Comparative Criminal Justice: Making Sense of Difference

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David Nelken

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    Dedication

    We have to know what we are doing, protecting an order that doesn't exist, to make a security that cannot exist … it is not possible to change anything until you understand the substance you wish to change … to change something you do not understand is the true nature of evil. (Winterson 1991: 93, 138)

    Acknowledgements

    I should like to thank Nicole Rafter and Paul Rock for inviting me to contribute to this series and for their valuable editorial comments; Paul Roberts also offered valuable observations on the manuscript. Thanks also to Caroline Porter, Sarah-Jayne Boyd and others at Sage for all their advice and support. For anything I may have learned about this subject I owe particular thanks to my Italian friends, colleagues and students. But for the encouragement of my friends Malcolm Feeley and Stuart Scheingold I might not have come to write this book. Without Matilde and my family I could not have written it. It is dedicated to the memory of Dino Betti, partigiano and maestro.

  • References

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    Nelken, David (1994b) ‘Whom can you trust? The future of comparative criminology’, in DavidNelken (ed.), The Futures of Criminology. London: Sage. pp. 220–44.
    Nelken, David (1996) ‘Judicial politics and corruption in Italy’, in Michael Levi and David Nelken (eds), The Corruption of Politics and the Politics of Corruption. Special issue of the Journal of Law and Society:355–58.
    Nelken, David (1997a) Comparing Legal Cultures. Aldershot: Dartmouth.
    Nelken, David (1997b) ‘Il significato di Tangentopoli: la risposta giudiziaria alla corruzione e i suoi limiti’, in LucianoViolante (ed.), Storia d'Italia 14: Legge, Diritto e Giustizia. Turin: Einaudi. pp. 597–627.
    Nelken, David (1997c) ‘The globalization of crime and criminal justice: prospects and problems’, in MichaelFreeman (ed.), Law and Opinion at the end of the 20th Century. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 251–79.
    Nelken, David (ed.) (2000a) Contrasting Criminal Justice. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Nelken, David (2000b) ‘Telling difference: of crime and criminal justice in Italy’, in DavidNelken (ed.), Contrasting Criminal Justice. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 233–64.
    Nelken, David (2002) ‘Comparing criminal justice’, in MichaelMaguire, RodMorgan and RobertReiner (eds), Oxford Handbook of Criminology (
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    Nelken, David (2003a) ‘Criminology: crime's changing boundaries’, in PeterCane and MarkTushnet (eds), The Oxford Handbook of Legal Studies. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 250–70.
    Nelken, David (2003b) ‘Corruption in the European Union’, in MartinBull and JamesNewell (eds), Corruption and Scandal in Contemporary Politics. London: Macmillan. pp. 220–33.
    Nelken, David (2004a) ‘Using the concept of legal culture’, Australian Journal of Legal Philosophy, 29: 1–28.
    Nelken, David (2004b) ‘Being there’, in LinChao and JohnWinterdyk (eds), Lessons from International/Comparative Criminology/Criminal Justice. Toronto: De Sitter. pp. 83–92.
    Nelken, David (2005) ‘When is a society non-punitive? A case study of Italy’, in JohnPratt et al. (eds), The New Punitiveness. Cullompton: Willan Publishing. pp. 218–38.
    Nelken, David (2006a) ‘Il radicamento della penalità’, in AlbertoFebbrajo, AntonioLa Spina and MonicaRaiteri (eds), Cultura Giuridica e Politiche Pubbliche. Milan: Giuffré. pp. 200–35.
    Nelken, David (2006b) ‘Italy: a lesson in tolerance?’, in JohnMuncie and BarryGoldson (eds), Comparative Youth Justice: Critical Issues. London: Sage. pp. 159–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446212608
    Nelken, David (2006c) ‘Italian juvenile justice: tolerance, leniency or indulgence?’, Youth Justice, 6: 107–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1473225406065561
    Nelken, David (2006d) ‘Rethinking legal culture’, in MichaelFreeman (ed.), Law and Sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 200–24.
    Nelken, David (2006e) ‘Patterns of punishment’, Modern Law Review, 69: 262–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2230.2006.00584.x
    Nelken, David (2006f) ‘Signaling conformity: changing norms in Japan and China’, Michigan Journal of International Law, 27: 933–72.
    Nelken, David (2007a) ‘Comparative law and comparative legal studies’, in EsinOrucu and DavidNelken (eds), Comparative Law: A Handbook. Oxford: Hart Publishing. pp. 3–42.
    Nelken, David (2007b) ‘Three problems in studying legal culture’, in Freek Bruinsma and David Nelken (eds), Exploring Legal Cultures. Special issue of Recht der Werkelijkheid, 28: 11–28.
    Nelken, David (2007c) ‘Immigrant beach selling along the Italian Adriatic coast: de-constructing a social problem’, in Paul Ponsaers and Ronnie Lippens (eds), The Informal Economy Re-visited: Organisational Process, Occupational Culture, Informal Economies, and Crime. Special issue of Crime, Law and Social Change, 297–313.
    Nelken, David (2008) ‘Normalising time: European integration and court delays in Italy’, in HannePetersen, HelleKrunke, Anne-LiseKjær and MikaelRask Madsen (eds), Paradoxes of European Integration. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 299–323.
    Nelken, David (2009a) ‘Corruption as governance’, in Franzvon Benda-Beckmann and Keebetvon Benda-Beckmann (eds), Rules of Law, Laws of Ruling. Aldershot: Ashgate. pp. 275–95.
    Nelken, David (2009b) ‘Comparing criminal justice: beyond ethnocentrism and relativism’. European Journal of Criminology, 6(4): 291–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1477370809104684
    Nelken, David (2009c) Beyond the Law in Context. Aldershot: Ashgate.
    Nelken, David (2010) ‘Making sense of difference’, in ShlomoShoham, PaulKnepper and MartinKett (eds), International Handbook of Criminology. London: Taylor and Francis. pp. 60–80.
    Nelken, David (forthcoming a) ‘Legal culture and human trafficking’, paper presented at the conference on the Palermo protocol, Palermo, May 2009.
    Nelken, David (forthcoming b) ‘Traveling concepts: prison rules and corruption standards’, Public lecture at Institute of Advanced Studies, Oxford Centre of Criminology and Utrecht Law School, Spring2009.
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