Confronting Relationship Challenges
Publication Year: 1995
Subject: Interpersonal Relationships
Also with Melanie K. Barnes, Sheryl Perlmutter Bowen, Heather R. Carlson, Marilyn Coleman, Lawrence H. Ganong, Jeffrey Haig, John H. Harvey, Renee F. Lyons, Darlene Meade, Paula Michal-Johnson, Suzanne M. Retzinger, James T. West, Jacqueline P. Wiseman, Katherine D. Wright & Paul H. Wright “Highly recommended.” –Mark Waldman in Contemporary Psychology “Each chapter of Confronting Relationship Challenges has something new to say. … The chapters offer rich opportunities for researchers to expand their investigations and their conceptualizations. … This book will challenge the reader to enhanced understanding and increased commitment to appropriate intervening when others (and ourselves) are overwhelmed by the ‘dark side’ of relationships.” –Judith L. Fischer in Journal of Marriage and the Family Addressing the difficult side of relationships, Confronting Relationship Challenges moves ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: For Better, for Worse, for Richer, for Poorer: The Rough and the Smooth of Relationships
- Chapter 2: Shame and Anger in Personal Relationships
- Chapter 3: Having and Managing Enemies: A Very Challenging Relationship
- Chapter 4: Family Reconfiguring Following Divorce
- Chapter 5: Codependency: Personality Syndrome or Relational Process?
- Chapter 6: Understanding How the Dynamics of Ideology Influence Violence Between Intimates
- Chapter 7: HIV/AIDS: A Crucible for Understanding the Dark Side of Sexual Interactions
- Chapter 8: Painting a New Face on Relationships: Relationship Remodeling in Response to Chronic Illness
- Chapter 9: Held Captive by Their Memories: Managing Grief in Relationships
Understanding Relationship Processes[Page ii]
Steve Duck, University of Iowa
This series of books on the theme Understanding Relationship Processes provides a coherent and progressive review of current thinking in the field. Uniquely organized around the notion of relational competence, the six volumes constitute a contemporary, multidisciplinary handbook of relationship research for advanced students and professionals in psychology, sociology, communication, family studies, and education.
Volumes in the Series
- INDIVIDUALS IN RELATIONSHIPS
- LEARNING ABOUT RELATIONSHIPS
- SOCIAL CONTEXT AND RELATIONSHIPS
- DYNAMICS OF RELATIONSHIPS
- CONFRONTING RELATIONSHIP CHALLENGES
- UNDER-STUDIED RELATIONSHIPS
Copyright © 1995 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information address:
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Main entry under title:
Confronting relationship challenges / edited by Steve Duck and Julia T. Wood.
p. cm. — (Understanding relationship processes series; 5)
Includes bibliographical references and indexes.
ISBN 0-8039-5648-7 (cl). — ISBN 0-8039-5649-5 (pb)
1. Interpersonal relations. 2. Interpersonal conflict. I. Duck, Steve. II. Wood, Julia T. III. Series.
95 96 97 98 99 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Production Editor: Yvonne Könneker
Ventura Typesetter: Janelle LeMaster
Series Preface[Page vii]
This short series, Understanding Relationship Processes, responds to recent calls for attention to processes in relationships. A close look at the nature of processes in relationships will reveal that, over and above the importance of change, temporality, and an orientation to the future, there lies beneath most process thinking on relationships the implicit notion of competent use of knowledge across time. For example, this assumption is true of many elements of the work on relationships, such as the (competent) transition to marriage, (skilled) conflict management, (appropriate) self-disclosure, and (orderly) organization or (satisfactory) maintenance of relationships diachronically. The assumption also is contained in any discussion of intimacy assessment or creation of “a couple” (by which authors evaluate, usually implicitly, the degrees of intimacy or progress that are adequate, allowable, suitable, or competent) and is latent in discussions of relationship breakdown where researchers treat breakdown as failure or incompetence, contrasted with skill or competence.[Page viii]
Such competence is evident in, and constrained by, a variety of influences on behavior. In focusing on some of these topics, this series moves conceptually outward; that is, the series began with the contributions of individuals—and their developmental experiences—to relationships and moved toward social context and interpersonal interaction. Individuals bring into relationships their individual characteristics and factors that reflect their point in the life cycle and their developmental achievements. Individuals are influenced by the social settings (situational, cultural, linguistic, and societal) in which relationships take place; they are constrained and influenced by the structural, transactional, behavioral, and communicative contexts of their relationships; and they sometimes conduct relationships in dysfunctional environments or disrupted emotional contexts. The series takes these contextual themes in sequence and deals with the latest research and thinking to address these topics.
Accordingly, each volume focuses on a particular context or arena for relationship activity. The volumes of the series are as follows:
Individuals in Relationships. Volume 1 deals particularly with the ways in which internal or intrapersonal context is provided by structures of the mind or of knowledge that are prerequisite to success in relationships; however, rather than focusing on such things as if they were the end of the story, the chapters place such knowledge styles and structures in context by referring frequently to behavioral effects of such structures.
Learning About Relationships. Volume 2 covers especially the skills and experiences in childhood that lay the groundwork for competence as a properly functioning relater in adult life; the volume emphasizes the wide range of social sources from which development of competence is derived and the richness of the social sources from which developing minds acquire their sense of relationship competence.
Social Context and Relationships. Volume 3 focuses especially on the social structural constraints within which relationships [Page ix]are located and the ways in which the two partners must negotiate and deal with the dialectical and interior pressures that are created by such contexts.
Dynamics of Relationships. Volume 4 deals with the dyadic management of relational conduct in the context provided by the earlier volumes and explores the issues of competent relational management that are created by the transactions of relating—not the factors that influence or prepare the ground for relationships, but the actual doing of them.
Confronting Relationship Challenges (Steve Duck & Julia T. Wood, coeditors). Volume 5 turns the series toward the difficult side of relationships and away from any implication that relationships are only good and delightful. Relationship processes encompass “binds” as well as “bonds” (in Wiseman's  elegant play on words), and both must be included in an understanding of relationship processes.
Under-Studied Relationships: Off the Beaten Track (Julia T. Wood & Steve Duck, coeditors). Volume 6 recognizes and begins to rectify existing scholarship's tendency to focus on only particular types of relationships and particular issues in relationships, and thus to ignore or underacknowledge the range of real-world relationships and the myriad processes they entail. A full understanding of relationship processes must include consideration of theoretically inconvenient and/or socially disfavored instances as well as instances (or phenomena) whose value and importance traditionally have been acknowledged in research.[Page x]
Volume Preface[Page xi]
The first two volumes in this series, Understanding Relationship Processes, outline the contribution of individual knowledge to the conduct of relationships, whether from the point of view of cognitive structure or of the learning that takes place in childhood. The next two volumes explore the relational contexts provided by, respectively, various external, nonindividual, and nondyadic influences, and by interior, dynamic, transactional processes. Volume 3, Social Context and Relationships, focuses on contexts provided by various social, cultural, structural, and network processes. Volume 4, Dynamics of Relationships, focuses on the sense in which specific relational behaviors are located in sequences and in partners’ continual accommodations to one another.
The present book, Confronting Relationship Challenges, Volume 5 in the series, moves us toward a different set of issues—that is, what can go wrong with relationships or what can make them troublesome. The consistent attention to values, benefits, and joys of relationships, coupled with scant attention to problems, [Page xii]challenges, and costs of relationships, has cultivated a body of scholarship that could be interpreted as suggesting relationships are unreservedly good things. Writers have indicated the benefits and blessings of relationships, the fact that they are close and supportive, and the evidence showing that we all regard them as central to our lives and happiness. However, that pleasantness has another aspect. That which can be pleasing can also deny pleasure; that which can be supportive can fail to provide support; that which can generate happiness can also prompt pain and, indeed, suffering.
The contributors to the present volume consider some of the ways in which relationships provide us with challenges. Not all aspects of relationships are good, even when the relationships are close, and some require considerable skills of management and tolerance. Relationships involve shame and anger as well as joy and love, acts of betrayal or letting down as well as displays of commitment. In addition to challenges within relationships, everyday irritations from outside relationships can also seep in to tarnish our connections with other people. And within relationships themselves there are dynamics that can create tension, resentment, and disappointment from time to time.
As well as looking at such aspects of relationships, the chapters in the present volume make the subtler point that relationships themselves are not simple positive/negative, black/white, good/bad, competent/challenging things. Many relationship experiences are an oxymoronic mixture of elements (love/hate, for example, or the sweet sorrows of parting). An obvious example is the fact that pain as well as growth can result from conflict. Furthermore, several aspects of relating are not self-evidently positive or negative, but may appear in the light of later occurrences to have been mixed blessings or perhaps the reverse of what participants first interpreted (or understood) them to be. Finally, retrospection may select and selectively edit different aspects of relational events as characteristic of those events, so that positivity is transformed into negativity, and vice versa.
This volume and this series thus challenge any appearance that relationships consist of single interactions devoid of contexts, unitary experiences devoid of nuance and reformulation, [Page xiii]or developments that are not transformative of meaning. Relationships are more than mere sequences of behavior or cumulations of individual acts; they gain their existence from the meanings of such sequences and cumulations—and the human processes of creating and sharing meaning are both complex and continuous (Duck, 1994a). In investing activities and communication with dynamic continuity, partners in relationships create a context within which to comprehend their connectedness to one another and to confront the challenges it brings.
In Chapter 1, Duck and Wood assert the importance of exploring both rough and smooth contexts of relationships and of considering how partners manage the two elements together to produce a sense of the relationship's character. Unpleasant relational experiences are important for the development of sound theories that should be able to account for negative relational experiences, recognizing them as common human experiences that are as fully part of relationships as are positive experiences. The combination of positive and negative experiences creates the wholeness that most people experience in their relationships.
Retzinger opens Chapter 2 by noting that quarrels are common in personal relationships. She then explores the role of anger and shame in the conduct of everyday relationships. Taking the view that conflict is a response to a lapse in the social bond and the emergence and handling of shame and anger, Retzinger seeks to fulfill the mission of the present volume by focusing on these processes that underlie conflict in personal relationships. She argues that when persons interact in conflict there are exchanges of meaning. Meaning is intricately tied to the bond between the individuals, the manner in which they communicate, and the emotions expressed and exchanged. As a result, some kinds of interaction may be more prone to conflict than others. Retzinger argues that if the role of emotions and meaning in conflict can be described, we may have a better understanding of how relationships are built, maintained, damaged, and repaired.
In Chapter 3, Wiseman and Duck deal with a common relationship that receives virtually no research attention, that of [Page xiv]enemies. Just as people have friends, they have enemies, antagonists, and opponents who try to make their lives more difficult and who interfere with their attainment of goals. Enemies are not merely conceptual abstractions, but persons who actively interfere with the processes of social life. They represent a particularly important and interesting relationship challenge for ordinary folks and also offer students of social relations some important theoretical challenges. Enemyship is a distinctive type of relationship that most existing theories of relationships are quite unable to explain. Furthermore, the analysis suggests that, far from being simple opposites, friendship and enemyship have a certain number of important similarities; however, they also have some distinctly different dynamics. For example, whereas mutual acknowledgment is a sine qua non of friendship, a feature of enemyship in many cases is its unacknowledged character—and that needs management.
Coleman and Ganong focus in Chapter 4 on the challenge of reconfiguring a “family” after divorce. Pointing out that the traditional model of “the family” overlooks a number of possible alternative structures that have recently come to prominence, the authors consider the comparisons between revision of parents’ and children's roles in a family and between the processes that occur when two adults reconceptualize themselves and their roles after divorce. Coleman and Ganong indicate that the emotional challenges of reconfiguring a family are compounded by various institutional insensitivities that add to the difficulties of reconfigured families. This leads them to recommend that scholars develop models that contribute to the more complete institutionalization of postdivorce reconfigured families.
In Chapter 5, Wright and Wright assert that it would be most useful to shift the currently dominant focus on the relational challenges represented by codependency as a personality syndrome to codependent relating as a process that emerges and persists within a particular kind of personal relationship. They point out that a process view is implicit, if not explicit, in most present-day approaches to codependency treatment. These approaches emphasize the necessity of the codependent's altering [Page xv]her or his pattern of relating to the “dependent” in order for any personal or relational change to occur. One implication of the proposed model is that codependent relating is not likely to surface apart from an appropriate “mix” of personal and situational influences. Those influences include the self-attributes of not one, but two individuals, whom we label as a “codependent” and a “dependent.” Wright and Wright thus offer an exciting new—relational—way to conceptualize the codependency challenge.
In Chapter 6, West explores the particularly dark challenge of relationship violence through the lens of an ideological analysis. Taking the view that ideology is built into the way in which we all conduct our relationships and also shapes the contexts and partners’ options within those contexts (compare Volume 3 of this series, Social Context and Relationships), West presents the case that an ideology of “normal” family structure and the relative power of men and women pervades the ways in which violence in relationships is treated. Presenting evidence that various cultural institutions are ideologically invested in supporting a family structure in which some relational partners are seen as the “property” of other people, West indicates how such contexts affect those persons who are the victims of violence in relationships.
Bowen and Michal-Johnson consider in Chapter 7 one of the most pressing social challenges of the present age: HIV/AIDS. They examine three specific high-risk relational situations that militate against individuals’ protecting themselves against HIV/AIDS: alcohol abuse, drug abuse, and relationship violence. Their treatment of each of these contexts is consistent with this series's focus on processes, as they specifically concentrate on the personal and interpersonal processes that increase or decrease the HIV risk of sexual activity. Just as this particular volume challenges many of the assumptions that underlie traditional understandings of relationship goals and behaviors, Bowen and Michal-Johnson ask us to consider how HIV risk challenges traditional assumptions about relationship processes.
In Chapter 8, Lyons and Meade develop an analogy between the remodeling of a home and the changes that take place in a [Page xvi]relationship when one of the involved persons develops a serious chronic illness. They ask what relational adaptations are necessary to accommodate to the physical problems and what challenges the partners particularly face in coping with such adaptations. Lyons and Meade offer an intriguing interpretation of some of these changes in terms of dialectical theory and stress the paradoxical unity of competing forces in the relationship that are brought about by the illness and its management.
In the final chapter, Harvey, Barnes, Carlson, and Haig discuss the impact of memories on the process of grieving and the effects of bereavement as these experiences affect the survivors of the deaths of loved ones and how those deaths have affected them over a period of time. The authors discuss the idea of being “held captive” by memory, as both a positive and a challenging experience for the survivor. Because such memories constitute an important context for the continued life of the surviving person, the memories construct and shape not only feelings about the dead loved one but also the survivor's experience of everyday life. Another topic of the analysis is how habits connected to interaction with dead loved ones also may exert continued power over the bereaved person.
Together, the chapters in the present volume add considerable depth of perspective to our understanding of relationship processes by indicating the dynamic crucible in which amalgamation of the everyday-life routines and forces of communicative, psychological, sociological, and developmental influences takes place. They thus follow up on the argument implicit in the third and fourth volumes of this series, that relationships have many sides that are lived by the participants in contexts, not merely “outcomes” produced by cognitive states or relational history. Relationships are constructed and forged by real human beings facing everyday dilemmas and dynamically wrestling to construct meaningful interpretations of themselves, each other, and their relationships as all evolve and interact in continually changing contexts.
References[Page 234]1978) Learned helplessness in humans: Critique and reformulation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87, 49–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.87.1.49, , & (1994). Family diversity and well-being. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (1992a). Health passions: Safer sex as play. In T.Edgar, M.A.Fitzpatrick, & V.S.Freimuth (Eds.), AIDS: A communication perspective (pp. 69–89). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1992b). Sustaining passion: Eroticism and safe-sex talk. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 5, 479–484.(1988). Safe-sex talk [Video]. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University, Department of Communication Studies.(Producer), Moytl, H.D. (Technical Director), & (Acting Director). (1980) Divorce: A crisis of family transition and change. Family Relations, 29, 533–540. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584469(1993) The effect of the postdivorce relationship on paternal involvement: A longitudinal analysis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 63, 441–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079446, & (1987). Divorced families: A multidisciplinary developmental view. New York: W.W. Norton., & (1991) A typology of drug resistance strategies. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 19, 129–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909889109365299, , & ([Page 235]1981) Situated activity and identity formation. In M.Rosenberg & R.H.Turner (Eds.), Social psychology: Sociological perspectives. New York: Basic Books., & (1993). Physical abuse: A barrier to treatment for some addicted women [Handout from presentation]. National Institute for Drug Abuse National Conference on Drug Abuse, Research and Practice, Washington, DC.(1976). Essays in self-criticism (G. Lock, Trans.). London: New Left.(1993) Children's adjustment to divorce: Theories, hypotheses, and empirical support. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 23–38. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352954(1989). Ex-spouses and new spouses: A study of relationships. Greenwich, CT: JAI.(American Cancer Society. (1978). 1978 facts and figures. New York: Author.American Psychiatric Association. (1987). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed., rev.). Washington, DC: Author.1977) Words and everything else: Verbal and nonverbal cues in social interpretation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35, 443–449. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1243, & (1992) After divorce: Investigations into father absence. Gender & Society, 6, 562–586. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124392006004003(1988) Codependency: A view from women married to alcoholics. International Journal of the Addictions, 23, 331–350., & (1988). From front porch to back seat: Courtship in twentieth-century America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1966). The duality of human existence. Chicago: Rand McNally.(1977) Issues of violence in family casework. Social Casework, 58, 3–12.(1992) Syphilis, sex and crack cocaine: Images of risk and morality. Social Science and Medicine, 35, 147–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(92)90162-J, , van , & (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1993) From childhood to adult relationships: Attachment theory and research. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Learning about relationships (pp. 30–62). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.([Page 236]1987) Symbols of relationship identity in relationship cultures. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 4, 261–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026540758700400302(1988) A dialectical perspective on communication strategies in relationship development. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Handbook of personal relationships (pp. 257–273). New York: John Wiley.(1990) Dialectical contradictions in relationship development. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 69–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407590071004(1992) Forms and functions of intimate play in personal relationships. Human Communication Research, 18, 336–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1992.tb00556.x(1993) The social side of personal relationships: A dialectical perspective. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Social context and relationships (pp. 139–165). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1994) A dialogic approach to relationship maintenance. In D.J.Canary & L.Stafford (Eds.), Communication and relational maintenance. New York: Academic Press.(1990) Marital partners’ perceptions of marital maintenance strategies. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 187–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407590072003, & (1993) Relationship maintenance strategies and dialectical contradictions in personal relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 225–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026540759301000204, & (Beer, W. (Ed.). (1988). Relative strangers: Studies of stepfamily processes. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.1980). Critical practice. New York: Methuen.(The intimate weave: Time and relationships. New York: Guilford.(in press).1991) Drug abuse and other risk factors for physical abuse in pregnancy among white, non-Hispanic, Black, and Hispanic women. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 164, 1491–1499., , , & (1982). Language and social knowledge. London: Arnold., & (1993). Discreet indiscretions: The social organization of gossip. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.(1983) Mutual combat and other family violence myths. In D.Finkelhor, R.J.Gelles, G.T.Hotaling, & M.A.Straus (Eds.), The dark side of families: Current family violence research (pp. 197–212). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., , , & (1986) Social networks, support, and health: Taking the next step forward. American Journal of Epidemiology, 123, 559–562.(1979) Social networks, host resistance and mortality: A nine year follow-up of Alameda County residents. American Journal of Epidemiology, 109, 186–204., & (1981) The divorce myth. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 60, 67–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-4918.1981.tb00642.x(1993) Responsibilities in studying postmodern families. Journal of Family Issues, 14, 35–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X93014001004(1988) Sociological perspectives in family violence. In V.B.Van Hasselt, R.L.Morrison, A.S.Bellack, & M.Hersen (Eds.), Handbook of family violence (pp. 57–86). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-5360-8_4, & ([Page 237]1987). Arguing and thinking: A rhetorical approach to social psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1987) Courtship violence: The patterns of conflict resolution strategies across seven levels of emotional commitment. Family Relations, 36, 283–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/583541(1975). Multimethod analysis of social reinforcement exchange between maritally distressed and nondistressed spouse and strangerd yads. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31, 349–360. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076280, , & (1991) Psychological resources, coping strategies, and negotiation styles as discriminators of violence in dating relationships. Family Relations, 40, 45–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585657, , & (1982). It will never happen to me. Denver: Medical Administration.(1976). The meaning of disability. London: Heinemann.(1988) Parental functioning and the home environment in families of divorce: Prospective and concurrent analysis. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 27, 207–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-198803000-00013, , & Gjerde, E K. (1936) Social attitudes and nonsymbolic interaction. Journal of Educational Sociology, 9, 515–523. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2262360(1983). American couples: Love, sex, and money. New York: William Morrow., & (1982) On the efficacy of openness in close relationships. In M.Burgoon (Ed.), Communication yearbook5 (pp. 109–124). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.(1971). Divorce and after: An analysis of the emotional and social problems of divorce. Garden City, NY: Anchor.(1992) A factor analytic approach to modeling AIDS risk behaviors among heterosexual injection drug users. Journal of Drug Issues, 22, 807–822., & (1962). Conflict and defense: A general theory. New York: Harper.(1978). Family therapy in clinical practice. New York: Jason Aronson.(1989) The crisis of communicating in relationships: Confronting the threat of AIDS. AIDS and Public Policy, 4, 10–19., & (1990, November). Evaluating the validity of college students’ strategies for HIV risk assessment with relational partners. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Chicago., & (“Telling them for real”: A case of culture-specific HIV education for African-Americans in the urban underclass. In L.Fuller & L.Shilling (Eds.), Communicating about communicable diseases. Amherst, MA: Human Resources Development., & (in press). [Page 238]1963) Pathological mourning and childhood mourning. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 11, 500–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/000306516301100303(1973). Attachment and loss (Vol. 2). New York: Basic Books.(1979). The making and breaking of affectional bonds. London: Tavistock.(1980). Attachment and loss: Vol. 3. Loss: Sadness and depression. London: Hogarth.(1988). A secure base: Parent-child attachment and healthy human development. New York: Basic Books.(1985) Impact of legal custody status on fathers’ parenting postdivorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 47, 481–488. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352147, & (1990) African-American youth and AIDS high-risk behavior. Youth & Society, 22, 54–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X90022001004, , & (1988). Bradshaw on: The family. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications.(1993) A social exchange model of nonresidential parent involvement. In C.Depner & J.Bray (Eds.), Nonresidential parenting: New vistas in family living (pp. 87–108). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , , & Sheets, V L. (1988) Serial marriage: A heuristic analysis of an emerging family form. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 211–222. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.103.2.211, , & (1982) Social-psychological adjustment to multiple sclerosis. Social Science and Medicine, 16, 2129–2135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(82)90262-3, & (1988). Treating adult children of alcoholics: A developmental perspective. New York: John Wiley.(1987). When battered women kill. New York: Free Press.(1990) What's happening to the family? Interactions between demographic and institutional change. Demography, 27, 483–498. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2061566(1989) National estimates of cohabitation: Cohort levels and union stability. Demography, 26, 615–625. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2061261, & (1984) Nonverbal and relational communication associated with reticence. Human Communication Research, 10, 601–626. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1984.tb00034.x, & (1989) Gender identity, self-esteem, and physical and sexual abuse in dating relationships. In M.Pirog-Good & J.Stets (Eds.), Violence in dating relationships (pp. 72–93). New York: Praeger., , & (1982) Psychosocial aspects of multiple sclerosis. Physiotherapy, 68, 149–150., & Burnfield, E (1991) HIV-related sexual behaviors of college students. Journal of the American College Health Association, 40, 115–118. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.1991.9936266, , & O’ ([Page 239]1984) Quality of life in cancer patients: An hypothesis. Journal of Medical Ethics, 10, 124–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jme.10.3.124(1993). Mew, women, and aggression. New York: Basic Books.(Canary, D.J., & Stafford, L. (Eds.). (1994). Communication and relational maintenance. New York: Academic Press.1982) Premarital abuse: A social psychological perspective. Journal of Family Issues, 3, 79–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251382003001006, , , , & (1992). Courtship. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1994) [Data]. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 5(4).1986). Diagnosing and treating co-dependence. Minneapolis: Johnson Institute.(1990) Stepparents, biologic parents, and the law's perceptions of “family” after divorce. In S.D.Sugarman & H.H.Kay (Eds.), Divorce reform at the crossroads (pp. 102–129). New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1991). Good days, bad days: The self in chronic illness and disability. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1978) Remarriage as an incomplete institution. American Journal of Sociology, 84, 634–650. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/226830(1985) Premarital sexual pathways and relationship development. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 271–288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407585023003, & (1993) An examination of single men's and women's sexual aggressiveness in dating relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 511–528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407593104003, , & (1990) The dialectic of marital and parental relationships within the stepfamily. Communication Monographs, 57, 44–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637759009376184, , & (1990) Talk among sexual partners about AIDS: Factors differentiating those who talk from those who do not. Communication Research, 17, 792–808. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009365029001700605, , & (1992) Talk among sexual partners: Interpersonal communication for risk reduction or risk enhancement. Health Communication, 4, 39–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0401_4, , & (1981) Quasi-kin relationships and marital quality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 41, 890–901. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1990(1982) Joint custody after divorce: Major issues and goals for research. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 102–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.91.1.102, & (1985) Family therapy with stepfamilies. Journal of Strategic and Systemic Therapies, 4, 13–23.(1990). Sex, lies, and HIVNew England Journal of Medicine, 322, 774–775. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199003153221111, & Mays, V M. ([Page 240]1974) Morbidity in the United States. In C.L.Erhardt & J.E.Berlin (Eds.), Mortality and morbidity in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1988) Chemical dependency and intimacy dysfunction: Inextricably bound. In E.Coleman (Ed.), Chemical dependency and intimacy dysfunction. New York: Haworth.(1957). Community conflict. New York: Free Press.(1987) The cultural stereotyping of stepfamilies. In K.Pasley & M.Ihinger-Tallman (Eds.), Remarriage and stepparenting: Current research and theory (pp. 19–41). New York: Guilford., & (1984a, October/December). Children and stepfamilies. Leadership, pp. 6–7., , & (1984b). What teachers should know about stepfamilies. Childhood Education, 60, 306–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00094056.1984.10520672, , & (1984). Courtship violence: A recent study and its implication for future research. Paper presented at the 2nd National Family Violence Research Conference, University of New Hampshire, Durham.(1991) Rethinking ethnography: Toward a critical cultural politics. Communication Monographs, 58, 179–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637759109376222(1970). Human nature and the social order. New York: Schocken. (Original work published 1902)(1987) Group therapy for adult children of alcoholics. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 12, 156–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933928708411766, , & (1990) Opposite sex perceptions of the effects of alcohol consumption on a subsequent sexual activity in a dating situation. Psychology, 27, 7–11., & (1991) The influence of observed alcohol consumption on perceptions of initiation of sexual activity in a college dating situation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 21, 500–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1991.tb00533.x, & (1956). The functions of social conflict. New York: Free Press.(1979) Domineeringness and dominance: Replication and expansion. Communication Monographs, 46, 179–192. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637757909376005, , & (1990) Social support, interdependence, and the dilemmas of helping. In B.R.Sarason, I.G.Sarason, & G.R.Pierce (Eds.), Social support: An interactional view. New York: John Wiley., , & (1992) Couples coping with chronic illness. In T.J.Akamatse, J.C.Crowther, S.C.Hobfoll, & M.A.P.Stevens (Eds.), Family health psychology. Washington, DC: Hemisphere., & (1984) The centrality of the step relationship: A challenge to family theory and practice. Family Relations, 33, 459–464. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584717(1965). Sex and the significant Americans. Baltimore: Pelican., & ([Page 241]1991) Sexuality and communication in close relationships. In K.McKinney & S.Sprecher (Eds.), Sexuality in close relationships (pp. 93–110). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (Cupach, W.R., & Spitzberg, B.H. (Eds.). (1994). The dark side of interpersonal communication. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.1989) AIDS in blackface. Daedalus, 118, 205–227.(1986) Coitally active university students: Sexual behaviors, concerns, and challenges. Adolescence, 21, 403–419., & (1986) Dating violence: The primacy of previous experience. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 3, 457–471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407586034004, & (1984). The practice of everyday life (S. Randall, Trans.). Berkeley: University of California Press.(1989) Minority AIDS prevention: Moving beyond cultural perspectives towards sociopolitical empowerment. AIDS Education and Prevention, 1, 141–153.(1969) Conflicts: Productive and destructive. Journal of Social Issues, 25, 7–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1969.tb02576.x(1994) The intrapersonal-interpersonal dialectical process of self-disclosure. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Dynamics of relationships (pp. 27–57). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1987) Strategies for maintaining and repairing marital relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 4, 143–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407587042003, & (1993) Definitions and theoretical perspectives on maintaining relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 163–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026540759301000201, & (1979). Violence against wives. New York: Free Press., & Dobash E (1993, November). Parental relations, socioeconomic status, and father-child contact following divorce. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the National Council on Family Relations, Baltimore., & (1991) Sensation seeking and targeting of televised anti-drug PSAs. In L.Donohew, H.Sypher, & W.Bukoski (Eds.), Persuasive communication and drug abuse prevention (pp. 209–226). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , & ([Page 242]1982) A topography of relationship disengagement and dissolution. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Personal relationships 4: Dissolving personal relationships. London: Academic Press.(1984) A perspective on the repair of personal relationships: Repair of what, when? In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Personal relationships 5: Repairing personal relationships. London: Academic Press.(1986). Human relationships. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446214336(1988). Relating to others. Monterey: Brooks/Cole.(1990) Relationships as unfinished business: Out of the frying pan and into the 1990s. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7, 5–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407590071001(1991) Afterword: Couples and coupling. In K.McKinney & S.Sprecher (Eds.), Sexuality in close relationships (pp. 193–205). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1992). Human relationships (2nd ed.). London: Sage.(1994a). Meaningful relationships: Talking, sense, and relating. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1994b). Steady as (s)he goes: Relational maintenance as a shared meaning system. In D.J.Canary & L.Stafford (Eds.), Communication and relational maintenance (pp. 45–60). New York: Academic Press.(1994c). Stratagems, spoils and a serpent's tooth: On the delights and dilemmas of personal relationships. In W.R.Cupach & B.H.Spitzberg (Eds.), The dark side of interpersonal communication (pp. 3–24). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1991) Increasing our understanding of divorced fathers who have infrequent contact with their children. Family Relations, 40, 279–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585012(1982) The interpersonal dynamics of cancer: Problems in social relationships and their impact on the patient. In H.S.Friedman & M.R.DiMatteo (Eds.), Interpersonal issues in health care (pp. 69–100). New York: Academic Press., & (1966). Suicide. New York: Free Press. (Original work published 1851)(1988). The domestic assault on women. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.(1988) Compliance-gaining in relational interaction: When your life depends on it. Southern Speech Communication Journal, 53, 385–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10417948809372738, & (1993) Expectations for sexual interaction: A cognitive test of the sequencing of sexual communication behaviors. Health Communication, 5, 239–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0504_1, & (1992) Strategic sexual communication: Condom use resistance and response. Health Communication, 4, 83–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc0402_1, Freimuth, V S., , , & (1992). Discursive social psychology. London: Sage., 6c (1992). Social remembering. London: Sage., , & (1977) Disease and illness. Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry, 1, 9–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00114808(1977) Theoretical considerations of violent marriages (personality characteristics of wife abusers). Social Casework, 58, 515–526.(1987) Joint custody: Affirming that parents and families are forever. Social Work, 32, 18–24.(1992, August). Revenge: Individual differences and correlates. Paper presented at the 100th annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.(1963). Childhood and society (2nd ed.). New York: W.W. Norton.([Page 243]1973). Family and kinship in modem society. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.(1986) Individual and interpersonal factors in the etiology of marital distress: The example of remarital couples. In R.Gilmour & S.W.Duck (Eds.), The emerging field of personal relationships (pp. 251–263). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1977, October). Sexual factors in marital violence. Medical Aspects of Human Sexuality, pp. 30–43.(1988) Helping the helper heal: Co-dependency in the helping professions. Journal of Independent Social Work, 3, 35–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J283v03n02_04(Fatal attractions: Affection and disaffection in intimate relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 12.(in press).1992) “Kick ‘em when they're down”: Explanations of the relationship between stress and interpersonal aggression and violence. Sociological Quarterly, 33, 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1992.tb00360.x(1983) How women experience battering: The process of victimization. Social Problems, 30, 325–339. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800357, & (1992) Recent changes in laws affecting stepfamilies: Suggestions for legal reform. Family Relations, 41, 334–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585200, & (1983). Social network interactions: A buffer or a stress?American Journal of Community Psychology, 11, 423–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00894057, , & (1992) Codependency and parenting styles. Journal of Adolescent Research, 7, 352–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074355489273005, & (1991) Measuring codependency. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 8, 87–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J020V08N01_06, , & (1992) Offspring codependency: Blocking the impact of family of origin. Family Dynamics of Addiction Quarterly, 2, 20–32., , , & (1988). Between husbands and wives: Communication in marriage. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1987) Relationship violence: A model for family professionals. Family Relations, 36, 295–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/583543(1990) Relationship violence by women: Issues and implications. Family Relations, 39, 194–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585723(1991) Identification of patterns of wife abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 187–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626091006002004, , , , & (1991) Sex differences in motivations and effects in dating violence. Family Relations, 40, 51–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585658, , , & ([Page 244]1980) The paradoxical nature of family relationships and family conflict. In M.A.Straus & G.T.Hotaling (Eds.), The social causes of husband-wife violence (pp. 115–135). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1985). Contemporary perspectives on rhetoric. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland., , & (1972). The archaeology of knowledge (S. Smith, Trans.). New York: Pantheon.(1973). Madness and civilization (R. Howard, Trans.). New York: Vintage.(1980). Power/knowledge (C.Gordon, Ed.). New York: Pantheon.(1992) Blaming by naming: Battered women and the epidemic of codependence. Social Work, 37, 5–6., & (1984) The long-term relationships of marked people. In E.E.Jones et al. (Eds.), Social stigma: The psychology of marked relationships (pp. 255–294). New York: W.H. Freeman.(1959) Inhibitions, symptoms, and anxiety. In J.Strachey (Ed.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 20, pp. 87–172). London: Hogarth. (Original work published 1926)(1990) Risk of sexually transmitted disease among black adolescent crack users in Oakland and San Francisco, Calif. Journal of the American Medical Association, 263, 851–855. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1990.03440060097039, , , & (1792). Principles of moral and political science. Edinburgh: W. Chreech.(1987) The new extended family: The experience of parents and children after remarriage. In K.Pasley & M.Ihinger-Tallman (Eds.), Remarriage and stepparenting: Current research and theory (pp. 42–61). New York: Guilford.(1983) The life course of children of divorce: Marital disruption and parental conflict. American Sociological Review, 48, 656–668. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2094925, , , & (Relationships between members of cultural minorities. In J.T.Wood & S.W.Duck (Eds.), Under-studied relationships: Off the beaten track. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(in press).1993) Family diversity in a youth organization: Involvement of single-parents families and stepfamilies in 4-H. Family Relations, 42, 286–292. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585558(1989) Preparing for remarriage: Anticipating the issues, seeking solutions. Family Relations, 38, 28–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/583606, & (1994). Remarried family relationships. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (1956) Conditions of successful degradation. American Journal of Sociology, 61, 420–424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/221800(1985). Intimate violence in families. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243139, & (1988). Intimate violence: The causes and consequences of abuse in the American family. New York: Simon & Schuster., & ([Page 245]1986) Codependency. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 18, 7–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.1986.10524474, & (1983). Wife battering: A systems theory approach. New York: Guilford.(1974). The first year of bereavement. New York: John Wiley., , & (1980) Remarriage: Some recent changes and variations. Journal of Family Issues, 1, 455–478.(1979) The normative integration of the former spouse relationship. Journal of Divorce, 2, 395–414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J279v02n04_06(1980) Former spouse-current spouse relationships. Journal of Family Issues, 1, 58–80.(1959). Behavior in public places. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. New York: Simon & Schuster.(1967). Interaction ritual: Essays on face-to-face behavior. Garden City, NY: Anchor.(1982) Remarriage family: Structure, system, future. In J.C.Hansen & L.Messenger (Eds.), Therapy with remarried families (pp. 187–206). Rockville, MD: Aspen.(1989) On terms used and abused: The concept of “codependency.” Drugs and Society, 3, 113–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J023v03n03_05(1989). Heroes of their own lives. New York: Viking.(1991) Gender, stress and distress: Social, relational influences. In J.Eckenrode (Ed.), The social context of coping (pp. 139–163). New York: Plenum., & (1979). Marital interaction. New York: Academic Press.(1993). What predicts divorce?Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1986) Assessing the role of emotion in marriage. Behavioral Assessment, 8, 31–48., & (1969). Manual of instruction for using the Gottschalk-Gleser content analysis scales: Anxiety, hostility, and social alienation-personal disorganization. Berkeley: University of California Press., , & (1983) A systemic and attributional approach to victimology. Victimology, 8, 5–16., & (1990) A critical analysis of the codependence construct. Psychiatry, 53, 396–406.(1977). Close friendship and individualistic community. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of California, Davis.(1993) The rise of divorce culture and its gendered foundations. Feminism & Psychology, 3, 363–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959353593033008([Page 246]1982) Dissolving long-term relationships: Patterns of divorcing in middle age. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Personal relationships 4: Dissolving personal relationships. London: Academic Press., & (1991) Dysfunctional managers: The next human resource challenge. Organizational Dynamics, 20, 48–57. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616(91)90071-G(1986) Characteristics of spouse abusers: Predictors of treatment acceptance. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 1, 363–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626086001003008, & (1983) “Core” and “extended” social networks in relation to health and illness. Social Science and Medicine, 17, 405–411. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(83)90344-1(1981) Cohabitation before remarriage: Its relationship to family strengths. Alternative Lifestyles, 4, 507–522., & (1992) University students from homes with alcoholic parents: Considerations for therapy groups. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 17, 37–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929208413710, & (1990) Codependency: A critique. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 22, 285–292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.1990.10472551, & (1977) Friendship as an accomplishment: An ethogenic approach to social relationships. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Theory and practice in interpersonal attraction (pp. 338–354). London: Academic Press.(1987) Realizing: How facts are created in human interaction. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 4, 480–495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407587044006, & (1991) Childhood roles in group therapy: The lost child and the mascot. Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 16, 223–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01933929108416156, & (1984). The “ideal” and real components of friendship. Unpublished manuscript., & (1986) Vivid memories of vivid loves gone by. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 3, 359–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407586033007, , & (1992) House of pain and hope: Accounts of loss. Death Studies, 16, 99–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481189208252562, , , , & (1990). Interpersonal accounts: A social psychological perspective. Oxford: Basil Blackwell., , & (1987) Conceptualizing romantic love as an attachment process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 511–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.521, & (1986). Atheory and a method of love. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 392–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2062, & (1983) Romance and violence in dating relationships. Journal of Family Issues, 4, 467–482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251383004003004, & (1992) Coping with marital transitions: A family systems perspective. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 57(2–3, Serial No. 227). http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1166050, & Clingempeel, W G. ([Page 247]1985) Long-term effects of divorce and remarriage on the adjustment of children. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 518–530. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-7138(09)60052-2, , & (1992) The role of economic resources and remarriage in financial assistance for children. Journal of Family Issues, 13, 158–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251392013002003(1989). If this is love why do I feel so insecure?New York: Atlantic., , & (1990) Beliefs about AIDS, use of alcohol and drugs, and unprotected sex among Massachusetts adolescents. Journal of American Public Health, 80, 295–299. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.80.3.295, , , & (1988). What are the economic consequences of divorce?Demography, 25, 415–427. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2061541, & (1992) Toward an interpersonal model of codependence and contradependence. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 371–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1992.tb01618.x, & (1958) Conformity, status and idiosyncrasy credit. Psychological Review, 65, 117–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0042501(1993) The rhetoric of motives in divorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 801–813. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352763(1942). Self analysis. New York: W W Norton.(1945). Our inner conflicts. New York: W.W. Norton.(1986) An analysis of risk markers in husband to wife violence: The current state of knowledge. Violence and Victims, 1, 101–124., & (1992). High-risk behaviors for transmission of HIV among clients in treatment for substance abuse. Journal of Drug Issues, 22, 885–901., & (1980) Violence and the social structure as reflected in children's books from 1850 to 1970. In M.A.Straus & G.T.Hotaling (Eds.), The social causes of husband-wife violence (pp. 51–67). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press., & (1992) Correlates of HIV seropositivity among injection drug users not in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 22, 849–866., , , , , Lidz, V, , , & (1993) Developing a middle-range theory of father involvement postdivorce. Journal of Family Issues, 14, 550–571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251393014004005, , & (1989) Trading sex for crack among juvenile drug users: A research note. Contemporary Drug Problems, 16, 689–700.(1992) Cross-cultural perspectives on codependence: The case of poor Hispanics. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62, 245–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079340, & ([Page 248]1965) Family rules: Marital quid pro quo. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 589–594. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1965.01720360061010(1988). Social psychology, past and present. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1977) Problem solving and contingency in the treatment of marital discord. Journal of Clinical and Consulting Psychology, 45, 92–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.45.1.92(1910). Psychology. New York: Henry Holt.(1986). M∗A∗S∗H 4077: An analog of an “alcoholic family”?Journal of the American Academy of Medical Hypnoanalysts, 1, 47–57.(1990, July 15–20). Personal networks of chronically ill people. Paper presented at the Fifth International Conference on Personal Relationships, Oxford., , & (1988). Impasses in divorce. New York: Free Press., & (1993) Family transitions and children's functioning: The case of parental conflict and divorce. In P.A.Cowan, D.Field, D.A.Hansen, A.Skolnick, & G.Swanson (Eds.), Family, self, and society: Toward a new agenda for family research (pp. 197–234). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1994) Betrayal in close relationships. In A.L.Weber & J.H.Harvey (Eds.), Perspectives on close relationships (pp. 243–261). New York: Allyn & Bacon., & (1988). Seductions to crime. New York: Basic Books.(1983). Close relationships. New York: W.H. Freeman., , , , , , , & (1977) Predictability, power and vulnerability in interpersonal attraction. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Theory and practice in interpersonal attraction (pp. 355–378). London: Academic Press.(1992) The why, when and whether of condom use among female and male drug users. Journal of Community Health, 17, 303–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01324360, & (1992). Rape in America: A report to the nation. Arlington, VA: National Victim Center., Edmunds, C, & (1991). Understanding and treating codependence. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1993) Third-party influence on the management of personal relationships. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Social context and relationships (pp. 55–77). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1977). Meaning and void: Inner experience and the incentives in people's lives. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1984) Visitation and the noncustodial father. Journal of Divorce, 8, 47–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J279v08n02_04, & (1971) Thoughts on narcissism and narcissistic rage. In H.E.Kohut, The search for the self. New York: International University Press.([Page 249]1991). A linguist's quest for love. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 8, 77–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407591081004(1973). The sociology of social conflicts. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1990) Codependency: The social reconstruction of female experience. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 60, 216–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00377319009516677, & (1993) Promoting co-operative parenting after separation: A therapeutic/interventionist model of family mediation. Journal of Family Therapy, 15, 235–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6427.1993.00757.x(1987) Recoupling: Development and establishment of the spousal subsystem in remarriage. Journal of Divorce, 10, 189–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J279v10n01_13, & (1977). Therapeutic discourse. New York: Academic Press., & (1982) Rules and rituals in disengaging from relationships. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Personal relationships 4: Dissolving personal relationships (pp. 189–209). London: Academic Press.(1990) The negative effects of informal support systems. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), with R.C. Silver, Personal relationships and social support. London: Sage.(1991). Holocaust testimonies. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1987) Shame and domestic violence. In D.Nathanson (Ed.), The many faces of shame. New York: Guilford.(1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer., & (Love at first byte. In J.T.Wood & S.W.Duck (Eds.), Under-studied relationships: Off the beaten track. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (in press).1993) “Friends don't let friends beer goggle”: The use and abuse of alcohol among college students. In E.B.Ray (Ed.), Case studies in health communication (pp. 161–174). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1992) The morning after: Gender difference in attributions about alcohol-related sexual encounters. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 343–357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1992.tb01544.x, , & (1967) Paranoia and the dynamics of exclusion In E.M.Lemert, Human deviance, social problems and social control (pp. 197–211). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1985) Patterns of alcohol use and physically aggressive behavior in men. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 46, 279–282., , , , & (1976) Deserving and the emergence of forms of justice. In L.Berkowitz & E.Walster (Eds.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 10, pp. 134–162). New York: Academic Press., , & ([Page 250]1993). Family as mapped realities. Journal of Family Issues, 14, 82–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192513X93014001007(1992) Close relationship loss as a set of inkblots. In T.L.Orbuch (Ed.), Close relationship loss (pp. 213–221). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9186-9_13(1971). Shame and guilt in neurosis. New York: International University Press.(1976). Psychic war in men and women. New York: New York University Press.(1981). Freud and modern psychology: Vol. 1. The emotional basis of mental illness. New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-3812-3(1985). Some thoughts on the moral emotions of shame and guilt. In L.Cirillo, B.K.aplin, & S.Wapner (Eds.), Emotions in ideal human development. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1984) Improving the quality of relationships: Therapeutic intervention with opiate-abusing couples. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Personal relationships 5: Repairing personal relationships (pp. 89–102). London: Academic Press., & (1992) Risk behavior for HIV infection of intravenous drug users and their sexual partners recruited from street settings in Philadelphia. Journal of Drug Issues, 22, 867–884., , & (1993) AIDS risk perceptions and decision biases. In J.B.Pryor & G.D.Reeder (Eds.), The social psychology of HIV infection (pp. 5–38). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , & (1985) The developmental course of conflict in dissolution of premarital relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 179–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407585024003, & (1980) Groupthink: A critique of Janis's theory. Review of Personality and Social Psychology, 1, 74–93., & (1991) Addictions as a process: Commonalities or codependence. Contemporary Family Therapy, 13, 455–470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00890498(1991) Evidence of codependency in women with an alcoholic parent: Helping out Mr. Wrong. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 435–439. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.115, & ([Page 251]1991) The effects of acquired illness and disability on friendships. In D.Perlman & W.Jones (Eds.), Advances in personal relationships (Vol. 3, pp. 223–277). London: J. Kingsley.(1993a). The energy crunch: Relationship and support experiences of mothers with chronic illness. In Studying human lived experience: Symbolic and ethnographic research ‘93. Waterloo, ON: University of Waterloo.(1993b). Research on relationships coping with stressful life events: An interview with Ben Gottlieb and James Coyne. ISSPR Bulletin, 10,11–14.(1993a). Coping and support as communal processes. Paper presented at the Fourth Conference of the International Network on Personal Relationships, Milwaukee, WI., & (1993b). The energy crisis: Mothers with chronic illness. Canadian Woman Studies, 13(4), 34–37., & (1994). Close relationships and chronic health problems. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., , & (1976) Marital intimacy and the deadly love-anger cycle. Journal of Marriage and Family Counseling, 2, 131–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1976.tb00405.x(1947). The prince (T.G. Bergin, Trans.). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. (Original work published 1532)(1991) Sex, drugs and HIV: An ethnographic approach. Social Science and Medicine, 33, 5–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(91)90445-I(1981) Courtship violence among college students. Family Relations, 30, 97–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584242(1986) Gender differences in courtship violence victimization. Family Relations, 35, 383–388. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584365(1982) A stochastic model of relational control in dyadic interaction. American Sociological Review, 47, 62–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095042, , , & (1991) Co-dependency: A case of inflation. Employee Assistance Quarterly, 7, 67–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J022v07n02_05(1981) A sequential analysis of conflict and accord in distressed and non-distressed marital partners. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 554–567. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.49.4.554, & (1981) The prediction of marital distress: A five-year follow-up. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 760–762. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.49.5.760(1992) The epidemiology of alcohol-related interpersonal violence. Health and Research World, 16, 230–237.(1964). Economic and philosophic manuscripts of 1844. New York: International. (Original work published 1844)(1979). Homosexuality in perspective. Boston: Little, Brown., & Johnson, V (1984) Social relationships, knowledge, and adjustment to multiple sclerosis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychology, 47, 372–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jnnp.47.4.372, & (1982) Becoming unrelated: The management of bond dissolution. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Personal relationships 4: Dissolving personal relationships, (pp. 211–232). London: Academic Press.(1978). Interactions and identities (rev. ed.). New York: Free Press., & (1908). An introduction to social psychology. New York: University Paperbacks. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/12261-000(1992) Sex and the risk of HIV infection: The role of alcohol. British Journal of Addiction, 87, 577–584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1992.tb01959.x, , , & ([Page 252]1989) Forming a remarried family. In E.A.Carter & M.McGoldrick (Eds.), The family cycle: A framework for family therapy (pp. 399–429). New York: Gardner., & (1993) Religion's role in adjustment to a negative life event: Coping with the loss of a child. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65, 812–821. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1682, , & (1991) Introduction. In K.McKinney & S.Sprecher (Eds.), Sexuality in close relationships. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1934). Mind, self and society: From the standpoint of a social behaviorist. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1972). Non-verbal communication. New York: Aldine.(1989a). Co-dependency definition and dynamics. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 6, 3–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J020V06N01_02(1989b). Codependency treatment. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 6, 75–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J020V06N01_06(1992) Thinking about safer sex: The risky business of “know your partner” advice. In T.Edgar, M.A.Fitzpatrick, & V.S.Freimuth (Eds.), AIDS: A communication perspective (pp. 1–19). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1992). On defining myself: Conversations with abused women of color. Paper presented at the 78th annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, Chicago.(1988, November). Interpreting AIDS discourse in the romantic relationships of college students. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Speech Communication Association, New Orleans, LA., & (1992) The place of culture in HIV education. In T.Edgar, M.A.Fitzpatrick, & V.S.Freimuth (Eds.), AIDS: A communication perspective (pp. 147–172). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1984). Cognitive and communicative strategies in developing relationships. Unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Lancaster.(1987) Remembering relationship development: Constructing a context for interactions. In R.Burnett, E.McGhee, & D.Clarke (Eds.), Accounting for relationships (pp. 60–73). London: Methuen.(1979) Some psycho-social consequences of multiple sclerosis: Problems of social interaction and group identity. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 321–331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1979.tb02532.x(1981, May). A pragmatic approach to relational communication: A case study. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Minneapolis, MN., & ([Page 253]1993) Learning from early relationship experience. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Learning about relationships (pp. 1–29). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1993) Negotiating safer sex: Interpersonal dynamics. In J.B.Pryor & G.D.Reeder (Eds.), The social psychology of HIV infection (pp. 85–123). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., , , & Hoffman, V (Risking disease: On the coherence of gay men's mental models of unsafe sex. In M.McLaughlin & L.C.Miller (Eds.), Intimate decisions: Accounting for risk-taking in sexual behavior and courtship. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (in press).1984) A model for stepfamily development. Family Relations, 33, 365–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/584707(1974). Families and family therapy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1989) Psychosocial redevelopment of codependents: A framework for therapeutic assistance. Family Therapy, 16, 161–170.(1993) Relationship maintenance versus relationship change: A dialectical dilemma. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 205–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026540759301000203(1992) Patterns of courtship for remarriage: Implications for child adjustment and parent-child relationships. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 686–698. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353254, , , & Clingempeel, W G. (1977) The crisis of physical illness. In R.H.Moos (Ed.), Coping with physical illness. New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-2256-6, & Tsu, V D. (1992) The impact of life events on networks of personal relationships: A comparison of widowhood and caring for a spouse with Alzheimer's disease. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 9, 563–584. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407592094006, & (1988) Outcomes of marital separation: A longitudinal test of predictors. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 493–498. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352014(1988). Fireflies. New York: Dutton.(1990) When is a father really gone? Paternal-child contact in father-absent homes. Demography, 27, 499–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2061567(1987) The political function of narrative in organizations. Communication Monographs, 54, 113–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758709390221(1991) Co-dependency: An examination of underlying assumptions. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 13, 449–458., , & (National Center for Health Statistics. (1984). Health, United States, 1984 (DHHS Publication No. PHS 85-1232). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.National Center for Health Statistics. (1993). 1988 marriages: Number of the marriage of bride by groom [Computer program]. Washington, DC: NCHS Computer Center.[Page 254]1990). Seven choices: Taking the steps to a new life after losing someone you love. New York: Delta.(1991) An evaluation of a skills training program for parents in stepfamilies. Family Relations, 40, 291–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585014, & (1988). Tribal warfare in organizations. Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.(1984). Nonverbal communication and marital interaction. New York: Pergamon.(1983). Communicator style. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1989) The role of alcohol in mortality and morbidity from interpersonal violence. Alcohol & Alcoholism, 24,565–576., & (1985). Women who love too much. New York: Pocket Books.(1981) The couples interaction scoring system. In E.E.Filsinger & R.A.Lewis (Eds.), Observing marriages: New behavioral approaches. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage., & (1986). Remarried men and remarried women: How are they different?Journal of Divorce, 9, 107–113(1989). Gender, justice, and the family. New York: HarperCollins.(1992) Predictors of safer sex on the college campus: A social cognitive theory analysis. Journal of the American College Health Association, 40, 254–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.1992.9936290, , , & (1986) Circumplex model VII: Validation studies and FACES III. Family Process, 25, 337–351. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1986.00337.x(1988) Types of families and family response to stress across the life cycle. In D.Klein & J.Aldous (Eds.), Social stress and family development (pp. 16–43). New York: Guilford., Lavee, Y, & (Orbuch, T.L. (Ed.). (1992). Relationship loss. New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-9186-91993) Sex, AIDS, and the use of condoms: A survey of compliance in college students. Psychological Reports, 72, 764–766. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.1922.214.171.1244, & (Pahl, J. (Ed.). (1985). Private violence and public policy. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.1993, May). Reaching at-risk populations in a mass media drug abuse prevention campaign: Sensation seeking as a targeting variable. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Washington, DC., , , , , & (1993). Becoming a step family: Patterns of development in remarried families. New York: Gardner.(1982) Ideology in interpersonal communication: Off the couch and into the world. In M.Burgoon (Ed.), Communication yearbook5 (pp. 79–107). New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.(1949). The structure of social action. New York: Free Press.(1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, OR: Castalia.(1990). Opening up. New York: William Morrow.([Page 255]1993) Neither broken hearts nor broken bonds. American Psychologist, 48, 990–991. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.9.990(1979) Assessing interpersonal relationships by means of interaction records. Behavioral Assessment, 1, 221–236. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01321878(1993) Friends’ and acquaintances’ conversations II: Coded differences. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 339–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407593103003(1992) Friends’ and acquaintances’ conversations I: Observed differences. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 9, 483–506. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407592094002, & (1994) Using mutual knowledge in conversation: Friends as experts in each other. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Dynamics of relationships (pp. 1–26). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage., & (1993). American family decline, 1960–1990. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 527–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353333(1986) Alcohol and the writer: Some biographical and critical issues. Contemporary Drug Problems, 13, 361–386.(1988). Divorce. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & McKenry, E C. (1986). Social conflict. New York: Random House., & (1993) Interpersonal relationships in women's magazines: Dating and relating in the 1970s and 1980s. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 307–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407593103001, , & (1993) Parental childhood social experiences and their effects on children's relationships. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Learning about relationships (pp. 63–97). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , & (1988) Effects of jealousy threats on relationship perceptions and emotions. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 5, 285–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407588053002, , & (1993) Predicting jealous responses: The influence of adult attachment and depression in threat appraisal. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 569–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407593104006, , & (1974). Communication, conflict and marriage. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., , , & (1992). Friendship matters. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.(1994) Being there and growing apart: Sustaining friendships during adulthood. In D.J.Canary & L.Stafford (Eds.), Communication and relational maintenance. New York: Academic Press.(1968). Sam's book. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.(1987) Culture, cognition, and disinhibition: Notes on sexuality and alcohol in the age of AIDS. Contemporary Drug Problems, 14, 335–360., & (1989) Society and sexuality: A sociological theory. In K.McKinney & S.Sprecher (Eds.), Human sexuality: The societal and interpersonal context (pp. 3–29). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.([Page 256]1992). Quality of Life Project: Phase 1. Toronto: University of Toronto, Centre for Health Promotion.(1985) The resentment process: Videotape studies. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 2, 129–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0736-97126.96.36.199(1987) Resentment and laughter: Video studies of the shame-rage spiral. In H.B.Lewis (Ed.), The role of shame in symptom formation (pp. 151–182). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1989) A theory of mental illness: Integrating social and emotional aspects. Psychiatry, 52, 325–335.(1991). Violent emotions: Shame and rage in marital quarrels. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1987). The triumph of the therapeutic. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1989) Sex differences in psychosocial consequences of alcohol and drug use. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30, 117–130. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136917(1987) Postmarital family reorganization: A propositional theory. In D.Perlman & S.W.Duck (Eds.), Intimate relationships: Development, dynamics, and deterioration (pp. 239–268). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1982) Nonengagement, failure to engage and disengagement. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Personal relationships 4: Dissolving personal relationships (pp. 31–50). London: Academic Press.(1988)., & (Relational communication. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Handbook of personal relationships (pp. 289–306). New York: John Wiley.1988) A conceptual model of chronic and life-threatening illness and its impact on families. In C.S.Chilman, E.W.Nunnally, & F.M.Cox (Eds.), Chronic illness and disability (pp. 17–68). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1981) Marital violence: Characteristics of abusive couples. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 63–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.49.1.63, & O’ (1983). Bitter, bitter tears. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.(1993) The hidden effect of childhood sexual abuse on adolescent and young adult HIV prevention. AIDS and Public Policy, 8, 158–163., & (1967) Alienation and family crisis. Sociological Quarterly, 8, 397–405. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1533-8525.1967.tb01065.x, & (1990). Of human bonding: Parent-child relations across the life course. New York: Aldine de Gruyter., & (1984). Hands and hearts: A history of courtship in America. New York: Basic Books.(1983). Intimate strangers: Men and women together. New York: Harper.([Page 257]1951). Communication: The social matrix of psychiatry. New York: W.W. Norton., & (1987) Responses to dissatisfaction in close relationships: The exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model. In D.Perlman & S.W.Duck (Eds.), Intimate relationships: Development, dynamics, and deterioration (pp. 209–238). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1993) Commitment processes in close relationships: An interdependence analysis. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 10, 175–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026540759301000202, & (1985). Social implications of multiple sclerosis (Final report of a formulation apart from the National Health Research and Development Program). Ottawa: Department of Health and Welfare Canada.(1993) Verbal aggression in marriages: A comparison of violent, distressed, nonviolent, and nondistressed couples. Human Communication Research, 20, 245–267. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1993.tb00323.x, , & (1970). A collection of moments: A study of involuntary memories. New York: St. Martin's.(1983). Mediating child custody disputes. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1993) Making the connection: Single women's use of the telephone in dating relationships with men. Journal of Communication, 43, 128–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01266.x(1981) Life changes and disease in elderly populations: Coping with change. In G.H.March (Ed.), Aging: Biology and behavior (pp. 311–328). New York: Academic Press., & (1989). Mourning unlived lives: A psychological study of childbearing loss. Wilmette, IL: Chiron.(1986). Codependence: Misdiagnosed—mistreated. San Francisco: Harper & Row.(1977). Scripts, plans, goals, and understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & (1987) The shame-rage spiral: A case study of an interminable quarrel. In H.B.Lewis (Ed.), The role of shame in symptom formation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(1988) Shame and conformity: The deference emotion system. American Journal of Sociology, 53, 395–406. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095647(1990). Microsociology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1991). Emotions and violence: Shame-rage in destructive conflicts. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books., & (1990) Substance use as a correlate of violence in intimate lesbian relationships. Journal of Homosexuality, 19(3), 51–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J082v19n03_03, Yong , & (1977). Shame, exposure and privacy. Boston: Beacon.(1968) Accounts. American Sociological Review, 33, 46–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2092239, & ([Page 258]1992, May). College students’ interpersonal influence processes in alcohol intervention situations: A critical review and reconceptualization. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, Miami, FL., & (1991) Relationships between fathers and children who live apart: The father's role after separation. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53, 79–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353135(1993) Perceptions of family boundaries: The case of disclosure of HIV testing information. Family Relations, 42, 193–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585454, & (1992) Boundaries and AIDS testing: Privacy and the family system. Family Relations, 41, 104–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/585402, , & (1977) Psychological aspects of wife battering. In M.Roy (Ed.), Battered women (pp. 111–119). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.(1991) A three-component model of children's teasing: Aggression, humor, and ambiguity. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 10, 459–472. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.19188.8.131.529, , & (1991). The art of hating. New York: Random House.(1992) What is a “personal relationship”? A rhetorical-responsive account of “unfinished business.” In J.H.Harvey, T.L.Orbuch, & A.L.Weber (Eds.), Attributions, accounts and close relationships (pp. 19–39). New York: Springer-Verlag. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4612-4386-1_2(1987) Conflict as a social skill. In M.E.Roloff & G.R.Miller (Eds.), Interpersonal processes: New directions in communication research (pp. 140–171). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1950). The sociology of Georg Simmel (K. Wolff, Trans.). New York: Free Press.(1955). Conflict and the web of group-affiliations. New York: Free Press.(1993) Relationships of children involved in bully/victim problems at school. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Learning about relationships (pp. 184–212). Newbury Park, CA: Sage., , Binney, V, & (1990) Identifying codependency. The Counselor, 8, 27., & (1987) College students’ sexual attitudes and behaviors, 1974–1985: A review of the literature. Journal of College Student Personnel, 28, 135–140.(1987) Women in communication studies: A typology for revision. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 73, 401–423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638709383816, & (1993). Sexuality. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1993) Felt obligation in adult family relationships. In S.W.Duck (Ed.), Social context and relationships (pp. 78–99). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.([Page 259]1977). The cycle of violence: Assertive, aggressive, and abusive family interaction. New York: Praeger.(1992) Interactive processes in dating aggression: A national study. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 54, 165–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/353284(1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT)Scale. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 75–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351733(1986) Societal change and change in family violence from 1975 to 1985 as revealed by two national surveys. Journal of Marriage and Family, 48, 465–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/352033, & (1980). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family. Garden City, NY: Anchor/Doubleday., , & (1992) Broken hearts or broken bonds: Love and death in historical perspective. American Psychologist, 47, 1205–1212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.10.1205, , , & (1973). Positive and negative exchanges between spouses and strangers. Unpublished manuscript., & (1992, October). Marital dysfunction, depression, and multiple sclerosis. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Atlantic Rehabilitation Association, Halifax., , & (1906). Folkways. New York: Ginn.(1987) Reasons for changes in commitment: Variations by courtship style. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 4, 17–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407587041002(1991) Legislation for stepfamilies: The Family Law Section Standing Committee report. Family Law Quarterly, 25(10), 137.(1987) Grandparents as interactive and social support agents for families with young infants. International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 25, 261–279. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/91M7-1JMA-UQV6-0VH3, & (1989). AIDS: Sexual behavior and intravenous drug use. Washington, DC: National Academy Press., , & (Uleman, J.S., & Bargh, J.A. (Eds.). (1989). Unintended thought. New York: Guilford.1993) Divorced fathers: Parental role strain and psychological distress. Journal of Family Issues, 14, 378–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019251393014003003, & (1993) Perceived risk of AIDS: Unrealistic optimism and self-protective action. In J.B.Pryor & G.D.Reeder (Eds.), The social psychology of HIV infection (pp. 39–58). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., Often, W, , & van der (1989) Co-dependency: Implications for women and therapy. Women and Therapy, 8, 51–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v08n04_04(1986). Necessary losses. New York: Fawcett.(1988). Old loyalties, new ties: Therapeutic strategies with stepfamilies. New York: Brunner/Mazel., & (1993). Life after loss. New York: Scribner., & ([Page 260]1992) MMPI profiles of women in codependency treatment. Journal of Personality Assessment, 58, 211–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa5801_18, , , & (1984). The battered woman syndrome. New York: Springer.(1992) Co-dependency and probation. Federal Probation, 65, 16–18.(1967). Pragmatics of human communication: A study of interaction patterns, pathologies, and paradoxes. New York: W.W. Norton., , & (1983, May). The breakdown of relationships. Paper presented at the Social Interaction and Relationships Conference, Nags Head, NC.(1990) Women and depression (alias codependency). Family and Community Health, 13, 58–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00003727-199011000-00008(1988). Transcendence of loss over the life span. New York: Hemisphere.(1989) Mental control: The war of the ghosts in the machine. In J.S.Uleman & J.A.Bargh (Eds.), Unintended thought (pp. 287–305). New York: Guilford., & (1981). Another chance: Hope and health for the alcoholic family. Palo Alto, CA: Science & Behavior.(1982) Wife beating: A view of the marital dyad. Social Casework, 63, 11–18., & (1992) Domestic affairs and network relations. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 9, 385–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407592093004, & (1992). Discursive practices and relations of power: A qualitative study of intimate violence. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Utah.(1993) Ethnography and ideology: The politics of cultural representation. Western Journal of Communication, 57, 209–214. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319309374444(1993) Communication skills training and inter-spousal violence. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 21, 98–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00909889309365357, & (1989) Co-dependence: Our most common addiction. Alcoholism Treatment Quarterly, 6, 19–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J020V06N01_03(1991). Codependence: Healing the human condition. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications.(1992) The development of a role strain index for stepparents. Families in Society, 73, 14–22., & (1960). Night. New York: Bantam.(1983) Family violence as a case of interpersonal aggression: A situational analysis. Social Forces, 62, 102–123.([Page 261]1991) The effects of codependence on physicians and nurses. British Journal of Addiction, 86, 37–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.1991.tb02626.x, , & (1989) Base and superstructure in Marxist cultural theory. In R.Con Davis & R.Schleifer (Eds.), Contemporary literary criticism (pp. 378–390). New York: Longman.(1992) College students use implicit personality theory instead of safer sex. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 921–933. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1992.tb00934.x, , , , , , & (1970). Stations of the lost: The treatment of skid row alcoholics. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1986) Friendship: Bonds and binds in a voluntary relationship. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 3, 191–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407586032005(1989, May). Friends and enemies: Are they opposites?Paper presented at the meeting of the International Network on Personal Relationships, Iowa City.(1991). The other half: Wives of alcoholics and their social-psychological adjustment. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.(Women Against Abuse. (1992). Domestic violence: Making the connections [Fact sheet]. Philadelphia: Author.1982) Communication and relational culture: Bases for the study of human relationships. Communication Quarterly, 30, 75–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463378209369432(1993a). Enlarging conceptual boundaries: A critique of research in interpersonal communication. In S.E.Bowen & N.Wyatt (Eds.), Transforming visions: Feminist critiques in communication studies (pp. 19–49). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.(1993b). Gendered lives: Communication, gender and culture. Pacific Grove, CA: Wadsworth.(1994). Who cares!’Women, care and culture. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.(1995a). Feminist scholarship and research on relationships. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 12(1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0265407595121007(1995b). Relational communication: Change and continuity in personal relationships. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.(1994) Dialectic of difference: A thematic analysis of intimates’ meanings for difference. In K.Carter & M.Presnell (Eds.), Interpretive approaches to interpersonal communication (pp. 115–136). New York: State University of New York Press., , , , & (1989, November 17). Women with jagged edges: Voices from the culture of substance abuse. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association, Washington, DC.(1992) Reconsidering assumptions about coping with loss: An overview of current research. In L.Montada, S.Filipp, & M.J.Lerner (Eds.), Life crises and experiences of loss in adulthood (pp. 341–365). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum., & ([Page 262]1983). Physical disability: A psycho-social approach. New York: Harper & Row. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10589-000(1985) The acquaintance description form. In S.W.Duck & D.Perlman (Eds.), Understanding personal relationships: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. 39–62). London: Sage.(1990) Measuring codependents’ close relationships: A preliminary study. Journal of Substance Abuse, 2, 335–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0899-3289(10)80005-7, & (1991). Codependency: Addictive love, adjustive relating, or both?Contemporary Family Therapy, 13, 435–454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00890497, & (1981). Mask of shame. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.(1984) The status of women, marital equality and violence against wives. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 14, 67–86.(1988) Political and methodological debates in wife abuse research. In K.Yllö & M.Bograd (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse (pp. 28–50). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1988) Behavior, achievement, and health problems among children in stepfamilies: Findings from a national survey of child health. In E.M.Hetherington & J.Arasteh (Eds.), The impact of divorce, single parenting, and stepparenting on children (pp. 325–368). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.(
About the Contributors[Page 274]
Melanie K. Barnes is Assistant Professor of Communication Studies at DePauw University. She has an M.S. from Illinois State University and is in the process of finishing her doctoral dissertation at the University of Iowa. Her research interests lie in the area of relational communication and include the role of supportive communication in grief and loss, the social construction of close relationships, and language and discourse in everyday contexts.
Sheryl Perlmutter Bowen is Assistant Professor of Communication Arts at Villanova University. She studies sensitive health communication processes, including personal relationships and AIDS discourse, and culturally sensitive HIV education for college students, African Americans, and women. She is coeditor of Transforming Visions: Feminist Critiques in Communication Studies (1993).
Heather R. Carlson is a graduate student in the Community Counseling Program at Loyola University and Director of Research for Controlled Resources, Inc., in Chicago. She received [Page 275]a B.A. from the University of Iowa. Her research and counseling activities have focused on grief, eating disorders, and life skills training.
Marilyn Coleman, Ed.D., is Professor and former Chair of Human Development and Family Studies at the University of Missouri. She received an M.S. in child development from the University of Missouri and a doctorate in special education from the University of Missouri. Since 1969, she has been a member of the faculty of the University of Missouri, where she currently teaches courses on marriage and divorce, the changing American family, and remarriage and stepparenting. She is editor of the Journal of Marriage and the Family and also serves or has served on the editorial boards of several other journals, including Family Relations, Journal of Family Issues, and Lifestyles: Family and Economic Issues. She has authored or coauthored three books as well as numerous study guides, book chapters, and journal articles. She has won awards for research and leadership from the American Home Economics Association, and the University of Missouri has honored her with several research and teaching awards. Her research interests are in the areas of remarriage and stepparenting, love, sex roles, and family structure stereotypes.
Steve Duck is currently the Daniel and Amy Starch Research Professor at the University of Iowa, Iowa City. He is the founding editor of the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, and editor or author of more than 25 books on personal relationships. He is the founder of the International Network on Personal Relationships, the professional organization for the field, and has established two series of international conferences on relationships.
Lawrence H. Ganong, Ph.D., is Professor of Nursing and Human Development and Family Studies in the College of Human Environmental Sciences at the University of Missouri in Columbia. He received an M.S. in family studies from Kansas State University, an M. Ed, in counseling psychology from the University of [Page 276]Missouri, and a Ph.D. in family studies from the University of Missouri. He held a faculty position at Central Missouri State University prior to joining the University of Missouri faculty in 1980. He teaches courses in family dynamics and intervention, theories of human development, and research methods, and also regularly teaches a graduate course on remarriage and stepparenting with Marilyn Coleman. He serves or has served on the editorial boards of several professional journals, including the Journal of Marriage and the Family, Family Relations, and the Journal of Family Issues. He has authored or coauthored two books, a study guide, and approximately 100 articles in professional and popular publications. His two primary research interests are remarriage and stepparenting, and family-related stereotypes, although he has also done research on sex roles, love, and parent education.
Jeffrey Haig received his B.A. from Hobart College and his M.A. from Antioch University in Seattle. He worked as a therapist in Seattle before relocating to Iowa City. His research focus is on grief and loss.
John H. Harvey is a Psychology Professor at the University of Iowa. He is coeditor, with Ickes and Kidd, of the three-volume New Directions in Attribution Research (1976, 1978, 1981) and, with Weber, of Perspectives on Close Relationships (1994). He is coauthor, with Kelley and associates, of Close Relationships (1983) and author of the forthcoming Odyssey of the Heart: Closeness, Intimacy, and Love.
Renee F. Lyons, Ph.D., is Associate Professor and Graduate Coordinator in the School of Recreation, Physical and Health Education, at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. She received her master's degree in counseling psychology from Xavier University in Cincinnati and her doctorate in leisure studies (lifestyle adjustment and disability) from the University of Oregon. Her research interests concern coping and adjustment in chronic illness and disability, particularly the clarification of relational issues and adaptational strategies.
[Page 277]Darlene Meade is a graduate student in health education at Dalhousie University in Halifax, Nova Scotia. She is interested in how women's social relationships influence personal identity and well-being. She is also interested in the use of qualitative, participatory research methods. She and her husband operate a mussel farm in a small seaside village in Nova Scotia.
Paula Michal-Johnson is Associate Professor of Communication Arts at Villanova University. Her research into sensitive health communication processes involves personal relationships and AIDS discourse, culturally sensitive HIV education, and disclosure of HIV in home health care.
Suzanne M. Retzinger, Ph.D., is the author of articles on conflict, mediation, emotions, and mental illnesses. She has worked in the area of conflict and conflict resolution for the past 12 years and is the author of violent Emotions: Shame and Rage in Marital Quarrels (1991) and coauthor, with T. J. Scheff, of Emotions and Violence: Shame and Rage in Destructive Conflicts (1991). She is currently a family relations mediator with the superior courts in California.
James T. West teaches classes in the Department of Communication at the University of Hawaii. He received his Ph.D. in communication from the University of Utah in 1992, and his dissertation, on violence between intimates, received the national Speech Communication Association's 1992 Dissertation of the Year Award. He is also President of Quintessential Writing, Inc., which produces interactive CD-ROMs on organizational communication, quality service, and customer satisfaction.
Jacqueline P. Wiseman, Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of California, San Diego, has been a Visiting Professor at Yale, Dartmouth, and the University of Helsinki. She won the C. Wright Mills Award from the Society for the Study of Social Problems for her monograph, Stations of the Lost. She also was awarded the George Herbert Mead Award by the Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction for distinguished [Page 278]career research contributions. She has served as a member of the National Academy of Sciences Panel on Alcohol Policies, the governing councils of the American Sociological Association, the Pacific Sociological Association, the National Council on Family Relations, and the Groves Family Conference as well as president of the Society for the Study of Social Problems.
Julia T. Wood is Nelson R. Hairston Distinguished Professor of Communication Studies at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where she teaches and conducts research on personal relationships and gender, communication, and culture. Within those areas she has written or coauthored eight books, coedited four others, and published more than 60 articles and chapters in books. She is cofounder of the National Conference on Research on Gender and Communication.
Katherine D. Wright, a licensed professional counselor and licensed addiction counselor, maintains a private practice in Grand Forks, North Dakota. She received a Ph.D. in counseling from the University of North Dakota in 1975.
Paul H. Wright, Professor of Psychology at the University of North Dakota, received a Ph.D. in social psychology from the University of Kansas in 1963. His research speciality is personal relationships.