Communication and Negotiation
Publication Year: 1992
Subject: Organizational Communication
This first edition of Communication and Negotiation, edited by Linda L. Putnam and Michael E. Roloff, provides a much needed discussion of the links between communication and negotiation … In fact, this text would be an excellent resource guide for psychologists, social psychologists, psychotherapists, and marriage counselors, as well as all other parties interested in managing conflict through negotiation.” –Contemporary Psychology “References to contributors … for whom applied issues in industrial relations have been to the fore–are fairly frequent. This is testimony to the sheer thoroughness of the organization of the book, and to the conscientious approach of the authors commissioned to write the relevant separate chapters…. This book is a useful pointer to the knowledge we have to hand.” –The Occupational Psychologist “This publication ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: Strategies, Tactics, and Negotiation Processes
- Chapter 1: Achieving Negotiation Goals: The “Fruits and Foibles” of Planning Ahead
- Chapter 2: Communication Media and Negotiation Processes
- Chapter 3: The Communication of Offers in Dyadic Bargaining
- Chapter 4: Phase Structures in Negotiation
Part II: Interpretive Processes and Language Analysis
- Chapter 5: Bargaining Arguments and Argumentative Bargainers
- Chapter 6: Framing, Reframing, and Issue Development
- Chapter 7: The Role of Language in Negotiations: Threats and Promises
- Chapter 8: Face and Facework in Negotiation
Part III: Negotiation Situation and Context
Sage Annual Reviews of Communication Research[Page ii]Series Editors
Suzanne Pingree, University of Wisconsin—Madison
Robert P. Hawkins, University of Wisconsin—Madison
John M. Wiemann, University of California—Santa BarbaraEditorial Advisory Board
Janet Bavelas,University of Victoria
James J. Bradac,University of California, Santa Barbara
Steven H. Chaffee,Stanford University
Mary Anne Fitzpatrick,University of Wisconsin
Howard Giles,University of California, Santa Barbara
Michael H. Hyde,Northwestern University
Klaus Krippendorff, University of Pennsylvania
Linda L. Putnam,Purdue University
Everett M. Rogers.University of Southern California
Karl Erik Rosengren,University of Lund
Joseph Turow,University of Pennsylvania
Ellen Wartelia,University of Illinois
Books in This Edited Series:
1: Current Perspectives in Mass Communication Research
F. G. Kline and P. J. Tichenor
2: New Models for Mass Communication Research
3: The Uses of Mass Communications
J. G. Blumler and E. Katz
4: Political Communication
S. H. Chaffee
5: Explorations in Interpersonal Communication
G. R. Miller
6: Strategies for Communication Research
P. M. Hirsch, P. V. Miller. and F. G. Kline
7: Children Communicating
M. E. Roloff and G. R. Miller
9: Advances in Content Analysis
K. E. Rosengren
10: Individuals in Mass Media Organizations
J. S. Ettema and D. C. Whitney
11: Nonverbal Interaction
J. M. Wiemann and R. P. Harrison
12: Interpreting Televison
W. D. Rowland, Jr. and B. Watkins
13: Organizational Communication
R. D. McPhee and P. K. Tompkins
14: Interpersonal Processes
M. E. Roloff and G. R. Miller
15: Media, Myths, and Narratives
J. W. Carey
16: Advancing Communication Science
R. P. Hawkins, J. M. Wiemann, and S. Pingree
17: Message Effects in Communication Science
J. J. Bradac
18: Information Campaigns
C. T. Salmon
19: Comparatively Speaking
J. G. Blumler, J. M. McLeod, and K. E. Rosengren
20. Communication and Negotiation
L. L. Putnam and M. E. Roloff
Copyright © 1992 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
For information address:
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Newbury Park, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Main entry under title:
Communication and negotiation / editors, Linda L. Putnam, Michael E. Roloff.
p. cm. — (Sage annual reviews of communication research; v. 20)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8039-4011-4 (cloth). — ISBN 0-8039-4012-2 (pbk.)
1. Negotiation in business. I. Putnam, Linda. II. Roloff, Michael E. III. Series.
97 98 99 00 01 02 8 7 6 5 4 3
Sage Production Editor: Astrid Virding
We dedicate this book to our spouses and daughters for their patience and support throughout the long hours of reading, revising, and editing these chapters.
Thomas M. Putnam and daughter, Ashley, and Karen Roloff and daughters, Erika, Katrina, and Carlissa[Page vi]
This book grew out of numerous conversations and convention panels that centered on the role of speech communication in studying conflict and negotiation. Discussions with colleagues, both inside and outside our field, heightened our awareness that no volume exists to describe and synthesize the conceptual perspectives that communication scholars bring to the study of negotiation. These perspectives employ a different language and different ways of seeing negotiation than do studies in cognate fields of social psychology, political science, anthropology, sociology, organizational behavior, economics, and law. Although communication scholars are not uniform in their approaches to negotiation nor do they have a monopoly on social interaction research, their perspectives, rooted in communication and rhetorical theory, distinguish them from scholars outside the field. The desire to articulate the conceptual roots and unique features of these perspectives compels the development of this book.
We are indebted to our colleagues in the field of communication and in the interdisciplinary area of conflict research for encouraging us to undertake this project. In particular, we extend our thanks to Suzanne Pingree, John M. Wiemann, and Robert P. Hawkins, the editors of the Sage Annual Reviews of Communication Research, for their advice and encouragement throughout this project. The chapter authors provided the necessary enthusiasm and cooperation to make this project possible. Their responses to requests for revisions in the face of imminent deadlines made the production of 11 chapters occur in a smooth and timely manner. Students in our seminars on communication and negotiation [Page x]during past years provided excellent insights on the role of communication in bargaining and served as sounding boards for many ideas in this book.
We would also like to thank Beverly Robinson and Liz Whitworth at Purdue for typing one of the chapters in this volume and to the Departments of Communication at Purdue and at Northwestern for their support throughout this process. Finally, we are also grateful to the professors who encouraged us to pursue negotiation research during our doctoral education, namely, David H. Smith at the University of South Florida, Ernest G. Bormann at the University of Minnesota, and Bradley Greenberg and Gerald R. Miller at Michigan State University.
About the Contributors[Page 291]
JAMES J. BRADAC (Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1970) is Professor of Communication Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His research focuses upon the role of language variables in person perception and social evaluation. He coauthored (with C. R. Berger) Language and Social Knowledge. He is currently completing a term as editor of Human Communication Research and is a Fellow of The International Communication Association.
JON D. BUSCH (M.A., University of California, Santa Barbara, 1991) is currently a doctoral student in Communication Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. His research interests include communication in relationships and language in social settings.
GERARDINE DeSANCTIS (Ph.D., Texas Tech University, 1982) is Associate Professor of Information Systems at the University of Minnesota. Her current research interests are computer-supported decision making and systems implementation in organizations. Her articles appear in journals such as Management Science, Data Base, Academy of Management Journal, Information and Management, and Communications of the ACM. She is currently an Associate Editor for Information Systems Research, Management Science, and Organization Science.
WILLIAM A. DONOHUE (Ph.D., Ohio State University, 1976) is Professor of Communication at Michigan State University. His conflict-related research interests include mediation and negotiation. He has published articles in Communication Monographs, Communication Yearbook, Human Communication Research, and International Journal of Group Tensions. His books include Communication, Marital Dispute, and Divorce Mediation and Contemporary Issues in Language and Discourse Processes (edited with D. Ellis).[Page 292]
SARA U. DOUGLAS (Ph.D., University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, 1983) is Associate Professor in the Division of Consumer Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign. In addition to her interests in mass media, her research focuses upon the textile industry and international textile trade and trade policy. She is author of Labor's New Voice: Unions and the Mass Media and has published articles in journals including Media, Culture and Society, Journalism Quarterly, and Asian Survey.
PAMELA GIBBONS (Doctoral Candidate, University of California, Santa Barbara) is Lecturer in Communication Studies at the University of California, Santa Barbara. Her research examines the role of language variation in memory and social perception processes. Her current work includes a coauthored paper (with J. Bradac and J. D. Busch) in Language and Social Psychology and a chapter in Language and Social Cognition (with D. Hamilton, S. M. Stroessner, and J. Sherman).
MAJIA HOLMER (M.A., San Diego State University, 1989) is currently working toward a Ph.D. in Organizational Communication and Philosophy of Communication at Purdue University. Her research focuses on the role of discourse in organizational domination, democratization, and bureaucratization.
MICHAEL E. HOLMES (Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1991) is Assistant Professor at Purdue University. His research interests include hostage negotiation, computer-mediated communication, and group decision support systems. He has recently published articles in The Police Chief and Journal of Organizational Computing.
JERRY M. JORDAN (Doctoral Candidate, Northwestern University) is Assistant Professor of Communication at the University of Cincinnati. His research interests center on language behaviors and the cognitive processes underlying message production. He is currently researching the correspondence between social action plans and conversational discourse.
COLLEEN M. KEOUGH (Ph.D., University of Southern California, 1988) is Lecturer at the University of Southern California and consultant at Rockwell International Space Systems Division. Her study of argumentation in teacher-school board negotiations won the 1989 W. C. Redding Dissertation Award from the Organizational Communication [Page 293]Division of the International Communication Association. Her other research interests include organizational culture and organizational development.
MARSHALL SCOTT POOLE (Ph.D., University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1980) is Professor of Speech Communication at the University of Minnesota. His current research interests are computer support for meetings, group decision making, conflict management, organizational communication, and interaction analysis methodology. Recent publications include an edited volume, Communication and Group Decision-Making (with R. Hirokawa) and the book Working Through Conflict (written with J. Folger). His article, “Group Decision-Making as a Structurational Process” (with R. D. McPhee and D. R. Seibold) won the Golden Anniversary Award for Outstanding Scholarship from the Speech Communication Association. He has served on the editorial boards of Communication Research, Communication Monographs, Human Communication Research, and Academy of Management Review.
LINDA L. PUTNAM (Ph.D., University of Minnesota, 1977) is Professor of Communication at Purdue University. Her current research interests include communication strategies in negotiation, organizational conflict, contradictory and paradoxical messages, and language analysis in conflict. She serves on the editorial boards of seven journals and has edited special issues on dispute resolution for Communication Research and Management Communication Quarterly. She is the coeditor of Communication and Organization: An Interpretative Approach (with M. Pacanowsky) and Handbook of Organizational Communication (with F. M. Jablin, K. H. Roberts, and L. W. Porter). Three of her articles and books have received best publication awards from the Organizational Communication Division of the Speech Communication Association.
CLOSEPET N. RAMESH (Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1991) is Assistant Professor at Northwest Missouri State University. His research interests include critical theory and hostage negotiations. Recent papers on hostage negotiations have been presented at the conventions of the International Communication Association and the Speech Communication Association.
MICHAEL E. ROLOFF (Ph.D., Michigan State University, 1975) is Professor of Communication Studies at Northwestern University. His [Page 294]research interests include bargaining and negotiation, social exchange within intimate relationships, persuasion, and interpersonal conflict resolution. He wrote Interpersonal Communication: The Social Exchange Approach, and coedited Persuasion: New Directions in Theory and Research (with G. R. Miller), Interpersonal Processes: New Directions in Communication Research (with G. R. Miller), and Social Cognition and Communication (with C. R. Berger).
DALE L. SHANNON (Doctoral Candidate, University of Minnesota) is a student in speech communication at the University of Minnesota. His current research interests include organizational communication with special emphasis on conflict and negotiation, negotiation support systems, group-decision support systems, and new technologies. He is also interested in quantitative research methods.
DUDLEY B. TURNER (Ph.D., Purdue University, 1988) is Assistant Professor in the School of Communication at The University of Akron. His research interests include negotiation, conflict management and pedagogical approaches in communication. His research has been presented at regional and national conferences and is published in Communication Studies and Argumentation.
FRANK TUTZAUER (Ph.D., Northwestern University, 1985) is Assistant Professor of Communication at the State University of New York at Buffalo. His research pertains to bargaining and negotiation, social networks, and the mathematical modeling of behavioral phenomena. Recent publications include articles in Behavioral Science, Communication Research, Communication Yearbook, International Journal of Conflict Management, Progress in Communication Science, and Social Networks.
STEVEN R. WILSON (Ph.D., Purdue University, 1989) is Assistant Professor of Communication at Michigan State University. He teaches classes in conflict and negotiation, interpersonal communication, persuasion, and social cognition. His research focuses on relationships between communication and cognitive processes during conflict and social influence episodes. He has written articles appearing in Communication Monographs, Communication Yearbook, Human Communication Research, Central States Speech Journal, Management Communication Quarterly, and Research on Language and Social Interaction.