Communication Theory: Media, Technology, Society

Books

David Holmes

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    For Elena

    List of Tables and Figures

    Tables
    • 1.1 The historical distinction between the first and second media age 10
    • 3.1 Digitalization as the basis of convergence, wider bandwidth and multi-media (the ability to combine image, sound and text) 66
    • 3.2 Features and types of hot and cool mediums 71
    • 4.1 The broadcast event 105
    • 4.2 Medium theory as applied to network and (retrospectively) to broadcast communication 119
    • 5.1 Transmission and ritual perspectives compared 135
    • 5.2 John B. Thompson's instrumental/mediation paradigm 137
    • 5.3 Broadcast and network as forms of communicative integration 149
    Figures
    • 3.1 Transmission model: high integration/low reciprocity 53
    • 5.1 Ritual model: high integration/high reciprocity 147

    Preface

    A theory of communication must be developed in the realm of abstraction. Given that physics has taken this step in the theory of relativity and quantum mechanics, abstraction should not be in itself an objection.

    N. Luhmann, Art as a Social System, trans. Eva M. Knodt, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000, p. 12

    What follows is an interdisciplinary communication theory book which sets out the implications of new communications technologies for media studies and the sociology of communication.

    The cluster of texts which came out over the last decade dealing with computer-mediated communication (CMC), virtual reality and cyberspace has significantly established new theoretical domains of research which have been accepted across a range of disciplines. The current book proposes to integrate this literature in outline and summary form into the corpus of communication studies. In doing so it explores the relationship between media, technology and society. How do media, in their various forms, extend the social, reproduce the social, or substitute for other aspects of social life?

    Most books dealing with communication and media studies invariably address traditional concerns of content, representation, semiotics and ideology. Whilst including an appreciation of these approaches, the current book makes a contribution to theoretical analysis of media and communications by charting how the emergence of new post-broadcast and interactive forms of communication has provided additional domains of study for communication theory, renovated the older domain of broadcast, and suggested fresh ways of studying these older media.

    In doing so, this book advances a critique of the ‘second media age’ thesis, which, I argue, has become something of an orthodoxy in much recent literature. It rejects the historical proposition that a second media age of new media, exemplified by the Internet, has overtaken or converged with an older age of broadcast media. Yet at the same time, the value of analytically distinguishing between the most significant architecture that is attributed to the first media age–broadcast–and that which is attributed to the second media age–interactive networks–is upheld. The basic dualism between broadcast and interactivity structures the main themes of the book. To the extent that individuals in media societies experience changes in the means of communication as a ‘second media age’, we are compelled to re-examine the postulated ‘first media age’ in terms of medium or network form rather than simply content or ‘text’. The sense in which this distinction is made should not be confused with questions of form versus the content of narrative, where content is what a text says, and the form is how it says it. Rather, a non-textual distinction is being made here. In doing so, a sociological appreciation of broadcast can be arrived at rather than a media studies or cultural studies perspective, which is invariably grounded exclusively in either behaviourist or linguistically centred approaches to analysis. However, insofar as this book is ‘sociological’, sociology is not being opposed to communication and media studies; on the contrary, a central argument of the book is that emergence of new communication environments has more or less forced traditional media and communication studies to be sociological. For this reason the current volume is very interdisciplinary (between communication, media and sociology), but this has less to do with the perspective adopted than with changes in how media are experienced.

    These recent changes in media infrastructure have necessitated a shift in the order in which communication theory is treated. For example, information theory, which often prefigures semiotic analysis of media, is introduced in the current textbook as instructive for the second media age, where it more appropriately belongs with analyses of the Internet. In fact, in seeing just how relevant information theory is to CMC rather than broadcast, it is surprising how significantly it came to figure in studies of broadcast in the first place. At the same time, the book tries to incorporate most of the traditions of twentieth-century communication theory in order to locate their relevance to studying the sociological complexities of contemporary convergent communications.

    Through this argument the distinction between medium and content, media and messages, is persistently returned to. On the scaffold of these distinctions the book also presents a central argument about the difference between communicative interaction and integration. With the aid of recently emerging ‘ritual’ models of communication it is possible to understand how the technical modes of association manifested in broadcast and interactive communication networks are constitutive of their own modes of integration. Thus it is possible to identify media-constituted communities in broadcast communities and so-called ‘virtual communities’, which is to argue that such networks do not so much ‘mediate’ interaction, as facilitate modes or levels of integration to which correspond specific qualities of attachment and association. It is also to argue that media-constituted communities aren't merely a continuation of older face-to-face or geographic communities by technical means (the mediation argument) but are rather constitutive of their own properties and dynamics. Of course, such ‘levels’ of integration are not isolated but co-exist, in ways which are outlined in successive chapters (particularly Chapters 4 and 5). A third major theme that is explored is the urban and economic context of media-constituted communities, the way in which dependence on technical-communicative systems facilitates expanded commodification and rationalization of cultural life: spheres which could never have been so influenced before the emergence of these systems.

    It is not only the second media age text which is to be reappraised in developing the book's themes but also some classical texts on the sociological dynamics of broadcast as well as key readers pertaining to frameworks of ‘media studies’. Where this book differs from ‘media studies’ texts is in integrating the significance of ‘cybersociety’ into the general corpus of communication theory. It does so by way of a critique of the second media age orthodoxy which imagines a new era that is derived from yet another progress-driven ‘communications revolution’. At the same time, the discourses of ‘telecommunications convergence’ are critically assessed for overstating a technologically reductive distinction between ‘broadcast’ and ‘interactivity’ in order that they can be portrayed as undergoing ‘convergence’, again at a solely technological level.

    To turn to the chapter composition of the book: the introduction establishes the rationale guiding the organization of the book: the contrast between broadcast and network forms of communication. The predominance of semiotic accounts of media is criticized as unwarranted, distracting attention from the techno-social dimensions of media environments. At the same time, a linear model of progression from a first to a second media age is found to be too simplistic to address the complexity of contemporary media formations. The linear model is premised largely on an interaction approach to media culture, which in this chapter is counterposed to the more fruitful analyses that are made possible by ‘integration’ models. A variant of the linear second media age perspective is the ‘convergence’ thesis, which presupposes two media forms (of broadcast and interactivity) not historically, but technologically. These themes, of first versus second media age, of a multiplicity of form versus content, of ‘convergence’ as a product of medium dichotomization, of interaction versus integration, are announced as guiding the development of the whole volume.

    Chapters 2 and 3 are stand-alone expositions of theories of ‘broadcast communication’ and ‘network communication’, respectively. These chapters introduce key theoretical perspectives that are relevant to understanding broadcast and network communication. In addition, an historical and empirical discussion of broadcast in the context of urbanization and the rise of industrial society is presented, whilst in Chapter 3 the major innovations which underlie the second media age thesis are considered. Chapter 2 reproduces much of the ‘classical’ literature on media (e.g. theories of ideology) whilst also recasting it within the macro-framework of the techno-social medium approach (e.g. Althusser's often difficult theory of ‘interpellation’ and ‘ideology-in-general’ is re-explained as an effect of the structure of broadcast. Chapter 3 attempts to formalize the still very young perspectives on cybersociety and proposes to give them a sense of definition as a way of ordering the current burgeoning literature. In doing so, it identifies a ‘second media age’ perspective, a CMC perspective, convergence perspectives and the reclamation of older perspectives (McLuhan, Baudrillard) whose relevance to cyberculture is arguably greater than it is to media culture.

    Chapter 4 considers the interrelation between broadcast and network mediums1, and argues that they are quite distinct in their social implications but are also parasitic on each other. In this light, what is called ‘convergence’ is really an outcome, rather than a cause, of such parasitism, a consequence which is mistakenly seen to be only working at the level of technical causation, or predestined historical telos. But this distinctively broader meaning of convergence can only be arrived at if correspondingly broader meanings of network and broadcast are deployed, to spheres not confined to media and communications. In the context of such criticism, media technologies, whether they be broadcast or interactive, increasingly reveal themselves as urban technologies, which are constantly converging with the logics internal to other urban technologies (the shopping mall, the freeway). For example, the argument that virtual communities restore the loss of community that is said to result from the one-dimensionality of the culture industry does not contrast virtual and ‘physical’ communities, which can be done by looking at the dialectic between media culture and urban culture. Raymond Williams’ under-regarded concept of ‘mobile privatization’ is explored as a departure point for the way in which media extend social relations on the basis of private spatial logics.

    Finally, the economic complementarity of broadcast and network mediums is established. Life on the screen is one in which individuals are, if they so choose, able to live a culture of communication without the spectacle and advertising fetishes of broadcast. However, in an abstract world of communicative association this new mode of ‘communication as culture’ itself provides a market for communication products, both hardware and software, that is growing on a scale which is rapidly catching up with the political economy of broadcast.

    Chapter 5, ‘Interaction versus Integration’, critiques various models of interaction (instrumental views of communication, transmission views, ‘mediation’ views) as not being able to adequately address the socializing and socially constituting qualities of various media and communication mediums. In doing so it turns its attention toward the promising body of theory which can be gathered under the heading of ‘ritual communication’. This comprises works such as James Carey's Communication as Culture and is informed by anthropological perspectives and New Media theory. An argument is made for the need to develop an understanding of ‘levels’ of ritual communication: face-to-face, mediated and technically extended. The advance that John B. Thompson makes in this regard in The Media and Modernity is a useful stepping stone, but one that is based on interaction rather than ‘integration’. Integration formulations (Meyrowitz, Calhoun, Giddens) are then explored in order to demonstrate the shortfalls of the interaction model as well as to sketch a model which can begin to attend to the complexity of both broadcast and network forms of communication processes.

    Chapter 6, on telecommunity, appraises the significance of the concept of community in media culture in two ways. Firstly, how do ‘communities’ arise that are said to be constituted entirely by technical mediums? Secondly, why is it only recently, after over a hundred years, that there has been a radical renewal of thinking of community? With regard to the first question, the idea of a virtual community is explored, but in relation to the much neglected idea of broadcast communities, which, if anything, offer more powerful forms of integration than do their cyberspace counterparts. Whereas in broadcast communities there is little or no interaction with others in embodied or quasi-embodied form, there is a high concentration of identification and the constitution of community by way of extended charismatic affect. Thus, both kinds of community can be characterized as virtual in the way in which they privilege relations with media and mediated association.

    In its emphasis on the priority of techno-social mediums over content, the volume draws on the recent wave of publications that have dealt with the Internet and communication theory. At the same time it attempts to chart the relationship between traditional and new media without exaggerating the impact of the latter. Not only does broadcast remain central to modern media culture, but it makes possible, in co-dependent ways, the social conditions which underpin cyberculture, from its first steps to its last.

    Note

    Whilst the term ‘media’ might normally be considered the plural of medium, in this book I make the distinction between media and mediums which is not restricted to a singular/plural distinction. In using ‘mediums’ I am trying to retain a strong sense of media as environments, rather than as either ‘technologies’ or institutions. Denoting ‘mediums’ as ‘media environments’ or ‘media architectures’ facilitates insights drawn from medium theory which cannot be served by the term ‘media’.

    Acknowledgements

    The analysis presented in this book has emerged from almost ten years of teaching and researching sociology of media. I have been fortunate to present my research across sociology and communications forums, and have benefitted from the challenges of organizing my ideas for classrooms of inquiring minds. I am grateful to the Humanities Research Program at the University of New South Wales for providing assistance in the middle phase of writing, as well as colleagues both there and at Monash for ongoing conversation, encouragement and thoughtfulness. In particular, I would like to thank Paul Jones and Ned Rossiter for rewarding conversations around themes and figures central to the book. For assistance with some research tasks, thanks are due to Aaron Cross and Olivia Harvey. With production I would like to Fabienne Pedroletti at Sage Publications and in Melbourne, Andrew Padgett, who has been invaluable with the final productive phases. Finally, my gratitude to my partner Vasilka Pateras for her patience and love, and our daughter Elena, for being an aspiration.

  • References

    Adilkno (The Foundation for the Advancement of Illegal Knowledge) (1998). ‘Probing McLuhan’, in Media Archive, New York: Autonomedia.
    Adorno, T. (1954). ‘Television and the Patterns of Mass Culture’, Quarterly of Film, Radio, and Television, Vol. 8.
    Adorno, T. and Horkheimer, M. (1993). ‘The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception’, in S.During (ed.), The Cultural Studies Reader, London: Routledge.
    Agamben, G. (1993). The Coming Community, trans. M.Hardt, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Alexander, J. (1986). ‘The “Form” of Substance: The Senate Watergate Hearings as Ritual’, in S.J.Ball-Rokeach and M.G.Cantor (eds), Media, Audience and Social Structure, London: Sage.
    Alford, J. (1983). ‘The Myth of False Consciousness’, Australian Left Review, No. 84, Winter, pp. 6–9.
    Althusser, L. (1971). Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays, trans. BenBrewster, New York: Monthly Review Press.
    Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined Communities, London: Verso.
    Anderson, B. and Tracey, K. (2001). ‘Digital Living: The Impact (or Otherwise) of the Internet on Everyday Life’, unpublished research, Suffolk, UK, Btax CT Research.
    Andrejevic, M. (2004). Reality TV: The Work of Being Watched, Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
    Ang, I. (1991). Desperately Seeking the Audience, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203321454
    Ang, I. (1996). Living Room Wars: Rethinking Media Audiences for a Postmodern World, New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203289549
    Austin, J.L. (1962). How to Do Things with Words, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Barney, D. (2000). Prometheus Wired: The Hope of Democracy in the Age of Network Technology, Sydney: University of New South Wales Press.
    Barr, T. (2000). Newsmedia.Com.Au: The Changing Face of Australia's Media and Communications, St Leonards: Allen and Unwin.
    Baudelaire, C. (1972). ‘The Painter of Modern Life’, in Baudelaire: Selected Writings on Art and Literature, trans. P.E.Charvet. Harmondsworth: Penguin, pp. 395–422.
    Baudrillard, J. (1982). Simulations, New York: Semiotext(e).
    Baudrillard, J. (1983). ‘The Implosion of Meaning in the Media’, in In the Shadow of the Silent Majorities, trans. P.Foss, J.Johnston and P.Patton, New York: Semiotext(e).
    Baudrillard, J. (1988). ‘Los Angeles Freeways’, in America, trans. C.Turner, London: Verso.
    Baym, N. (1995). ‘The Emergence of Community in Computer-Mediated Communication’, in S.Jones (ed.), Cybersociety: Computer-Mediated Communication and Community, London: Sage.
    Baym, N. (1998). ‘The Emergence of On-line Community’, in S.Jones (ed.), Cybersociety 2.0: Revisiting Computer-Mediated Communication and Community, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243689
    Baym, N. (2000). Tune In, Log On: Soaps, Fandom, and Online Community, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204710
    Becker, B. and Wehner, J. (1998). ‘Electronic Media and Civil Society’, in Proceedings of Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication, 1st Conference, available at http://www.it.murdoch.edu.au/~sudweeks/catac98/
    Bell, C. and Newby, H. (1976). ‘Communion, Communalism, Class and Community Action: The Sources of New Urban Politics’, in D.Herbert and R.Johnston (eds), Social Areas in Cities, Vol. 2. Chichester: Wiley.
    Bell, C. and Newby, H. (1974). The Sociology of Community: A Selection of Readings, London: Cass & Co.
    Bell, D. (1962). ‘America as a Mass Society: A Critique’, in The End of Ideology: On the Exhaustion of Political Ideas in the Fifties, New York: Free Press.
    Bell, D. (1980). ‘A Reply to Weizenbaum’, in T.Forrester (ed.), The Microelectronics Revolution: The Complete Guide to the New Technology and Its Impact on Society, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Bell, D. and Kennedy, B. (2000). The Cybercultures Reader, London: Routledge.
    Belsey, C. (1982). Critical Practice, London: Methuen.
    Benedetti, P. and Dehard, N. (eds) (1997). Forward Through the Rearview Mirror: Reflections on and by Marshall McLuhan, Ontario: Prentice-Hall Canada Inc.
    Benedikt, M. (ed.) (1991). Cyberspace: First Steps, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Beniger, J.R. (1987). ‘Personalization of Mass Media and the Growth of Pseudo-communities’, Communication Research, Vol. 14, No. 30, 352–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009365087014003005
    Benjamin, W. (1977). ‘The Paris of the Second Empire in Baudelaire’, in Charles Baudelaire: A Lyric Poet in the Era of High Capital, trans. HarryZohn, London: New Left Books.
    Bennett, T. (1982). ‘Theories of the Media, Theories of Society’, in M.Gurevitch, T.Bennett, J.Curran and J.Woollacott, Culture, Society and the Media, London: Methuen.
    Berman, M. (1982). All That Is Solid Melts into Air, New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Bianculli, D. (1996). Dictionary of Teleliteracy: Television's 500 Biggest Hits, Misses, and Events, New York: Continuum.
    Bishop, B. (1999). Global Marketing for the Digital Age, Lincolnwood IL: NTC Business Books.
    Black, D. (2001). ‘Internet Radio: A Case Study in Medium Specificity’, Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 23: 397–408. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344301023003007
    Bolter, J.D. and Grusin, R. (1999). Remediation: Understanding New Media, Cambridge, MA and London: MIT Press.
    Boorstin, Daniel J. ([1961] 1962). The Image: Or, What Happened to the American Dream, New York: Atheneum.
    Bott, E. (1971). Family and Social Network: Roles, Norms, and External Relationships in Ordinary Urban Families, New York: Free Press.
    Bourdieu, P. (1993). ‘Public Opinion Does Not Exist’, in Sociology in Question, trans. R.Nice, London: Sage.
    Boyer, CM. (1996). Cybercities: Visual Perception in the Age of Electronic Communication, New York: Princeton Architectural.
    Brecht, B. (2003). ‘The Radio as an Apparatus of Communication’, in A.Everett and J.T.Caldwell (eds), New Media: Theories and Practices of Digitextuality, New York: Routledge.
    Brosnan, M. (1998). Technophobia: The Psychological Impact of Information Technology, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203436707
    Buchstein, H. (1997). ‘Bytes That Bite: The Internet and Deliberative Democracy’, Constellations, Vol. 4, No. 2: 248–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8675.00052
    Buzzard, K.S.F. (2003). ‘Net Ratings: Defining a New Medium by the Old: Measuring Internet Audiences’, in A.Everett and J.T.Caldwell (eds), New Media: Theories and Practices of Digitextuality, New York: Routledge.
    Caldwell, J. (1995). ‘Excessive Style: The Crisis of Network Television’, in Televisuality: Style, Crisis and Authority in American Television, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Calhoun, C. (1986). ‘Computer Technology, Large-scale Social Integration and the Local Community’, in Urban Affairs Quarterly, Vol. 22, No. 2: 329–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/004208168602200208
    Calhoun, C. (1992). ‘The Infrastructure of Modernity: Indirect Social Relationships, Information Technology, and Social Integration’, in H.Haferkampf and N.Smelser (eds), Social Change and Modernity, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Calhoun, C. (1998). ‘Community Without Propinquity Revisited: Communications Technology and the Transformation of the Urban Public Sphere’, Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 68, No. 3: 373–97. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1998.tb00474.x
    Cantril, H., Gaudet, H. and Herzog, H. (1940). The Invasion from Mars, Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Carey, J.W. (1969). ‘The Communications Revolution and the Professional Communicator’, in P.Halmos (ed.), The Sociology of Mass Media Communicators, Sociological Review Monograph 13, University of Keele.
    Carey, J. (1972). ‘Harold Innis and Marshall McLuhan’, in R.Rosenthal (ed.), McLuhan: Pro & Con, London: Pelican.
    Carey, J. (1989). Communication as Culture: Essays on Media and Society, Boston: Unwin Hyman.
    Carey, J. (1995). ‘Time, Space and the Telegraph’, in D.Crowley and P.Heyer (eds), Communication in History, White Plains, NY: Longman USA.
    Carey, J. (1998). ‘Political Ritual on Television: Episodes in the History of Shame, Degradation and Excommunication’, in T.Liebes and J.Curran (eds), Media, Ritual, Identity, London: Routledge.
    Casey, B. (2002). Television Studies: The Key Concepts, London: Routledge.
    Cassidy, J. (2002). Dot.Con: The Greatest Story Ever Sold, New York: HarperCollins.
    Castells, M. (1996). The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture, Vol. 1: The Rise of the Network Society, Maiden, MA and Oxford: Blackwell.
    Castells, M. (2001). The Internet Galaxy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Chakhotin, S. (1939). The Rape of the Masses: The Psychology of Political Propaganda, trans. E.W.Dickes, New York: Alliance Book Corporation.
    Chan-Olmsted, S. (2000). ‘Marketing-Mass Media on the World Wide Web: The Building of Media Brands in an Integrated and Interactive World’, in A.B.Albarran and D.H.Goff (eds), Understanding the Web: Social, Political and Economic Dimensions of the Internet, Ames: Iowa State University Press.
    Chesher, C. (1997). ‘An Ontology of Digital Domains’, in D.Holmes (ed.), Virtual Politics: Identity and Community in Cyberspace, London: Sage.
    Cheung, C. (2000). ‘A Home on the Web: Presentations of Self on Personal Homepages’, in D.Gauntlett (ed.), Web.Studies: Rewiring Media Studies for the Digital Age, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Cooley, C.H. (1909). Social Organization: Study of the Larger Mind, New York: C. Scribner's Sons.
    Corner, J. (1997). ‘Media Studies and the “Knowledge Problem”’, in T.O'Sullivan and Y.Jewkes (eds), The Media Studies Reader, London: Arnold.
    Corner, J. and Harvey, S. (1996). Television Times: A Reader, London: Arnold.
    Couldry, N. (2003). Media Rituals: A Critical Approach, London: Routledge.
    Crang, M., Crang, P. and May, J. (1998). Virtual Geographies: Bodies, Space and Relations, London: Routledge.
    Crowley, D. and Mitchell, D. (1995). ‘Communication in a Post-Mass Media World’, in D.Crowley and D.Mitchell (eds), Communication Theory Today, Cambridge: Polity.
    Davis, E. (1998). Techgnosis: Myth, Magic, Mysticism in the Age of Information, New York: Harmony.
    Dayan, D. and Katz, E. (1992). Media Events: The Live Broadcasting of History, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Debord, G. (1977). The Society of the Spectacle, trans. F.Perlman and J.Supak, Detroit: Black and Red Publications.
    de Certeau, M. (1988). The Practice of Everyday Life, Los Angeles: University of California Press.
    Dempsey, K. (1998). ‘Community, Experiences and Explanations’, in A.Kellehear (ed.), Social Self, Global Culture, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Derrida, J. (1976). Of Grammatology, trans. G.C.Spivak, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Derrida, J. (1978). Writing and Difference, trans. A.Bass, London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
    Derrida, J. (1981). Positions, trans. A.Bass, London: Athlone Press.
    Derrida, J. (1986). Margins of Philosophy, trans. A.Bass, Brighton: Harvester Press.
    Derrida, J. (1988). Limited Inc.Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
    Dery, M. (ed.) (1994). Flamewars: The Discourse of Cyberculture. London: Duke University Press.
    Dery, M. (1995). ‘The Medium's Messenger’, 21.C. Previews of a Changing World, Vol. 2: 8–12.
    Dery, M. (1996). Escape Velocity: Cyberculture at the End of the Twentieth Century, New York: Grove Press.
    Di Maggio, P., Hargittai, E., Neuman, W.R. and Robinson, J. (2001). ‘The Internet's Effects on Society’, in Annual Reviews of Sociology, Vol. 27, 307–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.27.1.307
    Dizard, W. (2000). Old Media New Media: Mass Communications in the Information Age (3rd edn), New York: Addison-Wesley Longman.
    Dominick, J.R. (2001). The Dynamics of Mass Communication: Media in the Digital Age (
    7th edn
    ), Boston: McGraw-Hill.
    Donath, J. (1999). ‘Identity and Deception in the Virtual Community’, in M.Smith and P.Kollock (eds), Communities in Cyberspace, London: Routledge.
    Downes, T. and Fatouros, C. (1995). Learning in an Electronic World: Computers in the Classroom, Newtown: Primary English Teaching Association.
    Droege, P. (ed.) (1997). Intelligent Environments: Spatial Aspect of the Information Revolution. Amsterdam, New York: Elsevier.
    Du Gay, P., Hall, S., James, L., Mackay, H. and Negus, K. (1997). Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman, London: Sage in association with the Open University.
    Durkheim, E. (1982). The Rules of Sociological Method, ed. S.Lukes; trans. W.D.Halls, New York: Free Press.
    Durkheim, E. (1984). The Division of Labour in Society, Basingstoke: Macmillan.
    Eade, J. (ed.) (1997). Living the Global City: Globalization as a Local Process, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203284155
    Eagleton, T. (1991). Ideology, London: Verso.
    Edge, D. (1988). The Social Shaping of Technology, Edinburgh: PICT Working Papers No. 1.
    Ellis, J. (1982). Visible Fictions: Cinema, Television, Video, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Elsaesser, T. and Hoffmann, K. (eds) (1998). Cinema Futures: Cain, Abel or Cable? The Screen Arts in the Digital Age, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.
    Escobar, A. (1994). ‘Welcome to Cyberia’, Current Anthropology, Vol. 5, No. 3, 211–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/204266
    Ettema, J.S. and Whitney, D.C. (eds) (1994). Audiencemaking: How the Media Create the Audience, London: Sage.
    Evans, J. and Hall, S. (eds) (1999). Visual Culture: The Reader, London: Sage.
    Feather, J. (2000). The Information Society: A Study of Continuity and Change (
    3rd edn
    ), London: Library Association Publications.
    Featherstone, M. (1998). ‘The Flaneur, the City and Virtual Public Life’, Urban Studies, Vol. 35, Nos. 5–6: 910–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098984619
    Featherstone, M. and Burrows, R. (eds) (1995). Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment, London: Sage.
    Feenberg, A. (1991). Critical Theory of Technology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Fidler, R. (1997). Mediamorphosis: Understanding New Media, Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Finnegan, R. (2002). Communicating: The Multiple Modes of Human Communication, London: Routledge.
    Fiske, J. (1982). Introduction to Communication Studies, London: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203323212
    Fiske, J. (1987). Television Culture, London: Methuen.
    Fiske, J. and Hartley, J. (1978). ‘Bardic Television’, in Reading Television, London: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203356623
    Flew, T. (2002). New Media: An Introduction, Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
    Flitterman-Lewis, S. (1992). ‘Psychoanalysis, Film and Television’ in R.C.Allen (ed.), Channels of Discourse, Reassembled: Television and Contemporary Criticism, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press.
    Foster, D. (1997). ‘Community and Identity in the Electronic Village’, in D.Porter (ed.), Internet Culture, London: Routledge.
    Fraser, N. (1990). ‘Rethinking the Public Sphere: A Contribution to the Critique of Actually Existing Democracy’, Social Text, Vol. 25/26: 56–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/466240
    Friedberg, A. (1993). Window Shopping: Cinema and the Postmodern, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Fukuyama, F. (1995). Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity, New York: Free Press.
    Fukuyama, F. (1999). The Great Disruption: Human Nature and the Reconstitution of Social Order, New York: Free Press.
    Garofalo, R. (1991). ‘Understanding Mega-events: If We Are the World, Then How Do We Change It?’, in C.Penley and A.Ross (eds), Technoculture, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Gates, B. (1996). The Road Ahead, London: Penguin.
    Gauntlett, D. (ed.) (2000). Web.Studies: Rewiring Media Studies for the Digital Age, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Gauntlett, D. and Hill, A. (1999). TV Living: Television Culture and Everyday Life, London: Routledge.
    Geraghty, C. and Lusted, D. (1998). The Television Studies Book, London: Arnold.
    Gerbner, G. (1956). ‘Toward a General Model of Communication’, Audio Visual Communication Review, Vol. IV, No. 3: 171–99.
    Gergen, K.J. (1991). The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary Life, New York: Basic Books.
    Giddens, A. (1986). Sociology: A Brief but Critical Introduction, London: Macmillan.
    Giddens, A. (1987). A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism, Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Giddens, A. (1990). The Consequences of Modernity, Cambridge: Polity.
    Gilder, G. (1993). ‘The Death of Telephony: Why the Telephone and TV Will Not Be the Stars of a Communications Revolution’, The Economist, 11–17 September 1993.
    Gilder, G. (1994). Life After Television, New York: Norton.
    Gitlin, T. (1998). ‘Public Sphere or Public Sphericules?’, in T.Liebes and J.Curran (eds), Media, Ritual, Identity, London: Routledge.
    Gitlin, T. (2002). Media Unlimited: How the Torrent of Images and Sounds Overwhelms Our Lives, New York: Henry Holt and Co.
    Goffman, E. (1973). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Woodstock, NY: Overlook Press.
    Goodheart, E. (2000). ‘Marshall McLuhan Revisited’, Partisan Review, Vol. 67: 90–100.
    Gouldner, A. (1976). The Dialectic of Ideology and Technology, London: Macmillan.
    Graber, D.A. (2001). Processing Politics: Learning from Television in the Internet Age, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Graham, S. (2000). Splintering Urbanism: Networked Infrastructures, Technological Mobilities and the Urban Condition, London: Routledge.
    Graham, S. and Aurigi, A. (1998). ‘The “Crisis” in the Urban Public Realm’, in B.Loader (ed.), Cyberspace Divide: Equality, Agency and Policy in the Information Society, London: Routledge.
    Graham, S. and Marvin, S. (1996). Telecommunication and the City: Electronic Spaces, Urban Places, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203430453
    Grajczyk, A. and Zollner, O. (1996). ‘How Older People Watch Television: Telemetric Data on the TV Use in Germany in 1996’, Gerontology, Vol. 44, No. 3: 176–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000022005
    Green, B. and Bigum, C. (1993). ‘Aliens in the Classroom’, Australian Journal of Education, Vol. 37, No. 2: 119–41.
    Greenfield, C. (1999). ‘Home Alone? Mobile Privatization and the Transformation of Work’, in J.Lee, B.Probert and R.Watts (eds), Work in the New Economy: Policies, Programs, Populations, Melbourne: Centre for Applied Social Research, RMIT University.
    Guattari, F. (1986). ‘The Postmodern Dead End’, Flash Art, No. 128: 40–1.
    Guest, A.M. and Wierzbiki, S.K. (1999). ‘Social Ties at the Neighbourhood Level: Two Decades of GSS Evidence’, Urban Affairs Review, Vol. 35, No. 1: 92–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10780879922184301
    Gumbrecht, H.U. and Marrinan, M. (eds) (2003). Mapping Benjamin: The Work of Art in the Digital Age, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Habermas, J. (1974). ‘The Public Sphere: An Encyclopedia Article’, in E.Bronner and D.Kellner (eds), Critical Theory and Society: A Reader, London: Routledge.
    Habermas, J. (1984). The Theory of Communicative Action (Vol. 1), London: Heinemann.
    Habermas, J. ([1962] 1989). The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into Bourgeois Society, trans. T.Burger and F.Lawrence, Cambridge: Polity.
    Habermas, J. (1992). ‘Further Reflections on the Public Sphere’, in C.Calhoun (ed.), Habermas and the Public Sphere, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Hall, P. and Brotchi, J. (eds) (1991). Cities of the 21st Century: New Technologies and Spatial Systems, Melbourne: Longman Cheshire.
    HallS. (1977). ‘Culture, the Media and the “Ideological Effect”’, in J.Curram, M.Gurevitch and J.Woollacott (eds), Mass Communication and Society, London: Arnold.
    Hall, S. (1980). ‘Encoding/Decoding’, in S.Hall, D.Hobson, A.Lowe and P.Wills (eds), Culture, Media, Language: Working Papers in Cultural Studies, 1972–79, London: Hutchinson.
    Hall, S. (1982). ‘The Rediscovery of “Ideology”: Return of the Repressed in Media Studies’, in M.Gurevitch, T.Bennett, J.Curram and J.Woollacott (eds), Culture, Society and the Media, London: Methuen.
    Hall, S., Cruz, J. and Lewis, J. (1994). ‘Reflections upon the Encoding/Decoding Model: An Interview with Stuart Hall’, in J.Cruz and J.Lewis (eds), Viewing, Reading, Listening: Audiences and Cultural Reception, Boulder, Co: Westview.
    Hanks, W.F. (1996). Language and Communicative Practices, Boulder, Co: Westview.
    Haraway, D.J. (1991). ‘A Manifesto for Cyborgs’, in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature, New York: Routledge.
    Hartley, J. (1992a). Tele-ology: Studies in Television, London: Routledge.
    Hartley, J. (1992b). The Politics of Pictures: The Creation of the Public in the Age of Popular Media, New York: Routledge.
    Hartley, J. (1998). ‘This Way Lies Habermadness’, Media International Australia, No. 88: 125–35.
    Harvey, D. (1989). The Condition of Postmodernity, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Hawisher, G.E. and Selfe, C.L. (2000). “Introduction: Testing the Claims’, in Global Literacies and the World Wide Web, London: Routledge.
    Healy, D. (1997). ‘Cyberspace and Place’, in D.Porter (ed.), Internet Culture, London: Routledge.
    Heidegger, M. (1997). ‘The Question Concerning Technology’, in The Question Concerning Technology and Other Essays, trans. W.Lovitt, New York: Harper Torchbooks.
    Heller, S. and Anderson, G. (1994). Typeplay, Dusseldorf: Nippan Shuppan Hanbai.
    Hepworth, M. and Ducatel, K. (1992). Transport in the Information Age: Wheels and Wires, London: Belhaven Press.
    Herbert, T.E. and Proctor, W.S. (1932). Telephony, Vol. 1.
    2nd edn
    , London: New Era.
    Hills, M. (2001). ‘Virtually Out There: On-line Fandom’, in S.Munt (ed.), Technospaces: Inside the New Media, London: Continuum.
    Hirst, P. (1976). ‘Althusser and the Theory of Ideology’, Capital and Class, Vol. 5, No. 4: 385–412.
    Hirst, P. and Thompson, G. (1996). Globalization in Question: The International Economy and the Possibilities of Governance, Cambridge: Polity.
    Holloran, J. (1970). The Effects of Television, London: Pantheon Books.
    Holmes, D. (1989). ‘Deconstruction: A Politics without a Subject, That Is’, Arena, No. 88: 73–116.
    Holmes, D. (ed.) (1997). Virtual Politics: Identity and Community in Cyberspace, London: Sage.
    Holmes, D. (ed.) (2001). Virtual Globalization: Virtual Spaces/Tourist Spaces, London: Routledge.
    Holmes, D. (2004). ‘The Electronic Superhighway: Melbourne's CityLink Project’, in S.Graham (ed.), The Cybercities Reader, London: Routledge.
    Holmes, D. and Russell, G. (1999). ‘Adolescent CIT Use: Paradigm Shifts for Educational and Cultural Practices?’, British Journal of Sociology of Education, Vol. 20, No. 1: 73–82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01425699995506
    Horrocks, C. (2001). Marshall McLuhan and Virtuality, Lanham, MD: Totem Books.
    Horton, D. and Wohl, R. (1956). ‘Mass Communication and Para-social Interaction: Observation on Intimacy at a Distance’, Psychiatry, Vol. 19: 215–29.
    Howard, P.E.N., Rainie, L. and Jones, S. (2001). ‘Days and Nights in the Internet: The Impact of Diffusing Technology’, American Behavioral Scientist, Vol. 45: 383–404.
    Huyssen, A. (1995). ‘In the Shadow of McLuhan: Baudrillard's Theory of Simulation’, in Twilight Memories, New York: Routledge.
    Inglis, F. (1993). Media Theory: An Introduction, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Innis, H. (1964). The Bias of Communication, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    Innis, H. (1972). Empire and Communications, Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
    James, P. and Carkeek, F. (1997). ‘This Abstract Body’, in D.Holmes (ed.), Virtual Politics: Identity and Community in Cyberspace, London: Sage.
    Jameson, F. (1991). Postmodernism, or The Cultural Logic of Late Capitalism, London: Verso.
    Johnson, S. (1997). Interface Culture: How Technology Transforms the Way We Create and Communicate, New York: HarperCollins.
    Jones, P. (2000). ‘McLuhanist Societal Projections and Social Theory: Some Reflections’, Media International Australia, No. 94: 39–56.
    Jones, S. (ed.) (1995). Cybersociety: Computer-Mediated Communication and Community, London: Sage.
    Jordan, T. (1999). Cyberpower: The Culture and Politics of Cyberspace and the Internet, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203448632
    Jowett, G. (1981). ‘Extended Images’, in R.Williams (ed.), Contact: Human Communication and Its History, London: Thames and Hudson.
    Kaplan, N. (2000). ‘Literacy Beyond Books’, in A.Herman and T.Swiss (eds), The World Wide Web and Contemporary Cultural Theory, London: Routledge.
    Katz, E., Blumler, J. and Gurevitch, M. (1974). ‘Utilization of Mass Communication by the Individual’, in J.Blumler and E.Katz (eds), The Uses of Mass Communications: Current Perspectives on Gratifications Research, Beverly Hills and London: Sage.
    Katz, J.E. and Aakhus, M.A. (eds) (2001). Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Kearney, R. (1984). Dialogues with Contemporary Continental Thinkers: The Phenomenological Heritage, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    Kirby, V. (1997). Telling Flesh, London: Routledge.
    Kling, R. et al. (2000). ‘Anonymous Communication Policies for the Internet: Results and Recommendations of the AAAS Conference’, in R.M.Baird, R.Ramsower and S.E.Rosenbaum (eds), Cyberethics: Social and Moral Issues in the Computer Age, New York: Prometheus Books.
    Knorr-Cetina, K. (1997). ‘Sociality with Objects: Social Relations in Postsocial Knowledge Societies’, Theory, Culture, Society, Vol. 14, No. 4: 1–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026327697014004001
    Kornhauser, W. (1960). The Politics of the Masses, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Krause, L. and Petro, P. (eds) (2003). Global Cities: Cinema, Architecture, and Urbanism in a Digital Age, New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Kress, G.R. (2003). Literacy in the New Media Age, London and New York: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203164754
    Kroker, A. (1995). Digital Humanism: The Processed World of Marshall McLuhan, Montreal: CTheory.
    Kroker, A. (2001). Technology and the Canadian Mind: Innis/McLuhan/Grant, Montreal: CTheory.
    Kroker, A. and Kroker, M. (1996). Hacking the Future: Stories for the Flesh-Eating 90s, Montreal: CTheory.
    Kroker, A. and Weinstein, M. (1994). Data Trash: The Theory of the Virtual Class, New York: St Martin's Press.
    Kuo, D. (2001). Dot.bomb: My Days and Nights at an Internet Goliath, London: Little, Brown.
    Lacan, J. (1985). ‘The Agency of the Letter in the Unconscious: Or Reason since Freud’, in Ecrits: A Selection, trans. A.Sheridan, London: Tavistock.
    Lakoff, G. (1995). ’Body, Brain and Communication’, an interview with I.A. Boal, in J.Brook and I.Boal (eds), Resisting the Virtual Life: The Culture and Politics of Information, San Francisco: City Lights.
    Langer, J. (1997). ‘Television's Personality System’, in T.O'sullivan and Y.Jewkes (eds), The Media Studies Reader, London: Arnold.
    Lapham, L. (1994). ‘Introduction to the MIT Press Edition: The Eternal Now’, in M.McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Larrain, J. (1983). Marxism and Ideology, London: Macmillan.
    Lasn, K. (2000). Culture Jam, New York: Quill.
    Lasswell, H. (1948). ‘The Structure and Function of Communication in Society’, in L.Bryson (ed.), The Communication of Ideas, New York: Harper.
    Lave, J. and Wenger, E. (1991). Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation, New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511815355
    Lax, S. (2000). ‘The Internet and Democracy’, in D.Gauntlett (ed.), Web.Studies: Rewiring Media Studies for the Digital Age, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Lazarsfeld, P.F. and Kendall, P.L. (1949). ‘The Communications Behavior of the Average American’, in W.Schramm (ed.), Mass Communications, Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
    Lealand, G. (1999). Paper presented to the Australian Key Centre for Media and Cultural Policy, ‘Regulation–what Regulation? Cultural Diversity and Local Content in New Zealand Television in the 1990s’, September.
    Leavis, F.R. (1930). Mass Civilisation and Minority Culture, Cambridge: Minority Press.
    Lee, H. and Liebenau, J. (2000). ‘Time and the Internet at the Turn of the Millennium’, Time & Society, Vol. 9, No. 1: 43–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961463X00009001003
    Lefebvre, H. (1991). The Production of Space, trans. D.Nickolson-Smith, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Le Grice, M. (2001). Experimental Cinema in the Digital Age, London: British Film Institute.
    Lemaire, A. (1970). Jacques Lacan, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Levinson, P. (1999). Digital McLuhan: A Guide to the Information Millennium, New York: Fordham University/Routledge.
    Lévy, P. (2001). Cyberculture, trans. RobertBrononno, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.
    Liebes, T. and Curran, J. (1998). Media, Ritual, Identity, London: Routledge.
    Lievrouw, L. and Livingstone, S. (2002). Handbook of New Media: Social Shaping and Consequences of ICTs, London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446211304
    Lipset, S. (1963). Political Man, London: Heinemann.
    Livingstone, S. (1990). Making Sense of Television, London: Routledge.
    Lowery, S. and De Fleur, M. (1983). Milestones in Mass Communication Research, New York: Longman.
    Lukács, G. (1971). History and Class Consciousness: Studies in Marxist Dialectics, trans. R.Livingstone, London: Merlin Press.
    Lukes, S. (1973). Émile Durkheim: His Life and Work: A Historical and Critical Study, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Lull, J. (1995). Media, Communication, Culture: A Global Approach, Cambridge: Polity.
    Lunenfeld, P. (1999). The Digital Dialectic: New Essays on New Media, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Lupton, D. (1999). ‘Monsters in Metal Cocoons: Road Rage and Cyborg Bodies’, Body and Society, Vol. 5, No. 1: 57–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1357034X99005001005
    Lyotard, J.-F. (1984). The Postmodern Condition, trans. G.Bennington and B.Massumi, Manchester: Manchester University Press.
    McCarthy, A. (2001). Ambient Television: Visual Culture and Public Space, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    McChesney, R. (2000). ‘So Much for the Magic of Technology and the Free Market: The World Wide Web and the Corporate Media System’, in A.Herman and T.Swiss (eds), The World Wide Web and Contemporary Cultural Theory, London: Routledge.
    McLaughlin, L. (1993). ‘Chastity Criminals in the Age of Electronic Reproduction: Re-viewing Talk Television and the Public Sphere’, Journal of Communication Inquiry, Vol. 17, No. 1: 41–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/019685999301700103
    McLuhan, E. and Zingrone, F. (eds) (1997). The Essential McLuhan, London: Routledge.
    McLuhan, M. (1964). ‘Introduction’ to H.Innis, The Bias of Communication, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, reprinted in E. McLuhan and F. Zingrone (eds), The Essential McLuhan, London: Routledge, 1997.
    McLuhan, M. (1967). The Gutenberg Galaxy: The Making of Typographic Man, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    McLuhan, M. (1994). Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    McLuhan, M. and Fiore, Q. (1967). The Medium is the Massage: An Inventory of Effects, London: Penguin.
    McLuhan, M. and Fiore, Q. (produced by Jerome Agel) (2001). War and Peace in the Global Village, Corte Madera: Ginko Press.
    McNeill, A. (1996). Total Television, London: Penguin.
    McNeill, L. (1997). Travel in the Digital Age, London: Bowerdean Publishing.
    McQuail, D. (1983). Mass Communication Theory: A Reader, London: Sage.
    McQuire, S. (1995). ‘The Go-for Broke Game of History’, Arena Journal (New Series), No. 4: 201–27.
    Marc, D. (2000). ‘What Was Broadcasting?’, in H.Newcomb (ed.), Television: A Critical View, New York: Oxford University Press.
    Martin-Barbero, J. (1997). ‘Mass Media as a Site of Resacralization of Contemporary Cultures’, in S.Hoover and K.Lindby (eds), Rethinking Media, Religion and Culture, London: Sagehttp://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243559.
    Marx, K. (1973). Grundrisse, London: Penguin.
    Marx, K. (1977). Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844, Moscow: Progress Publishers.
    Marx, K. (1976). Capital, Vol. I, London: Penguin.
    Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1970). The German Ideology, New York: International Publishers.
    Mattelart, A. (2000). Networking the World, 1794–2000, trans. L.Carey-Libbrecht and J.A.Cohen, Minneapolis and London: University of Minnesota Press.
    Mattelart, A. and Mattelart, M. (1992). Rethinking Media Theory: Signposts and New Directions, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Mellencamp, P. (ed.) (1991). ‘TV Time and Catastrophe, or Beyond the Pleasure Principle of Television’, in P.Mellencamp (ed.), Logics of Television: Essays in Cultural Criticism, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Meyrowitz, J. (1985). No Sense of Place: The Impact of Electronic Media on Social Behavior, New York: Oxford University Press.
    Meyrowitz, J. (1990). ‘Television: The Shared Arena’, The World and I, Vol. 5, No. 7: 464–81.
    Meyrowitz, J. (1994). ‘The Life and Death of Media Friends: New Genres of Intimacy and Mourning’, in R.Cathcart and S.Druckers (eds), American Heroes a Media Age, Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.
    Meyrowitz, J. (1995). ‘Medium Theory’, in D.Crowley and D.Mitchell (eds), Communication Theory Today, Cambridge: Polity.
    Meyrowitz, J. (1997). ‘Shifting Worlds of Strangers: Medium Theory and Changes in “Them versus Us,’Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 67, No. 1: 59–71. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-682X.1997.tb00429.x
    Meyrowitz, J. (1999). ‘Understandings of Media’, ETC: A Review of General Semantics, Vol. 56, No. 1: 44–53.
    Mitchell, W.J. (1996). City of Bits: Space, Place and the Infobahn, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Morelli, N. (2001). ‘The Space of Telework: Physical and Virtual Configurations for Remote Work’, in D.Holmes (ed.), Virtual Globalization: Virtual Spaces/Tourist Spaces, London: Routledge.
    Morley, D. (1980). The ‘Nationwide’ Audience: Structure and Decoding, London: British Film Institute.
    Morley, D. (1986). Family Television: Cultural Power and Domestic Leisure, London: Comedia.
    Morley, D. (1992). Television Audiences and Cultural Studies, London: Routledge.
    Morse, M. (1998). Virtualities: Television, Media Art, and Cyberculture, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Morris, M. and Ogan, C. (1996). ‘The Internet as Mass Medium’, Journal of Communication, Vol. 46, No. 1: 39–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1996.tb01460.x
    Moursund, D. (1996). ‘How Long Is a Cyberspace Year?’, Leading and Learning with Technology, Vol. 24, No. 1: 4–5.
    Mullan, B. (1997). Consuming Television: Television and Its Audience, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Nancy, J.-L. (1991). The Inoperative Community, trans. P.Conor et al., Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Negroponte, N. (1995). Being Digital, New York: Knopf.
    Negt, O. and Kluge, A. (1993). Public Sphere and Experience: Toward an Analysis of the Bourgeois and Proletarian Public Sphere, trans. P.Labanyi, J.O.Daniel and A.Oksiloff, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Nelson, R. (1997). TV Drama in Transition: Forms, Values and Cultural Change, Houndmills: Macmillan.
    Newcomb, H. (ed.) (2000). Television: The Critical View (
    6th edn
    ), New York: Oxford University Press.
    Newcomb, T. (1953). ‘An Approach to the Study of Communication Acts’, Psychological Review, 60, 393–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0063098
    Nguyen, D.T. and Alexander, J. (1996). ‘The Coming of Cyberspacetime and the End of the Polity’, in R.Shields (ed.), Cultures of the Internet: Virtual Spaces, Real Histories, Living Bodies, London: Sage.
    Nie, N. and Erdring, R. (2000). ‘The Internet and Society Study’ conducted by the Institute for the Quantitative Study of Society, available at http://www.stanford.edu/group/siqss/
    Nightingale, V. (1996). Studying Audiences: The Shock of the Real, London: Routledge.
    Nisbet, R. (1970). The Social Bond, New York: Knopf.
    Noble, D. (1997). The Religion of Technology: The Divinity of Man and the Spirit of Invention, New York: Knopf.
    Norris, C. (1982). Deconstruction: Theory and Practice, London: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426760
    Ong, W. (1982). Orality and Literacy: The Technologization of the World, London: Methuen. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203328064
    Ostwald, M. (1997). ‘Virtual Urban Futures’, in D.Holmes (ed.), Virtual Politics: Identity and Community in Cyberspace, London: Sage.
    O'sullivan, T., Hartley, J., Saunders, D., Montgomery, M. and Fiske, J. (1994). Key Concepts in Communication and Cultural Studies (
    2nd edn
    ), London: Routledge.
    Owen, B.M. (1999). The Internet Challenge to Television, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Plant, S. (1998). Zeros and Ones: Digital Women and the New Technoculture, London: Fourth Estate.
    Porter, D. (ed.) (1997). Internet Culture, London: Routledge.
    Poster, M. (1990). The Mode of Information: Post-structuralism and Social Context, Cambridge: Polity.
    Poster, M. (1995). The Second Media Age, Cambridge: Polity.
    Poster, M. (1997). ‘Cyberdemocracy: Internet and Public Sphere’, in D.Holmes (ed.), Virtual Politics: Identity and Community in Cyberspace, London: Sage.
    Poster, M. (2000). What's the Matter with the Internet?Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Postman, N. (1993). Technopoly: The Surrender of Culture to Technology, New York: Knopf.
    Puro, J.-P. (2001). ‘Finland: A Mobile Culture’, in J.E.Katz and M.A.Aakhus (eds), Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Rafaeli, S. (1988). ‘Interactivity: From Media to Communication’, in R.P.Hawkins, J.M.Wiemann and S.Pingree (eds), Annual Reviews of Communication Research, Vol. 16: Advancing Communication Science: Merging Mass and Interpersonal Process, Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
    Rafaeli, S. and Sudweeks, F. (1997). ‘Networked Interactivity’, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 2, No. 4. Available at: http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/vol2/issue4/rafaeli.sudweeks.html
    Real, M. (1984). Supermedia, London: Sage.
    Reeves, B. and Nass, C. (1996). The Media Equation: How People Treat Computers, Television, and New Media Like Real People and Places, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Regis, E. (1990). Great Mambo Chicken and the Transhuman Condition: Science Slightly over the Edge, London: Viking Press.
    Rheingold, H. (1994). The Virtual Community: Finding Connection in a Computerized World, London: Secker and Warburg.
    Robins, K. (1995). ‘Cyberspace and the World We Live in’, in M.Featherstone and R.Burrows (eds), Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment, London: Sage.
    Robins, K. and Webster, F. (1999). Times of the Technoculture: From the Information Society to the Virtual Life, London: Routledge.
    Rose, N. (1996). ‘The Death of the Social? Re-figuring the Territory of Government’, Economy and Society, Vol. 25, No. 3: 327–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03085149600000018
    Rosen, R. (1986). ‘Search for Yesterday’, in T.Gitlin (ed.), Watching Television: A Pantheon Guide to Popular Culture, New York: Pantheon.
    Rosenberg, M.J. (2001). E-learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age, New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Rothenbuhler, E.W. (1998). Ritual Communication: From Everyday Conversation to Mediated Ceremony, London: Sage.
    Russell, G. and Holmes, D. (1996). ‘Electronic Nomads? Implications of Trends in Adolescents’ Use of Communication and Information Technology’, Australian Journal of Educational Technology, Vol. 12, No. 2: 130–44.
    Saussure, F. de (1992). Course in General Linguistics, trans. R.Harris, La Salle, IL: Open Court Classics.
    Schultz, T. (2000). ‘Mass Media and the Concept of Interactivity: An Exploratory Study of Online Forums and Reader Email’, Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 22: 205–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016344300022002005
    SchwochJ. and White, M. (1992). ‘Learning the Electronic Life’, in J.Schwoch, M.White and S.Reilly, Media Knowledge: Readings in Popular Culture, Albany: State University of New York Press.
    Seiter, E. (1999). Television and New Media Audiences, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Selby, K. and Cowdery, R. (1995). How to Study Television, Houndmills: Macmillan.
    Sennett, R. (1978). The Fall of Public Man, New York: Knopf.
    Shannon, C. and Weaver, W. (1949). The Mathematical Theory of Communication, Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.
    Sharp, G. (1983). ‘Intellectuals in Transition’, Arena Journal (New Series), No. 65: 84–95.
    Sharp, G. (1985). ‘Constitutive Abstraction and Social Practice’, Arena, 70: 48–82.
    Sharp, G. (1993). ‘Extended Forms of the Social: Technological Mediation and Self-Formation’, Arena Journal (New Series), No. 1: 221–37.
    Shea, V. (1994). Netiquette, San Francisco: Albion Books.
    Shields, R. (1994). ‘Fancy Footwork: Walter Benjamin's Notes on Flanerie’, in KeithTester (ed.), The Flaneur, London: Routledge.
    Shields, S. (ed.) (1996). Cultures of the Internet: Virtual Spaces, Real Histories, Living Bodies, London: Sage.
    Shils, E. (1957). ‘Daydreams and Nightmares: Reflections on the Criticism of Mass Culture’, The Sewanee Review, Vol. 65, No. 4.
    Shils, E. and Young, M. (1953). ‘The Meaning of the Coronation’, Sociological Review, December: 63–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1953.tb00953.x
    Silver, D. (2000). ‘Looking Backwards, Looking Forward: Cyberculture Studies, 1990–2000’, in D.Gauntlett (ed.), Web.Studies: Rewiring Media Studies for the Digital Age, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Silverstone, R. (1999). Why Study the Media?London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446219461
    Simmel, G. (1971). ‘The Metropolis and Mental Life’, in D.N.Levine (ed.), On Individuality and Social Forms, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Skinner, D. (2000). ‘McLuhan's World and Ours’, The Public Interest, Winter: 52–64.
    Skog, B. (2001). ‘Mobiles and the Norwegian Teen: Identity, Gender and Class’, in J.E.Katz and M.A.Aakhus (eds), Perpetual Contact: Mobile Communication, Private Talk, Public Performance, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Slater, P. (1971). The Pursuit of Loneliness: American Culture at the Breaking Point, London: Allen Lane.
    Slevin, J. (2000). The Internet and Society, Cambridge: Polity.
    Slouka, M. (1996). War of the Worlds: The Assault on Reality, London: Abacus.
    Smart, B. (1992). Modern Conditions: Postmodern Controversies, London: Routledge.
    Smith, C. (1997). ‘Casting the Net: Surveying an Internet Population’, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 3, No. 1, available at http://www.ascusc.org/jcmc/Vol3/issue1/smith.html
    Smith, M. (1995). ‘Voices from the Well: The Logic of the Virtual Commons’, Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, available at http://www.netscan.sscnet.ucla.edu/soc/csoc/papers/voices/Voices.htm
    Smith, M. (1999). ‘Invisible Crowds in Cyberspace: Mapping the Social Structure of Usenet’, in M.A.Smith and P.Kollock (eds), Communities in Cyberspace, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/9789056290818
    Smith, M. and Kollock, P. (eds) (1999). Communities in Cyberspace, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.5117/9789056290818
    Smythe, D.W. (1981). ‘On the Audience Commodity and Its Work’, in Dependency Road: Communications, Capitalism, Consciousness and Canada, Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Snyder, R.W. (1994). ‘The Vaudeville Circuit: A Prehistory of the Mass Audience’, in J.S.Ettema and D.C.Whitney (eds), Audiencemaking: How the Media Create the Audience, London: Sage.
    Sobchack, V. (1996). ‘Democratic Franchise and the Electronic Frontier’, in Z.Sardar and J.Ravetz (eds), Cyberfutures: Culture and Politics on the Information Superhighway, London: Pluto Press.
    Sohn-Rethel, A. (1979). Intellectual and Manual Labour: A Critique of Epistemology, London: Macmillan.
    Soja, E. (1996). Thirdspace: Journeys into Los Angeles and Other Real and Imagined Places, Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Spears, R. and Lea, M. (1994). ‘Panacea or Panopticon? The Hidden Power of Computer-Mediated Communication’, in Communication Research, Vol. 21, No. 4: 427–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009365094021004001
    Springer, C. (2000). ‘Digital Rage’, in D.Bell and B.Kennedy (eds), The Cybercultures Reader, London: Routledge.
    Sprinker, M. (1987). Imaginary Relations: Aesthetics and Ideology in the Theory of Historical Materialism, London: Verso.
    Stearn, G. (ed.) (1968). McLuhan: Hot and Cool, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Steemers, J. (2001). ‘Broadcasting is Dead. Long Live Digital Choice’, in H.Mackay and T.O'sullivan (eds), The Media Reader: Continuity and Transformation, London: Sage.
    Stevenson, N. (1995). Understanding Media Cultures: Social Theory and Mass Communication, London: Sage Publications. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221310
    Stoll, C. (1995). Silicon Snake Oil, London: Pan.
    Stone, A.R. (1991). ‘Will the Real Body Please Stand Up?: Boundary Stories about Virtual Cultures’, in M.Benedikt (ed.), Cyberspace: First Steps, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Stratton, J. (1997). ‘Cyberspace and the Globalization of Culture’, in D.Porter, (ed.), Internet Culture, London: Routledge.
    Swyngedouw, E. (1993). ‘Communication, Mobility and the Struggle for Power over Space’, in G.Giannopoulos and A.Gillespie (eds), Transport and Communications in the New Europe, London: Belhaven.
    Taylor, T. and Ward, I. (eds) (1998). Literacy Theory in the Age of the Internet, New York: Columbia University Press.
    Terranova, T. (2001). ‘Demonstrating the Globe: Virtual and Real Action in the Network Society’, in D.Holmes (ed.), Virtual Globalization: Virtual Spaces/Tourist Spaces, London: Routledge.
    Tester, K. (1996). The Flaneur, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Thompson, J.B. (1994). ‘Social Theory and the Media’, in D.Crowley and D.Mitchell (eds), Communication Theory Today, Cambridge: Polity.
    Thompson, J.B. (1995). The Media and Modernity: A Social Theory of the Media, Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Thompson, J.B. (1995). The Media and Modernity, Cambridge: Polity.
    Tingle, L. (2002) ‘TV Revolution to Create more Free Channels’, in the Sydney Moving Hearald, 23 April, p. 1.
    Tocqueville, A. de (1990). Democracy in America, Vol. 2, ed. P.Bradley, New York: Vintage Books.
    Toffler, A. (1980). The Third Wave, London: Pan.
    Tofts, D. (1997). Memory Trade: A Prehistory of Cyberculture, North Ryde: 21C Publications.
    Tönnies, F. (1955). Community and Association, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
    Touraine, A. (1988). The Return of the Actor, Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
    Touraine, A. (1998). ‘Sociology without Society’, Current Sociology, Vol. 46, No. 2: 119–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011392198046002008
    Turkle, S. (1984). The Second Self, New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Turkle, S. (1995). Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet, New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Turow, J. and Kavanaugh, A. (eds) (2003). The Wired Homestead, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Urry, J. (2002). ‘Global Complexities’, Paper presented at the International Sociological Association World Congress of Sociology, Brisbane, Australia, 7–13 July 2002.
    Urry, J. (2003). Global Complexity, Maiden, MA: Polity.
    Urry, J. and Rojek, C. (eds) (1997). Touring Cultures: Transformations of Travel and Theory, London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203427736
    Van Dijk, J. (1999). The Network Society: Social Aspects of New Media, London: Sage.
    Vidich, A.J. and Bensman, J. (1960). Small Town in Mass Society, New York: Anchor Books.
    Virilio, P. (1997). ‘The Overexposed City’, in N.Leach (ed.), Rethinking Architecture, London: Routledge.
    Virilio, P. (1998). ‘Is the Author Dead? An Interview with Paul Virilio’, in J.Der Derian (ed.), The Virilio Reader, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Virilio, P. (2000). The Information Bomb, London: Verso.
    Virilio, P. (2001). ‘Speed and Information: Cyberspace Alarm’, in D.Trend (ed.), Reading Digital Culture, Oxford: Blackwell.
    Wardrip-Fruin, N. and Montfort, N. (eds) (2003). The New Media Reader, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
    Wark, M. (1994). Virtual Geography, Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
    Wark, M. (1999). Celebrities, Culture and Cyberspace: The Light on the Hill in a Postmodern World, Sydney: Pluto Press.
    Wark, M. (2000). ‘Whatcha Doin’, Marshall McLuhan?’, Media International Australia, No. 94: 89–96.
    Wasserman, I.M. (1984). ‘Imitation and Suicide: A Re-examination of the Werther Effect’, American Sociological Review, No. 49: 427–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095285
    Watts, D. (2000). ‘The Internet, the Small World, and the Nature of Distance’, Santa Fe Institute, available at http://aries.mos.org/internet/essay.html
    Weigel, Van B. (2002). Deep Learning for a Digital Age: Technology's Untapped Potential to Enrich Higher Education, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Wellman, B. (ed.) (1999). Networks in the Global Village: Life in Contemporary Communities, Boulder, CO: Westview.
    Wellman, B. and Gulia, M. (1999). ‘Virtual Communities as Communities: Net Surfers Don't Ride Alone’, in M.Smith and P.Kollock (eds), Communities in Cyberspace, London: Routledge.
    Wertheim, M. (1999). The Pearly Gates of Cyberspace: A History of Space from Dante to the Internet, Sydney: Doubleday.
    Whitaker, R. (2000). The End of Privacy: How Total Surveillance Is Becoming a Reality, Melbourne: Scribe Publications.
    Whittle, D. (1996). Cyberspace: The Human Dimension, New York: W.H. Freeman.
    Wiener, N. ([1948] 1961). ‘Introduction’, in Cybernetics: or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine (
    2nd edn
    ), Cambridge, MA; MIT Press.
    Wilbur, S. (1997). ‘An Archaeology of Cyberspaces: Virtuality, Community, Identity’, in D.Porter (ed.), Internet Culture, London: Routledge.
    Wilhelm, A.G. (2000). Democracy in the Digital Age: Challenges to Political Life in Cyberspace, New York: Routledge.
    Williams, R. (1961). Culture and Society: 1780–1950, Harmondsworth: Penguin.
    Williams, R. (1974). Television: Technology and Cultural Form, London: Fontana. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203426647
    Williams, R. (ed.) (1981) Contact: Human Communication and Its History, London: Thames and Hudson.
    Williams, R. (1983). Towards 2000, London: Chatto and Windus/Hogarth.
    Williams, R. and Edge, D. (1992). Social Shaping Reviewed–Research Concepts, Findings, Programmers and Centres in the UK, Edinburgh: PICT Working Papers No. 41.
    Willson, M. (1997). ‘Community in the Abstract’, in D.Holmes (ed.), Virtual Politics: Identity and Community in Cyberspace, London: Sage.
    Winston, B. (1998). Media, Technology and Society: A History from the Telegraph to the Internet, London: Routledge.
    Wise, J.M. (1997). Exploring Technology and Social Space, London: Sage.
    Wolf, M.J.P. (2000). Abstracting Reality: Art, Communication, and Cognition in the Digital Age, Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    Zettl, H. (1973). Sight, Sound and Motion: Applied Media Aesthetics, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Zizek, S. (1989). The Sublime Object of Ideology, London: Verso.

    • Loading...
Back to Top