Since 1980, when Wallerstein and Kelly first wrote about children who refused visitation with a parent, there has been considerable controversy about this topic. Much of the controversy exploded after Gardner coined the phrase “Parental Alienation Syndrome” (PAS) in 1987. Since that time, scholars have debated whether or not there is a syndrome related to parental alienation. Some have argued that there is no syndrome and that this is mostly a creation of Gardner's with no validity (Bruch, 2001; Isman, 1996; Wood, 1994). Others have argued that PAS does exist and that it is damaging to children (Lund, 1995; Rand, 1997a, 1997b; Warshak, 2001). Some have argued that the primary cause of children refusing to visit the other parent is ...
The Alienated Child1
The alienated child