Constructing Research Questions: Doing Interesting Research

Books

Mats Alvesson & Jörgen Sandberg

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • The Natural Home

    SAGE has been part of the global academic community since 1965, supporting high quality research and learning that transforms society and our understanding of individuals, groups and cultures. SAGE is the independent, innovative, natural home for authors, editors and societies who share our commitment and passion for the social sciences.

    Find out more at: http://www.sagepublications.com

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    About the Authors

    Mats Alvesson is Professor of Business Administration at the University of Lund, Sweden, and a part-time professor in the school of Business at the University of Queensland, Australia. He has published a large number of books on a variety of topics, including Reflexive Methodology (with Kaj Sköldberg, Sage, 2009, Second edition), Understanding Organizational Culture (Sage, 2012, Second edition), Understanding Gender and Organization (with Yvonne Billing, Sage, 2009, Second edition), Knowledge Work and Knowledge-Intensive Firms (Oxford University Press, 2004) and Changing Organizational Culture (with Stefan Sveningsson, Routledge, 2008), as well as Interpreting Interviews (Sage, 2011), Qualitative Research and Theory Development (with Dan Kärreman, Sage, 2011) and Metaphors We Lead By (edited with André Spicer, Routledge, 2011).

    Jörgen Sandberg is Professor in the School of Business at the University of Queensland, Australia. His research interests include competence and learning in organizations, leadership, practice-based theories, qualitative research methods and the philosophical underpinnings of organizational research. He is currently carrying out research on practice theory in organization studies, frameworks and methodologies for developing more interesting and relevant theories and sense making in organizations. His work has appeared in numerous journals including the Academy of Management Journal, Academy of Management Review, Harvard Business Review, Journal of Management Studies, Organisational Research Methods and Organization Studies. He is also the author of several books and book chapters on the above topics published by Sage, Thomson, Routledge, and Kluwer.

    Preface

    As we demonstrate in this book, there is a widely felt shortage of interesting and novel ideas in social science. Much contemporary research is perceived to lack imagination and to offer little new theoretical insight. This is perhaps partly related to the fact that much has already been said in most disciplines, which makes it difficult to come up with anything radically new. Nevertheless, the lack of research contributions that stand out as interesting and exert a broader influence can also be viewed as an outcome of strong and narrow specialization coupled with a tendency for researchers to reproduce taken-for-granted assumptions and established vocabularies in their respective fields. The need to publish in the right journals and careers informed by ‘publish or perish’ orientations associated with the contemporary age of not only mass education but also mass research make many people unwilling to work with deviant ideas. As we will try to demonstrate, there are strong forces towards mainstreaming in many, if not most, academic fields. Established methodologies and norms for producing and publishing research tend to emphasize and normalize narrow and cautious research questions.

    In this book we address this issue and try to make a case for an alternative way of approaching the subject matter under study. We highlight and focus on the theme of research questions. This is a neglected theme in much of the writing concerning how to produce good research. Key elements in the construction of research questions – which we see as a crucial element in, and a significant driver of, research and results – are the critical investigation and challenging of established assumptions in an area. Establishing and working with new assumptions opens up possibilities for producing more interesting and influential research, especially the development of new theoretical ideas. This book offers a rationale, a methodology and illustrations for such work. In addition, we also address how institutions, professional norms and researchers' identity obstruct or facilitate more imaginative, challenging and interesting work. The quality and character of research is very much a matter of social norms; institutional forces framing the ways researchers do research.

    This book is partly based on a series of articles we have published already. Chapters 3 and 4 are partly revisions and an extension of Sandberg, J. and Alvesson, M. (2011) ‘Routes to research questions: beyond gap-spotting’, Organization, 18: 22–44. Chapters 5 and the first half of Chapter 6 build on Alvesson, M. and Sandberg, J. (2011) ‘Generating research questions through problematization’, Academy of Management Review, 36: 247–71, and Chapter 7 is a revision of Alvesson, M. and Sandberg, J. (2012) ‘Has management studies lost its way? Ideas for more imaginative and innovative research’, Journal of Management Studies. We are grateful to the publishers of these journals for allowing us to use the material in this book, and to the editors and the reviewers of these journal articles for their good advice.

    We also are highly appreciative of the comments on drafts of this book from three anonymous reviewers consulted by SAGE Publications and from our colleagues Ronald Barnett, Alan Burton-Jones, Peter Liesch, Allan Luke, Tyler Okimoto and Sverre Spoelstra. This book has also benefitted from research collaborations over the years with, in the case of MA, Stan Deetz, Dan Kärreman and Kaj Sköldberg, and for JS, Gloria Dall'Alba and Hari Tsoukas.

    Lund and Brisbane, June 2012, Mats Alvesson and Jörgen Sandberg
  • Appendix 1

    Table A.1 Basic modes of gap-spotting and their specific versions

    Appendix 2

    Table A.2 Summary of Davis's (1971) index of the interesting
    Characterization of a single phenomenonThe relations between multiple phenomena
    • Organization

      What seems to be a disorganized (unstructured) phenomenon is in reality an organized (structured) phenomenon OR vice versa

    • Composition

      What seem to be assorted heterogeneous phenomena are in reality composed of a single element OR vice versa

    • Abstraction

      What seems to an individual phenomenon is in reality a holistic phenomenon OR vice versa

    • Generalization

      What seems to be a local phenomenon is in reality a general phenomenon OR vice versa

    • Stabilization

      What seems to be a stable and unchanging phenomenon is in reality an unstable and changing phenomenon OR vice versa

    • Function

      What seems to be a phenomenon that functions ineffectively as a means for the attainment of an end is in reality a phenomenon that functions effectively OR vice versa

    • Evaluation

      What seems to be a bad phenomenon is in reality a good phenomenon OR vice versa

    • Co-relation

      What seem to be unrelated (independent) phenomena are in reality correlated (interrelated) phenomena OR vice versa

    • Co-existence

      What seem to be phenomena that can exist together are in reality phenomena which cannot exist together OR vice versa

    • Co-variation

      What seems to be a positive co-variation between phenomena is in reality a negative co-variation between phenomena OR vice versa

    • 11. Opposition

      What seem to be similar phenomena are in reality opposite phenomena OR vice versa

    • Causation

      What seems to be an independent phenomenon (variable) in a causal relation is in reality the dependent phenomenon (variable) OR vice versa

    Appendix 3

    Abbott's Main Heuristic Tools

    Abbott's methods of discovery consist of a set of heuristics that can support the outlined problematization methodology in important ways. According to Abbott, heuristics provide tools ‘to question what already has been said, transforming it to new ideas and views’ (2004: 85).

    Search heuristics are geared toward questioning and breaking out from existing thinking by bringing in and utilizing new ideas from outside a specific topic or field. Examples are to make an analogy by trying to understand your particular subject matter with the help of a completely different subject matter outside your field, and borrow a method developed and used in another field and apply it on your specific research topic.

    Argument heuristics mean turning something familiar and self-evident into something unfamiliar and obscure. Examples are to problematize the obvious as a way to generate new and interesting research avenues, and make a reversal, for example, universities do not facilitate but prevent learning.

    Descriptive heuristics are designed to help us imagine or perhaps better re-imagine social reality in specific ways. Examples are a changing context, for example, to reverse what is in the foreground to the background, and changing levels of analysis, for example, from a micro to a macro context.

    Narrative heuristics change the way reality is portrayed. Examples are stopping and putting in motion, for example, something that typically is seen as static becoming something that is in motion or vice versa, and taking and leaving contingency, for example, arguing that a phenomenon is contingent upon something specific or by arguing that is not based on any contingency.

    Fractal heuristics encompass major debates in the social sciences, such as positivism versus interpretivism, and realism versus constructionism that are ‘fractals in the sense that they seem important no matter at what level of investigation we take them up’ (2004: 163). These and other major debates can, according to Abbott, be used as terrific heuristic tools to produce new research ideas and problems and possibilities for research by playing them out against each other.

    References

    Abbott, A. (2001) Chaos of Disciplines. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Abbott, A. (2004) Methods of Discovery: Heuristics for the Social Sciences. New York: Norton.
    Adler, N.J. and Hansen, H. (2012) ‘Daring to care: scholarship that supports the courage of our convictions’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 21: 128–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492611427801
    Adler, N.J. and Harzing, A. (2009) ‘When knowledge wins: transcending the sense and non-sense of academic rankings’, Academy of Management Learning & Education, 8: 72–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMLE.2009.37012181
    Albert, S. and Whetten, D.A. (1985) Organizational Identity: Research in Organizational Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
    Alvesson, M. (1993) Cultural Perspectives on Organizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Alvesson, M. (2002) Postmodernism and Social Research. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Alvesson, M. (2011) ‘De-essentializing the knowledge intensive firm: reflections on sceptical research going against the mainstream’, Journal of Management Studies, 48: 1640–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2011.01025.x
    Alvesson, M. (2013a) The Triumph of Emptiness Consumption, higher education and work. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Alvesson, M. (2013b) Understanding Organizational Culture,
    2nd edn.
    London: Sage.
    Alvesson, M. and Billing, Y. (2009) Understanding Gender and Organization. London: Sage.
    Alvesson, M. and Kärreman, D. (2011) Qualitative Research and Theory Development. London: Sage.
    Alvesson, M. and Sköldberg, K. (2009) Reflexive Methodology,
    2nd edn.
    London: Sage.
    Alvesson, M. and Willmott, H. (2002) ‘Producing the appropriate individual: identity regulation as organizational control’, Journal of Management Studies, 39 (5): 619–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-6486.00305
    Alvesson, M., Ashcraft, K. and Thomas, R. (2008) ‘Identity matters: reflections on the construction of identity scholarship in organization studies’, Organization, 15: 5–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508407084426
    Alvesson, M., Hardy, C. and Harley, B. (2008) ‘Reflecting on reflexivity: reappraising practice’, Journal of Management Studies, 45: 480–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00765.x
    Anderson, R.C. and Reeb, D.M. (2004) ‘Board composition: balancing family influence in S&P 500 firms’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 49: 209–37.
    Ashcraft, K.L. and Alvesson, M. (2009) ‘The moving targets of dis/identification: wrestling with the reality of social construction’, working paper, University of Colorado, Denver, and Lund University.
    Ashforth, B. (1998) ‘Becoming: how does the process of identification unfold?’, in D. Whetten and C. Godfrey (Eds), Identity in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 213–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231495
    Ashforth, B. and Mael, F. (1989) ‘Social identity theory and the organization’, Academy of Management Review, 14: 20–39.
    Asplund, J. (1970) Om Undran Infor Samhallet. Lund: Argos.
    Astley, W.G. (1985) ‘Administrative science as socially constructed truth’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 30: 497–513. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392694
    Atkinson, C.J. and Checkland, P.B. (1984) ‘Extending the metaphor “system”’, Human Relations, 41: 709–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872678804101001
    Avery, R.B. and Rendall, M.S. (2002) ‘Lifetime inheritances of three generations of whites and blacks’, American Journal of Sociology, 107: 1300–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/344840
    Bacharach, S.B. (1989) ‘Organizational theories: some criteria for evaluation’, Academy of Management Review, 14: 496–515.
    Barker, J. (1993) ‘Tightening the iron cage: concertive control in self-managing teams’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 38: 408–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393374
    Barley, S.R. (2006) ‘When I write my masterpiece: thoughts on what makes a paper interesting’, Academy of Management Journal, 49: 16–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2006.20785495
    Barnett, R. (2010) ‘Being a university: future possibilities’. Public lecture at the University of Queensland, Australia.
    Barrett, M. and Walsham, G. (2004) ‘Making contributions from interpretive case studies: examining processes of construction and use’, in B. Kaplan, D.P. Truex, III, D. Wastell, et al. (Eds), Information Systems Research: Relevant Theory and Informed Practice. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic. pp. 293–312. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/1-4020-8095-6_17
    Bartunek, J. M., Rynes, S.L. and Ireland, D.R. (2006) ‘What makes management research interesting, and why does it matter?’, Academy of Management Journal, 49: 9–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2006.20785494
    Baruch, Y. and Holtom, B.C. (2008) ‘Survey response rate levels and trends in organizational research’, Human Relations, 61: 1139–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726708094863
    Baum, J.A. (2012) Bazerman, M.H. (1993) ‘Fairness, social comparison, and irrationality’, in J.K. Murnighan (Ed.), Social Psychology in Organizations: Advances in Theory and Research. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall. pp. 184–203.
    Bazerman, C. (1993) ‘Intertextual self-fashioning: Gould and Lewontin's representation of the literature’ In J. Settzer (Ed.), Understanding scientific prose, pp. 21–40. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Becker, H.S. (1998) Tricks of the Trade: How to Think About Your Research While Doing it. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226040998.001.0001
    Bedeian, A.G. (2003) ‘The manuscript review process: the proper roles of authors, referees, and editors’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 12: 331–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492603258974
    Bedeian, A.G. (2004) ‘Peer review and the social construction of knowledge in the management discipline’, Academy of Management Learning & Education, 3: 198–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMLE.2004.13500489
    Bernauer, J.W. (1987) ‘Michael Foucault's ecstatic thinking’, in J.W. Bernauer and D. Rasmussen (Eds), The Final Foucault. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. pp. 45–82.
    Bessant, J., Birley, S., Cooper, C., Dawnson, S., Gennard, J., Gardiner, M., Gray, A., Jones, P., Mayer, C., McGee, J., Pidd, M., Rowley, G., Saunders, J. and Stark, A. (2003) ‘The state of the field in UK management research: reflections of the Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) panel’, British Journal of Management, 14: 51–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.00265
    Bluhm, D. J., Harman, W., Lee, T. W., et al. (2010) ‘Qualitative research in management: a decade of progress’, Journal of Management Studies. Published online.
    Bouchikhi, H. and Kimberly, J.R. (2001) “It's difficult to innovate': the death of the tenured professor and the birth of the knowledge entrepreneur', Human Relations, 54: 77–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726701541010
    Bourdieu, P. (1979) Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Bourdieu, P. (1996) The Rules of Art: Genesis and Structure of the Literary Field. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Bourdieu, P. (2004) Science of Science and Reflexivity. Cambridge: Polity Press.
    Boyer, E. (1990) Scholarship Reconsidered. Princeton, NJ: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.
    Breslau, D. (1997) ‘Contract shop epistemology: credibility and problem construction in applied social science’, Social Studies of Science, 27: 363–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030631297027003001
    Brookfield, S.D. (1995) Becoming a Critically Reflective Teacher. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Brown, A. (2006) ‘A narrative approach to collective identities’, Journal of Management Studies, 43: 731–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00609.x
    Bruner, J. (1996) The Culture of Education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Brunsson, N. (2003) ‘Organized hypocrisy’, in B. Czarniawska and G. Sevon (Eds), The Northern Lights: Organization Theory in Scandinavia. Copenhagen: Liber and Copenhagen Business Press. pp. 201–22.
    Burawoy, M. (1979) Manufacturing Consent. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Burrell, G. and Morgan, G. (1979) Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis. Aldershot: Gower.
    Butler, J. (2004) Undoing gender. New York: Routledge.
    Callon, M. (1980) ‘Struggles and negotiations of what is problematic and what is not: the socio-logics of translation’, in K. Knorr, R. Krohn and R. Whitley (Eds), The Social Change. New York: Wiley. pp. 93–125.
    Camerer, C.F. and Fehr, E. (2006) ‘When does “economic” man dominate social behavior?’, Science, 6: 47–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1110600
    Campbell, J. P., Daft, R.L. and Hulin, C. (1982) What to Study: Generating and Developing Research Questions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Case, P. and Phillipson, G. (2004) ‘Astrology, alchemy and retro-organization theory: an astrogenealogical critique of the Myers-Briggs type indicator®’, Organization, 11: 473–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508404044059
    Castels, R. (1994) ‘“Problematization” as a mode of reading history’, in J. Goldstein (Ed.), Foucault and the Writing of History. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 237–52.
    Charmaz, K. (2000) Grounded theory: Objectivist and constructivist methods. In N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research (
    2nd edn
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 509–35.
    Chia, R. (2000) ‘Discourse analysis as organizational analysis’, Organization, 7: 513–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/135050840073009
    Clark, T. and Wright, M. (2009) ‘So farewell then … reflections on editing the journal of management studies’, Journal of Management Studies, 46: 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2008.00808.x
    Cliff, J., Langton, N. and Aldrich, H. (2005) ‘Walking the talk? Gendered rhetoric vs. action in small firms’, Organization Studies, 26 (1): 63–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0170840605046490
    Cole, S. and Cole, J.R. (1967) ‘Scientific output and recognition: a study in the operation of the reward system in science’, American Sociological Review, 32: 377–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2091085
    Collinson, D. (2003) ‘Identities and insecurities’, Organization, 10: 527–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/13505084030103010
    Colquitt, J.A. and Zapata-Phelan, C.P. (2007) ‘Trends in theory building and theory testing: a five-decade study of the Academy of Management Journal’, Academy of Management Journal, 50: 1261–1303. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2007.28165855
    Corley, K.G. and Gioia, D.A. (2004) ‘Identity ambiguity and change in the wake of a corporate spin-off’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 49: 173–208.
    Corley, K.G. and Gioia, D.A. (2011) ‘Building theory about theory building: what constitutes a theoretical contribution?’, Academy of Management Review, 36: 12–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2011.55662499
    Creswell, J. W. (1998) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Daly, A.J. and Finnigan, K.S. (2011) ‘The ebb and flow of social network ties between district leaders under high-stakes accountability’, American Educational Research Journal, 48: 39–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831210368990
    Danny, M. D., Greenwood, R. and Prakash, R. (2009) ‘What happened to organization theory?’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 18: 273–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492609344672
    Das, H. and Long, B.S. (2010) ‘What makes management research interesting? An exploratory study’, Journal of Managerial Issues, XXII: 127–42.
    Davis, M.S. (1971) ‘That's interesting! Towards a phenomenology of sociology and a sociology of phenomenology’, Philosophy of Social Sciences, 1: 309–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004839317100100211
    Davis, M.S. (1986) ‘That's classic! The phenomenology and rhetoric of successful social theories’, Philosophy of Social Sciences, 16: 285–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004839318601600301
    Davis, M.S. (1999) ‘Aphorism and clichés: the generation and dissipation of conceptual charisma’, Annual Review of Sociology, 25: 245–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.25.1.245
    de Rond, M. and Miller, A.N. (2005) ‘Publish or perish: bane or boon of academic life?’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 14: 321–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492605276850
    Deacon, R. (2000) ‘Theory as practice: Foucault's concept of problematization’, Telos, 118: 127–39.
    Deetz, S. (1992) Democracy in an Age of Corporate Colonization: Developments in Communication and the Politics of Everyday Life. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
    Deetz, S. (1996) ‘Describing differences in approaches to organizational science: rethinking Burrell and Morgan and their legacy’, Organization Science, 7: 191–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.7.2.191
    Delanty, G. (2005) Social Science. Buckingham: Open University Press.
    Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (eds) (2000) Handbook of Qualitative Research,
    2nd edn
    . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Denzin, N.K. and Lincoln, Y.S. (2011) The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research,
    4th edn.
    Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Derrida, J. (1978) Edmund Husserl's Origin of Geometry: An Introduction. New York: Harvester Press. (First published in 1967.)
    Dewey, J. (1916) Essays in Experimental Logic. New York: Dover. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/13833-000
    Dewey, J. (1938) Logic: The Theory of Inquiry. New York: Holt.
    Dillon, J.T. (1984) ‘The classification of research questions’, Review of Educational Research, 53: 327–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/00346543054003327
    DiMaggio, P. (1995) ‘Comments on “What theory is not,” Administrative Science Quarterly, 40: 391–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393790
    DiMaggio, P. and Powell, W. (1983) ‘The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields’, American Sociological Review, 48 (2): 147–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095101
    Donaldson, L. (1985) In Defence of Organization Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Dutton J., Dukerich, J. and Harquail, C. (1994) ‘Organizational images and member identification’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 43: 293–327.
    Dyck, B., Starke, F. A., Mischke, G.A., et al. (2005) ‘Learning to build a car: an empirical investigation of organizational learning’, Journal of Management Studies, 42: 387–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2005.00501.x
    Eagly, A.H. and Johannesen-Schmidt, M.C. (2001) ‘The leadership styles of women and men’, Journal of Social Issues, 57: 781–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/0022-4537.00241
    Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and Jackson, P.R. (2008) Management Research. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
    Eckberg, D. L., and Hill L. (1980) The paradigm concept and sociology: a critical review. In Gutting, G., and S. Bend (Eds), Paradigms and Revolutions: Applications and Appraisals of Thomas Kuhn's Philosophy of Science. IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
    Eisenhardt, K. (1989) ‘Building theories from case study research’, Academy of Management Review, 14: 532–50.
    Elsbach, K. (1999) ‘An expanded model of organizational identification’, Research in Organizational Behavior, 21: 163–200.
    Feyerabend, P. (1978) Against Method. London: Verso.
    Flick, U. (2006) An Introduction to Qualitative Research,
    3rd edn.
    London: Sage.
    Flynn, T. (1994) ‘Foucault's mapping of history’, in G. Gutting (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Foucault. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Foucault, M. (1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge. New York: Pantheon Books.
    Foucault, M. (1977) Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Random House.
    Foucault, M. (1980) Power/Knowledge. New York: Pantheon Books.
    Foucault, M. (1984) ‘Space, knowledge and power’, in P. Rainbow (Ed.), The Foucault Reader. New York: Pantheon Books.
    Foucault, M. (1985) The Use of Pleasure: History of Sexuality, vol. 2. New York: Vintage Books.
    Fox, N.J. (2011) ‘Boundary objects, social meanings and the success of new technologies’, Sociology, 45: 70–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038510387196
    Freebody, P. (2003) Qualitative Research in Education: Interaction and Practice. London: Sage.
    Freire, P. (1970) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Herder & Herder.
    Gabriel, Y. (2005) ‘Glass cages and glass palaces: Images of organizations in image conscious times’, Organization, 12: 9–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508405048574
    Gabriel, Y. (2010) ‘Organization studies: a space for ideas, identities and agonies’, Organization Studies, 31: 757–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0170840610372574
    Gadamer, H.-G. (1994) Truth and Method. New York: Continuum. (First published in 1960.)
    Galbraith, J.K. (1958) The Affluent Society. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
    Garbett, T. (1988) How to Build a Corporation's Identity and Project its Image. Lexington, MA: D.C. Heath.
    Geertz, C. (1973) The Interpretation of Cultures. New York: Basic Books.
    Gergen, K. (1978) ‘Toward generative theory’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31: 1344–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.36.11.1344
    Gergen, K. (1992) ‘Organization theory in the postmodern era’, in M. Reed and M. Hughes (Eds), Rethinking Organizations. London: Sage. pp. 207–26.
    Gibbons, D.E. (2004) ‘Friendship and advice networks in the context of changing professional values’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 49: 238–62.
    Gibbons, M., Limoges, C., Nowotny, H., et al. (1994) The New Production of Knowledge: The Dynamic of Science and Research in Contemporary Societies. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221853
    Gioia, D., Schulz, M. and Corley, K. (2000) ‘Organizational identity, image, and adaptive instability’, Academy of Management Review, 25: 63–81.
    Glaser, B.G. and Strauss, A.L. (1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory. New York: Aldine.
    Glick, W. H., Miller, C.C. and Cardinal, L.B. (2007) ‘Making a life in the field of organization science’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28: 817–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.455
    Golden-Biddle, K. and Azuma, J. (2010) Constructing contribution in ‘Strategy as Practice’. In Golsorkhi, L. Rouleau, D. Seidl, E. Vaara (Eds), Cambridge Handbook of Strategy as Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 79–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511777882.006
    Golden-Biddle, K. and Locke, K. (2007) Composing Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Gouldner, A.W. (1970) The Coming Crisis of Western Sociology. New York: Basic Books.
    Grandy, G. and Mills, A.J. (2004) ‘Strategy as simulacra? A radical reflexive look at the discipline and practice of strategy’, Journal of Management Studies, 41: 1153–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2004.00470.x
    Habermas, J. (1972) Knowledge and the Human Interest. London: Heinemann.
    Hammer, L. B., Kossek, E. E., Kent Anger, W., Bodner, T. and Zimmerman, K.L. (2011) ‘Clarifying work-family intervention processes: The roles of work-family conflict and family supportive supervisor behaviors. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96: 134–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020927
    Hannan, M.T. and Freeman, J.H. (1977) ‘The population ecology of organizations’, American Journal of Sociology, 83: 929–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226424
    Hargens, L.L. (2000) ‘Using the literature: reference networks, reference contexts, and the social structure of scholarship’, American Sociological Review, 65: 846–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2657516
    Haslam, A. (2004) Psychology of Organizations,
    2nd edn.
    London: Sage.
    Haslam, A. and Reicher, S. (2006) ‘Social identity and the dynamics of organizational life’, in C. Bartel, S. Blader and A. Wrzesniewski (Eds), Identity and the Modern Organization. New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 135–66.
    Hassard, J. and Keleman, M. (2002) ‘Production and consumption in organizational knowledge: the case of the ‘Paradigms debate”, Organization, 9: 331–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508402009002911
    Hawley-Dolan, A. and Winners, E. (2011) ‘Seeing the mind behind the art: people can distinguish abstract expressionist paintings from highly similar paintings by children, chimps, monkeys, and elephants’, Psychological Science, 22: 435. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797611400915
    Heidegger, M. (1981) Being and Time. New York: SCM Press. (First published in 1927.)
    Heijes, C. (2011) ‘Cross-cultural perception and power dynamics across changing organizational and national contexts: Curacao and the Netherlands’, Human Relations, 64 (5): 653–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0018726710386394
    Henrich, J., Boyd, R., Bowles, S., et al. (2005) ‘“Economic man” in cross-cultural perspective: behavioral experiments in 15 small-scale societies’, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28: 1–61.
    Henriques, J., et al. (1984) Changing the Subject: Psychology, Social Regulation and Subjectivity. New York: Methuen.
    Hesse-Biber, S.N. and Leavy P. (2011) The Practice of Qualitative Research. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.
    Hofstede, G. (1980) Culture's Consequences: International Differences in Work-Related Values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Hook, J.L. (2010) ‘Gender inequality in the welfare state: sex segregation in housework, 1965–2003’, American Journal of Sociology, 115: 1480–523. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/651384
    Hostetler, K. (1994) ‘Community and neutrality in critical thought: a nonobjectivist view on the conduct and teaching of critical thinking’, in K.S. Walters (Ed.), Re-thinking Reason: New Perspectives in Critical Thinking. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press. pp. 135–54.
    Husen, T. (1988) ‘Research paradigms in education’, Interchange, 19/1: 2–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01815504
    Husserl, E. (1970) Logical Investigations, vol. 2. London: Routledge. (First published in 1900–1901.)
    Jadallah, M., Anderson, R. C., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., et al. (2011) ‘Influence of a teacher's scaffolding moves during child-led small-group discussions’, American Educational Research Journal, 48: 194–230. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831210371498
    Jenkins, R. (2000) ‘Categorization: identity, social process and epistemology’, Current Sociology, 48: 7–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011392100048003003
    Johanson, L.M. (2007) ‘Sitting in your readers' chair: attending to your academic sensemakers’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 16: 290–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492607307167
    Johnson, M.S. (2003) ‘Designating opponents in empirical research: the rhetoric of “interestingness” in consumer research’, Marketing Theory, 3: 477–501. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1470593103040783
    Jones, I. R., Leontowitsch, M. and Higgs, P. (2010) ‘The experience of retirement in second modernity: generational habitus among retired senior managers’, Sociology, 44: 103–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038509351610
    Judge, T.A. and Cable, D.M. (2011) ‘When it comes to pay, do the thin win? The effect of weight on pay for men and women’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 96: 95–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020860
    Knights, D. (1992) ‘Changing spaces: the disruptive impact of a new epistemological location for the study of management’, Academy of Management Review, 17: 514–36.
    Knights, D. and Morgan, G. (1991) ‘Corporate strategy, organizations, and subjectivity: a critique’, Organization Studies, 12: 251–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069101200205
    Knights, D. and Willmott, H. (1989) ‘Power and subjectivity at work’, Sociology, 23: 535–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038589023004003
    Knorr-Cetina, K. (1981) The Manufacture of Knowledge: An Essay on the Constructive and Contextual Nature of Science. New York: Pergamon Press.
    Koch, S. (1981) ‘The nature and limits of psychological knowledge’, American Psychologist, 36: 257–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.36.3.257
    Koopman, C. (2011) ‘Foucault and pragmatism: introductory notes on metaphilosophical methodology’, Foucault Studies, 11: 3–10.
    Kopp, B. and Mandl, H. (2011) ‘Fostering argument justification using collaboration scripts and content schemes’, Learning and Instruction, 21: 636–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.learninstruc.2011.02.001
    Kuhn, T.S. (1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Kunda, G. (1992) Engineering Culture: Control and Commitment in a High-Tech Corporation. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
    Lasch, C. (1978) The Culture of Narcissism. New York: Norton.
    Latour, B. and Woolgar, S. (1979) Laboratory Life: The Social Construction of Scientific Facts. London: Sage.
    Lawrence, P.A. (2008) ‘Lost in publication: how measurement harms science’, Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics, 8: 9–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.3354/esep00079
    Le, H., Oh, I., Robbins, S. B., et al. (2011) ‘Too much of a good thing: curvilinear relationships between personality traits and job performance’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 96: 113–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0021016
    Lee, T., Mitchell, T. and Sablynski, C. (1999) ‘Qualitative research in organizational and vocational behavior’, Journal of Vocational Behavior, 55: 161–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jvbe.1999.1707
    Leung, K. (2007) ‘The glory and tyranny of citation impact: an eastern Asian perspective’, Academy of Management Journal, 50: 510–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2007.25525592
    Lincoln, Y. and Guba, E. (2000) The only generalization is: There is no generalization. In R. Gomm, M. Hammersley, and P. Foster (Eds), Case Study Method: Key Issues, key Texts. London: Sage. pp. 27–43.
    Liu, K.-Y., King, M. and Bearman, P.S. (2010) ‘Social influence and the autism epidemic’, American Journal of Sociology, 115: 1387–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/651448
    Locke, K. and Golden-Biddle, K. (1997) ‘Constructing opportunities for contribution: structuring intertextual coherence and “problematizing” in organizational studies’, Academy of Management Journal, 40: 1023–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256926
    Luke, N. (2010) ‘Migrants' competing commitments: sexual partners in urban Africa and remittances to the rural origin’, American Journal of Sociology, 115: 1435–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/651374
    Lüscher, L.S. and Lewis, M.W. (2008) ‘Organizational change and managerial sensemaking: working through paradox’, Academy of Management Journal, 51: 221–40.
    Macdonald, S. and Kam, J. (2007) ‘Aardvark et al.: quality journals and gamesmanship in management studies’, Journal of Information Science, 33: 702–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0165551507077419
    Mägi, K., Lerkkanen, M., Poikkeus, A., et al. (2011) ‘The cross-lagged relations between children's academic skill development, task-avoidance, and parental beliefs about success’, Learning and Instruction, 21: 664–75.
    Mahrer, A.R. (2000) ‘Philosophy of science and the foundations of psychotheraphy’, American Psychologist, 55: 1117–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.10.1117
    March, J. and Olsen, J. (1976) Ambiguity and Choice in Organizations. Bergen: Unversitetsforlaget.
    Martin, J. (2002) Organizational Culture: Mapping the Terrain. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Martin, J. and Meyerson, D. (1988) ‘Organizational culture and the denial, channeling and acknowledgment of ambiguity’, in L.R. Pondy (Ed.), Managing Ambiguity and ambiguity. New York: Wiley. pp. 93–125.
    McCall, L. (2005) ‘Gender, race, and the restructuring of work: organizational and institutional perspectives’, in. S. Ackroyd, R. Batt, P. Thomson, P.S. Tolbert (Eds), The Oxford Handbook of Work & Organization. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 74–92.
    McKinley, W., Mone, M.A. and Moon, G. (1999) ‘Determinants and development of schools in organization theory’, Academy of Management Review, 24: 634–48.
    McMullen, J. and Shepard, D. (2006) ‘Encouraging consensus challenging research in universities’, Journal of Management Studies, 43: 1643–670. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2006.00641.x
    McSweeney, B. (2002) ‘Hofstede's model of national cultural differences and their consequences: a triumph of faith- a failure analysis’, Human Relations, 55: 89–118.
    Merleau-Ponty, M. (1962) Phenomenology of Perception. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. (First published in 1945.)
    Meyer, J. and Rowan, B. (1977) ‘Institutionalized organizations: formal structure as myth and ceremony’, American Journal of Sociology, 83: 340–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226550
    Miller, D. (2001) ‘The poverty of morality’, Journal of Consumer Culture, 1: 225–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/146954050100100210
    Miller, F., Greenwood, R. and Prakash, R. (2009) ‘What happened to organization theory?’ Journal of Management Inquiry, 18: 273–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492609344672
    Mills, C.W. (1959) The Sociological Imagination. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Mizruchi, M.S. and Fein, L.C. (1999) ‘Preview the social construction of organizational knowledge: a study of the uses of coercive, mimetic, and normative isomorphism’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 44: 653–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2667051
    Morgan, G. (1980) ‘Paradigms, metaphors, and puzzle solving in organization theory’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 25: 605–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392283
    Morgan, G. (1986) Images of Organization. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Morrison, E. W., Wheeler-Smith, S.L. and Kamdar, D. (2011) ‘Speaking up in groups: a cross-level study of group voice climate and voice’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 96: 183–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0020744
    Mulkay, M. and Gilbert, N.G. (1983) ‘Scientists' theory talk’, Canadian Journal of Sociology, 8: 179–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3340125
    Musson, G. and Tietze, S. (2004) ‘Places and spaces: the role of metonymy in organizational talk’, Journal of Management Studies, 41: 1301–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2004.00476.x
    Myers, G. (1993) ‘Making enemies: how Gould and Lewontin criticize’, in J. Selzer (Ed.), Understanding Scientific Prose. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press. pp. 256–75.
    Newton, T. (1998) ‘Theorizing subjectivity in organizations: the failure of Foucauldian studies?’, Organization Studies, 19: 415–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069801900303
    O'Connor, E.E., Dearing, E. and Collins, B.A. (2011) ‘Teacher-child relationship and behavior problem trajectories in elementary school’, American Educational Research Journal, 48: 120–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831210365008
    Oliver, C. and O'Reilly, K. (2010) ‘A Bourdieusian analysis of class and migration: habitus and the individualizing process’, Sociology, 44: 49–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038509351627
    Palmer, D. (2006) ‘Taking stock of the criteria we use to evaluate one another's work: ASQ 50 years out’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 51: 535–59.
    Papay, P.J. (2011) ‘Different tests, different answers: the stability of teacher value-added estimates across outcome measures’, American Educational Research Journal, 48: 163–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831210362589
    Penfold-Mounce, R., Beer, D. and Burrows, R. (2011) ‘The Wire as social science-fiction?’, Sociology, 45: 152–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038510387199
    Peter, P.J. and Olson, J.C. (1986) ‘Is science marketing?’, Journal of Marketing, 47: 111–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1251404
    Pfeffer, J. (1993) ‘Barriers to the advance of organizational science: paradigm’, Academy of Management Review, 18: 599–620.
    Pfeffer, J. (2007) ‘A modest proposal: how we might change the process and product of managerial research’, Academy of Management Journal, 50: 1334–345. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2007.28166117
    Pierson, P. (2007) ‘The cost of marginalization: qualitative studies of American politics’, Comparative Political Studies, 40: 145–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0010414006296347
    Potter, J. and Wetherell, M. (1987) Discourse and Social Psychology: Beyond Attitudes and Behaviour. London: Sage.
    Pratt, M. (2000) ‘The good, the bad, and the ambivalent: managing identification among Amway distributors’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 45: 456–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2667106
    Pratt, M. (2009) ‘From the editors: the lack of a boilerplate: tips on writing up (and rewriting) qualitative research’, Academy of Management Journal, 52: 856–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2009.44632557
    Pratt, M. and Foreman, P. (2000) ‘Classifying responses to multiple organizational identities’, Academy of Management Review, 25: 18–42.
    Richardson, F.C. and Slife, B.D. (2011) ‘Critical thinking in social and psychological inquiry’, Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 31 (3): 165–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0024723
    Richler, J.J., Cheung, O. S. and Gauthier, I. (2011) ‘Holistic processing predicts face recognition’, Psychological Science, 22: 464–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797611401753
    Ritchie, J. (2003) ‘The applications of qualitative methods to social research’, in J. Ritchie and J. Lewis (Eds), Qualitative Research Practice. London: Sage. pp. 24–46.
    Ritzer, G. (1980) Sociology: A Multiple Paradigm Science. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
    Ritzer, G. (1998) ‘Writing to be read: changing the culture and reward structure of American sociology’, Contemporary Sociology, 27: 446–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2654473
    Rorty, R. (1992) ‘Cosmopolitanism without emancipation: a response to Lyotard’, in S. Lash and J. Friedman (Eds), Modernity & Identity. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 59–72.
    Rosenau, P.M. (1992) Post-Modernism and the Social Sciences: Insights, Inroads and Intrusions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Russell, J.L. (2011) ‘From child's garden to academic press: the role of shifting institutional logics in redefining kindergarten education’, American Educational Research Journal, 48: 236–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.3102/0002831210372135
    Rynes, S.L. (2007) ‘Academy of management journal editor's forum on rich research: editor's foreword’, Academy of Management Journal, 50: 13. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2007.24159064
    Sandberg, J. (2000) ‘Understanding human competence at work: an interpretive approach’, Academy of Management Journal, 43: 9–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1556383
    Sandberg, J. (2001) ‘The constructions of social constructionism’, in S. E. Sjöstrand, J. Sandberg, and M. Tyrstrup (Eds), Invisible Management: The Social Construction of Leadership. London: Thomson. pp. 29–48.
    Sandberg, J. and Alvesson, M. (2011) ‘Ways of constructing research questions: gap-spotting or problematization?’, Organization, 18: 23–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508410372151
    Sandberg, J. and Targama, A. (2007) Managing Understanding in Organizations. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212530
    Sandberg, J. and Tsoukas, H. (2011) ‘Grasping the logic of practice: theorizing through practical rationality’, Academy of Management Review, 36: 338–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2011.59330942
    Sauder, M. and Espeland, W.E. (2009) ‘The discipline of rankings: tight coupling and organizational change’, American Sociological Review, 74: 63–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000312240907400104
    Savin-Baden, M. and Major, C. (2012) Qualitative Research: The Essential Guide to Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.
    Sayer, A. (2011) ‘Habitus, work and contributive justice’, Sociology, 45: 7–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038510387188
    Schein, E. (1985) Organization Culture and Leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Schultze, U. and Stabell, C. (2004) ‘Knowing what you don't know? Discourses and contradictions in knowledge management research’, Journal of Management Studies, 41: 549–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2004.00444.x
    Sennett, R. (1998) The Corrosion of Character. New York: Norton.
    Shotter, J. and Gergen, K. (eds) (1989) Texts of Identity. London: Sage.
    Sievers, B. (1986) ‘Beyond the surrogate of motivation’, Organization Studies, 7: 335–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068600700402
    Silverman, D. (2001) Interpreting Qualitative Data,
    2nd edn.
    London: Sage.
    Simon, H.A. (1947) Administrative Behavior: A Study of Decision-Making Processes in Administrative Organization. New York: Macmillan.
    Singh, G., Haddad, K.M. and Chow, C.W. (2007) ‘Are articles in “top” management journals necessarily of higher quality?’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 16: 319–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492607305894
    Slife, B.D. and Williams, R.N. (1995) What's Behind the Research? Discovering Hidden Assumptions in the Behavioral Sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Smircich, L. (1983) ‘Concepts of culture and organizational analysis’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 28: 339–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392246
    Stacey, J. (1999) ‘Virtual truth with a vengeance’, Contemporary Sociology, 28: 18–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2653843
    Starbuck, W.H. (2003) ‘Turning lemons into lemonade: where is the value in peer reviews?’, Journal of Management Inquiry, 12: 344–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1056492603258972
    Starbuck, W.H. (2006) The Production of Knowledge: The Challenge of Social Science Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199288533.001.0001
    Starbuck, W.H. (2009) ‘The constant causes of never-ending faddishness in the behavioral and social sciences’, Scandinavian Journal of Management, 25: 108–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scaman.2008.11.005
    Steier, F. (ed) (1991) Research and Reflexivity: Inquiries in Social Construction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Stevens, M. L., Armstrong, E.A. and Arum, R. (2008) ‘Sieve, incubator, temple, hub: empirical and theoretical advances in the sociology of higher education’, Annual Review of Sociology, 34: 127–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.34.040507.134737
    Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. (1994) ‘Grounded theory methodology: an overview’, in N.K. Denzin and Y.S. Lincoln (Eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 273–85.
    Sutton, R. and Staw, B. (1995) ‘What theory is not’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 40: 371–84. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2393788
    Taylor, N. (2010) ‘Animal shelter emotion management: a case of in situ hegemonic resistance?’, Sociology, 44: 85–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038509351629
    Tsang, E.W.K. and Frey, B.S. (2007) ‘The as-is journal review process: let authors own their ideas’, Academy of Management Learning & Education, 6: 128–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMLE.2007.24401710
    Tsoukas, H. and Chia, R. (2002) ‘On organizational becoming: rethinking organizational change’, Organization Science, 13: 567–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/orsc.13.5.567.7810
    Tsoukas, H. and Knudsen, C. (eds) (2004) The Oxford Handbook of Organization Theory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Vaara, E., Tienari, J., Piekkari, R., et al. (2005) ‘Language and the circuits of power in a merging multinational corporation’, Journal of Management Studies, 42: 595–623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2005.00510.x
    Van de Ven, A.H. (2007) Engaged Scholarship: A Guide for Organizational and Social Research. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Van Maanen, J. (1988) Tales of the Field: on Writing Ethnography. Chicago: University of Chicago.
    Van Maanen, J. and Barley, S.R. (1984) ‘Occupational communities: culture and control in organizations’, Research in Organizational Behavior, 6: 287–365.
    Watson, T.J. (2004) ‘HRM and critical social science analysis’, Journal of Management Studies, 41: 447–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2004.00440.x
    Weedon, C. (1987) Feminist Practice and Poststructuralist Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.
    Weick, K.E. (1989) ‘Theory construction as disciplined imagination’, Academy of Management Review, 14: 516–31.
    Weick, K.E. (2001) ‘Gapping the relevance gap: fashions meet fundamentalist in management research’, British Journal of Management, 12: 71–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12.s1.9
    Weinstein, J. (2000) ‘A (further) comment on the difference between applied and academic sociology’, Contemporary Sociology, 29: 344–47.
    West, C. and Zimmerman, D.H. (1987) ‘Doing gender’, Gender and Society, 1: 125–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891243287001002002
    West, C. and Zimmerman, D.H. (2009) ‘Accounting for doing gender’, Gender and Society, 23: 112–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0891243208326529
    Westphal, J.D. and Khanna, P. (2003) ‘Keeping directors in line: social distancing as a control mechanism in the corporate elite’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 48: 361–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3556678
    White, P. (2009) Developing Research Questions. New York: Palgrave.
    Wicker, A.W. (1985) ‘Getting out of our conceptual ruts’, American Psychologist, 40: 1094–1103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.40.10.1094
    Wilhite, A.W. and Fong, E.A. (2012) ‘Coercive citation in academic publishing’, Science, 335: 542–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1212540
    Willmott, H. (1993) ‘Strength is ignorance; slavery is freedom: managing culture in modern organizations’, Journal of Management Studies, 30: 515–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.1993.tb00315.x
    Willmott, H. (1995) ‘Managing the academics: commodification and control in the development of university education in the UK’, Human Relations, 48: 993–1027. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872679504800902
    Willmott, H. (2011) ‘Journal list fetishism and the perversion of scholarship: reactivity and the ABS list’, Organization, 18: 429–442. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1350508411403532
    Yanchar, S. C., Slife, B.D. and Warne, R. (2008) ‘Critical thinking as disciplinary practice’, Review of General Psychology, 12: 265–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.12.3.265
    Yukl, G. (1999) ‘An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories’, Leadership Quarterly, 10: 285–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843%2899%2900013-2
    Yukl, G. (2006) Leadership in Organizations,
    6th edn.
    Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice-Hall.

    • Loading...
Back to Top