G 19 “Consumer credit”’. Available at: http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/G19/hist/cc_hist_sa.html. Accessed 27 November 2008.US Federal Reserve (2008b) ‘Statistical release Z1 “Flow of funds accounts of the United States: Flows and outstandings 2nd Quarter 2008”’. Available at: http://www. federalreserve.gov/releases/z1/Current/z1.pdf. Accessed 28 November 2008.US Federal Reserve Board (2008c) ‘Consumer credit’. Available at: http://www.federalreserve.gov/releases/g19/Current. Accessed 14 November 2008.2000) ‘Environmental impact of scrapping old cars’, Transportation Research, Part D, 5: 137–43. Available at: http://ivem.eldoc.ub.rug.nl/FILES/ivempubs/publart/2000/TranspResDvWee/2000TranspResDvWee.pdf. Accessed 18 March 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1361-9209%2899%2900030-9, and (1994) The Theory of the Leisure Class. London: Penguin Books.(2005) The Theory of Business Enterprise. New York: Cosimo Classics.(2006) Absentee Ownership — Business Enterprise in Recent Times: The Case of America. London: Transaction Publishers.(2008) ‘The food we waste’, WRAP Food waste report v2. Available at: http://www.wrap.org.uk/downloads/The_Food_We_Waste_v2__2_.59e3199e.5635.pdf. Accessed 14 August 2008.(2004a) ‘The UK's new rubbish dump: China’, Guardian, 20 September. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2004/sep/20/environment.china. Accessed 6 August 2009.(2004b) ‘Poisonous detritus of the electronic revolution’, Guardian, 21 September. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2004/sep/21/environment.uknews. Accessed 6 August 2009.(2005) ‘More than 30% of our food is thrown away — and it's costing billions a year’, Energy Bulletin, April 15, published by The Guardian (UK). Available at: http://www.energybulletin.net/5350.html. Accessed 10 June 2009.(2005) Tripolar World: India, China and US, Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations. Available at: http://www.icrier.org/pdf/Tripolar Wrld_IHC5.pdf. Accessed 10 June 2009.(1993) ‘Between purchasing power and the world of goods: Understanding the household economy in early modern Europe’, in J.Brewer and R.Porter (eds), Consumption and the World of Goods. New York: Routledge, pp. 85–132.(2003) ‘Sizzling economy revitalizes India’, New York Times, 20 October. Available at: http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E07E7D7103EF933A1 5753C1A9659C8B63. Accessed 23 April 2008.(2008) I'm With the Brand: The Secret Dialogue Between What We Buy and Who We Are. London: Constable.([Page 250]2008) Brand New China: Advertising, Media and Commercial Culture. London: Harvard University Press.(2009) ‘Trade, climate change, and sustainability’, in L.Starke (ed.), State of the World 2009: Into a Warming World. A Worldwatch Institute Report on Progress Toward a Sustainable Society. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 88–9.and (2000) ‘The mystery of the cabinet castaway: Why we buy products we never use’, Journal of Family and Consumer Science, 92 (1): 104–8., and (War on Want (2006a) Fashion Victims: The True Cost of Cheap Clothes at Primark, Asda and Tesco. Available at: http://www.waronwant.org/Fashion+Victims+13593.twl. Accessed 30 July 2008.War on Want (2006b) Coca-Cola: The Alternative Report. Available at: http://wow.webbler.org/downloads/cocacola.pdf. Accessed 25 September 2008.War on Want (2007) Let's Clean Up Fashion: 2007 Up-date. Available at: http://www.waronwant.org/Fashion+Victims+13593.twl. Accessed 30 July 2008.1997) Consumption, Food and Taste. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446222027(2007) ‘India: Where the credit crisis is but distant thunder’, Independent, 12 December. Available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/analysis-and-features/india-where-the-credit-crisis-is-but-distant-thunder-764604.html. Accessed 24 April 2008.(2003) ‘Introduction: Transnationalism, localization and fast foods in East Asia’, in R.Robertson and K.E.White (eds), Globalization: Critical Concepts in Sociology, Vol. 4, Culture and Identity. London: Routledge. pp. 127–57.(Watson, J.L. (ed.) (2006) Golden Arches East: McDonald's in East Asia,2nd edn.Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.2007) ‘Carry on flying, says Blair — science will save the planet’, Guardian, 9 January. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2007/jan/09/theairlinein-dustry.greenpolitics/print. Accessed 16 December 2008.(2009) ‘China says western nations responsible for its CO2 emissions’, Guardian, 18 March: 17.(1970) ‘Capitalism and rural society in Germany’, in From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, ed. H.H.Gerth and C.Wright Mills. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, pp. 363–85.(1976) The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. London: George Allen & Unwin.(2000) ‘International tobacco sales’, Foreign Policy in Focus, 3 (17). Available at: http://www.fpif.org/briefs/vol3/v3n17tob.html, Accessed 10 August 2008.and (2008) ‘Economic snapshot for April 2008’, Center for American Progress. Available at: http://www.americanprogress.org/issues/2008/04/econ_snapshot.html. Accessed 2 December 2008.(WWhich? (2006) ‘Childcatchers report on the marketing of food to children’. Available at: http://18.104.22.168/search?q=cache:79HZ2LXVt5cJ:www.oxha.org/knowledge/publications/which_childcatchers_rpt_jan06.pdf+children+catchers+and+advertising +&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=1. Accessed 31 July 2008.1988) Merchants of Death: The American Tobacco Industry. New York: Beech Tree. http://dx.doi.org/10.5962/bhl.title.44013(2004) ‘Public services: the choice’, Guardian, 24 June. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2004/jun/24/uk.schools. Accessed 2 May 2009.and ([Page 251]1971) Selling Death: Cigarette Advertising and Public Health. New York: Liveright.(2001) ‘Consuming morality’, Journal of Consumer Culture, 1 (2): 245–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146954050100100211(2007) ‘Buying into the green movement’, New York Times, 1 July. Available at: http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/01/fashion/01green.html?_r=2&oref=slogin. Accessed 23 May 2009.(1976) Keywords: A Vocabulary of Culture and Society. Glasgow: Fontana.(1980) Problems in Materialism and Culture. London: Verso.(2006) The Commercialisation of Childhood. London: Compass. Available at: http://clients.squareeye.com/uploads/compass/documents/thecommercialisationofchildhood.pdf. Accessed 31 July 2008.(2005) ‘Small is beautiful: US house size, resource uses and the environment’, Journal of Industrial Ecology, 9 (1–2): 277–87. Available at: http://mitpress.mit.edu/journals/JIEC/v9n1_2/jiec_9_1-2_277_0.pdf. Accessed 25 March 2009.and (2008) ‘“Green is the new black”: Celebrity chic and the “green” commodity fetish’, Fashion Theory: The Journal of Dress, Body and Culture, 12 (4): 511–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.2752/175174108X346968(2006) Health Impact Assessment of the Patient Choice Agenda, Observatory Report Series No. 62, Liverpool Public Health Observatory. Available at: http://www.liv.ac.uk/PublicHealth/obs/root/liverpool%20public%20health%20observatory/publications/observatory%20report%20series/HIA_of_Patient_Choice_Final_Report_%202006.pdf. Accessed 9 January 2009.(2003) ‘The wealth divide: The growing gap in the United States between the rich and the rest’, The Multinational Monitor, 24 (5). Available at: http://multinationalmonitor.org/mm2003/03may/may03interviewswolff.html. Accessed 28 February 2008.(World Advertising Trends (2007) ‘Top ten countries by advertising expenditure 2006’. Available at: http://www.warc.com/LandingPages/Data/Adspend/AdspendByCountry.asp. Accessed 6 August 2008.World Health Organization (2002) Fact Sheets: Smoking Statistics. Available at: http://www.wpro.who.int/media_centre/fact_sheets/fs_20020528.html. Accessed 11 August 2008.World Health Organization (2004) The Tobacco Atlas. Available at: http://www.who.int/tobacco/statistics/tobacco_atlas/en/print.html. Accessed 11 August 2008.Worldwatch Institute (2004) State of the World 2004: Progress Towards a Sustainable Society. London: Earthscan.Worldwatch Institute (2006) State of the World 2006: Special Focus — China and India. NewYork: W.W. Norton.WRAP (2006) ‘New funding to tackle UK's six million tonnes of food waste’, 11 December. http://www.wrap.org.uk/wrap_corporate/news/new_funding_to.html. Accessed 8 August 2009.2001) ‘McDonald's in Beijing: The localization of Americana’, in D.Miller (ed.), Consumption: Critical Concepts in the Social Sciences. London: Taylor & Francis. pp. 335–53.(2001) ‘Coca-Cola: Think local, act local’, The Monroe Street Journal. Available at: http://media.www.themsj.com/media/storage/paper207/news/2001/11/12/Corporate/Coca Cola.Think.Local.Act.Local._143767.shtml. Accessed 26 September 2008.(ZenithOptimedia (2004) ‘Best prospects for advertising since 2000’. Available at: http://www.zenithoptimedia.com/about/news/pdf/Adspend%20Forecast%20Update%20Dec%2004.doc. Accessed 15 March 2009.ZenithOptimedia (2007) Global ad Market to Accelerate in 2008 Despite Credit Squeeze. Available at: http://www.anes.it/area/ZenithOptimedia.pdf. Accessed 1 September 2008.[Page 252]ZenithOptimedia (2008a) Western Markets Continue to Slow, but Surging Developing Markets Propel Healthy World Growth in Ad Expenditure. Available at: http://www.zenithoptimedia.com/gff/pdf/Adspend%20forecasts%20June%202008.pdf. Accessed 6 January 2009.ZenithOptimedia (2008b) ‘No growth in global adspend in 2009’. Available at: http://www.zenithoptimedia.com/gff/pdf/Adspend%20forecasts%20December%202008.pdf. Accessed 13 January 2009.1997) ‘Consumerism, Confucianism, communism: Making sense of China Today’, New Left Review, I, 222 (3–4): 43–59.(2004) What Kind of God: A Survey of the Current Safety of China's Food. Berlin: Reportage Literature.(2006a) ‘China's food fears (part one)’, Chinadialogue. Available at: http://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/374. Accessed 15 September 2008.(2006b) ‘China's food fears (part two)’, Chinadialogue. Available at: http://www.chinadialogue.net/article/show/single/en/379-China-s-food-fears-part-two. Accessed 15 September 2008.(2006) ‘Hey big spender’, Paradigm, 11 (1): 6–7. Available at: http://www.addictionrecov.org/paradigm/P_PR_W06/paradigmW06.pdf. Accessed 10 May 2009.(