Constructing Research Questions: Doing Interesting Research
Publication Year: 2013
All researchers want to produce interesting and influential theories. A key step in all theory development is formulating innovative research questions that will result in interesting and significant research.
Traditional textbooks on research methods tend to ignore, or gloss over, actual ways of constructing research questions. In this text, Alvesson and Sandberg develop a problematization methodology for identifying and challenging the assumptions underlying existing theories and for generating research questions that can lead to more interesting and influential theories, using examples from across the social sciences. Established methods of generating research questions in the social sciences tend to focus on ‘gap-spotting’, which means that existing literature remains largely unchallenged. The authors show the dangers of conventional approaches, providing detailed ideas for how one can work through ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Research Questions: A Core Ingredient in Developing Interesting Theories
- Chapter 2: The Context of Constructing and Formulating Research Questions
- Chapter 3: Gap-Spotting: The Prevalent Way of Constructing Research Questions in Social Science
- Chapter 4: A Critical Evaluation of Gap-Spotting Research: Does it Lead to Interesting Theories?
- Chapter 5: Problematization as a Methodology for Generating Research Questions
- Chapter 6: Applying the Problematization Methodology in Practice
- Chapter 7: Why Does Gap-Spotting Dominate When it Reduces the Chance to Create Interesting Theories?
- Chapter 8: Constructing Interesting Research Questions: Problematization and beyond
The Natural Home
[Page ii]SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.
Find out more at: http://www.sagepublications.com
© Mats Alvesson and Jörgen Sandberg 2013
First published 2013
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
3 Church Street
#10-04 Samsung Hub
Library of Congress Control Number: 2012944430
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 978-1-44625-593-3 (pbk)
Editor: Kirsty Smy
Editorial assistant: Nina Smith
Production editor: Sarah Cooke
Marketing manager: Alison Borg
Cover design: Lisa Harper
Typeset by: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon, CR0 4YY
About the Authors
As we demonstrate in this book, there is a widely felt shortage of interesting and novel ideas in social science. Much contemporary research is perceived to lack imagination and to offer little new theoretical insight. This is perhaps partly related to the fact that much has already been said in most disciplines, which makes it difficult to come up with anything radically new. Nevertheless, the lack of research contributions that stand out as interesting and exert a broader influence can also be viewed as an outcome of strong and narrow specialization coupled with a tendency for researchers to reproduce taken-for-granted assumptions and established vocabularies in their respective fields. The need to publish in the right journals and careers informed by ‘publish or perish’ orientations associated with the contemporary age of not only mass education but also mass research make many people unwilling to work with deviant ideas. As we will try to demonstrate, there are strong forces towards mainstreaming in many, if not most, academic fields. Established methodologies and norms for producing and publishing research tend to emphasize and normalize narrow and cautious research questions.
In this book we address this issue and try to make a case for an alternative way of approaching the subject matter under study. We highlight and focus on the theme of research questions. This is a neglected theme in much of the writing concerning how to produce good research. Key elements in the construction of research questions – which we see as a crucial element in, and a significant driver of, research and results – are the critical investigation and challenging of established assumptions in an area. Establishing and working with new assumptions opens up possibilities for producing more interesting and influential research, especially the development of new theoretical ideas. This book offers a rationale, a methodology and illustrations for such work. In addition, we also address how institutions, professional norms and researchers' identity obstruct or facilitate more imaginative, challenging and interesting work. The quality and character of research is very much a matter of social norms; institutional forces framing the ways researchers do research.
This book is partly based on a series of articles we have published already. Chapters 3 and 4 are partly revisions and an extension of Sandberg, J. and Alvesson, M. (2011) ‘Routes to research questions: beyond gap-spotting’, Organization, 18: 22–44. Chapters 5 and the first half of Chapter 6 build on Alvesson, M. and Sandberg, J. (2011) ‘Generating research questions through problematization’, Academy of Management Review, 36: 247–71, and Chapter 7 is a revision of Alvesson, M. and Sandberg, J. (2012) ‘Has management studies lost its way? Ideas for more imaginative and innovative research’, Journal of Management Studies. We are grateful to the publishers of these journals for allowing us to use the material in this book, and to the editors and the reviewers of these journal articles for their good advice.
[Page viii]We also are highly appreciative of the comments on drafts of this book from three anonymous reviewers consulted by SAGE Publications and from our colleagues Ronald Barnett, Alan Burton-Jones, Peter Liesch, Allan Luke, Tyler Okimoto and Sverre Spoelstra. This book has also benefitted from research collaborations over the years with, in the case of MA, Stan Deetz, Dan Kärreman and Kaj Sköldberg, and for JS, Gloria Dall'Alba and Hari Tsoukas.Lund and Brisbane, June 2012,and
Appendix 1[Page 124][Page 125]Table A.1 Basic modes of gap-spotting and their specific versions[Page 126]
Appendix 2[Page 127]
Table A.2 Summary of Davis's (1971) index of the interesting Characterization of a single phenomenon The relations between multiple phenomena
What seems to be a disorganized (unstructured) phenomenon is in reality an organized (structured) phenomenon OR vice versa
What seem to be assorted heterogeneous phenomena are in reality composed of a single element OR vice versa
What seems to an individual phenomenon is in reality a holistic phenomenon OR vice versa
What seems to be a local phenomenon is in reality a general phenomenon OR vice versa
What seems to be a stable and unchanging phenomenon is in reality an unstable and changing phenomenon OR vice versa
What seems to be a phenomenon that functions ineffectively as a means for the attainment of an end is in reality a phenomenon that functions effectively OR vice versa
What seems to be a bad phenomenon is in reality a good phenomenon OR vice versa
What seem to be unrelated (independent) phenomena are in reality correlated (interrelated) phenomena OR vice versa
What seem to be phenomena that can exist together are in reality phenomena which cannot exist together OR vice versa
What seems to be a positive co-variation between phenomena is in reality a negative co-variation between phenomena OR vice versa
- 11. Opposition
What seem to be similar phenomena are in reality opposite phenomena OR vice versa
What seems to be an independent phenomenon (variable) in a causal relation is in reality the dependent phenomenon (variable) OR vice versa
Appendix 3[Page 128]Abbott's Main Heuristic Tools
Abbott's methods of discovery consist of a set of heuristics that can support the outlined problematization methodology in important ways. According to Abbott, heuristics provide tools ‘to question what already has been said, transforming it to new ideas and views’ (2004: 85).
Search heuristics are geared toward questioning and breaking out from existing thinking by bringing in and utilizing new ideas from outside a specific topic or field. Examples are to make an analogy by trying to understand your particular subject matter with the help of a completely different subject matter outside your field, and borrow a method developed and used in another field and apply it on your specific research topic.
Argument heuristics mean turning something familiar and self-evident into something unfamiliar and obscure. Examples are to problematize the obvious as a way to generate new and interesting research avenues, and make a reversal, for example, universities do not facilitate but prevent learning.
Descriptive heuristics are designed to help us imagine or perhaps better re-imagine social reality in specific ways. Examples are a changing context, for example, to reverse what is in the foreground to the background, and changing levels of analysis, for example, from a micro to a macro context.
Narrative heuristics change the way reality is portrayed. Examples are stopping and putting in motion, for example, something that typically is seen as static becoming something that is in motion or vice versa, and taking and leaving contingency, for example, arguing that a phenomenon is contingent upon something specific or by arguing that is not based on any contingency.
Fractal heuristics encompass major debates in the social sciences, such as positivism versus interpretivism, and realism versus constructionism that are ‘fractals in the sense that they seem important no matter at what level of investigation we take them up’ (2004: 163). These and other major debates can, according to Abbott, be used as terrific heuristic tools to produce new research ideas and problems and possibilities for research by playing them out against each other.
References[Page 129]2001) Chaos of Disciplines. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(2004) Methods of Discovery: Heuristics for the Social Sciences. New York: Norton.(2012) ‘Daring to care: scholarship that supports the courage of our convictions’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 21: 128–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492611427801and (2009) ‘When knowledge wins: transcending the sense and non-sense of academic rankings’, Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8: 72–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMLE.2009.37012181and (1985) Organizational Identity: Research in Organizational Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.and (1993) Cultural Perspectives on Organizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(2002) Postmodernism and Social Research. Buckingham: Open University Press.(2011) ‘De-essentializing the knowledge intensive firm: reflections on sceptical research going against the mainstream’, Journal of Management Studies, 48: 1640–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2011.01025.x(2013a) The Triumph of Emptiness Consumption, higher education and work. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2013b) Understanding Organizational Culture,(2nd edn.London: Sage.2009) Understanding Gender and Organization. London: Sage.and (2011) Qualitative Research and Theory Development. London: Sage.and (2009) Reflexive Methodology,and (2nd edn.London: Sage.2002) ‘Producing the appropriate individual: identity regulation as organizational control’, Journal of Management Studies, 39 (5): 619–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00305and (2008) ‘Identity matters: reflections on the construction of identity scholarship in organization studies’, Organization, 15: 5–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508407084426, and (2008) ‘Reflecting on reflexivity: reappraising practice’, Journal of Management Studies, 45: 480–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00765.x, and (2004) ‘Board composition: balancing family influence in S&P 500 firms’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 49: 209–37.and (2009) ‘The moving targets of dis/identification: wrestling with the reality of social construction’, working paper, University of Colorado, Denver, and Lund University.and (1998) ‘Becoming: how does the process of identification unfold?’, in D. Whetten and C. Godfrey (Eds), Identity in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 213–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231495(1989) ‘Social identity theory and the organization’, Academy of Management Review, 14: 20–39.and (1970) Om Undran Infor Samhallet. Lund: Argos.(1985) ‘Administrative science as socially constructed truth’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 30: 497–513. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392694(1984) ‘Extending the metaphor “system”’, Human Relations, 41: 709–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678804101001and (2002) ‘Lifetime inheritances of three generations of whites and blacks’, American Journal of Sociology, 107: 1300–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/344840and (1989) ‘Organizational theories: some criteria for evaluation’, Academy of Management Review, 14: 496–515.(1993) ‘Tightening the iron cage: concertive control in self-managing teams’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 38: 408–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393374([Page 130]2006) ‘When I write my masterpiece: thoughts on what makes a paper interesting’, Academy of Management Journal, 49: 16–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2006.20785495(2010) ‘Being a university: future possibilities’. Public lecture at the University of Queensland, Australia.(2004) ‘Making contributions from interpretive case studies: examining processes of construction and use’, in B. Kaplan, D.P. Truex, III, D. Wastell, et al. (Eds), Information Systems Research: Relevant Theory and Informed Practice. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic. pp. 293–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-8095-6_17and (2006) ‘What makes management research interesting, and why does it matter?’, Academy of Management Journal, 49: 9–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2006.20785494, and (2008) ‘Survey response rate levels and trends in organizational research’, Human Relations, 61: 1139–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726708094863and (2012) (1993) ‘Fairness, social comparison, and irrationality’, in J.K. Murnighan (Ed.), Social Psychology in Organizations: Advances in Theory and Research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. pp. 184–203.(1993) ‘Intertextual self-fashioning: Gould and Lewontin's representation of the literature’ In J. Settzer (Ed.), Understanding scientific prose, pp. 21–40. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.(1998) Tricks of the Trade: How to Think About Your Research While Doing it. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226040998.001.0001(2003) ‘The manuscript review process: the proper roles of authors, referees, and editors’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 12: 331–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492603258974(2004) ‘Peer review and the social construction of knowledge in the management discipline’, Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3: 198–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMLE.2004.13500489(1987) ‘Michael Foucault's ecstatic thinking’, in J.W. Bernauer and D. Rasmussen (Eds), The Final Foucault. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 45–82.(2003) ‘The state of the field in UK management research: reflections of the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) panel’, British Journal of Management, 14: 51–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00265, , , , , , , , , , , , and (2010) ‘Qualitative research in management: a decade of progress’, Journal of Management Studies. Published online., , , et al. (2001) “It's difficult to innovate': the death of the tenured professor and the birth of the knowledge entrepreneur', Human Relations, 54: 77–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726701541010and (1979) Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1996) The Rules of Art: Genesis and Structure of the Literary Field. Cambridge: Polity Press.(2004) Science of Science and Reflexivity. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1990) Scholarship Reconsidered. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.(1997) ‘Contract shop epistemology: credibility and problem construction in applied social science’, Social Studies of Science, 27: 363–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631297027003001(1995) Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(2006) ‘A narrative approach to collective identities’, Journal of Management Studies, 43: 731–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00609.x(1996) The Culture of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2003) ‘Organized hypocrisy’, in B. Czarniawska and G. Sevon (Eds), The Northern Lights: Organization Theory in Scandinavia. Copenhagen: Liber and Copenhagen Business Press. pp. 201–22.(1979) Manufacturing Consent. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(1979) Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis. Aldershot: Gower.and ([Page 131]2004) Undoing gender. New York: Routledge.(1980) ‘Struggles and negotiations of what is problematic and what is not: the socio-logics of translation’, in K. Knorr, R. Krohn and R. Whitley (Eds), The Social Change. New York: Wiley. pp. 93–125.(2006) ‘When does “economic” man dominate social behavior?’, Science, 6: 47–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1110600and (1982) What to Study: Generating and Developing Research Questions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., and (2004) ‘Astrology, alchemy and retro-organization theory: an astrogenealogical critique of the Myers-Briggs type indicator®’, Organization, 11: 473–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508404044059and (1994) ‘“Problematization” as a mode of reading history’, in J. Goldstein (Ed.), Foucault and the Writing of History. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 237–52.(2000) Grounded theory: Objectivist and constructivist methods. In N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research ((2nd edn). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 509–35.2000) ‘Discourse analysis as organizational analysis’, Organization, 7: 513–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050840073009(2009) ‘So farewell then … reflections on editing the journal of management studies’, Journal of Management Studies, 46: 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2008.00808.xand (2005) ‘Walking the talk? Gendered rhetoric vs. action in small firms’, Organization Studies, 26 (1): 63–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0170840605046490, and (1967) ‘Scientific output and recognition: a study in the operation of the reward system in science’, American Sociological Review, 32: 377–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2091085and (2003) ‘Identities and insecurities’, Organization, 10: 527–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13505084030103010(2007) ‘Trends in theory building and theory testing: a five-decade study of the Academy of Management Journal’, Academy of Management Journal, 50: 1261–1303. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2007.28165855and (2004) ‘Identity ambiguity and change in the wake of a corporate spin-off’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 49: 173–208.and (2011) ‘Building theory about theory building: what constitutes a theoretical contribution?’, Academy of Management Review, 36: 12–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2011.55662499and (1998) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2011) ‘The ebb and flow of social network ties between district leaders under high-stakes accountability’, American Educational Research Journal, 48: 39–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831210368990and (2009) ‘What happened to organization theory?’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 18: 273–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492609344672, and (2010) ‘What makes management research interesting? An exploratory study’, Journal of Managerial Issues, XXII: 127–42.and (1971) ‘That's interesting! Towards a phenomenology of sociology and a sociology of phenomenology’, Philosophy of Social Sciences, 1: 309–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004839317100100211(1986) ‘That's classic! The phenomenology and rhetoric of successful social theories’, Philosophy of Social Sciences, 16: 285–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004839318601600301(1999) ‘Aphorism and clichés: the generation and dissipation of conceptual charisma’, Annual Review of Sociology, 25: 245–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.25.1.245(2005) ‘Publish or perish: bane or boon of academic life?’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 14: 321–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492605276850and (2000) ‘Theory as practice: Foucault's concept of problematization’, Telos, 118: 127–39.(1992) Democracy in an Age of Corporate Colonization: Developments in Communication and the Politics of Everyday Life. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.(1996) ‘Describing differences in approaches to organizational science: rethinking Burrell and Morgan and their legacy’, Organization Science, 7: 191–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.7.2.191([Page 132]2005) Social Science. Buckingham: Open University Press.(Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (eds) (2000) Handbook of Qualitative Research,2nd edn. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.2011) The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research,and (4th edn.Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.1978) Edmund Husserl's Origin of Geometry: An Introduction. New York: Harvester Press. (First published in 1967.)(1916) Essays in Experimental Logic. New York: Dover. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/13833-000(1938) Logic: The Theory of Inquiry. New York: Holt.(1984) ‘The classification of research questions’, Review of Educational Research, 53: 327–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543054003327(1995) ‘Comments on “What theory is not,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 40: 391–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393790(1983) ‘The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields’, American Sociological Review, 48 (2): 147–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095101and (1985) In Defence of Organization Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1994) ‘Organizational images and member identification’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 43: 293–327., and (2005) ‘Learning to build a car: an empirical investigation of organizational learning’, Journal of Management Studies, 42: 387–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2005.00501.x, , , et al. (2001) ‘The leadership styles of women and men’, Journal of Social Issues, 57: 781–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00241and (2008) Management Research. Los Angeles, CA: Sage., and (1980) The paradigm concept and sociology: a critical review. In Gutting, G., and S. Bend (Eds), Paradigms and Revolutions: Applications and Appraisals of Thomas Kuhn's Philosophy of Science. IN: University of Notre Dame Press., and (1989) ‘Building theories from case study research’, Academy of Management Review, 14: 532–50.(1999) ‘An expanded model of organizational identification’, Research in Organizational Behavior, 21: 163–200.(1978) Against Method. London: Verso.(2006) An Introduction to Qualitative Research,(3rd edn.London: Sage.1994) ‘Foucault's mapping of history’, in G. Gutting (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Foucault. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge. New York: Pantheon Books.(1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Random House.(1980) Power/Knowledge. New York: Pantheon Books.(1984) ‘Space, knowledge and power’, in P. Rainbow (Ed.), The Foucault Reader. New York: Pantheon Books.(1985) The Use of Pleasure: History of Sexuality, vol. 2. New York: Vintage Books.(2011) ‘Boundary objects, social meanings and the success of new technologies’, Sociology, 45: 70–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038510387196(2003) Qualitative Research in Education: Interaction and Practice. London: Sage.(1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Herder & Herder.(2005) ‘Glass cages and glass palaces: Images of organizations in image conscious times’, Organization, 12: 9–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508405048574(2010) ‘Organization studies: a space for ideas, identities and agonies’, Organization Studies, 31: 757–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0170840610372574([Page 133]1994) Truth and Method. New York: Continuum. (First published in 1960.)(1958) The Affluent Society. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.(1988) How to Build a Corporation's Identity and Project its Image. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.(1973) The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.(1978) ‘Toward generative theory’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31: 1344–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2064(1992) ‘Organization theory in the postmodern era’, in M. Reed and M. Hughes (Eds), Rethinking Organizations. London: Sage. pp. 207–26.(2004) ‘Friendship and advice networks in the context of changing professional values’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 49: 238–62.(1994) The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamic of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221853, , , et al. (2000) ‘Organizational identity, image, and adaptive instability’, Academy of Management Review, 25: 63–81., and (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory. New York: Aldine.and (2007) ‘Making a life in the field of organization science’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28: 817–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.455, and (2010) Constructing contribution in ‘Strategy as Practice’. In Golsorkhi, L. Rouleau, D. Seidl, E. Vaara (Eds), Cambridge Handbook of Strategy as Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 79–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511777882.006and (2007) Composing Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.and (1970) The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology. New York: Basic Books.(2004) ‘Strategy as simulacra? A radical reflexive look at the discipline and practice of strategy’, Journal of Management Studies, 41: 1153–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2004.00470.xand (1972) Knowledge and the Human Interest. London: Heinemann.(2011) ‘Clarifying work-family intervention processes: The roles of work-family conflict and family supportive supervisor behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96: 134–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020927, , , and (1977) ‘The population ecology of organizations’, American Journal of Sociology, 83: 929–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226424and (2000) ‘Using the literature: reference networks, reference contexts, and the social structure of scholarship’, American Sociological Review, 65: 846–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2657516(2004) Psychology of Organizations,(2nd edn.London: Sage.2006) ‘Social identity and the dynamics of organizational life’, in C. Bartel, S. Blader and A. Wrzesniewski (Eds), Identity and the Modern Organization. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 135–66.and (2002) ‘Production and consumption in organizational knowledge: the case of the ‘Paradigms debate”, Organization, 9: 331–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508402009002911and (2011) ‘Seeing the mind behind the art: people can distinguish abstract expressionist paintings from highly similar paintings by children, chimps, monkeys, and elephants’, Psychological Science, 22: 435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797611400915and (1981) Being and Time. New York: SCM Press. (First published in 1927.)(2011) ‘Cross-cultural perception and power dynamics across changing organizational and national contexts: Curacao and the Netherlands’, Human Relations, 64 (5): 653–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726710386394(2005) ‘“Economic man” in cross-cultural perspective: behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28: 1–61., , , et al. (1984) Changing the Subject: Psychology, Social Regulation and Subjectivity. New York: Methuen., et al. (2011) The Practice of Qualitative Research. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.and ([Page 134]1980) Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(2010) ‘Gender inequality in the welfare state: sex segregation in housework, 1965–2003’, American Journal of Sociology, 115: 1480–523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/651384(1994) ‘Community and neutrality in critical thought: a nonobjectivist view on the conduct and teaching of critical thinking’, in K.S. Walters (Ed.), Re-thinking Reason: New Perspectives in Critical Thinking. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 135–54.(1988) ‘Research paradigms in education’, Interchange, 19/1: 2–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01815504(1970) Logical Investigations, vol. 2. London: Routledge. (First published in 1900–1901.)(2011) ‘Influence of a teacher's scaffolding moves during child-led small-group discussions’, American Educational Research Journal, 48: 194–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831210371498, , , et al. (2000) ‘Categorization: identity, social process and epistemology’, Current Sociology, 48: 7–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011392100048003003(2007) ‘Sitting in your readers' chair: attending to your academic sensemakers’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 16: 290–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492607307167(2003) ‘Designating opponents in empirical research: the rhetoric of “interestingness” in consumer research’, Marketing Theory, 3: 477–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1470593103040783(2010) ‘The experience of retirement in second modernity: generational habitus among retired senior managers’, Sociology, 44: 103–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038509351610, and (2011) ‘When it comes to pay, do the thin win? The effect of weight on pay for men and women’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 96: 95–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020860and (1992) ‘Changing spaces: the disruptive impact of a new epistemological location for the study of management’, Academy of Management Review, 17: 514–36.(1991) ‘Corporate strategy, organizations, and subjectivity: a critique’, Organization Studies, 12: 251–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069101200205and (1989) ‘Power and subjectivity at work’, Sociology, 23: 535–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038589023004003and (1981) The Manufacture of Knowledge: An Essay on the Constructive and Contextual Nature of Science. New York: Pergamon Press.(1981) ‘The nature and limits of psychological knowledge’, American Psychologist, 36: 257–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.36.3.257(2011) ‘Foucault and pragmatism: introductory notes on metaphilosophical methodology’, Foucault Studies, 11: 3–10.(2011) ‘Fostering argument justification using collaboration scripts and content schemes’, Learning and Instruction, 21: 636–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.02.001and (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.(1992) Engineering Culture: Control and Commitment in a High-Tech Corporation. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.(1978) The Culture of Narcissism. New York: Norton.(1979) Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Facts. London: Sage.and (2008) ‘Lost in publication: how measurement harms science’, Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, 8: 9–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/esep00079(2011) ‘Too much of a good thing: curvilinear relationships between personality traits and job performance’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 96: 113–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021016, , , et al. (1999) ‘Qualitative research in organizational and vocational behavior’, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55: 161–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1999.1707, and (2007) ‘The glory and tyranny of citation impact: an eastern Asian perspective’, Academy of Management Journal, 50: 510–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2007.25525592([Page 135]2000) The only generalization is: There is no generalization. In R. Gomm, M. Hammersley, and P. Foster (Eds), Case Study Method: Key Issues, key Texts. London: Sage. pp. 27–43.and (2010) ‘Social influence and the autism epidemic’, American Journal of Sociology, 115: 1387–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/651448, and (1997) ‘Constructing opportunities for contribution: structuring intertextual coherence and “problematizing” in organizational studies’, Academy of Management Journal, 40: 1023–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256926and (2010) ‘Migrants' competing commitments: sexual partners in urban Africa and remittances to the rural origin’, American Journal of Sociology, 115: 1435–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/651374(2008) ‘Organizational change and managerial sensemaking: working through paradox’, Academy of Management Journal, 51: 221–40.and (2007) ‘Aardvark et al.: quality journals and gamesmanship in management studies’, Journal of Information Science, 33: 702–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0165551507077419and (2011) ‘The cross-lagged relations between children's academic skill development, task-avoidance, and parental beliefs about success’, Learning and Instruction, 21: 664–75., , , et al. (2000) ‘Philosophy of science and the foundations of psychotheraphy’, American Psychologist, 55: 1117–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.10.1117(1976) Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations. Bergen: Unversitetsforlaget.and (2002) Organizational Culture: Mapping the Terrain. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1988) ‘Organizational culture and the denial, channeling and acknowledgment of ambiguity’, in L.R. Pondy (Ed.), Managing Ambiguity and ambiguity. New York: Wiley. pp. 93–125.and (2005) ‘Gender, race, and the restructuring of work: organizational and institutional perspectives’, in. S. Ackroyd, R. Batt, P. Thomson, P.S. Tolbert (Eds), The Oxford Handbook of Work & Organization. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 74–92.(1999) ‘Determinants and development of schools in organization theory’, Academy of Management Review, 24: 634–48., and (2006) ‘Encouraging consensus challenging research in universities’, Journal of Management Studies, 43: 1643–670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00641.xand (2002) ‘Hofstede's model of national cultural differences and their consequences: a triumph of faith- a failure analysis’, Human Relations, 55: 89–118.(1962) Phenomenology of Perception. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. (First published in 1945.)(1977) ‘Institutionalized organizations: formal structure as myth and ceremony’, American Journal of Sociology, 83: 340–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226550and (2001) ‘The poverty of morality’, Journal of Consumer Culture, 1: 225–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146954050100100210(2009) ‘What happened to organization theory?’ Journal of Management Inquiry, 18: 273–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492609344672, and (1959) The Sociological Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1999) ‘Preview the social construction of organizational knowledge: a study of the uses of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphism’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 653–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2667051and (1980) ‘Paradigms, metaphors, and puzzle solving in organization theory’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 25: 605–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392283(1986) Images of Organization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(2011) ‘Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 96: 183–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020744, and (1983) ‘Scientists' theory talk’, Canadian Journal of Sociology, 8: 179–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3340125and ([Page 136]2004) ‘Places and spaces: the role of metonymy in organizational talk’, Journal of Management Studies, 41: 1301–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2004.00476.xand (1993) ‘Making enemies: how Gould and Lewontin criticize’, in J. Selzer (Ed.), Understanding Scientific Prose. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 256–75.(1998) ‘Theorizing subjectivity in organizations: the failure of Foucauldian studies?’, Organization Studies, 19: 415–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069801900303(2011) ‘Teacher-child relationship and behavior problem trajectories in elementary school’, American Educational Research Journal, 48: 120–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831210365008, and (2010) ‘A Bourdieusian analysis of class and migration: habitus and the individualizing process’, Sociology, 44: 49–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038509351627and (2006) ‘Taking stock of the criteria we use to evaluate one another's work: ASQ 50 years out’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 51: 535–59.(2011) ‘Different tests, different answers: the stability of teacher value-added estimates across outcome measures’, American Educational Research Journal, 48: 163–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831210362589(2011) ‘The Wire as social science-fiction?’, Sociology, 45: 152–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038510387199, and (1986) ‘Is science marketing?’, Journal of Marketing, 47: 111–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1251404and (1993) ‘Barriers to the advance of organizational science: paradigm’, Academy of Management Review, 18: 599–620.(2007) ‘A modest proposal: how we might change the process and product of managerial research’, Academy of Management Journal, 50: 1334–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2007.28166117(2007) ‘The cost of marginalization: qualitative studies of American politics’, Comparative Political Studies, 40: 145–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010414006296347(1987) Discourse and Social Psychology: Beyond Attitudes and Behaviour. London: Sage.and (2000) ‘The good, the bad, and the ambivalent: managing identification among Amway distributors’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 45: 456–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2667106(2009) ‘From the editors: the lack of a boilerplate: tips on writing up (and rewriting) qualitative research’, Academy of Management Journal, 52: 856–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2009.44632557(2000) ‘Classifying responses to multiple organizational identities’, Academy of Management Review, 25: 18–42.and (2011) ‘Critical thinking in social and psychological inquiry’, Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 31 (3): 165–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024723and (2011) ‘Holistic processing predicts face recognition’, Psychological Science, 22: 464–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797611401753, and (2003) ‘The applications of qualitative methods to social research’, in J. Ritchie and J. Lewis (Eds), Qualitative Research Practice. London: Sage. pp. 24–46.(1980) Sociology: A Multiple Paradigm Science. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.(1998) ‘Writing to be read: changing the culture and reward structure of American sociology’, Contemporary Sociology, 27: 446–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2654473(1992) ‘Cosmopolitanism without emancipation: a response to Lyotard’, in S. Lash and J. Friedman (Eds), Modernity & Identity. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 59–72.(1992) Post-Modernism and the Social Sciences: Insights, Inroads and Intrusions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(2011) ‘From child's garden to academic press: the role of shifting institutional logics in redefining kindergarten education’, American Educational Research Journal, 48: 236–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831210372135(2007) ‘Academy of management journal editor's forum on rich research: editor's foreword’, Academy of Management Journal, 50: 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2007.24159064(2000) ‘Understanding human competence at work: an interpretive approach’, Academy of Management Journal, 43: 9–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1556383([Page 137]2001) ‘The constructions of social constructionism’, in S. E. Sjöstrand, J. Sandberg, and M. Tyrstrup (Eds), Invisible Management: The Social Construction of Leadership. London: Thomson. pp. 29–48.(2011) ‘Ways of constructing research questions: gap-spotting or problematization?’, Organization, 18: 23–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508410372151and (2007) Managing Understanding in Organizations. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212530and (2011) ‘Grasping the logic of practice: theorizing through practical rationality’, Academy of Management Review, 36: 338–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2011.59330942and (2009) ‘The discipline of rankings: tight coupling and organizational change’, American Sociological Review, 74: 63–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000312240907400104and (2012) Qualitative Research: The Essential Guide to Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.and (2011) ‘Habitus, work and contributive justice’, Sociology, 45: 7–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038510387188(1985) Organization Culture and Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(2004) ‘Knowing what you don't know? Discourses and contradictions in knowledge management research’, Journal of Management Studies, 41: 549–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2004.00444.xand (1998) The Corrosion of Character. New York: Norton.(Shotter, J. and Gergen, K. (eds) (1989) Texts of Identity. London: Sage.1986) ‘Beyond the surrogate of motivation’, Organization Studies, 7: 335–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068600700402(2001) Interpreting Qualitative Data,(2nd edn.London: Sage.1947) Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization. New York: Macmillan.(2007) ‘Are articles in “top” management journals necessarily of higher quality?’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 16: 319–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492607305894, and (1995) What's Behind the Research? Discovering Hidden Assumptions in the Behavioral Sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.and (1983) ‘Concepts of culture and organizational analysis’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 28: 339–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392246(1999) ‘Virtual truth with a vengeance’, Contemporary Sociology, 28: 18–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2653843(2003) ‘Turning lemons into lemonade: where is the value in peer reviews?’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 12: 344–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492603258972(2006) The Production of Knowledge: The Challenge of Social Science Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288533.001.0001(2009) ‘The constant causes of never-ending faddishness in the behavioral and social sciences’, Scandinavian Journal of Management, 25: 108–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scaman.2008.11.005(Steier, F. (ed) (1991) Research and Reflexivity: Inquiries in Social Construction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.2008) ‘Sieve, incubator, temple, hub: empirical and theoretical advances in the sociology of higher education’, Annual Review of Sociology, 34: 127–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134737, and (1994) ‘Grounded theory methodology: an overview’, in N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 273–85.and (1995) ‘What theory is not’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 40: 371–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393788and (2010) ‘Animal shelter emotion management: a case of in situ hegemonic resistance?’, Sociology, 44: 85–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038509351629(2007) ‘The as-is journal review process: let authors own their ideas’, Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6: 128–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMLE.2007.24401710and (2002) ‘On organizational becoming: rethinking organizational change’, Organization Science, 13: 567–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.13.5.567.7810and ([Page 138]Tsoukas, H. and Knudsen, C. (eds) (2004) The Oxford Handbook of Organization Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.2005) ‘Language and the circuits of power in a merging multinational corporation’, Journal of Management Studies, 42: 595–623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2005.00510.x, , , et al. (2007) Engaged Scholarship: A Guide for Organizational and Social Research. New York: Oxford University Press.(1988) Tales of the Field: on Writing Ethnography. Chicago: University of Chicago.(1984) ‘Occupational communities: culture and control in organizations’, Research in Organizational Behavior, 6: 287–365.and (2004) ‘HRM and critical social science analysis’, Journal of Management Studies, 41: 447–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2004.00440.x(1987) Feminist Practice and Poststructuralist Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.(1989) ‘Theory construction as disciplined imagination’, Academy of Management Review, 14: 516–31.(2001) ‘Gapping the relevance gap: fashions meet fundamentalist in management research’, British Journal of Management, 12: 71–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12.s1.9(2000) ‘A (further) comment on the difference between applied and academic sociology’, Contemporary Sociology, 29: 344–47.(1987) ‘Doing gender’, Gender and Society, 1: 125–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891243287001002002and (2009) ‘Accounting for doing gender’, Gender and Society, 23: 112–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891243208326529and (2003) ‘Keeping directors in line: social distancing as a control mechanism in the corporate elite’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 48: 361–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3556678and (2009) Developing Research Questions. New York: Palgrave.(1985) ‘Getting out of our conceptual ruts’, American Psychologist, 40: 1094–1103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.40.10.1094(2012) ‘Coercive citation in academic publishing’, Science, 335: 542–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1212540and (1993) ‘Strength is ignorance; slavery is freedom: managing culture in modern organizations’, Journal of Management Studies, 30: 515–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1993.tb00315.x(1995) ‘Managing the academics: commodification and control in the development of university education in the UK’, Human Relations, 48: 993–1027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679504800902(2011) ‘Journal list fetishism and the perversion of scholarship: reactivity and the ABS list’, Organization, 18: 429–442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508411403532(2008) ‘Critical thinking as disciplinary practice’, Review of General Psychology, 12: 265–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-26220.127.116.115, and (1999) ‘An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories’, Leadership Quarterly, 10: 285–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2899%2900013-2(2006) Leadership in Organizations,(6th edn.Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall.