Confronting Diversity Issues on Campus
Publication Year: 1993
“This book provides an analysis of racism and goes on to provide some suggestions as to what can be done to reduce it. The issue is explored from the standpoint of both students and faculty and, in my opinion, is well worth reading and studying.” --The Academic Bookshelf No topic causes more concern at today's university than a discussion of diversity in education. Controversies about affirmative action hires, admission policies, intercultural relations in the classroom, the role of ethnic studies departments, and changes in the course curriculum all seem to swirl around the changing ethnic composition of the campus. How do we all get along? Tackling this question are authors Benjamin P. Bowser, Gale S. Auletta, and Terry Jones, who suggest some practical strategies for ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Chapter 1: The Unwritten Organization
- The Unwritten Rules
- The Power of Networks
- People of Color as Perceived Threats
- What Can Be Done?
- Ideas for Improving Treatment of Students of Color
- Ideas for Improving Treatment of Faculty of Color
- Chapter 2: What Did You Say You Were? Am I a Racist?
- Racism and Self-Identity for Whites
- Racism and Self-Identity for People of Color
- The Myths and Realities of Racism
- What Can Be Done?
- Chapter 3: Communication, Communication, Communication!
- Communication: Racial Dividers and Connectors
- Why Race and Power Matter
- Chapter 4: Dealing with Conflict and Diversity in the Academic Community
- The Purpose of Education
- Issues of Access and Affirmative Action
- Freedom of Speech: Fighting Words
- Ethnic Studies and Multicultural Education
- Chapter 5: Toward New Racial and Cultural Boundaries in the Academy
- Communities of Interest Defined
- Redefining Communities of Interests
- Models of Success
Survival Skills for Scholars[Page ii]
Managing Editor: Mitchell Allen
Survival Skills for Scholars provides you, the professor or advanced graduate student working in a college or university setting, with practical suggestions for making the most of your academic career. These brief, readable guides will help you with skills that you are required to master as a college professor but may have never been taught in graduate school. Using hands-on, jargon-free advice and examples, forms, lists, and suggestions for additional resources, experts on different aspects of academic life give invaluable tips on managing the day-to-day tasks of academia—effectively and efficiently.
Volumes in This Series
- Improving Your Classroom Teaching
by Maryellen Weimer
- How to Work With the Media
by James Alan Fox & Jack Levin
- Developing a Consulting Practice
by Robert O. Metzger
- Tips for Improving Testing and Grading
by John C. Ory & Katherine E. Ryan
- Coping With Faculty Stress
by Walter H. Gmelch
- Confronting Diversity Issues on Campus
by Benjamin P. Bowser, Gale S. Auletta, & Terry Jones
- Effective Committee Service
by Neil J. Smelser
- Getting Tenure
by Marcia Lynn Whicker, Jennie Jacobs Kronenfeld, & Ruth Ann Strickland
- Improving Writing Skills: Memos, Letters, Reports, and Proposals
by Arthur Asa Berger
- Getting Your Book Published
by Christine S. Smedley, Mitchell Allen & Associates
- Successful Publishing in Scholarly Journals
by Bruce A. Thyer
- Teaching in the Multicultural Classroom
by Helen R. Roberts & Associates
- Planning a Successful Conference
by Cynthia Winter
- Dealing With Ethical Dilemmas on Campus
by Marcia Lynn Whicker & Jennie Jacobs Kronenfeld
Copyright © 1993 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information address:
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Newbury Park, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Bowser, Benjamin P.
Confronting diversity issues on campus / Benjamin P. Bowser, Gale S. Auletta, Terry Jones
p. cm. — (Survival skills for scholars; vol. 6)
Includes bibliographical references.
ISBN 0-8039-5215-5 — ISBN 0-8039-5216-3 (pbk.)
1. Multicultural education—United States. 2. Minorities—Education (Higher)—United States. 3. College teachers—United States—Attitudes. 4. College teaching—United States.
I. Auletta, Gale S. II. Jones, Terry. III. Title. IV. Series.
95 96 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2
Sage Production Editor: Yvonne Könneker
[Page vii]This book is dedicated to all the faculty, students, staff members, and administrators of all points of view who have over the years shared with us their stories, hopes, fears, frustrations, rages, mistakes, and successes. Thank you for being in the struggle. You inspire and motivate us.[Page viii]
When our editor, Mitch Allen, first asked us to write what we interpreted to be a book on “Everything you wanted to know about diversity, but were afraid to ask” in 100 pages or fewer, we laughed. It could not be done, even if it came in the mail wrapped in a brown paper bag. It would simplify complex issues that are already being maligned as insignificant, nonacademic, propagandistic, and trendy. We have each devoted 20 years or more to studying, teaching, and writing on these issues. How could we do the topic justice in 100 pages?
Well, thanks to Mitch Allen's persuasive ability, our joy in working with one another, and the fact that we are daredevils at heart, we accepted this challenge.
We accepted because we are saddened, angered, and frustrated by what we see and hear as the growing racial divide in higher education. We hear our well-meaning European-American faculty colleagues in many institutions all across the country ignore or downplay the importance of the racial experiences of faculty members and students of color. We feel their nervousness and discomfort when they talk about race relations. We are embarrassed for them when their guilt and ignorance means they made “bad affirmative action hires.” [Page x]We know they care. Yet we also hurt when the students and faculty of color tell us: “That professor singles me out because I'm African-American;” “That professor is not calling on me because he thinks that because I am Vietnamese that he won't be able to understand me;” or “Here I go again—the only professor of color in the department. I wonder if I am the token?”
We empathize with and are enraged by faculty members who do not acknowledge the existence of the racial divide. To ignore, argue, or rationalize away the racial and gender differences breeds a hostility and withdrawal so intense that it is difficult for any student learning to occur or for any faculty of color to feel loyalty for our colleges. Yet many faculty members fear that to confront the differences will unleash and ignite the rage and frustrations and increase the racial divide.
We believe that being aware of the racial divide and of the vast differences between us creates the space for the shared meanings and connections to evolve. Because we believe in this paradox so strongly, we accepted Mitch's challenge, given that we could expose the wounds of diversity. This handbook spotlights the ways in which our academic culture and we, as academics, contribute daily to the racial wounds that divide. We also offer “doable” strategies that can promote a more healing and inclusive institution.
To undertake a book about diversity and teaching strategies in higher education is to move out of the safe harbor of tradition and over the deep, uncharted waters where the wind roars and the billows roll. However, in these uncharted waters there are opportunities to explore and new energies to harness and utilize.The Authors: Who are We?
Yes, we participated in the conflicts of the 1960s. And yes, we are card-carrying activists. We were among the influx of “new students”—that is, African-Americans, Native Americans, Latinos and Latinas, Asian-Americans, and women of all ethnicities. We confronted the power structure and demanded [Page xi]change. We questioned what was being taught, who was doing the teaching, and how they were teaching. Along with thousands of students across the country, we asked the questions that focused attention on the traditions of higher education and its basic underpinnings. These challenges and questions have not destroyed higher education. To the contrary, we believe that they have both worked to elevate standards and move it in the direction of greater inclusiveness.
We are now tenured and successful—and some say radical—professors who are passionately loyal to the institution of higher education and want it to be more inclusive. We are two African-American males and one European-American female who, despite our academic standings, have experienced the pain and punishment of oppression in our lives.
We are teachers. Benjamin Bowser, a sociologist, teaches graduate and undergraduate courses in research methods and the sociology of minority groups. Terry Jones, also a sociologist as well as a social worker, teaches the sociology of minority groups and African-American family courses. Gale Auletta, a communications professor, teaches courses in intercultural and interpersonal communication.
Among us we have more than 60 years of experience studying, writing, doing research, consulting, leading workshops, administering departments and programs and getting grants, observing, interviewing, traveling, and devoting most of our time thinking about how racial and cultural relations could be improved in the United States. Although we have long professional resumes and have published, what is more important for this book, we believe, is our years of personal experience living with what we study. We have made our mistakes and have had our successes; along the way we have angered and agitated more than a few and have been honestly challenged by many. We feel great empathy for all who care enough to make mistakes, learn, change, and go on to make new mistakes and learn and change again.
We may write some things that will make you uncomfortable, even angry. That is the nature of the topic. What we do [Page xii]hope to do is engage you to think and try to implement some of our ideas. If we are really successful, you will experiment with and write about other ways of knowing and behaving in the multicultural university.We Have an Attitude
We believe that in a race-conscious society, race, racism, and other ways to oppress people of color take primacy in framing discussions about diversity and the multicultural perspective. People of color, especially Native Americans, African-Americans, Latinos and Latinas, and Asian-Americans have been peculiarly abused in this society. Not paying particular homage to this fact reduces the multicultural analysis to little more than a guided tour: “Here is what the Indians do on Christmas day. Now let's take a look at the Chinese—and oh, aren't those Japanese good with mathematics. Tell us what we need to know about the Cambodians.” That is not what we have to offer here.
Racism is three things: (a) a cultural presumption in one race's superiority and another's inferiority; (b) institutional practices that reinforce and fulfill the cultural presumption; and (c) individual beliefs in the racist cultural presumption and institutional practices. Moreover, we believe that racism as it is practiced in the United States is primarily the responsibility of European-Americans to solve. Our experience has taught us that even though African-Americans, Latinos and Latinas, Native Americans, and Asian-Americans may have the ability to practice individual racism, they rarely have the power or position to engage in institutionalized racism or to change the culture.
We urge you not to be turned off by the word racism. We know that racism is an action word: It incites. It tenses up an otherwise peaceful situation; it immobilizes some and emboldens others. That is why understanding racism and its pervasiveness are major themes in this book. We live in a society that wants to both exploit and deny the pervasiveness [Page xiii]of racism, so to not address racism would be a disservice to you and the issue. Yet before you decide that this is just another diatribe on racism, we urge you to read a little further because what we hope to do is to model for you ways to discuss racism in mixed company.
Discussions on diversity have thus far tended to blend and push to the background the institutional and structural issues that create exclusion based on race, gender, or physical ability. We are concerned that our colleagues all across the country appear to feel freer and more willing to discuss diversity and multicultural education if racism is omitted from the topic. Moreover, we believe if we can confront racism in diversity the other hurdles will be much lower.
So, our focus is on race and cultural differences in the academy and the differences they make. We know that gender, class, physical abilities, and sexual orientation differences also matter tremendously, but we will not focus on these other issues. We believe that the themes we present (not the particulars) also apply to these other forms of exclusion.
This book looks at how people interact with one another in interracial and unequal power relationships. We spotlight the internal racial conflicts that people carry with them to the learning place that either enhance or detract from the educational process. For example, does an African-American student feel that she is “selling out” by attending a “white” university? Do feelings of mistrust that a Mexican-American student has for European-Americans create such anxiety that it is difficult to concentrate on studies? What happens when the European-American male professor's beliefs in the universality of the Eurocentric perspective make him anxious and hostile when Asian students complain that there is no mention of China in a world history course? There is a special burden that accompanies people when they invade traditionally all European-American institutions. The invaders are seen by some as tokens, sometimes as affirmative action hires, and sometimes even as threats to the academic integrity of the institution. They are seen by others as the proverbial missing [Page xiv]link to quality higher education. We try to personalize the impact that our cultural burdens and baggage have on others: the confusion, anger, misunderstandings, frustration, and withdrawal.
In addition, we believe that we are all in the college context but in different ways—and these different experiences matter. We contend that the policies, curricula, teaching methods, distribution of scarce resources, race and gender of those who hold power, and the history of relationships all influence the type and quality of experience that people from diverse backgrounds have in college. Universities that have virtually all European-American administrators and a mostly European-American male faculty and are all Eurocentric in perspective will see it as normal to have people of color and women as peripheral to the whole. Such institutions are not responding effectively to the future and to the challenge of cultural and racial diversity.
We know that most faculty members, administrators, and students of all colors are fair-minded good people who want to understand better how to improve their relationships with students of other races and cultures. There are tremendous personal and professional benefits to making such an effort. Ignorance, prejudice, discrimination, and racism are hurtful to the whole of society, not just to people of color and women. Left unchecked, these negative qualities work to create a false sense of superiority in European-Americans and a false sense of inferiority in people of color. As the university student community begins to more accurately reflect the diversity of people in this nation and in the world community, it is imperative that we focus on overcoming those issues that exclude and denigrate.The Format of This Book
We draw from a rich variety of research and theory that is referenced for you at the end of the book. However, this is not [Page xv]intended to be an exhaustive and definitive literature review. It is more of a quick guide, a bag of strategies and suggestions that can be used to engage others in cooperative dialogue and inclusive action. Our objective is to focus on principles, to model opening discussions on a variety of key topics and to arm European-American and faculty members of color alike with some basic instruments for navigating in the multicultural college community. We cannot possibly write about every possible diversity group, but we do provide a paradigm for raising questions that allows the reader to generate the means for pursuing his or her own avenues. We offer you nothing that will make you politically correct. We rely on mini-case studies, sample interactions, and diversity stories to set the stage or to exemplify important points in the chapters. These examples are real. We have personally witnessed or heard firsthand reports from others. Only the names have been changed.
Although you may not have experienced any of these actual situations, please know that our research and our experiences on campuses all across the country suggest that the true stories we tell are representative. We encourage you to think of the variations that apply to your own circumstances.A Word about Labels
Grouping individuals and placing them under one cultural or ethnic or racial label is dangerous and often false. But it is also sometimes necessary. With that said, how did we choose the labels we used? Carefully, contradictorily, and arbitrarily. While one of the tenets of this book is that how others perceive our physical and color attributes matters, we still wanted to move away from color-coded terms. Black and white are often-heard terms, but brown, red, and yellow are not as common. We felt the need to be consistent and contemporary but, more important, we wanted to move away from such simplistic, culturally void terms. However, when referring to [Page xvi]all of the groups in the United States that do not “look like” and are oppressed by the dominant European-Americans, we use the term people of color to emphasize that the United States and its colleges and universities are still stratified by color. In all other cases, we refer to groups by their more precise culture terms as hyphenated Americans: European-, Asian-, African-, Latin, and Native Americans. Our intent here is to represent the multicultured character of the United States more accurately. With the exception of Native Americans and indigenous Latinos and Latinas, we are a nation of people who came from someplace else as immigrants, refugees, or slaves. We are not completely comfortable with using hyphenated American labels. They are also general and ethnocentric. We need terms that more precisely denote our presence in the United States rather than assuming the American continent as our own. We strongly suggest that whenever speaking to a particular cultural group or an individual whose ethnic identity is known to be different from yours, that you ask and refer to that group or individual by whatever ethnic or racial term is preferred by them.The Chapters in This Book
Chapter 1, “The Unwritten Organization,” exposes several unwritten and informal rules that can become traps and pitfalls for the unknowing, especially people of color. “What you see is not what you necessarily get.” There is no place where this saying is truer than in higher education. The rules may say one thing, but the informal culture often says another. The promotion, retention, and tenure documents state that you must publish, but the committee says you must publish in the “right” journals. This chapter views the murky underground of the informal structure of the university through the eyes of faculty members and students of color and offers some suggestions for survival.
[Page xvii]Chapter 2, “What Did You Say You Were? Am I a Racist?” is a straightforward discussion of racial identity and the myths and realities of racism as we know them in the United States. The chapter focuses on commonly held beliefs that many of us hold about race and provides a look at the realities obscured by these myths. This knowledge is absolutely essential to better communications, the resolution of personal and institutional conflict, and growth that is both personal and professional, as you will see in subsequent chapters.
Chapter 3, “Communication, Communication, Communication!” highlights the importance of our daily communication about diversity. All too often in academia we emphasize the content and harm the relationship between teacher and student or between colleagues. We provide a set of dividers and connectors for understanding how the same content can be stated to support and confirm the relationship or can be phrased in such a way as to estrange the relationship. The dividers contribute to a hostile racial environment, and the connectors demonstrate ways of being more sensitive and inclusive when talking about potentially divisive issues in interracial interactions.
Chapter 4, “Dealing With Conflict and Diversity in the Academic Community,” unpacks four major and inevitable conflicts that arise when cultures collide in college environments. We tackle four of the biggies: (a) the purpose of education, (b) affirmative action, (c) freedom of speech, and (d) the role of ethnic studies. The concepts developed in the preceding chapters are used to analyze the conflicts. In addition, we suggest possible resolution strategies and their consequences.
In Chapter 5, “Toward New Racial and Cultural Boundaries in the Academy,” we talk about communities of interest and the necessity of redefining them. How do the many cultural and ethnic groups within the university nurture and support their own concerns while also contributing to a more inclusive definition of the college community? Moreover, we summarize the earlier chapters by way of suggesting “doable” [Page xviii]strategies for both individuals and institutions. We provide models of people who have been successful in grounding their personal identities in nonracist soil and have bridged the racial and cultural barriers.
Now, sit back, relax, and enjoy living the questions and the dilemmas that this little book presents.
*This book is equally coauthored by all three authors. The order of the names was arbitrarily established.
Selected References and Suggested Readings[Page 97]Altbach, P. G., & Lomotey, K. (Eds.). (1991). The racial crisis in American higher education. Albany: State University of New York Press.1990). Haciendo caras, una entrada. In G.Anzaldua (Ed.), Making face, making soul haciendo caras (pp. xv–xxvii). San Francisco: Aunt Lute Foundation.(1987). The Afrocentric idea. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.(1990). Reconstituting the inner circle. American Behavioral Scientist, 34(2), 137–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0002764290034002003, & (Unmasking the myths of racism in the classroom. In D.Halpern (Ed.), Changing college classrooms: The challenge of educating students for the 21st century. San Francisco: Jossey Bass., & (in press).Auletta, G. S., & Jones, T. (Eds.). (1990). The inclusive university: Multicultural perspectives in higher education [Special issue]. American Behavioral Scientist, 34(2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00027642900340020031976). The sociology of education. New York: Schocken.(1991). Multicultural literacy and curriculum reform. Education Digest, 57, 10–13.(1979). Social Darwinism: Science and myth in Anglo-American social thought. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.(1988). Racial consciousness. New York: Longman.(1965). Miscegenation in America. In C. M.Larson (Ed.), Marriage across the color line. Chicago: Johnson.(1989). The hidden wound. San Francisco: North Point Press.(1972). Racial oppression in America. New York: Harper & Row.(1989). Black lives, white lives: Three decades of race relations in America. Berkeley: University of California Press.([Page 98]1990). Reproduction in education, society and culture. Newbury Park, CA: Sage., & (1985). Race relations in the 1980s: The case of the U.S. Journal of Black Studies, 15 (3), 304–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002193478501500305(1986). Community and economic context of black families: A critical review of the literature. The American Journal of Social Psychiatry, 6 (1), 17–26.(Bowser, B. P. (Ed.). (1991). Black male adolescents: Parenting and education in community context. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Bowser, B. P., & Hunt, R. G. (Eds.). (1981). Impacts of racism on white Americans. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University.(Butler, J. E., & Walter, J. C. (Eds.). (1991). Transforming the curriculum: Ethnic studies and women's studies. New York: State University of New York Press.1981). Quantitative genetics of human skin color. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, 24, 123–137. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.1330240506(1967). Black power: The politics of liberation in America. New York: Vintage., & (1991). Pluribus & unum: The quest for community amid diversity. Change, 23 (5), 8–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00091383.1991.9939874(1991). Diversity, correctness, and campus life: A closer look. Change, 23 (5), 16–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00091383.1991.9939875(1988). Intimate matters: A history of sexuality in America. New York: Harper & Row., & (1981). Socialization and racism: The white experience. In B. P.Bowser & R.Hunt (Eds.), Impacts of racism on white Americans (pp. 71–86). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(Dewart, J. (Ed.). (1991). The state of black America, 1991. New York: National Urban League.1990). Black folk here and there (2 vols.). Los Angeles: UCLA Center for African-American Studies.(1978). Levels of consciousness: Racism and sexism. In N.Schniedewind (Ed.), Confronting racism and sexism: A practical handbook for educators (pp. 152–153). New Paltz, NY: Common Ground.(1989). Invisible man. New York: Vintage.(1991). Understanding everyday racism: An interdisciplinary theory. Newbury Park: Sage.(1989). Racial and ethnic relations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1992). The continuing significance of racism and discrimination against black students in white colleges. Journal of Black Studies, 22, 546–578. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002193479202200407(1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations, 2, 117–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872675400700202([Page 99]1985). The politics of education: Culture, power and liberation. South Handley, MA: Bergin & Garvey.(1990). The American kaleidoscope: Race, ethnicity and the civic culture. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.(1987, Fall). Authority, (white) power and the (black) critic: It's all Greek to me. Cultural Critique, pp. 19–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1354149(Evolutionary biology and human variation: Biological determinism and the mythology of race. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(in press).1992). Communicating with strangers: An approach to intercultural communication. New York: McGraw-Hill., & (1992). Two nations: Black and white, separate, hostile, unequal. New York: Scribner.(1981). Toward a darkly radiant vision of America's truth: A letter of concern, an invitation to recreation. In C.Reynolds & R.Norman (Eds.), Community in America: The challenge of habits of the heart (pp. 67–83). Berkeley: University of California Press.(1992). Crossings: A white man's journal into black America. New York: Harper-Collins.(Hildalgo, N. M., McDowell, C. L., & Siddle, E. V. (Eds.). (1990). Facing racism in education (Vol. 21 of reprint series). Cambridge, MA: Harvard Educational Review.1989). A common destiny: Blacks and American society. Washington, DC: National Research Council., & (1972). Prejudice and racism. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(1968). White over black: American attitudes toward the negro, 1550–1812. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.(1991). White faculty struggling with the effects of racism. In P. G.Altback & K.Lomotey (Eds.), Racial crisis in American higher education (pp. 187–196). Albany: State University of New York Press.(1990). Dysconscious racism: Ideology, identity, and the miseducation of teachers. Journal of Negro Education, 60 (2), 133–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2295605(1985). Race relations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1991). Beyond multicultural illiteracy. Journal of Negro Education, 60 (2), 147–157. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2295606(1986). The id, the ego, and equal protection: Reckoning with unconscious racism. Stanford Law Review, 38, 317–388.(1992). The quiet revolution: Eleven facts about multiculturalism and the curriculum. Change, 24, 1., & (1978). Ethnocentric speech. Ethnic Groups, 2, 35–53.(1992, Winter). What it means to be a hyphenated American. Ford Foundation Report, pp. 16–19.(1990). Transforming knowledge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.(1982). Genetic relationship and evolution of human races. Evolutionary Biology, 14, 1–59., & ([Page 100]1990). Restructuring the curriculum: Barriers and bridges. Women Studies Quarterly, 17 (1/2), 86–94., & (1978). The road less traveled. New York: Touchstone.(1989). Understanding race, ethnicity and power. New York: Free Press.(1976). Red, black, and green: Black nationalism in the United States. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511562280(1984). The myth of black progress. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1989). Lives on the boundary: The struggles and achievements of America's underprepared. New York: Free Press.(1990). The university: An owner's manual. New York: Norton.(1988). Racism and sexism: An integrated study. New York: St. Martin's.(Simonson, R., & Walker, S. W. (Eds.). (1988). The gray wolf annual five: Multicultural literacy. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf.1970). Blacks in antiquity: Ethiopians in the Greco-Roman experience. Cambridge, UK: Belknap.(1986). Beyond ethnicity: Consent and descent in American culture. New York: Oxford University Press.(1990). Introduction from the editor and to the assumptions behind this book. In J.Stewart (Ed.), Bridges, not walls (pp. 2–10). New York: McGraw-Hill.(1988). Genetic and fossil evidence for the origin of modern humans. Science, 239, 1263–1269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.3125610, & (1990). Iron cages: Race and culture in 19th-century America. New York: Oxford University Press.(1992). Multiculturalism and the politics of recognization. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1992). Race: How blacks and whites think and feel about the American obsession. New York: New Press.(1988). Shambhala: The sacred path of the warrior. Boston: Shambhala.(1987). Communicating racism: Ethnic prejudice in thought and talk. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(Van Sertima, I. (Ed.). (1988). African presence in early Europe. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Books.1991). Psychological aspects of racism in organizations. Group and Organizational Studies, 16, 328–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105960119101600307, & (1967). The pragmatics of human communication. New York: Random House., , & (1984). My brother's keeper. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.(1992). No place to hide. San Francisco: Harper.(1987). Dyadic communication. New York: Random House.(1988, May/June). The ghetto underclass and the social transformation of the inner city. The Black Scholar, pp. 10–17.(
About the Authors