Comparative Democratic Politics: A Guide to Contemporary Theory and Research

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Edited by: Hans Keman

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    List of Figures

    • Figure 1.1 Political chain of democratic control and command (Pennings et al., 1999) 12
    • Figure 3.1 Distribution of polyarchy by age (Vanhanen, 1997) 42
    • Figure 3.2 Distribution of cases on the Index of Democratization (Vanhanen, 1990) 43
    • Figure 3.3 Distribution of cases on the Index of Democratization (Vanhanen, 1990) 44
    • Figure 3.4 Plot of democraticness against explanatory factors 55
    • Figure 4.1 A systems model of political processes 68
    • Figure 4.2 A model of representative-constituency relationships 69
    • Figure 4.3 Central democratic relationships in the functioning of democracy 72
    • Figure 4.4 Additional relationships and constraints in democratic processes 74
    • Figure 4.5 The validated general model of democratic processes 82
    • Figure 4.6 Democratic policy processes in the field of education 85
    • Figure 4.7 Democratic policy processes affecting government size 87
    • Figure 4.8 Democratic policy processes in the fields of welfare and defence 89
    • Figure 4.9 Electoral choice between government priorities 90
    • Figure 5.1 Voter ideology in Western Europe 113
    • Figure 5.2 UK party positions 1945–92 114
    • Figure 5.3 Mean vote shares of small-party families 115
    • Figure 5.4 Mean vote shares of large-party families 115
    • Figure 7.1 Negotiation democracies vs non-negotiation democracies 144
    • Figure 7.2 Empirical location of 36 countries according to Lijphart's dimensions of consensus democracy 151
    • Figure 10.1 Paths to public policy formation 223
    • Figure 11.1 Total public outlays and income inequalities in the 1990s 253

    List of Tables

    • Table 3.1 Features of democraticness around the world 38
    • Table 3.2 Increase in polyarchies over time 41
    • Table 3.3 Distribution of levels of democracy according to regime type (N = 137) 45
    • Table 3.4 Distribution of political and civil rights worldwide (1999) 46
    • Table 3.5 Factor analysis of democracy scales and indexes 48
    • Table 3.6 Average scores of indicators of the level of democracy for type of countries, duration and regime type 48
    • Table 3.7 Bivariate relations between indicators of democracy and social, economic and political variables 52
    • Table 3.8 Regression analysis of factors explaining democracy 53
    • Table 3.9 Multi-variate model of democraticness 55
    • Table 3.10 Cross tabulation of democraticness and waves of democratization (N = 57) 57
    • Table 4.1 Major data-based measures of contextual problems, electoral concerns, party priorities and government policies 75
    • Table 5.1 Old and new cleavages and party choice in Western Europe, 1970–90 104
    • Table 5.2 Electoral systems in Western Europe 109
    • Table 5.3 Factors which increase turnout 117
    • Table 5.4 Trends in electoral participation, 1986–99 117
    • Table 6.1 Number of elections, by country and by decade 127
    • Table 6.2 Mean levels of electoral participation, by country and by decade 129
    • Table 6.3 Mean total volatility, by country and by decade 131
    • Table 6.4 Mean total vote for new parties, by country and by decade 134
    • Table 6.5 Mean vote for green parties and extreme right parties, by country and by decade 137
    • Table 7.1 Majoritarian and consensus democracy – concepts and indicators 150
    • Table 7.2 Indices of corporatism 155
    • Table 7.3 Cross-tabulation of pluralism/corporatism with majoritarian/consociational democracy 157
    • Table 8.1 Participation of conservative, liberal, centre and social democratic parties in office in 23 OECD nations (1950–2000) 169
    • Table 8.2 Constitutional structures and veto players in 23 economically advanced democracies in the year 2000 177
    • Table 8.3 Party composition of governments in sovereign and semi-sovereign democracies 1950–2000 179
    • Table 8.4 Determinants of public spending as a percentage of gross domestic product in 21 OECD-member states 1960–98 182
    • Table 9.1 Esping-Andersen's regimes and their characteristics 197
    • Table 9.2 Basic data on western systems of social security, poverty and inequality in the mid-1990s and replacement rates for average production workers 205
    • Table 11.1 Democratic performance: correlation analysis 238
    • Table 11.2 Regression analysis: level of human development, welfare state policies and equality 239
    • Table 11.3 Institutional foci in democracies 248
    • Table 11.4 Performance profiles: correlation analysis for democratic regimes 249
    • Table 11.5 Regression analyses: democracy and centralization 251
    • Table 11.6 Regression: total public sector output 252
    • Table 12.1 Types of constitutional government 263
    • Table 12.2 State format and organization in liberal democracies (N = 52) 268
    • Table 12.3 Correlation table 273
    • Table 12.4 Application of the Zöllner Model (N = 52) 274
    • Table 12.5 Duration and constitutional type of democracy and policy performance 275
    • Table 12.6 Unitary-centralized versus federal-decentralized states and policy performance (1990) 277
    • Table 12.7 The effects of hierarchically organized government and dominating executives on policy performance 277
    • Table 12.8 Bivariate relations between indicators of democraticness and features of the state format 280
    • Table 12.9 Democratic performance and quality of life in relation to policy performance 281
    • Table 12.10 Democratic performance and levels of societal protest 282

    Notes on the Editor and Contributors

    • Hans Keman is Professor and Chair of Political Science at the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam. He has previously taught at the University of Amsterdam, the European University Institute (Florence, Italy), the University of Leiden and was a Research Fellow at the Australian National University (Canberra) and the Netherlands Institute of Advanced Studies (NIAS). Currently he is co-editor-in-chief of the European Journal of Political Research. He has published on comparative politics and its methodology, public policy formation, the welfare state, economic policy-making and on party systems and the functioning of governments. Among his latest publications are The Politics of Problem-Solving in Postwar Democracies (1997) and with Paul Pennings and Jan Kleinnijenhuis: Doing Research in Political Science. An Introduction to Comparative Methods and Statistics (1999).
    • Klaus Armingeon is Professor of Political Science at the University of Berne (Switzerland). Before this he taught at the universities of Konstanz, Tübingen, Mannheim and Heidelberg in Germany. His work focuses on trade unions, corporatism, consociational democracy, social and economic policies, political participation, party systems and voting behaviour in comparative perspective. Recent publications in English include articles on the Swiss welfare state and economic policy. In addition he has published on Swiss federalism and on the effects of negotiation democracy. Among his publications are Der Nationalstaat am Ende des 20 Jahrhunderts (The Nation-State at the end of the 20th Century, 1996) and ‘The Effects of Negotiation Democracy’ (European Journal of Political Science, 2002).
    • Uwe Becker is Senior Lecturer in Political Science at the University of Amsterdam. He has been a visiting fellow in Australia, Sweden, the USA and at the European University Institute (Italy). He has published and edited books on class theory, political science, Dutch politics in comparative perspectives and lately (1999) on European democracies. Most of his recent articles deal with welfare state and labour market developments in the Netherlands.
    • Ian Budge has been Professor of Government at the University of Essex since 1976. He was the founding director of the Essex Summer School in Quantitative Social Science Methods and is former executive director of the ECPR. He has published on democratic theory, party behaviour, elections and party systems, and government formation from a comparative perspective. He is also director of the ‘Manifesto Research Project’ on party programmes, government declarations and public policy formation in Western democracies. Ian Budge has held visiting professorships and fellowships in Spain, Italy, Germany, The Netherlands, the United States and recently in Australia. He has also published several books, amongst which are: The New Challenge of Direct Democracy (1996), Parties and Democracies. Coalition Formation and Government Functioning in 20 States (1993, with Hans Keman), and Mapping Policy Preferences: Estimates for Parties, Governments and Electors 1945–98 (with H-D. Klingemann, A. Volkens, and J. Bara, 2001).
    • Francis G. Castles is currently Professor of Social and Public Policy at the University of Edinburgh, having formerly held Chairs in Political Science at the Australian National University and the Open University in England. He has been convenor of a series of path-breaking comparative studies of the determinants of policy outcomes in Western democratic states. His most recent books are Comparative Public Policy: Patterns of Post-war Transformation published in 1998 and The Welfare State Reader, co-edited with Chris Pierson (2000).
    • Hans Daalder is emeritus Professor of Political Science at the University of Leiden. One of the founders of the ECPR he was first Head of Department of Political and Social Sciences at the European University Institute (Florence, Italy). He has published widely on comparative politics – in particular European politics in the area of political development and political parties in democracies – and on Dutch politics as well as on topics of political history. His latest contribution to the field of comparative analysis is: Comparative European Politics. The Story of a Profession (1997). He is now working on a political biography of the first social democrat to become Dutch Prime Minister: Willem Drees (1886−1988).
    • Svante Ersson is currently working at the University of Umeå. His main research concerns empirical comparative politics, and the development of comparable data on political behaviour and institutions. He has co-authored together with Jan-Erik Lane many books on European politics, institutions and governance and comparative politics.
    • Richard I. Hofferbert is Distinguished Professor Emeritus at the State University of New York at Binghamton, as well as Recurring Visiting Professor at the Wissenschaftszentrum-Berlin. He has published widely on policy analysis, political parties, and democratic performance. Among his books are Parties, Policies, and Democracy (1994, with Hans-Dieter Klingemann, Ian Budge and others) and Parties and Democracy (ed., 1998).
    • Kees van Kersbergen is currently Professor of National Political Systems and Dutch Politics at the University of Nijmegen (The Netherlands). Before that he was Senior Lecturer at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and was attached to the European University Institute (Italy). He publishes widely on Dutch politics and policy-making as well as on the political development of welfare states from a cross-national perspective. In 1996 van Kersbergen was awarded the Stein Rokkan Prize for Comparative Social Research for his book Social Capitalism. A Study of Christian Democracy and the Welfare State (1995).
    • Jan-Erik Lane is Professor of Political Science at the University of Geneva and has previously taught in Umeå, Lund and Oslo. He has published widely on topics of political theory, comparative political economy and sociology as well as on public policy formation and public sector management. His latest books are Politics and Society in Western Europe (with Svante Ersson, 1998) and The New Institutional Politics. Performance and Outcomes (also with Svante Ersson, 2000).
    • Peter Mair is Professor of Comparative Politics at Leiden University in The Netherlands and previously taught at the University of Limerick, the University of Strathclyde, the University of Manchester, and the European University Institute. He has been co-editor of the journal West European Politics. He has published numerous articles on party system development, aggregate electoral development, parties and their organization and on comparative politics in general. Together with Stefano Bartolini he was awarded the Stein Rokkan Prize for Comparative Social Research in 1991 for their study of electoral volatility in Europe. He has co-authored Representative Government in Modern Europe: Institutions, Parties and Governments (3rd edition, 2000).
    • Malika Aït Mallouk is a graduate student in Comparative Politics and Assistant in the Department of Political Science at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. She is working on employment policies in EU Member States in relation to EU decision-making during the 1990s.
    • Michael D. McDonald is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Political Science at Binghamton University (State University of New York). His research and publications focus on issues of democratic representation under various forms of electoral, party, and governmental systems.
    • Paul Pennings is Associate Professor at the Department of Political Science at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. His research focuses on political parties and their institutional environment from a comparative perspective. Among his recent publications are Comparing Party Systems (co-editor with Lane, 1998) and Democratizing Candidate Selection (special issue of Party Politics, 2001). Together with Kleinnijenhuis and Keman he published Doing Research in Political Science. An Introduction to Comparative Methods and Statistics (1999).
    • Manfred G. Schmidt is the recently appointed Professor and Chair in Political Science at the University of Heidelberg. He was Director of the Centre of Social Policy Studies in Bremen (Germany). His major research interests are: political institutions and public policy in the Federal Republic of Germany; comparative public policy; and democratic theory. Manfred Schmidt was the winner of the Stein Rokkan Prize in Comparative Social Research in 1981. In 1995 he was awarded the Leibniz Prize of the German Research Foundation. His book publications include Wörterbuch zur Politik (Dictionary in Politics and Political Science, 1995), Sozialpolitik in Deutschland. Historische Entwicklung und internationaler Vergleich (Social Policy in Germany. Historical Development and International Comparison, 1998, 2nd edition) and Demokratietheorien (Theories of Democracy, 2000, 3rd edition).

    Preface and Acknowledgements

    This edited volume is the result of the collaboration among a number of European political scientists, who all met each other regularly at Joint Sessions of Workshops organized by the European Consortium of Political Research (ECPR). Over the years we have worked together in various (nationally and internationally organized) research projects. All these research projects had, in one way or another, in common that they focused on democratic politics as a process, on the one hand, and on the political performances of democracy as a system, on the other hand.

    Not too long ago we felt the urge to throw our experience and knowledge together in view of the recent developments in democracies across the world. The so-called ‘established’ democracies, stable as they (still) appear, show signs of fatigue as legitimate systems of public governance (considered by many as a result of the politicization of the European Union); whereas the recent ‘waves’ of democratization have not only increased the number of (constitutional) representative democracies, but also urge us to ponder the quality of existing insights in representative democracy, both as a political process and as a system of governance. Basically this is the underlying idea of this edited volume: to examine the present ‘state of the art’ and to update our collective knowledge and empirical applications of comparative democratic politics. In this sense this volume can be indeed considered as a ‘guide to present theory and research’. We hope that this effort will be helpful to other colleagues, in particular those active in the field of ‘comparative politics’, as well as those who are concerned with or interested in understanding contemporary democracy.

    Last, but not least, many others were involved in getting this book into a publishable format and helped us to gather the necessary information and data. First of all I am grateful for the support of my Faculty of Social-Cultural Sciences at the Vrije Universiteit (Amsterdam). I am particularly grateful to Sabine Luursema, who helped me to produce the manuscript. Without her it would not only have taken much longer, but it would not have looked like it does now. Also the assistance of Malika Aït Mallouk should not go unnoticed. She assisted me in collecting and analysing data as well as compiling the bibliography. In addition Lucy Robinson of Sage Publishers must be thanked for her support from the very beginning of this endeavour, and her patience with me, until the very end of producing this book. This quality was even more so demonstrated by my loving and caring friend Mieke Rijkers, whose patience has been beyond any measure.

    Finally, I wish to thank the contributors, who bore with me and my requests, for their spirited and congenial co-operation. It goes almost without saying, of course, that I alone am responsible for any errors and mistakes that may have escaped my attention.

    Hans Keman (Editor)

    Riis – Fryslân, The Netherlands

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