Conducting Socially Responsible Research: Critical Theory, Neo-Pragmatism, and Rhetorical Inquiry

Books

Omar Swartz

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    For Rui Zhao, my pearl

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Epigrams

    If I am not for myself, then who will be for me?

    If I am only for myself, then what am I?

    If not now, when?

    Talmudist wisdom
    “Ethics of the Fathers,” p. 482

    There are times in life when the question of knowing if one can think differently than one thinks, and perceive differently than one sees, is absolutely necessary if one is to go on looking and reflecting at all. People will say, perhaps, that these games with oneself would properly form part of those preliminary exercises that are forgotten once they have served their purpose. But, then, what is philosophy today—philosophical activity, I mean—if it is not the critical work that thought bears to mind on itself? In what does it consist, if not in the endeavor to know how and to what extent it might be possible to think differently, instead of legitimating what is already known?

    MichelFoucault
    The Use of Pleasure, p. 9

    Foreword

    Reconsidering What Scholarship is and Should Be

    In recent years, criticism of scholarship as usual has become increasingly insistent, radical, and persuasive. Challenges to traditional scholarship have come from postmodern scholars of communication, critical studies, feminism, philosophy, cultural studies, and other fields. Disciplinary locations notwithstanding, critics of conventional scholarship disparage it for falsely claiming objectivity and distance between researchers and research participants and for assuming capital-T Truth exists and can be discovered and proven. Most especially, critics disparage traditional research's claim to be value free, apolitical and they insist, in contrast, that all knowledge and all scholarship is inherently, inevitably value laden.

    Like many others, I have read the criticisms and found myself increasingly inclined to accept them. Yet, I have been frustrated by the absence of efforts to integrate the ideas and vocabularies of diverse fields. Thus, I welcome this book in which Omar Swartz thoughtfully reviews and integrates critical discussions of conventional scholarship and alternatives to it. Swartz offers a sustained and convincing challenge to established assumptions and practices in rhetorical study and criticism. In exploring these issues, he provides a stunning integration of the ideas and implications of thinkers such as Foucault, Rorty, Jacoby, and Burke. The result is a devastating challenge to scholarship as usual and a compelling call for more socially aware and engaged scholarship.

    Swam is especially convincing in his challenge to the conventional assumption that scholarship is and should be removed from the social world. Extending previous discussions of this issue by feminists (e.g., Harding, 1991) and other critical scholars, Swartz demonstrates that scholars and the work they do are necessarily situated in a social world that informs—even infuses—their ideas and interpretations.

    Following Donna Haraway's (1988) argument that all knowledge is situated, Swartz recognizes that there are multiple ways of living and multiple paths to knowledge. Awareness of diverse locations from which knowledge arises erodes belief in transcendent truths. In its place, we recognize multiple perspectives that operate simultaneously in the social world. All truth, all knowledge, all scholarship become perspectival and emergent, rather than singular and fixed.

    In calling for socially engaged and self-reflexive research Omar Swartz joins a strong and well established tradition in the discipline of communication. As early as 1973 Karlyn Campbell noted that women's voices have historically been silenced by cultural practices that deemed it inappropriate for women to speak in public. Her article is a classic example of scholarship that engages real issues of social inequity. More recently, Campbell has published work that criticizes exclusionary scholarly practices (1995b) and that enacts her advocacy of scholarship that gives voice to previously muted voices (1995a, 1989a, b).

    A year before Campbell published her now-classic article, Philip Wander and Steven Jenkins (1972) published an essay, both impassioned and scholarly, urging rhetoricians to make critical responses to the social world and the problems inherent in it. A decade later, Wander extended his ideas in “The Ideological Turn in Modern Criticism” (1983). In the 1983 statement Wander argued for criticism that “recognizes the existence of powerful vested interests benefiting from and consistently urging politics and technology that threaten life on this planet” (p. 18).

    Swartz builds on and extends the arguments of Wander and others who have urged scholars to move out of the ivory tower and engage real world problems and issues. Scholarship of this sort makes no claim to be neutral and disinterested. Instead, it is passionate and unapologetically political, and it aims to make a positive difference in the world. Scholars, in other words, acknowledge that they are part of and responsible to the world within which they operate.

    Swartz embodies his theoretical arguments through concrete examples and applications within this book. His discussion of specific projects demonstrates that there is no necessary conflict between vigorous engagement with social issues and rigorous, high quality scholarship. I call readers' attention especially to the fifth chapter in this volume. In it, Swartz addresses what may be a sedimented and destructive dichotomy between teaching and scholarship. He demonstrates that scholarship and teaching inform each other in mutually productive ways. This chapter is original and important.

    Swartz writes clearly about sophisticated theories that necessitate a fair amount of jargon and “academese.” He has done a marvelous job of making the writing accessible without diluting the complexity of the ideas he considers. The result is a book that invites readers to reconsider what it means to be a scholar and to engage in scholarship.

    With Swartz, I believe that egregious inequities and intolerable oppression still poison social life and that these should not be ignored by responsible scholars. Thus, I welcome this book which continues the communication field's long-standing commitment to topics of social justice. The historical and current work by communication scholars on social [in]justice is impressive in both quality and quantity. Swartz's compelling analysis of and advocacy for socially engaged scholarship furthers the goal embraced by many scholars and teachers: contributing to the goal of creating a more kind, more fair world for all who participate in it.

    Julia T.Wood
    Hairston Professor of Communication Studies University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
    References
    Campbell, K. K. (1973). The Rhetoric of women's liberation: An oxymoron. QuarterlyJournal of Speech, 59, 74–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637309383155
    Campbell, K. K. (1989b). Man cannot speak for her I: A critical study of early feminist speakers. Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Campbell, K. K. (1995a). Gender and genre: Loci of invention and contradiction in the earliest speeches by U. S. women. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 81, 479–495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639509384130
    Campbell, K. K. (1995b). In silence we oppress. In J. T.Wood & R. B.Gregg (Eds.), Toward the 21st century The future of speech communication (pp. 137–149). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    Haraway, D. (1988). Situated knowledges: The science question in feminism and the privilege of partial perspective. Signs, 14, 575–599.
    Harding, S. (1991). Whose science? Whose knowledge? Thinking from women's lives. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Wander, P. (Guest Editor).2 (1993). Special issue on ideology. Western Journal of Communication, 57.
    Wander, P., & Jenkins, S. (1972). Rhetoric, society and the critical response. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 58, 441–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637209383142

    Acknowledgments

    I would like to thank professor Edward Schiappa at the University of Minnesota for reading earlier drafts of this book. Graduate students Deborah Epperson at Purdue University and Chris Bachelder at the University of North Carolina, Greensboro, also provided valuable feedback on these pages as the text evolved from doctoral research into its present form. I would also like to thank Charles Stewart and Don Burks at Purdue University for their mentoring and support. All of the above people, through their prodding questions, have greatly aided in the construction of this book. To them I am grateful. The strengths of this book are due to these people and to what they have taught me; its limitations are my own.

    This book, however, is more than just a document of my intellectual growth. It is also a monument to the love and support that my family—Sue Swartz, Robert Swartz, Bubby Rose, and Rui Zhao—has given me over the years.

    Small portions of this book were published elsewhere in a slightly different form. Part of chapter five appeared as “The Interdisciplinary and Pedagogical Implications of Rhetorical Theory,” Communication Studies, 46, (1995): 130–139. The pedagogical exercises at the end of chapter five appeared as “Exercises in Critical Pedagogy for the Basic Communication Course,” Speech Communication Teacher, 10 (1996): 11–13. I am grateful for their permission to reproduce the material here.

  • References

    Aaron, D. (1992). Writers on the left: Episodes in American literary communism. New York: Columbia University Press. (Originally published in 1961)
    Abbott, D. (1974). Marxist influence on the rhetorical theory of Kenneth Burke. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 7, 217–233.
    Abbott, D. (1990). Rhetoric and writing in renaissance Europe and England. In J. J.Murphy (Ed.), A short history of writing instruction from ancient Greece to twentieth-century America (pp. 95–120). Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press.
    Adorno, T. W. (1954). How to look at television. The Quarterly of Film, Radio, and Television, 8, 213–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1209731
    Adorno, T. W. (1990). Prisms. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Originally published in 1967).
    Albert, M., Cagen, L., Chomsky, N., Harnel, R., King, M., Sargent, L., & Sklar, H. (1986). Liberating theory. Boston: South End.
    Andrews, J. R. (1989). “Wise skepticism”: On the education of a young critic. CommunicationEducation, 38, 178–183.
    Aristotle. (1991). On rhetoric: A theory of civic discourse (Trans. G. A.Kennedy). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Arthur, C. J. (1970). Editor's introduction. In C. J.Arthur (Ed.), The German ideology (pp. 4–34). New York: International Publishers.
    Arthur, C. J. (1986). Dialectics of labor: Marx and his relation to Hegel. New York: Basil Blackwell.
    Artz, B. L. (1994, April). Social justice in a communication curriculum. Paper presented at the Central States Speech Communication Association, Oklahoma City, OK.
    Aronowitz, S. (1992). Introduction. In M.Horkheimer, Critical theory: Selected essays (pp. xi–xxi). New York: Continuum.
    Aune, J. A. (1994). Rhetoric and Marxism. Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Ayer, A. J. (1952). Language, truth, and logic. New York: Dover.
    Bauer, M. G. (1925). The influence of Lincoln's audience on his speeches. Quarterly Journal of Speech Education, 11, 225–229. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335632509379566
    Beaud, M. (1983). A history of capitalism: 1500–1980. New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Beebe, S. A., & Beebe, S. J. (1991). Public speaking: An audience-centered approach. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Benjamin, W. (1973). The work of art in an age of mechanical reproduction. In H.Arendt (Ed.), Illuminations (pp. 219–253). New York: Schocken. (Originally published in 1936)
    Benjamin, W. (1978). Critique of violence. In P.Demetz (Ed.), Reflections (pp. 277–300). New York: Schocken. (Originally published in 1955)
    Bennett, W. L. (1980). Myth, ritual, and political control. Journal of Communication, 30, 166–179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1980.tb02028.x
    Berlin, J. A. (1984). Writing instruction in nineteenth-century American colleges. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Berlin, J. A. (1987). Rhetoric and reality: Writing instruction in American colleges, 1900–1985. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Berlin, J. A. (1991). Composition and cultural studies. In M.Hurlbert & M.Blitz (Eds.), Composition and resistance (pp. 47–55). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-Boynton/Cook.
    Berlin, J. A. (1992a). Composition studies and cultural studies: Collapsing the boundaries. In A. R.Gere (Ed.), Into the field: The site of composition studies (pp. 99–116). New York: MLA.
    Berlin, J. A. (1992b). Poststructuralism, cultural studies, and the composition classroom: Postmodern theory in practice. Rhetoric Review, 11, 16–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07350199209388984
    Bernstein, E. (1961). Evolutionary socialism. New York: Schocken. (Originally published in 1899)
    Best, S., & Kellner, D. (1991). Postmodern theory: Critical interrogations. New York: Guilford.
    Biesecker, B. (1992). Michel Foucault and the question of rhetoric. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 25, 351–364.
    Black, E. (1965). Rhetorical criticism: A study in method. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Black, E. (1970). The second persona. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 56, 109–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637009382992
    Black, E. (1992). Rhetorical questions: Studies in public discourse. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Blair, C., Brown, J., & Baxter, L. A. (1994). Disciplining the feminine. Quarterly Journalof Speech, 80, 383–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639409384084
    Blair, C., & Houck, D. W. (1994). Richard Nixon and the personalization of crisis. In A.Kiewe (Ed.), The modem presidency and crises rhetoric (pp. 91–118). Westport, CT: Prager.
    Blair, C., Jepperson, M. S., & Pucci, E., Jr. (1991). Public memorializing in postmodernity: The Vietnam Memorial as prototype. Quarterly Journalof Speech, 77, 263–288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639109383960
    Bowers, J. W., Ochs, D. J., & Jensen, R. J. (1993). The rhetoric of agitation and control. Prospect Heights, NJ: Waveland.
    Brent, D. (1992). Reading as rhetorical invention: Knowledge, persuasion, and the teaching of research-based writing. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.
    Brilhart, J. K., Bourhis, J. S., Miley, B. R., & Berquist, C. A. (1992). Practical public speaking. New York: Harper Collins.
    Brock, B. L. (1992). The limits of the Burkean system. Quarterly Journalof Speech, 78, 347–348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639209384001
    Brock, B. L. (1993). The evolution of Kenneth Burke's philosophy of rhetoric: Dialectic between epistemology and ontology. In J. W.Chesebro (Ed.), Extensions of the Burkeian system (pp. 309–328). Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
    Bronner, S. E., & Kellner, D. M. (Eds.). (1989a). Critical theory and society: A reader. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Bronner, S. E., & Kellner, D. M. (1989b). Introduction. In S. E.Bronner & D. M.Kellner (Eds.), Critical theory and society: A reader (pp. 1–21). New York: Routledge.
    Brown, M. E. (1969). Kenneth Burke. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Brummett, B. (1986). Absolutist and relativist stances toward the problem of difference: A model for student growth in public speaking education. Communication Education, 35, 269–274.
    Burgoon, M. (1988). Extramural funding or extracurricular research: That is the choice. Western Journal of Speech Communication, 52, 252–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570318809389639
    Burgoon, M. (1989). Instruction about communication: On divorcing Dame Speech. Communication Education, 38, 303–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634528909378768
    Burgoon, M. (1995). A kinder, gentler discipline: Feeling good about being mediocre. CommunicationYearbook18, 464–479.
    Burke, K. (1966). Language as symbolic action. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Burke, K. (1968a). The complete white oxen: Collected short fiction of Kenneth Burke. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Burke, K. (1968b). Counter-statement. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Originally published in 1931)
    Burke, K. (1968c). Dramatism. In D. L.Sills (Ed.), The international encyclopedia of the social sciences (pp. 446–452). New York: Macmillan.
    Burke, K. (1969a). A grammar of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Originally published in 1945)
    Burke, K. (1969b). A rhetoric of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Originally published in 1950)
    Burke, K. (1972). Dramatism and development. Barre, MA: Clark University Press.
    Burke, K. (1973). The philosophy of literary form (
    3rd ed.
    ). Berkeley: University of California Press. (Originally published in 1941)
    Burke, K. (1976). The party line. Quarterly Journalof Speech, 62, 62–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637609383319
    Burke, K. (1982). Realisms, occidental style. In G.Amirthanayagam (Ed.), Asian and Western writers in dialogue: New cultural identities (pp. 26–47). London: Macmillan.
    Burke, K. (1984a). Attitudes toward history (
    3rd ed.
    ). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Burke, K. (1984b). Permanence and change (
    3rd ed.
    ). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Burke, K., & Cowley, M. (1990). The selected correspondence of Kenneth Burke and Malcolm Cowley (P.Jay, Ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Burks, D. M. (1985). Dramatic irony, collaboration, and Kenneth Burke's theory of form. Pre/Text, 6, 255–273.
    Burks, D. M. (1991). Kenneth Burke: The agro-Bohemian “Marxoid.” CommunicationStudies, 42, 219–233.
    Campbell, K. K. (1970). The ontological foundations of rhetorical theory. Philosophy and Rhetoric, 3, 97–108.
    Campbell, K. K. (1972a). Conventional wisdom—Traditional form: A rejoinder. QuarterlyJournal of Speech, 58, 451–454. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637209383143
    Campbell, K. K. (1972b). An exercise in the rhetoric of mythical America. In Critiques of contemporary rhetoric (pp. 50–58). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Campbell, K. K. (1974). Criticism: Ephemeral and enduring. Speech Teacher, 23, 9–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634527409378050
    Campbell, K. K. (1983). Response to Forbes Hill. Central States Speech Journal, 34, 126–127. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510978309368130
    Campbell, K. K. (1991). Hearing women's voices. Communication Education, 40, 33–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634529109378824
    Campbell, K. K. (1995). In silence we offend. In R.Gregg & J.Wood (Eds.), Toward the 21st century: The future of speech communication (pp. 137–149). Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    Chaffee, S. H., & Berger, C. R. (1987). What communication scientists do. In S. H.Chaffee & C. R.Berger (Eds.), Handbook of communication science (pp. 99–122). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Chesebro, J. W. (1989). Epistemology and ontology as dialectical modes in the writings of Kenneth Burke. Communication Quarterly, 36, 175–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463378809369721
    Chesebro, J. W. (1992). Extensions of the Burkeian system. Quarterly Journalof Speech, 78, 356–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639209384003
    Chesebro, J. W. (Ed.). (1993). Preface. In Extensions of the Burkeian system. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
    Chesebro, J. W. (1994). Extending the Burkeian system: A response to Tomkins and Cheney. QuarterlyJournal of Speech, 80, 83–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639409384058
    Chomsky, N. (1981). Radical priorities. Cheektowaga, NY: Black Rose Books.
    Chomsky, N. (1986). Turning the tide: U.S. intervention in Central America and the struggle for peace. Boston: South End.
    Chomsky, N. (1987). The Chomsky reader. New York: Pantheon.
    Chomsky, N. (1989). Necessary illusions: Thought control in democratic societies. Boston: South End.
    Chomsky, N. (1992). Deterring democracy. New York: Hill & Wang.
    Chomsky, N. (1993a). Rethinking Camelot: JFK, the Vietnamese War, and U.S. political culture. Boston: South End.
    Chomsky, N. (1993b). Year 501. The conquest continues. Boston: South End.
    Cohen, H. (1994). The history of speech communication: The emergence of a discipline, 1914–1945. Annadale, VA: Speech Communication Association.
    Condit, C. M. (1992). Post-Burke: Transcending the sub-stance of dramatism. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 78, 349–355. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639209384002
    Connors, R. J. (1984). Review: Journals in composition studies. College English, 46, 348–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/376941
    Converse, P. E., & Schuman, H. (1970). “Silent majorities” and the Vietnam War. Scientific American, 222, 17–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0670-17
    Cowley, M. (1956, September 20). Sociological habit patterns in linguistic transmogrification. The Reporter, 15, 41–43.
    Darsey, J. (1994). Must we all be rhetorical theorists?: An anti-democratic inquiry. Western Journal of Communication, 58, 164–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319409374494
    Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1983). Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Desilet, G. (1989). Nietzsche contra Burke: The melodrama in dramatism. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 75, 65–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638909383862
    Dewey, J. (1929). The quest for certainty. New York: G. P. Putnam.
    Downey, S., & Rasmussen, K. (1990). A claim-making exercise for critical writing. The Speech Communication Teacher, 4, 10–11.
    Drinnon, R. (1980). Facing west The metaphysics of Indian hating and empire-building. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Eagleton, T. (1991). Ideology: An introduction. London: Verso.
    Eagleton, T. (1994). The function of criticism. London: Verso.
    Elbow, P. (1991). Reflections on academic discourse. College English, 53, 135–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/378193
    Ethics of the fathers. (1949). Daily prayer book (R.Birnbaum, Trans.). New York: Hebrew Publishing Company.
    Farrell, T. B. (1994). Norms of rhetorical culture. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Finney, J. W. (1969, November 9). The critics: It is not a plan to end U.S. involvement. New York Times, p. El.
    Fisher, W. (1987). Human communication as narration: Toward a philosophy of reason, value, and action. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.
    Ford, L. A. (1989). Fetching good out of evil in AA: A Bormannean fantasy theme analysis of The big book, of Alcoholics Anonymous. Communication Quarterly, 37, 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463378909385521
    Foss, S. (1989). Rhetorical criticism as the asking of questions. Communication Education, 38, 191–196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634528909378755
    Foss, S. (1996). The nature of rhetorical criticism. In Rhetorical criticism: Exploration and practice (pp. 3–9). Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
    Foss, S. K., & Foss, K. A. (1994). Inviting transformation: Presentational speaking for a changing world. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press.
    Foucault, M. (1965). Madness and civilization. New York: Vintage.
    Foucault, M. (1972). The archeology of knowledge. New York: Pantheon.
    Foucault, M. (1973a). The birth of a clinic. New York: Vintage.
    Foucault, M. (1973b). The order of things. New York: Vintage.
    Foucault, M. (1977). Language, counter-memory, practice (D. F.Bouchard, Ed.). Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Foucault, M. (1978). The history of sexuality, Vol 1. New York: Vintage.
    Foucault, M. (1979). Discipline and punish. New York: Vintage.
    Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge. New York: Pantheon.
    Foucault, M. (1983). Preface. In G. Deleuze & F. Guattari, Anti-Oedipus; Capitalism and schizophrenia (pp. xi-xiv). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Foucault, M. (1984). Nietzsche, genealogy, history. In P.Rabinow (Ed.), The Foucault reader (pp. 76–100). New York: Pantheon.
    Foucault, M. (1985). The use of pleasure. New York: Vintage.
    Foucault, M. (1988). Politics, literature, and philosophy (L. D.Dritzman, Ed.). New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Foucault, M. (1991). Remarks on Marx. New York: Semiotext(e).
    Freire, P. (1994). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum. (Originally published in 1970)
    Frey, L. (1994, April). From context to process: Transforming the undergraduate communication curriculum. Paper presented at the Central States Communication Association, Oklahoma City, OK.
    Fromm, E. (1992). Marx's concept of man. In Marx's concept of man. New York: Continuum. (Originally published in 1961)
    Fry, T. (1986). Communication education and peace education: A beginning. CommunicationEducation, 35, 75–80.
    Gergen, K. J. (1985). The social constructionist movement in modern psychology. AmericanPsychologist, 40, 266–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.40.3.266
    Giroux, H. A. (1988). Schooling and the struggle for public life: Critical pedagogy in the modem age. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Gitlin, T. (Ed.). (1986). Watching television. New York: Pantheon.
    Gray, P. L. (1989). The basic course in speech communication: An historical perspective. Basic Course Communication Annual, 1, 1–27.
    Gregg, R. B. (1985). The criticism of symbolic inducement: A critical-theoretical connection. In T. W.Benson (Ed.), Speech communication in the 20th century (pp. 41–62). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Gronbeck, B. E. (1989). Rhetorical criticism in the liberal arts curriculum. Communication Education, 38, 184–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634528909378754
    Gronbeck, B. E., McKerrow, R. E., Ehninger, D., & Monroe, A. H. (1994). Principles and types of speech communication. New York: HarperCollins.
    Gross, B. (1980). Friendly fascism: The new face of power in America. New York: M. Evans.
    Grossberg, L. (1992). We gotta get out of this place: Popular conservatism and postmodern culture. New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Guattari, F., & Negri, T. (1990). Communists like us: New spaces of liberty, new lines of allegiance. New York: Semiotext(e).
    Gusfield, J. R. (1989). Introduction. In J. R.Gusfield (Ed.), On symbols and society (pp. 1–49). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hairston, M. (1990). Comment and response. College English, 52, 694–696.
    Hairston, M. (1992). Diversity, ideology, and teaching writing. CollegeComposition and Communication, 43, 179–193. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/357563
    Hannah, R. (1925). [Edmund] Burke's audience. Quarterly Journalof Speech Education, 11, 145–150. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335632509379550
    Harris, G. (1994). The dark side of Europe: The extreme right today. Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
    Hart, R. P. (1976). Forum: Theory-building and rhetorical criticism: An informal statement of opinion. Central StatesSpeech Journal, 27, 70–77.
    Hart, R. P. (1985). The politics of communication studies: An address to undergraduates. Communication Education, 34, 162–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634528509378600
    Hart, R. P. (1993). Why communication? Why education? Toward a politics of teaching. Communication Education, 42, 97–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634529309378918
    Heidegger, M. (1965). German existentialism [A collection of speeches originally delivered in 1933 and 1934] (D. D.Runes, Trans.). New York: Philosophical Library.
    Herman, E. S., & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing consent: The political economy of the mass media. New York: Pantheon.
    Hill, F. I. (1972a). Conventional wisdom—Traditional form—The President's message of November 3, 1969. Quarterly Journalof Speech, 58, 373–386. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637209383136
    Hill, F. I. (1972b). Reply to Professor Campbell. Quarterly Journalof Speech, 58, 454–460.
    Hill, F. I. (1983). A turn against ideology: Reply to Professor Wander. CentralStates Speech Journal, 34, 121–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510978309368129
    Hochel, S. (1994). An exercise in understanding ethnocentrism. The Speech Communication Teacher, 8, 10–11.
    Holbrook, S. E. (1991). Women's work: The feminizing of composition. Rhetoric Review, 9, 201–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07350199109388929
    Hollihan, T. A. (1994). Evidencing moral claims: The activist rhetorical critic's first task. Western Journal of Communication, 58, 229–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319409374497
    Hollihan, T., & Riley, P. (1987). The rhetorical power of a compelling story: A critique of a “toughlove” parental support group. Communication Quarterly, 35, 13–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01463378709369667
    Horkheimer, M. (1989). The Jews and Europe. In S. E.Bronner & D. M.Kellner (Eds.), Critical theory and society: A reader (pp. 77–94). New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul. (Originally published in 1938)
    Horkheimer, M. (1992). Critical theory: Selected essays. New York: Continuum. (Originally published in 1968)
    Horkheimer, M., & Adorno, T. W. (1993). Dialectic of enlightenment. New York: Continuum. (Originally published in 1944)
    Horner, W. B. (1990). Writing instruction in Great Britain: Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. In J. J.Murphy (Ed.), A short history of writing instruction from Ancient Greece to twentieth-century America (pp. 121–150). Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press.
    Hunt, M. H. (1987). Ideology and U.S. foreign policy. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Hyman, S. E. (1955). The armed vision: A study in the method of modem literary criticism. New York: Vintage. (Originally published in 1947)
    Ivie, R. L. (1974). Presidential motives for war. QuarterlyJournal of Speech, 60, 346–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637409383242
    Ivie, R. L. (1980). Images of savagery in American justifications for war. Communication Monographs, 47, 279–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758009376037
    Jacoby, R. (1987). The last intellectuals: American culture in the Age of Academe. New York: Noonday Press.
    Jacoby, R. (1989). The responsibility of intellectuals?Grand Street, 8, 185–195. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/25007282
    Jaffe, C. (1995). Public speaking: A cultural perspective. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    James, W. (1965). Pragmatism. New York: Meridian Books. (Originally published in 1907)
    Jarratt, S. (1991). Rereading the sophists: Classical rhetoric refigured. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Jay, M. (1973). The dialectical imagination: A history of the Frankfurt School and the Institute of Social Research, 1923–1950. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Jensen, M. (1993). Developing ways to confront hateful speech. The Speech Communication Teacher, 8, 1–2.
    Johnson, R. (1987). What is cultural studies anyway?Social Text, 6, 38–80.
    Jones, J. S. (1981). How different are human races?Nature, 293, 188–190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/293188a0
    Karnow, S. (1991). Vietnam: A history. New York: Penguin Group.
    Kearney, P., & Plax, T. G. (1996). Public speaking in a culturally diverse society. Mountain View, CA: Mayfield.
    Kellner, D. (1989). Critical theory, Marxism, and modernity. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Kendall, R. H. (1970). A reply to Newman. QuarterlyJournal of Speech, 56, 435–436.
    Kidd, V. (1989). Introduction to message analysis through cereal boxes. The Speech Communication Teacher, 3, 1–2.
    Klumpp, J. F., & Hollihan, T. A. (1989). Rhetorical criticism as moral action. Quarterly Journalof Speech, 75, 84–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638909383863
    Kristeva, J. (1986). The new type of intellectual: The dissident. In T.Moi (Ed.), The Kristeva reader (pp. 292–300). New York: Columbia University Press.
    Kuhn, T. S. (1970). The structure of scientific revolutions (
    2nd ed.
    ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Laclau, E., & Mouffe, C. (1985). Hegemony and socialist strategy: Toward a radical democratic politics. London: Verso.
    Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors we live by. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Lane, L. L. (1991). By all means communicate (
    2nd ed.
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Langland, E., & Gore, W. (Eds.). (1983). A feminist perspective in the academy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Latour, B., & Woolgar, S. (1977). Laboratory life: The social construction of scientific knowledge. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Reidal.
    LeFevre, K. B. (1987). Invention as a social act. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Leff, M. (1992). Teaching public speaking as composition. Basic Course Communication Annual, 4, 115–122.
    Lenin, V. I. (1943). State and revolution. New York: International Publishers. (Originally published in 1917)
    Lentricchia, F. (1985). Criticism and social change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Lester, E. (1992). Manufacturing silence and the politics of media research: A consideration of the “propaganda model.”Journal of Communication Inquiry, 16, 45–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019685999201600104
    Lifton, R. J. (1986). The Nazi doctors: Medical killing and the psychology of genocide. New York: Basic Books.
    Lutz, W. (1989). Doublespeak: From revenue enhancement to “terminal living,” how government, business, advertisers, and others use language to deceive you. New York: Harper & Row.
    Macke, F. J. (1991). Communication left speechless: A critical examination of the evolution of speech communication as an academic discipline. Communication Education, 40, 125–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634529109378834
    Marcuse, H. (1958). Soviet Marxism. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Marcuse, H. (1964). One-dimensional man. Boston: Beacon.
    Marcuse, H. (1969). An essay on liberation. Boston: Beacon.
    Marcuse, H. (1972). Counter-revolution and revolt. Boston: Beacon.
    Marx, K. (1970). Thesis on Feuerbach. In C. J.Arthur (Ed.), The German ideology (pp. 121–123). New York: International Publishers.
    McGee, M. C. (1980). The “ideograph”: A link between rhetoric and ideology. Quarterly Journalof Speech, 66, 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638009383499
    McKerrow, R. (1989). Critical rhetoric: Theory and praxis. Communication Monographs, 56, 91–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758909390253
    Medhurst, M. J. (1989). Teaching rhetorical criticism to undergraduates: Special editor's introduction. CommunicationEducation, 38, 175–177.
    Medhurst, M. J., Ivie, R. L., Wander, P., & Scott, R. L. (1990). Cold war rhetoric: Strategy, metaphor, and ideology. New York: Greenwood.
    Megill, A. (1991). Four senses of objectivity. Annals of Scholarship, 8, 301–320.
    Miller, J. (1993). The passion of Michel Foucault. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.
    Miller, S. (1991). The feminization of composition. In R.Bullock & J.Trimbur (Eds.), The politics of writing instruction: Postsecondary (pp. 39–53). Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann-Boynton/Cook.
    Minh, H. C. (1969). Response to Richard Nixon. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, 52, 1555. (US. Office of the Federal Register, National Archives, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC)
    Minow, N. N., Martin, J. B., & Mitchell, L. M. (1973). Presidential television. New York: Basic Books.
    Murphy, J. J. (1990a). Roman writing instruction as described by Quintilian. In J. J.Murphy (Ed.), A short history of writing instruction from Ancient Greece to twentieth-century America (pp. 19–76). Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press.
    Murphy, J. J. (Ed.). (1990b). A short history of writing instruction from Ancient Greece to twentieth-century America. Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press.
    Nelson, J. S., Megill, A., & McCloslcy, D. N. (Eds.). (1987). The rhetoric of the human sciences. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Newman, R. P. (1970a). A reply to Kendall. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 56, 435–436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637009382998
    Newman, R. P. (1970b). Under the veneer: Nixon's Vietnam speech of November 3, 1969. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 56, 168–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637009382998
    Newman, R. P. (1987). Pity the helpless giant: Nixon on Cambodia. In T.Windt & B.Ingold (Eds.), Essays in presidential rhetoric (
    2nd ed
    , pp. 255–274). Dubuque, LA: Kendall/Hunt.
    Nichols, M. H. (1952). Kenneth Burke and the “new rhetoric.“Quarterly Journal of Speech, 38, 133444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335635209381812
    Nichols, M. H. (1954). Lincoln's first inaugural. In W. M.Parrish & M. H.Nichols (Eds.), American speeches (pp. 21–71). New York: Longmans & Green.
    Nixon, R. (1969). The war in Vietnam. Weekly Compilation of Presidential Documents, 52, 1546–1555. (U.S. Office of the Federal Register, National Archives, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC)
    Nixon, R. (1978). The memoirs of Richard Nixon. New York: Grossett & Dunlap.
    Nothstine, W. L., Blair, C., & Copeland, G. A. (1994). Professionalization and the eclipse of critical invention. In W. L.Nothstine, C.Blair, & G. A.Copeland (Eds.), Critical questions: Invention, creativity, and the criticism of discourse and the media (pp. 15–63). New York: St. Martin's.
    Orwell, G. (1995). Politics and the English language. In R.Jackall (Ed.), Propaganda (pp. 423–437). London: Macmillan. (Originally published in 1946)
    Overington, M. A. (1977). Kenneth Burke as a social theoristSociological Inquiry, 47, 133–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1977.tb00787.x
    Owen, A. S., & Ehrenhaus, P. (1993). Animating a critical rhetoric: On the feeding habits of American empire. Western Journal of Communication, 57, 169–177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319309374440
    Padfield, P. (1991). Himmler: Reichsfuhrer-SS. New York: Henry Holt.
    Parenti, M. (1986). Inventing reality: The politics of the mass media. New York: St. Martin's.
    Pearce, B. (1993). Unpublished chairperson's application for the approval of a new course. Communication Department, Loyola University.
    Pearson, J. C., & Nelson, P. E. (1990). The future of the basic course. BasicCommunication Course Annual, 2, 1–26.
    Peck, J. (1987). Introduction. In N.Chomsky, The Chomsky reader (pp. vii-xix). New York: Pantheon.
    Pettigrew, L. S. (1977). Psychoanalytic theory: A neglected rhetorical dimension. Philosophyand Rhetoric, 10, 46–49.
    Postman, N. (1985). Amusing ourselves to death: Public discourse in the age of show business. New York: Penguin.
    Rai, M. (1995). Chomsky's politics. London: Verso.
    Redding, W. C. (1988). Rocking boats, blowing whistles, and teaching speech communication. CommunicationEducation, 34, 245–258.
    Reuckert, W. (Ed.). (1969). Critical responses to Kenneth Burke: 1924–1966. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Reuckert, W. (1982). Kenneth Burke and the drama of human relations (
    2nd ed.
    ). Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Ritzer, G. (1993). The McDonaldization of society: An investigation into the changing character of contemporary social life. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Rodden, J. G. (1993). Field of dreams. Western Journal of Communication, 57, 111–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319309374436
    Rorty, R. (Ed.). (1967). The linguistic turn. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Rorty, R. (1979). Philosophy and the mirror of nature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Rorty, R. (1982). Consequences of pragmatism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Rorty, R. (1984). The history of philosophy: Four genres. In R.Rorty, J. B.Schneewind, & Q.Skinner (Eds.), Philosophy in history (pp. 49–75). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625534.006
    Rorty, R. (1989). Contingency, irony, and solidarity. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511804397
    Rorty, R. (1991a). Essays on Heidegger and others. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511609039
    Rorty, R. (1991b, Fall). Intellectuals in politics. Dissent, pp. 483–490.
    Rorty, R. (1991c). Objectivity, relativism, and truth. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Rorty, R. (1991d). The professor and the prophet. Transition, (No. 52), pp. 70–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2935125
    Rorty, R. (1992a). The intellectuals at the end of socialism. The Yale Review, 80, 1–16.
    Rorty, R. (1992b). Moral identity and private autonomy. In T. J.Armstrong (Ed.), Michel Foucault: Philosopher (pp. 328–333). New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Rorty, R. (1994). The grandeur and twilight of radical universalism. Thesis Eleven, 37, 119–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/072551369403700109
    Rosenberg, H. (1969). A review of Counter-statement. In W.Rueckert (Ed.), Critical responses to Kenneth Burke (pp. 26–30). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (Originally published in 1932)
    Rosenfeld, L. (1993). Preface to the special issue of Communication Education. Communication Education, 42, 277–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634529309378935
    Ross, A. (1992, Spring). On intellectuals in politics. Dissent, pp. 263–265.
    Rozema, H. J. (1987). Teaching a unit on perception and interracial communication. The Speech Communication Teacher, 2, 6–7.
    Rozell, M. J. (1992). President Nixon's conception of executive privilege: Defining the scope and limits of executive branch secrecy. PresidentialStudies Quarterly, 22, 323–336.
    Schell, E. E. (1992). The feminization of composition: Questioning the metaphors that bind women together. Composition Studies, 20, 55–61.
    Schiappa, E. (1989a). Desecrating “official” sacred objects: From Salman Rushdie to Gregory Lee Johnson. Statutory and Constitutional Responses to the Supreme Court Decision in Texas v. Johnson. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary House of Representatives (101st Cong., 1st Sess.) (pp. 531–534). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Schiappa, E. (1989b). Letter to Howard Bauleke. Statutory and Constitutional Response to the Supreme Court Decision in Texas v. Johnson. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary House of Representatives (101st Cong., 1st Sess., p. 530). Washington, DC: Government Printing Office.
    Schiappa, E. (1989c). The rhetoric of Nukespeak. Communication Monographs, 56, 253–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758909390263
    Schiappa, E. (1991). Toward more argument evaluation: Identifying the constraints. In D. W.Barson (Ed.), Argument in controversy (pp. 39–45). Annadale, VA: Speech Communication Association.
    Schiappa, E. (1992). Rhetorike: What's in a name? Toward a revised history of early Greek rhetorical theory. Quarterly Journalof Speech, 78, 1–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639209383978
    Schiappa, E. (1995a). Intellectuals and the place of cultural critique. In J. F.Reynolds (Ed.), Rhetoric, cultural studies, and literacy (pp. 21–27). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Schiappa, E. (1995b). Introduction. In E.Schiappa (Ed.), Warranting assent: Case studies in argument evaluation (pp. ix-xxviii). New York: State University of New York Press.
    Schiappa, E., & Keehner, M. F. (1991). The “lost” passages of Kenneth Burke's Permanence and change. Communication Studies, 42, 191–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510979109368335
    Schneider, I. (1969). A new view of rhetoric. In W.Rueckert (Ed.), Critical responses to Kenneth Burke (pp. 22–26). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. (Originally published in 1931)
    Schrag, C. (1985). Rhetoric resituated at the end of philosophy. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 71, 164–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638509383726
    Schrag, C. (1986). Communicative praxis and the space of subjectivity. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Scott, R. L. (1967). On viewing rhetoric as epistemic. Central SlatesSpeech Journal, 18, 9–17.
    Singer, P. (1975). Animal liberation: A new ethic for our treatment of animals. New York: Avon Books.
    Sluga, H. (1993). Heidegger's crisis: Philosophy and politics in Nazi Germany. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Smith, R. E. (1995). Principles of human communication (
    4th ed.
    ). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt.
    Sontag, S. (1969). Trip to Hanoi. In Styles of political will (pp. 205–274). New York: Delta.
    Southwell, S. B. (1987). Kenneth Burke and Martin Heidegger. Gainesville: University of Florida Press.
    Spitzack, C., & Carter, K. (1987). Women in communication studies: A topology for revision. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 73, 401–423. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638709383816
    Stelzner, H. G. (1971). The quest story and Nixon's November 3, 1969 address. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 163–172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637109383057
    Stewart, D. C. (1987). Foreword. In J.Berlin, Rhetoric and reality: Writing instruction in American colleges, 1900–1985 (pp. ix-xi). Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.
    Strine, M. S. (1993). Of boundaries, borders, and contact zones: Author(iz)ing pedagogical practices. Communication Education, 42, 367–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634529309378952
    Tiefer, L. (1992). Social constructionism and the study of human sexuality. In E.Stein (Ed.), Forms of desire (pp. 295–324). New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Tomkins, P. K., & Cheney, G. (1993). On the limits and sub-stance of Kenneth Burke and his critics. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 79, 225–231. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335639309384030
    Trotsky, L. (1959). The Russian revolution. New York: Anchor. (Originally published in 1932)
    Turner, G. (1990). British cultural studies: An introduction. Boston: Unwin Hyman.
    Unger, R. M. (1986). The critical legal studies movement. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    United States. (1992, February 5). Holocaust Museum. 50th Anniversary of the Wannsee Conference: Oversight Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs (House of Representatives, 102d Cong.). Washington, DC.
    Utterback, W. E. (1925). Aristotle's contribution to the psychology of argument. QuarterlyJournal of Speech Education, 11, 218–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335632509379565
    Van Alstyne, W. W. (1991). Freedom of speech and the Flag Anti-Desecration Amendment: Antinomies of Constitutional choice. FreeSpeech Yearbook, 29, 96–105.
    Viet-Nam: Introductory survey. (1993). The Europa world year book (pp. 3186–3190). London: Europa Publications.
    Wald, A. M. (1992). Introduction. In D.Aaron, Writer's on the left Episodes in American literary communism (pp. xii-xxxi). New York: Columbia University Press.
    Wander, P. (1983). The ideological turn in modern criticism. Central States Speech Journal, 34, 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510978309368110
    Wander, P. (1984a). The rhetoric of American foreign policy. Quarterly Journalof Speech, 70, 339–361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335638409383703
    Wander, P. (1984b). The third persona: An ideological turn in rhetorical theory. Central States Speech Journal, 35, 197–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10510978409368190
    Wander, P. (1990). The politics of despair. Communication, 11, 277–290.
    Wander, P. (1993). Introduction: Special issue on ideology. Western Journal of Communication, 57, 105–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10570319309374435
    Wander, P. & Jenkins, S. (1972). Rhetoric, society, and the critical response. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 59, 441–450. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00335637209383142
    Welch, K. E. (1990). Writing instruction in Ancient Athens after 450 B.C.[E]. In J. J.Murphy (Ed.), A short history of writing instruction from Ancient Greece to twentieth-century America (pp. 1–18). Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press.
    West, C. (1989). The American evasion of philosophy. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    White, H. (1978). Tropics of discourse. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    White, H. (1987). The context of the form. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Wichelns, H. A. (1972). The literary criticism of oratory. In R.Scott & B.Brock (Eds.), Methods of rhetorical criticism: A twentieth century perspective (pp. 27–60). New York: Harper & Row. (Originally published in 1925)
    Wilson, J. (1980). Language and the pursuit of truth. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Wood, J. T., & Lenze, L. F. (1991). Strategies to enhance gender sensitivity in communication education. Communication Education, 40, 16–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03634529109378822
    Woods, M. C. (1990). The teaching of writing in medieval Europe. In J. J.Murphy (Ed.), A short history of writing instruction from Ancient Greece to twentieth-century America (pp. 77–94). Davis, CA: Hermagoras Press.
    Zinn, H. (Ed.). (1971). Pentagon papers. Boston: Beacon.
    Zinn, H. (1980). A people's history of the United States. New York: Harper & Row.

    About the Author

    Omar Swartz earned his doctorate in Communication in 1995 from Purdue University. He is currently Visiting Assistant Professor in the Department of Communication at the University of North Carolina, Greensboro. His research emphasis is rhetorical theory and criticism, particularly as they intersect with critical theory. His writings have appeared in The Encyclopedia of Rhetoric and Composition, World Communication, Communication Studies, Southern Communication Journal, Journal of Advanced Composition, The Pennsylvania State Speech Communication Annual, and Speaker and Gavel.


    • Loading...
Back to Top