Community-Based Natural Resource Management: Issues and Cases from South Asia
Publication Year: 2007
NGOs today, as part of civil society, have come to play a prominent role in South Asia in the context of community-based natural resource management (CBNRM). This book examines the theory and practice of NGO-driven CBNRM within the framework of emerging critiques of dominant discourses of development, the micro-politics of decentralization, and the projection of community development. The book breaks new ground by situating these critiques within six detailed cases of CBNRM initiatives.
To what extent does CBNRM continue to offer a vision for the future and what role, if any, could NGOs play in this? The authors attempt to answer this question by seeking to understand the ideas and insights of CBNRM that intervening agencies bring with them and by examining the outcomes of the ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: Hivre Bazar: A ‘Model’ Watershed Experiment?
- Chapter 3: Utthan's Work in Nathugadh, Gujarat
- Chapter 4: Community-Based Natural Resource Management in Gopalpura, Rajasthan
- Chapter 5: Community-Based Natural Resource Management in Bhutan: The Case of the Lingmuteychhu Watershed
- Chapter 6: Community-Based Natural Resource Management in the Central Himalayas: The Work of Doodha Toli Lok Vikas Sansthan
- Chapter 7: Sustainable Livelihoods in Riverine Charlands: The Case of Gono Chetona
- Chapter 8: Conclusion
Copyright © Ajit Menon, Praveen Singh, Esha Shah, Sharachchandra Lélé, Suhas Paranjape and K.J. Joy, 2007
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilised in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
First published in 2007 by
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Community-based natural resource management: issues and cases from South Asia / Ajit Menon … [et al.].
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Natural resources—Co-management—South Asia. I. Menon, Ajit, 1966–
ISBN: 978-0-7619-3574-2 (Pb)
The Sage Team: Sugata Ghosh, Neha Kohli and Rajib Chatterjee
Note regarding maps:
1. The maps on pages 26, 33, 85, 119, 128, 162, 163, 198, 209 and 255 are recreated from maps available in the public domain and are not to scale.
List of Tables[Page vii]
- 1.1 Summary of Case Study Locations, Agro-ecological Conditions and Intervention Areas 25
- 2.1 Cropping Intensity in Hivre Bazar 45
- 3.1 The Number and Area of Operational Holders (in percentage) in the Districts of Saurashtra (non-SC/ST) 75
- 3.2 Land Use Pattern: Bhavnagar District (1991) 76
- 3.3 Land Use Pattern in Nathugadh 86
- 3.4 Landholding Pattern in Nathugadh 87
- 3.5 Estimated Crop Pattern in Nathugadh 87
- 4.1 Water-harvesting Structures in Gopalpura 129
- 4.2 Land Use Change in Gopalpura 133
- 5.1 Pertinent Details of Villages in the Lingmuteychhu Watershed 164
- 6.1 Main Features of the Study Villages in the Doodha Toli Area 210
- 6.2 Demographic Details of the Study Villages in the Doodha Toli Area 212
- 6.3 Land Use and Cropping Patterns in the Study Villages in the Doodha Toli Area 212
- 7.1 Landholding Pattern in the SLRC Project Area 259 [Page viii]
- 7.2 Occupational Structure in the SLRC Project Area 260
- 7.3 Basic Information on Villages Visited in the SLRC Project Area 261
- 8.1 Differences in Normative Concerns Underpinning the CBNRM Initiatives 313
- 8.2 Differences in Problem Perception and Notion of CBNRM 316
List of Figures[Page ix]
- 1.1 Location of the Six Case Studies 26
- 2.1 Location of Hivre Bazar 33
- 3.1 Location of Gogha Taluka 85
- 4.1 Location of Gopalpura 119
- 4.2 Gopalpura Village: Location of Water-harvesting Structures 128
- 5.1 Location of the Lingmuteychhu Watershed 162
- 5.2 Location of Villages and Canals in the Lingmuteychhu Watershed 163
- 6.1 Location of the Study Sites in the Doodha Toli Area 198
- 6.2 Location and Approximate Boundaries of Sample Villages and their Van Panchayats 209
- 7.1 Location of the Jamuna–Brahmaputra Charlands 255
List of Boxes[Page x]
- 2.1 An Equitable Arrangement of Water Sharing 50
- 2.2 Employment Opportunities for the Landless 51
- 2.3 Innovative Sharecropper 52
- 5.1 Mithun Bull 176
- 7.1 Powerless Union Members 251
- 7.2 Even the Landed are Vulnerable 259
- 7.3 New Leadership Emerging 265
- 7.4 Group Leader Corners the Benefit 266
- 7.5 Income Generation Through Nurseries 270
List of Abbreviations[Page xi]
AGY Adarsh Gaon Yojana ASAG Ahmedabad Study Action Group BG-SRDP Bhutan–German Sustainable Renewable Natural Resource Development Project BLP block-level planning CBNRM community-based natural resource management CCTs continuous contour trenches CFM community forest management CFMGs community forestry management groups CPR common property resource CWSS Community Water Supply and Sanitation Programme DFID Department for International Development DPAP Drought Prone Areas Programme DTLVS Doodha Toli Lok Vikas Sansthan DYT Dzongkhag Yargye Tshogchung EGS Employment Guarantee Scheme FMIS farmer-managed irrigation systems FYM farmyard manure GC Gono Chetona GRWSSP Ghogha Regional Water Supply and Sanitation Programme GSS Gono Shahajjo Shangstha [Page xii] GWSSB Gujarat Water Supply and Sewerage Board GYT Geog Yargye Tshogchung HYV high-yielding variety IMT irrigation management transfer IWDP Integrated Wasteland Development Programme JFM joint forest management MMD mahila mangal dal NEMAP National Environment Management Action Plan NRSP National Rural Support Programme NWDP National Watershed Development Programme NWDPRA National Watershed Development Programme for Rainfed Areas PAWDI People's Action for Watershed Development PIA project implementation agency PIM participatory irrigation management PHWA per household watershed area PRA participatory rural appraisal RNR renewable natural resource RRA rapid rural appraisal RWSSP Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project SB Swanirwar Bangladesh SC Scheduled Castes ST Scheduled Tribes SEMP Sustainable Environment Management Plan SHGs self-help groups SLRC Sustainable Livelihoods in Riverine Charlands TBS Tarun Bharat Sangh TDH Terre Des Hommes VP van panchayat YKGPVS Yashwant Krishi Gram and Panlot Vikas Sanstha WAA water augmentation activities WASMO Water and Sanitation Management Organisation
Preface and Acknowledgements[Page xiii]
Undertaking this study on community-based natural resource management (CBNRM) in South Asia was for all of us an interesting and necessary challenge. Interesting because as researchers, it provided us an opportunity to visit and explore different regions of South Asia and observe CBNRM initiatives that had received a considerable amount of ‘good’ press. Necessary because so much has been made of the potential role of civil society and NGOs as a means towards a more decentralised, democratic and participatory form of development, yet so little attention has been paid to specific initiatives. Hence, we felt the need to take it upon ourselves to study some of these initiatives, hopefully with a more critical and analytical perspective.
This book is the product of our endeavour, an endeavour that started with lengthy discussions as to how best to approach the study. Being a mix of researchers and activists, both individually and collectively, as well as having widely different academic backgrounds, the task at times was not an easy one, often being confronted by both ontological and epistemological differences. Yet, our heated discussions and often irreconcilable differences, helped us in the long-run produce what we hope is a better finished product. Our other hope is that the book will provide thick descriptive and analytical insights into the what, how and why of CBNRM in South Asia, based of course on our selected case studies.
While the book is a collective product, we ventured into the field in groups of two to four people based primarily on our own interests.
[Page xiv]Chapter 2 on Hivre Bazar is authored by Ajit Menon, Praveen Singh, K.J. Joy and Suhas Paranjape; Chapter 3 on Utthan by Suhas Paranjape and Esha Shah; Chapter 4 on Tarun Bharat Singh by Esha Shah and Praveen Singh; Chapter 5 on the Lingmuteychhu Watershed in Bhutan by Ajit Menon and K.J. Joy; Chapter 6 on the Doodha Toli region by Sharachchandra Lélé and Praveen Singh; and Chapter 7 on the Bangladesh Charlands by Praveen Singh and Suhas Paranjape. The case study chapters are stand-alone chapters both in their descriptive and analytical content bound together by a common argument and frame of reference detailed in the introduction.
The making of this book would not have been possible without the help of organisations and individuals who helped us in the course of our research. Gathering the literature on CBNRM was a lengthy and difficult task given the fact that much of it is unpublished, and hence we pestered a number of organisations in the course of that undertaking. In particular, we would like to mention Society for Promotion of Wasteland Development (SPWD); the Ford Foundation; International Development Reseach Centre, New Delhi; Professional Assistance for Development Action (PRADAN); the Aga Khan Rural Support Programme (India) or AKRSP (I); the International Conversation Union (IUCN), Bangladesh; International Water Management Institute, Colombo; Centre for Science and Environment (CSE); and CARE Nepal. We also requested and got help from many colleagues in India and other South Asian countries, including Atiq Rahman, Usman Iftikhar, Shekhar Pathak, Harnath Jagawat, Apoorva Oza, Amita Shah, Shilp Verma, Atiur Rahman, Mokhlesur Rahman, Shireen Kamal Sayeed, Philip Gain, Neelima Khaitan, Irfan Maqbool, S.P. Wani, Nandini Sundar, Madhu Sarin and C.M. Wijeratna. We requested Ajaya Dixit and Ram Kumar Sharma from Nepal, Mushtaq Gaadi from Pakistan and L.P. Dayananda from Sri Lanka to put together a review document for their respective countries.
Local organisations, namely, Yashwant Krishi Gram and Watershed Development Trust in Hivre Bazar; Tarun Bharat Sangh (TBS) in Gopalpura; Renewable Natural Resource Research Centre (RNRRC), Bajo, Bhutan; Gono Chetona (GC) in Bangladesh; Utthan in Nathugarh; and Doodha Toli Lok Vikas Sansthan (DTLVS) in Uttarakhand, helped us immensely in the course of our fieldwork.
[Page xv]In particular, we would like to thank Popatrao Pawar, Rajendra Singh, Sangay Duba, Aita Kumar Bhujel, Ira Rahman, Nafisa Barot and Sachchidanand Bharati, and of course the various staff and volunteers in these organisations. We would also like to acknowledge our debt to the different communities in all these locations who tolerated our intrusions and extended their hospitality generously.
We organised a workshop in December 2005 to discuss the first draft of what was then a report. This workshop, attended by a total of about 45 persons from the case study organisations, and the practitioner, activist, donor, policymaker and academic communities, provided us with a rich set of comments and ideas that helped us revise the draft very substantially. We would like to thank all the participants in this workshop, and especially the discussants and session chairs who included, Sumi Krishna, Neelima Khaitan, Sara Ahmed, C.R. Bijoy, Sudarshan Iyengar, Amita Shah, Liz Fajber, R. Rajesh, Emmanuel Theophilus and others. Our colleagues at the Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies in Environment and Development (CISED), especially Priya and Rinki, gave comments on the whole report or various chapters. Shrini generously lent material. Santosh patiently helped us make the maps, and with GIS related work. The support staff in CISED, most notably Anand and Ganesha, provided back-up support throughout the research project. We would also like to mention the help that the Society for Promoting Participative Ecosystem Management (SOPPECOM), particularly Ravi Pomane, gave us during our study in Hivre Bazar.
The conceptual and analytical framework of this book owes a lot to the intellectual contributions of other scholars, many of whom have undertaken similar scholarly forays. There are of course too many of them to mention but the work of Amita Baviskar, David Mosse, Sangita Kamat, Maxine Weisgrau, Tania Murray Li, Nandini Sundar, Roger Jeffery, Arun Agarwal, Norman Uphoff, Rajni Kothari, Anil Agarwal, Nirmal Sengupta and Anupam Mishra all helped shape the direction of our research.
Finally, we would like to acknowledge the financial support provided by IDRC, which made this study possible, and would also like to thank Liz Fajber at IDRC, New Delhi for her constant support and encouragement.
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