Communicating Health: Strategies for Health Promotion

Books

Edited by: Nova Corcoran

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    List of Figures

    About the Editor

    Nova Corcoran works as a Senior Lecturer in Public Health at the University of Glamorgan where she is the award leader for the MSc Public Health. She is the author and editor of two textbooks ‘Communicating health: Strategies for health promotion’ and ‘Working on health communication’. She previously held the post of Senior Lecturer in Health Promotion and Public Health at the University of East London for 10 years. Prior to that she worked in a variety of health promotion roles including the role of Addiction Prevention Practitioner at St Georges Hospital Medical School, and as a Health Promotion Officer and Stop Smoking Development Coordinator for Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly Health Authority. She has a strong background in health promotion work, in particular the planning, design and delivery of health campaigns and programmes. Her research interests are centred on communication strategies and methods including mass media, social marketing, behaviour change and international health issues.

    List of Contributors

    Anthony Bone works as a Principal Lecturer in Health Studies at the University of East London. He has a background in higher education, and an interest in health and social policy.

    Sue Corcoran is an Assistant Director of Nursing at the Royal Cornwall Hospitals Trust. She has worked in a variety of settings in nursing and midwifery in primary and acute care, higher education and senior NHS management. She has retired since the first edition of this textbook.

    Claire Everett is a nutrition and health promotion consultant. She currently works as a Commissioning Manager for the Food for Life Partnership and has a teaching and research interest in food-related areas.

    John Garlick is a Principal Lecturer in Health Service Management at the University of East London. He has worked extensively on health care policy development and on service delivery in central government and at local level in North East London. He has retired since the first edition of this textbook.

    Barbara Goodfellow works as a Senior Lecturer in Medical Sociology at the University of East London. She has a nursing background and her particular interests are inequalities in health, especially those relating to culture, gender and old age. She has retired since the first edition of this textbook.

    Calvin Moorley is a Senior Lecturer in Health Promotion and Health Studies at the University of East London. His main interests are in how culture influences health and the meaning of illness. He comes from a nursing background, with a critical and primary care specialism.

    Editor's Acknowledgements

    Thank you to all my students and colleagues past and present from the University of East London and the University of Glamorgan for making my job worthwhile. This edition is dedicated to Ben, Ostyn and Huxley.

    Nova Corcoran

  • Activity Discussions

    This section contains discussions from the activities throughout the textbook. They are designed not as definitive answers, but as suggested examples to the activities.

    Chapter 1
    1.1 How are Health Promotion Messages Communicated?
    • Traditional sources of communication such as television, radio, magazines, newspapers, Internet, telephone, one-to-one alongside more non-traditional sources such as sign language, symbols, text messages or eye contact.
    • Interpersonal information (one-to-one or group work) or different types of media including mass media (newspapers, magazines, television), print media (leaflets, booklets, posters), electronic media (Internet) and audio visual (radio, video).
    1.2 Why not use Theory?
    • Time, resources, finance, lack of expertise or difficulty of application to practice.
    1.3 The Theory of Planned Behaviour in Action
    • Yes, Daniel will probably take the steroids. Look again at Figure 1.5, and follow the format. He has a positive attitude (wants to look good) and a supportive subjective norm (a member of staff with ‘muscles’ already using steroids). Perceived behavioural control is more difficult; we are not sure if he is ready, willing and can access steroids, but will assume that he can. With regard to strong behavioural intention, all pointers indicate that he will try steroids to look good, resulting in the action of taking the steroids.
    1.4 The Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC) Model in Action
    • At the ‘preknowledge’ stage you would provide information or resources to move people to the ‘knowledge’ stage. At the ‘knowledge’ stage people would need to gain some knowledge about recycling and the facilities available. At the ‘approval’ stage people would agree that recycling bins are a good idea, and that recycling rubbish is a positive step. At the ‘intention’ stage, people would need to intend to recycle, for example, next time they have a collection of glass or paper. At the ‘practice’ stage people would be actively recycling their glass or paper. Finally, at the ‘advocacy’ stage they would be encouraging others to do the same.
    1.5 How are Health Promotion Messages Communicated?
    • A number of variables could be targeted. You could target social norms or perceived behavioural control from the theory of planned behaviour. You could also target perceived susceptibility or severity from the health belief model.
    • What sort of messages would you target at the constructs of this model to promote safer sexual relationships? This depends on the model you chose. One example might be a message that focuses on ‘your friends and family would like you to use a condom when you hook up to protect yourself’ (social norms), or ‘don't be scared to use a condom – you have the power to insist’ (perceived behavioural control).
    Chapter 2
    2.1 Differences in Health Behaviours
    • Different emphasis on preventive behaviours, including screening, and may have different health-related behaviours with regard to issues such as sexual health, safety or physical activity. There may also be differences in lifestyles that impact on health, for example levels of physical activity or dietary differences.
    • Different concerns; for example, females may have concerns around menopause or osteoporosis, in addition there may be family or religious restrictions in terms of exercise and diet. Males may have less concern for their health, or be focused on illness only when it becomes serious. Males and females are at different risks for different diseases in later life, for example men have a higher risk of CHD. In addition certain cancers are more prevalent in men (i.e. prostate cancer) and women (breast or cervical cancer).
    2.2 Messages for Education Levels
    • The Diabetes UK website has less text and more interactive features including images and pictures. The NHS website has more text and is less obvious to navigate. Both sites are very comprehensive but finding the exact information may prove difficult to those less computer literate. Interactive tools such as those that calculate diabetes risk encourage engagement with the site.
    • Difficulties may arise for those whose levels of English are low as there is much written material on both sites. There may be a personal preference for websites depending on colour, format, ease of navigation and ease of finding information that is being searched for.
    2.3 Who is the Message Designed for?
    • Age: Mid- to older age adults (note the picture) who are at risk of bowel cancer.
    • There is no definite answer here, but as the doctor is male it is possible the rationale was to focus more on males who are at risk.
    • Socioeconomic: all inclusive as little writing means it is accessible to all. Those who are most likely to access a doctor for screening however are the middle and upper socioeconomic groups.
    • Education: little writing, few complex instructions and accessible to all groups.
    • Ethnicity: The doctor shown is Asian, which would suggest this particular poster is aimed at Asian groups, or those living in areas with a reasonable prevalence of Asian doctors such as large cities.
    • There are differences in target group, i.e. age, the focus of the message and the type of images use (cartoon compared to photo). There are similarities in terms of the simplicity of the message and the education/socioeconomic class being less important to the overall message.
    2.4 Psychological Variables and MMR

    Your answer will vary depending on whether you have read any of the research around the vaccine, if you have read any of the stories in the media, what your friends and family think including parents and siblings. Your answer may also be based on knowing someone who has had the vaccine safely and your familiarities with autism and what it is. These variables will form your attitudes to the MMR and will impact on a decision to vaccinate a child.

    2.5 Attitudes and Complexity
    • A positive attitude to bowel cancer screening as a person has known someone else who has had the screening, read a leaflet or watched a documentary on bowel cancer.
    • A negative attitude to bowel cancer screening as a person may think it is invasive, that they are not at risk, that it is something that happens to other people.
    • A positive attitude to HIV tests as a person has known other people who have been tested, they have been tested in the past and think that it is a good idea in terms of letting a partner know they are HIV free.
    • A negative attitude to HIV testing as a person may consider it a personal issue, be worried about being tested positive, be concerned about insurance or employment, think that HIV is a ‘curse’ or that they will be stigmatised.
    2.6 Beliefs and Tobacco
    • A wide range of reasons which could include; ‘it makes me look cool, sexy, good looking, older, thinner, wiser, sophisticated or grown up’. ‘It keeps my weight down’, ‘it's good for me’, ‘it helps my lungs’, ‘my doctor said it is good for me’, ‘it helps me relax’.
    • You could target any of these beliefs. For example with teenagers messages for those who believe it makes them look older could focus on wrinkles or poor skin. Messages for those who believe it makes them look ‘cool’ could focus on smelly clothes or bad breath.
    2.7 Designing Messages to Target Attitudes
    • This answer will depend on your target group. An example might be 16-year-old black African girls who are leaving school with few qualifications (lower education levels).
    • Messages that could be developed to target this group might centre around chlamydia being invisible and serious. In terms of personal relevance it could look at promoting condom use not just for contraceptive effect but for chlamydia prevention as well. Messages would perhaps focus on African girls in workplaces such as shops or beauty salons as places of work after leaving school or could be disseminated in this way.
    Chapter 3
    3.1 Cultural Identity
    • This is subjective and may centre on your own religious beliefs, behaviours or traditions, among other factors.
    • Examples include: different beliefs than others, different attitudes, judgemental or discriminatory practices or inability to communicate in a different language.
    • Embrace diversity and difference, consider non-traditional ways of communicating or ensure adequate translation services are available.
    3.2 Barriers to Health
    • Location of services, language barriers, cultural differences, late presentation of signs/symptoms, accessibility of services, difficulties in translating materials, fear of the unknown and lack of experience accessing Western health services.
    • Examples include: provide additional information resources (e.g. leaflets or booklets), encourage talk between staff/patients and patient/patient, or allow time for questions in consultations and ensure the target group is aware of these issues. Images need to be culturally relevant and as a basic requirement information provision should be in a range of formats and languages.
    3.3 Challenging the Present
    • Aside from the last example (outcomes of care), all of these involve contact between the user of a service and the provider of a service – either a mental health-related service or other authority (e.g. police).
    • Projects could include: advocacy workers in these settings to encourage good communication, campaigns to reduce stigma of mental illness, promoting understanding of different cultural beliefs around mental illness and mental health in the wider community, providing support for those identified as at risk, either emotional or resource based.
    3.4 Disability Campaigns
    • Messages focus around rights and inclusion in health services. Methods include multi-media strategies not dissimilar to other campaigns.
    • The main aims focus around reducing hate crime through advocacy and awareness, and enabling access to screening services through increasing knowledge and awareness.
    • This depends on your personal opinion, but advocacy and awareness raising are helpful as a starting point but may not always translate into action especially when others are involved in the health care process who may know about these campaigns, e.g. health care workers.
    • Further advocacy, for example a focus on other areas such as health care workers might be helpful as a two-part strategy. Other forms of multiple media might be helpful, such as information technology.
    3.5 ‘Stop Smoking’ Materials for those over 70
    • A large font would be preferable on written material, and use of audio materials should be considered. Use of an appropriate planning, implementation and evaluation framework should be used alongside the appropriate theoretical model.
    • No. Materials in this setting should use a combination of media.
    3.6 ‘Healthy Heart’ Programme Design
    • Encourage health professionals to make a referral to the class, telephone individuals, provide refreshments, offer one-to-one sessions alongside the group classes.
    • Making friends, appearance related or getting out of the house.
    • Website, telephone or mobile technology-based support.
    3.7 National Service Framework Demonstrated Outcomes
    Example: Flu immunisation
    • A well-planned advertising campaign, letters from GP practices to all those at risk, provision of drop-in clinics (no appointments) to increase uptake.
    • Message design would focus on ‘keeping well’ in the winter, or keeping fit in the winter, the fact that it is easy to protect oneself, and free.
    3.8 Older People and Sexual Health
    • This could be an extension of other sexual health campaigns, or be included in older people focused websites such as Age UK. See Chapter 9 for the example of the middle age spread campaign. Health care professionals will need to consider that sexual health for older people is still a real issue and that STIs may still be prevalent in an older age group.
    • Freedom of communication and travel may promote sexual relationships, and changes to family structure, i.e. divorce and re-marriages in later life, may also promote STIs. The promotion of condoms for prevention of pregnancy in young people may mean that older people are missed out of sexual health focused campaigns in terms of STIs and condom use.
    Chapter 4
    4.1 Different Media Sources
    • 1 and 2 You could use a range of different media sources. Here are two examples. Leaflets or posters could use images and slogans to focus on promoting the taste of healthier food such as the sweetness of soft fruit. You could use television slots to promote how quickly and easily you could cook or prepare vegetables, e.g. a mini cooking programme.
    4.2 Mass Media and Tobacco
    • The advantages of using media include widespread publicity, agenda setting, reaches the whole population, counteracts the pro-smoking lobby, opportunistic, the message that tobacco is a major public health issue. There is limited evidence that mass media are effective using these examples, and are not suitable for all groups; it could give mixed messages, and will not appeal to and reach all groups.
    • One-to-one, skills-based group work, early-school-based education (primary), social marketing strategies may be effective and lobbying the pro-tobacco groups for change (see www.ash.org.uk for more information on lobbying).
    4.3 Suitability of Methods for Mass Media
    • Remember that the media cannot teach skills or change strong attitudes. There is a possibility that (a) and (b) could be achieved through mass media.
    • (a) Raising awareness could be achieved via mass media publicity materials. (b) As with (a), mass media could use publicity to advertise a new telephone service. (c) Mass media could provide awareness of a service, but cannot directly increase rates of those screened. (d) Mass media cannot provide skills. (e) Mass media cannot change strong attitudes, but may influence these. Alternative methods include skills-based work and interactive resources that allow active learning.
    4.4 A Sensible Drinking Campaign Message
    • Sensible drinking words or phrases might include: responsibility, stopping at too much, saying ‘no’. Words for those in the 18–25 age group can include: young adults, youth or students. Motivations to ‘drink sensibly’ can include: unwanted pregnancy, accidents, appearance, not being sick, embarrassment, morning after.
    • An example could be: ‘students’, ‘knowing your limit’, ‘unwanted pregnancy’.
    • A slogan based on the premise of sticking to a limit, and not experiencing unwanted pregnancy, or emergency contraception, could be ‘Remember the night before and forget the morning after’.
    4.5 Audience Segmentation
    • Groups can include secondary school children, those in a workplace, churchgoers, youth groups or young parents.
    • An example setting is a workplace. The group can be split into male/female, older and younger age ranges, those who manage their diabetes themselves, those who rely on others to manage their diabetes, those who partly manage their diabetes, and those who do not manage their diabetes. These could further be split into those who could manage or could best manage their diabetes through, diet, physical activity, weight control, insulin and so on.
    4.6 The Four Ps
    • Product: breastfeeding (the practice of this). Price: this can be actual costs positive and negative (i.e. breast milk is free) or perceived costs, embarrassment, perception that it is healthy, reliance on family members so formula feeding its seen as easier, and so on. Place: Location of breastfeeding with very small babies is generally the hospital followed by the home. After this it could then be in any community location, e.g. cafes, library, playgroups. Promotion: want to look at increasing breastfeeding rates so this will be the methods used to promote it – one-to-one support, breastfeeding cafes, breastfeeding-friendly initiatives, etc. Positioning: a message in the location where breastfeeding might take place, e.g. stickers on cafe doors or windows that appeal to the proposed target group.
    4.7 Media Advocacy
    • Tobacco companies, fast-food manufacturers, non-fair-trade companies or large manufacturers who have lax working or employment laws.
    • An example is tobacco: you can draw attention to the risks of smoking, use case studies to highlight the ‘people's’ angle, find statistical evidence, use local groups and coalitions or protest and lobby local MPs or local organisations.
    4.8 Fear Appeals
    • Risks include: loss of memory, inability to function normally, physical or sexual assault and black-outs.
    • Messages can include: keep your drink with you at all times, only accept drinks from people you know, or do not accept drinks you are unsure about or that taste unusual.
    Chapter 5
    5.1 How could IT be used to …?
    • Mobile phones, Internet quizzes, email or touchscreens.
    • Email, Internet, chat rooms, interactive software (e.g. CD-ROMs) or computer games.
    5.2 Interactive Websites
    • A variety of government, organisational and commercial websites.
    • Websites can contain interactive resources such as alcohol unit calculators, smoking calculators, BMI calculators, diaries, chat rooms, games, activities and quizzes as well as links to blogs, and social media such as Twitter and Facebook.
    5.3 SMS Messaging Services
    • Sexual health messages; some test results; simple information such as appointment reminders; short motivating messages (mental health or physical activity).
    • Complex information; behaviour change information; anything regarded as unwanted information.
    5.4 Designing a Website
    • Health and hygiene, employment and benefit advice, sources of advice, maintaining positive mental health or information around risky behaviours.
    • As target groups are mixed and it is difficult to identify one single type of user, information should be simple, straightforward and jargon-free, easy to read and navigate, and available in different languages.
    • Accessibility, stigma from the general public, comprehension of information, low literacy levels, poor computer skills.
    5.5 Tailoring Messages
    • Precontemplation: general information-giving, with advice number if help needed in the future. Contemplation: appealing to current motivations, for example, losing weight before a holiday or big event. Readiness: how to achieve goals, for example, which trainers to buy, which gym class to choose or which nights of the week for walking. Action: advice on keeping going with exercise, tips for low motivation and positive reinforcement of messages. Maintenance: positive reinforcement.
    5.6 Health Belief Model Barriers on a Website
    • These include cost, habit, taste, price, access, culture, not knowing how to cook, time or children not liking healthy foods.
    • Messages could centre on ‘easy’ cooking, low prices, sauces and dressings to add variety and taste, and child-friendly meals.
    5.7 The Seven-Step Checklist for a Website Design

    An example of website design for this group includes:

    • Interactive media sources such as those in question 5, fact pages, story pages in a magazine format and other ways of presenting information that will appeal to the group.
    • Someone who embodies positive body image and who is of female average size. A health professional may be helpful to answer readers’ emails.
    • Ones that embody feeling good about oneself.
    • Colourful, informative and encouraging ‘sharing’ of information.
    • Quizzes, a chat room or a ‘reader's email corner’.
    • Enable anonymous emails.
    • Anywhere where this age group might be found, including university, workplaces, women's groups or other organisations.
    Chapter 6
    6.1 Types of Settings for Different Target Groups
    Example Target Group: Primary School Children, 5–11 Years
    • Schools, after-school clubs, activity clubs, local community.
    • Mixed or competing messages, parental control, different aims of teachers or the school's governing bodies.
    6.2 Fitting Activities to Settings-Based Models
    • Organic.
    • Vehicle.
    • Active.
    • Comprehensive.
    • Passive.
    6.3 Locations of Settings
    • Examples include: Educational: schools, higher education, universities or pre-schools. Health care: primary care, hospitals, dentists, NHS walk-in centres, pharmacists. Social: supermarkets, pubs or workplaces, cinemas, shopping centres.
    • Those settings most widely used include: schools, hospitals, neighbourhoods, workplaces. These are likely to have a bigger reach than some of the smaller settings like barbers or beauty salons.
    6.4 Overcoming Disadvantages of Settings
    • Manpower could involve community or voluntary groups; resources could make use of the wider community and its facilities. Reaching excluded groups will entail choosing different settings, and to include environmental and social aspects, a holistic notion of health will need to be embodied in the whole programme.
    6.5 Designing Messages for a Religious Organisation
    • 1 and 2 Any religious group could be chosen. Resources can include leaflets or posters with spiritual messages, biblical quotes on materials to encourage healthy behaviours, a prize quiz about aspects of health, competitions, a new website, SMS text messages or other interactive resources.
    6.6 Designing a Healthy University Campaign

    You could focus on an issue like healthy food and organise events in the canteen or student union which could include fruit and vegetable taster sessions, information stalls and interactive activities such as cooking demonstrations. These could also be done in halls of residence. Use appropriate-age messages with a catchy theme, show ‘student-style’ foods, for example pasta or pulses, promote ways to eat more healthily on small budgets. Campaigns could roll through the academic calendar and be integrated into different subjects, for example catering could look at healthy eating menu options, art and design could consider promotion of foods, geography or sociology could look at food choices, transportation of foods and global food issues, and so on.

    6.7 Using Barbers or Beauty Salons
    Example: Barbers
    • Sexual health, CHD risk, diabetes, prostate cancer, testicular cancer and other areas of high risk.
    • Poor evidence base, so the target group will need to be in close consultation with the project. Access might be difficult and the setting will need to provide a range of opening hours. Limited resources or staff will mean that involving the wider community is essential.
    6.8 Settings and Convenience Stores
    • Tasting stands, promotional fruit or vegetable of the day, traffic light systems of fruit and vegetables, cooking ideas or demonstrations, promotional offers, e.g. 3 for 2.
    • Free take home menus or cooking equipment, collection of vouchers or money off schemes for future purchases, involvement of the main purchaser of food and those who influence the buyer, such as their children.
    Chapter 7
    7.1 Evidence-Based Practice Rationale
    • Evidence embodies the ideals of good practice, it ensures inclusivity and that no-one is excluded or discriminated against. It enables structured working, ensures cooperation, you can help predict any unplanned effects or additional resources and minimise risk of failures.
    7.2 What Evidence do you use?
    • Community-based work might use 2, 3 and 4. Clinical practice is most likely to use 1 and 2. Students in subjects such as research methods will probably examine the upper of these levels, health policy or local planning might use the lower levels.
    7.3 Planning with Evidence
    • You could undertake a small pilot study using the council solution (community police officers). You could set up a project that expands on existing projects, for example include ‘youths’ in this. You could also approach the ‘youths’ and see what they might want.
    • You should examine other projects in similar neighbourhoods that aim to reduce crime, for example New Deal for Community (NDC) projects or Healthy Cities projects.
    7.4 NICE Evidence Base
    • Their website contains a variety of policy documentation, best practice, evidence-based briefings and other guidelines for good practice. This includes public health guidance on behaviour change, sexual health, accidents, alcohol, tobacco and diabetes.
    7.5 Grey Literature
    • You could use health impact assessments (HIAs), needs assessments, community profiles, annual reports, minutes of meetings, informal and formal local project reports.
    • You may have been involved in compiling any of these, alongside your more formal work.
    7.6 Including Developing Countries
    • Problems can include: difficulties in representing those with little power; may not be able to reach all of those who should be represented; resource and financial implications; and poor or corrupt management.
    • Suggestions include: start small; try to maintain a base of local projects that can be accessed at national and international level; encourage project leaders to report findings and record these; hold conferences ‘on site’ rather than in high-class locations; and delegate time and space to listening to others.
    7.7 Applicability and Transferability
    • Applicability criteria indicate:
      • There are few potential barriers.
      • The group have expressed an interest so there may be only minor problems in acceptance.
      • Contents can be tailored to the new sample; ethnicity shows some similarities.
      • There are limited resources so involvement of the women's groups is essential.
      • There may be some non-engagement problems.
      • The organisation running the project is similar (health-promotion focused); barriers might include money or language.
      • There is a professional physical activity coordinator available, although with a slightly different previous focus.

      Transferability criteria indicate:

      • There will be a need to investigate prevalence; general statistics indicate approximately one in three women are at risk.
      • Some similarities, the women are close in age; there may be some psychological factors that are different, for example, perceived susceptibility and severity.
      • Capacity is less in the target setting, and some activities may have to be tailored or adapted – perhaps a shortened programme or different delivery structures.
    • To ensure more success you could involve women's groups in the planning and provision of the programme; consider a pilot study first, and materials may need to be translated.
    7.8 Evidence and Maternal and Child Health
    • You might focus on pregnant women, or women post-pregnancy with very small children. Guidance recommends a range of areas such as a focus on breastfeeding, vitamin supplements, liaison with key projects such as Sure Start and appropriate eating (not dieting) during pregnancy. From these data you could select a group like low income pregnant women and then consider how you could implement guidance, e.g. provision of free vitamin supplements, promotion of iron in diet on a low income.
    Chapter 8
    8.1 Who is Interested in Evaluation and why?
    • The funding organisation, e.g. the local authority, local GPs who have referred, patients, local housing association, community leaders, mental health teams, voluntary groups, programme participants.
    • Fiscal, particularly cost-effectiveness. Quality, assessment of need. Evidence, understanding limitations of the campaign. Policy, to inform future planning.
    8.2 Formative Evaluation
    • Interviews, with children, teachers, questionnaires, using a needs assessment matrix, school art projects, competitions, photographing favourite foods, keeping food diaries, testing print-based and online media, parent and sibling focus groups.
    • Compare outcomes with current evidence through a systematic literature search and analysis. Investigate environmental determinants and behavioural factors.
    8.3 Impact Evaluation
    • That drug users accessed the service. The numbers using the service increased. A reduction in needle sharing was reported. More drug users sought help through counselling.
    • Was this impact sustained over a period of time? Did the drug users express their satisfaction with the service? Was it provided at the right time in the right venue? Were the staff able to offer health advice and did this make a difference? For example, has there been a reduction in hepatitis C and HIV rates? Did the programme lead to better health outcomes?
    8.4 Well Man Clinics
    • Outcome evaluation would cover a wide range of findings in this example. The sample group could be compared with the whole male population or within the low socioeconomic group, for instance:
      • Morbidity and mortality of the sample group could be measured in disease such as diabetes, coronary heart disease or cancer.
      • The number of men seeking health screening six months later.
      • Mean blood pressure and weight could be compared with other groups.
      • The numbers stopping smoking over a period of one year or more.
      • The take-up of exercise in the target group over a designated period.
      • The increase in media articles on men's health issues in Scotland.
      • The reduction in STIs.
    8.5 Participatory Involvement
    • You would probably want evidence of transparency in the decision-making. You would want to trust that the public health advice is accurate and you would want access to relevant information. You may require skills and knowledge to help you cope with the future. You want good access to services. You may not want direct involvement but you will need reassurance that you are represented. The impacts and outcomes of any interventions will need to be shared widely and over a long period of time.
    • Interactive website where concerns can be posted. Attending focus groups, receiving regular public health bulletins. Education and training resources for capacity building to enable people to identify and develop their own needs.
    8.6 Ways to Evaluate Health Communication

    Accuracy: Were there factual information and key messages about the benefits of participation in sport?

    Availability: Was the information available in libraries, GP surgeries, leisure centres, workplaces, websites, local media?

    Balance: Were messages about the benefits of sport participation supported by health advice about checking with GP and the availability of appropriate protective equipment or clothing?

    Consistency: Did the messages stay the same, were they unambiguous?

    Cultural competence: Was consideration given to target groups, for example were they people who already exercised or not? Was gender and ethnicity taken into account?

    Evidence base: Were there claims for psychological and physical gains based on reliable studies? Had there been an assessment of need?

    Reach: Were there hard-to-reach groups accessed? Were there incentives such as free equipment, competitions, etc.?

    Reliability: Was there evidence of a robust planning process and consideration of effectiveness strategies?

    Repetition: Were the key messages user-friendly, easily remembered and reinforced across the media?

    Timeliness: Was the intervention delivered in a timely fashion?

    Understanding: Did the group understand the key messages? Did they understand the information given to them?

    8.7 Bullying among Young Teenagers
    • The findings would be shared with teachers, parents, board of governors and the pupils.

      • The teachers may receive written reports, a presentation and possibly a training package or manual.
      • Parents of all school children may receive letters, emails or a presentation.
      • Parents of the study group may have personal communication or small workshops as well as written information.
      • The board of governors would receive a formal evidence-based report and a presentation of findings.
      • The pupils may receive information online or through social media; they may have workshops and have a programme integrated into the curriculum.
    • Barriers to dissemination would include:
      • The teachers or board of governors may not accept the findings and not want to act on them.
      • Parents may not understand the information, there may be language difficulties; the information may not be pitched at the appropriate level for all parents.
      • The parents of the children who have been bullied or are bullies may be concerned about confidentiality and not want to participate in any activity.
      • The pupils may not be clear what the findings show, they may not understand what bullying constitutes and how it affects people.
      • The pupils may not view the findings as important.

    Glossary

    Agenda setting

    Refers to the way the media select events that the public sees and with this selection set the terms of reference for current interest and debate.

    Apps

    An abbreviation for ‘applications’ of Games and services that are often connected to the internet available on mobile phones and tablets.

    At-risk groups

    A group that is vulnerable or susceptible to ‘risk’ of different types of ill health or disease.

    Attitudes

    An evaluation that a person makes about an attitude ‘object’. The attitude ‘object’ could be themselves, other people, issues (i.e. in the media) or objects (i.e. alcohol).

    Beliefs

    The information that a person has about an object or action forms their beliefs.

    Bottom-up approach

    This proposes that communities or groups know what they want and are involved in all stages of planning and implementing interventions (see Top-down approach).

    Brief interventions

    A short health promotion session (i.e. 15 minutes) that is designed to prompt behaviour change or challenge attitudes to health-related behaviour.

    Bus wraps

    A large bill-board style message placed on the outside of a bus.

    Campaign

    A planned, designed and coordinated effort to promote a particular cause.

    Chat rooms

    An Internet-based portal where anyone can ‘chat’ to each other via a mechanism similar to email.

    Coalition

    An alliance for combined action between populations, parties or groups generally united for a single cause.

    Demographics

    The characteristics of the population (i.e. social class, age or education) that can be measured via population groups.

    Discrimination

    The placement of a person below that of another person who does not share the same characteristics (i.e. ethnic group or sex).

    E-health

    A generic term for all IT applications linked to health and incorporating applications linked to computers, health and medicine that are used to deliver or promote health.

    Empowerment

    A term usually used to describe a way of working that enables people to develop knowledge or skills to increase control and power over life circumstances.

    Equity

    In health, equity is concerned with the differences in health status that are unfair or unequal and the readdressing of these.

    Evaluation

    The process by which worth or value of something is decided involving measurement, observation and comparison with the programme/policy aim.

    Evidence-based practice

    The use of research evidence to guide practice.

    Gaming

    The use of technology (i.e. mobile phones or internet) for game playing purposes. In health promotion these can be games with educational messages or interactions that challenge current practices or enforce current behaviours.

    Health advocacy

    A combination of individual and social actions designed to gain political commitment, support or acceptance.

    Health belief model (HBM)

    A model of behavioural change that focuses on an individual weighing up the risks and benefits of behaviour.

    Health Development Agency (HDA)

    A UK-based specialist health authority that aimed to improve the health of people in England. It has now closed, and has been partly replaced by NICE (see NICE).

    Health education

    Providing information through constructed opportunities that improve knowledge or skills and increase healthy behaviours.

    Health promotion

    The process of enabling people to increase control over their health.

    Holism

    Embodying holistic notions of health (see Holistic).

    Holistic

    A term that includes the wider definition of health including physical, mental, social and spiritual health.

    Inequalities (in health)

    Differences in health status between populations or sections of the population.

    IT

    Information technology, generally includes all interactive media (i.e. CD-ROMs, the Internet, touch-screen kiosks or computers).

    Mass media

    Any type of printed or electronic communication medium that is sent to the population at large.

    Model

    A simplified version of a theoretical construct.

    Morbidity

    The amount of disease there is in a population (i.e. the number of people living with a disease).

    Mortality

    The number of people who have died in the population (i.e. the number of people who have died from certain diseases).

    National Service Framework(s)

    The UK government's long-term strategies for improving different areas of care (i.e. mental health).

    NICE

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, the UK's independent health-related organization responsible for providing national guidance on the promotion, prevention and treatment in health.

    Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion

    A World Health Organization policy statement that sets out a clear commitment to health promotion.

    Peer education

    An education method where a person or group with credibility (i.e. older children) work with others (i.e. younger children) to promote health or prevent ill health.

    Perceived behavioural control

    Theoretical model that postulates behaviour can change through a series of steps.

    Prevention

    The avoidance of hazards or risks through the creation of conditions to help avoidance or promote early detection of the hazard or risk.

    Prosodic

    The vocal intonation or rhythmatic aspects of language including pitch or stress placed on words.

    Process of behaviour change

    A step-based model based on the stages a person goes through when making a change in their behaviour.

    Public health

    A societal effort to prevent disease and prolonging life.

    Role play

    An education method where a person ‘acts’ a response to a situation (i.e. saying ‘no’ to cigarettes). The audience will then ‘model’ this same response in a real-life situation.

    Screening

    The procedure for the identification of a certain disease (i.e. breast cancer) to enable early detection and treatment of the disease.

    Self-efficacy

    An individual's judgement of their ability to achieve a certain goal (i.e. stopping smoking).

    Settings-based approach

    Any of a number of locations where people work, play and learn where health can be promoted.

    Social media

    a group of Internet-based applications that allows individuals to create, collaborate, and share content with one another.

    SMS messaging

    ‘Short messaging service’, the facility and sending of short messages via a mobile phone, more commonly called ‘text messaging’.

    Stereotyping

    The act of predicting how another person will act or behave in a certain situation based on preconceived notions of how people act (see Discrimination).

    Tablet

    In IT terms this is a wireless, mobile personal computer with a touchscreen.

    Tailoring information

    Adapted information for a specific group of people to fit their needs and preferences.

    Theory

    A set of ideas or arguments that help to understand behaviour in a more simplified way.

    Theory of planned behaviour (TPB)

    A theoretical model based on the stages a person goes through when changing a behaviour, including perceived behavioural control.

    Theory of reasoned action (TRA)

    A theoretical model based on the stages a person goes through when changing behaviour; this model is a recent revision of the theory of planned behaviour model.

    Top-down approach

    An approach which is dictated by those with power that does not directly include the target group or receivers of the intervention (see Bottom-up approach).

    Transtheoretical model or ‘stages of change’ model

    A stage-step model based on the stages people go through when making a change in their behaviour.

    UNICEF

    The United Nations Children's Fund, which has 37 committees worldwide working with, and for, the world's children.

    Values

    Acquired by the social world, they can influence attitudes and behaviour.

    Vignettes

    A short impressionistic scene usually with a focus on one version or behaviour at that moment in time.

    References

    AbrahamC, KraheB, DominicR, and FritscheI (2002) Do health promotion messages target cognitive and behavioural correlates of condom use? A content analysis of safer sex promotion leaflets in two countries. British Journal of Health Psychology 7(2): 227246.
    AbromsLC, and LefebvreRC (2009) Obama's wired campaign: Lessons for public health communication. Journal of Health Communication 14(5): 415423.
    AchterbergT, Huisman-De WaalGGJ, KetelaarNAB, OostendorpRA, JacobsJE, and WollersheimHCH (2010) How to promote healthy behaviors in patients? An overview of evidence for behavior change techniques. Health Promotion International 26(2): 148162.
    AghaS, and BeaudoinCE (2012) Assessing thematic condom advertising campaign on condom use in urban Pakistan. Journal of Health Communication 24 January [Epub ahead of publication].
    AirhihenbuwaCO, and ObregonR (2000) A critical assessment of theories/models used in health communication for HIV/AIDS. Journal of Health Communication 5(Suppl.): 515.
    AjzenI (1991) The theory of planned behaviour. Organisational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes 50: 179211; available at www.unix.oit.umass.edu/˜aizen/index.html, last accessed 16 November 2012.
    AjzenI, and FishbeinM (1980) Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behaviour. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
    AkhundS, and YousafzaiAK (2011) How successful are women's groups in health promotion and disease prevention? A synthesis of the literature and recommendations for developing counties. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 17(5): 446452.
    AlbrechtK, SimonD, BuchholzA, ReuterK, FroschD, SeebauerL, and HarterM (2011) How does a German audience appraise an American decision aid on early stage breast cancer? Patient Education and Counseling 83 (1): 5863.
    AlexanderGL, McClureJB, CalviJH, DivineGW, StopponiMA, RolnickSJ, HeimendingerJ, TolsmaDD, ResnicowK, CampbellMK, StrecherVJ, JohnsonCC and Menu Choices Team (2010) A randomised clinical trial evaluating online interventions to improve fruit and vegetable consumption. American Journal of Public Health 100(2): 319326.
    AloOA, and GbadeboB (2011) Intergenerational attitude changes regarding female genital cutting in Nigeria. Journal of Women's Health 20(11) 16551661.
    AndreouG, GourgoulinisK, and GalantomosI (2010) Letter to the editor. The language of the unsuccessful anti-smoking campaign in Greece: Examples from Greek newspaper headlines. Preventive Medicine 51(3-4): 336337.
    AndrewsJR, SilkKS, and EneliIU (2010) Parents as health promoters: A theory of planned behavior perspective on the prevention of childhood obesity. Journal of Health Communication 15(1): 95107.
    AngermeyerMC, HolzingerA, and MatschingerH (2009) Mental health literacy and attitude towards people with mental illness: A trend analysis based on population surveys in the Eastern part of Germany. European Psychiatry 24(4): 225232.
    AshbridgeM (2006) Public place restrictions on smoking in Canada: Assessing the role of the state, media, science and public health advocacy. Social Science and Medicine 58(1): 1324.
    AskelsonNM, CampoS, and CarterKD (2011) Completely isolated? Health information seeking among social isolates. Health Education and Behaviour 38(2): 116122.
    AtkinC (2001) Theory and principles of media health campaigns, pp. 4968 in Rice RE and Atkin CK (eds) Public Communication Campaigns,
    3rd edition.
    Sage, London.
    AtunRA, and SittampalamSR (2006) A review of the characteristics and benefits of SMS in delivering health care. The Vodafone Policy Paper Series 4(March): 1828.
    Australian Institute of Primary Care (2008) Measuring health promotion impacts: A guide to impact evaluation in integrated health promotion. Rural and Regional Health and Aged Care Service Division, Melbourne.
    AyersJW, HofstetterCR, IrvinVL, SongY, ParkHR, PaikHY, and HovellMF (2010) Can religion help prevent obesity? Religious messages and the prevalence of being overweight or obese among Korean women in California. Journal of Scientific Study and Religion 49(3): 536549.
    BakerA, and MacphersonB (2000) Tomorrow's minds. MIND, London; available at www.mind.org.uk, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    BarborT, CaetanoR, CasswellS, EdwardsG, GiesbrechtN, GrahamK, GiubeJ, GruenewaldP, MillL, HoldesM, HomelR, OsterbergE, RehmJ, RoanR, and RossowI (2003) Alcohol - no ordinary commodity. World Health Organization/Society for Addiction, WHO, London.
    BaricL (1993) The setting approach - implications for policy and strategy. Journal of the Institute of Health Education 31(1): 1724.
    Baron-EpelO (2010) Attitudes and beliefs associated with mammography in a multiethnic population in Israel. Health Education and Behaviour 37(2): 227242.
    BarrettoAI, BinghamCR, GohKN, and ShopeJT (2010) Developing a web-based health promotion intervention: A case study from a brief motivational alcohol program. Health Promotion Practice 12(2): 193201.
    BaryschMJ, CozzioA, KolmI, HrdlickaSR, BrandC, HungerR, KreydenO, SchaffnerR, ZauggT, and CrummerR (2010) Internet based health promotion campaign against skin cancer - results of www.skincheck.ch in Switzerland. European Journal of Dermatology 20(1): 109114.
    BatesC, MclntyreD, and WattT (2003) How to run a national tobacco campaign. ASH; available at www.ash.org.uk/files/documents/ASH_205.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    BeckerMH (1974) The health belief model and personal health behaviour. Health Education Monographs 2(4): 324473.
    BeinerL, ReimerRL, WakefieldM, SzczypkaG, RigottiNA, and ConnollyG (2006) Impact of smoking cessation and mass media among recent quitters. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(3): 217224.
    BenigeriM, and PluyeP (2003) Shortcomings of health information on the internet. Health Promotion International 18(4): 381386.
    BenjaminsMR, and BrownC (2004) Religion and preventive health care utilization among the elderly. Social Science and Medicine 58(1): 109111.
    BensbergM, and KennedyM (2002) A framework for health promoting emergency departments. Health Promotion International 17(2): 179188.
    BergerM, WagnerTH, and BakerLC (2005) Internet use and stigmatised illness. Social Science and Medicine 68(8): 18211827.
    BerndtNC, O'RiordanDL, WinklerE, McDermottL, SpathonisK, and OwenN (2011) Social cognitive correlates of young adult sport competitors’ sunscreen use. Health Education and Behaviour 38(1): 614.
    BessingerR, KatendeC, and GuptaN (2004) Multi-media campaign exposure effects on knowledge and use of condoms for STI and HIV/AIDS prevention in Uganda. Evaluation and Program Planning 27(4): 397407.
    BishA, and MichieS (2010) Demographic and attitudinal determinants of protective behaviours during a pandemic: A review. British Journal of Health Psychology 15(4): 797824.
    Black Barbershop Health Outreach Program (BBHOP) (2012) available at http://blackbarbershop.org/, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    BlaxterM (1990) Health and Lifestyles. Tavistock/Routledge, London.
    BlaxterM (1997) Whose fault is it? People's own conceptions of the reasons for health inequalities. Social Science and Medicine 44(6): 747756.
    BleakleyA, HennessyM, and JordanA (2011) Using the Integrative Model to explain how exposure to sexual media content influences adolescent sexual behaviour. Health Education and Behaviour 38(5): 530540.
    BledsoeL (2005) Smoking cessation: An application of theory of planned behaviour to understanding progress through stages of change. Addictive Behaviours 30(7): 13351341.
    BoppM, and WebbB (2012) Health promotion in megachurches: An untapped resource with megareach? Health Promotion Practice 4 April [Epub ahead of publication].
    BradburyH (2009) Medical Sociology: An introduction. Sage, London.
    BrennanE, DurkinSJ, CotterT, HarperT, and WakefieldMA (2011) Mass media campaigns designed to support new pictorial health warnings on cigarette packets: Evidence of a complementary relationship. Tobacco Control 7 April [Epub ahead of publication].
    BriceA, BurlsA, and HillA (2011) Finding and appraising evidence, pp. 184193 in PencheonD, GuestC, MelzerD, and GrayJAM (eds) Oxford Handbook of Public Health Practice,
    2nd edition.
    Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    BrinnMP, CarsonKV, EstermanAJ, ChangAB, and SmithBJ (2010) Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people. Cochrane Database Systematic Review 10(11): CD001006.
    British Heart Foundation (BHF) (2012) Hands only CPR; available at www.bhf.org.uk, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    BrophyS, SnooksH, and GriffithsL (2008) What is an Evaluation in Small Scale Evaluation in Health: A practical guide. Sage, London.
    BrownA, and LeeM (2011) An exploration of the attitudes and experience of mothers in the United Kingdom who chose to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months postpartum. Breastfeeding Medicine 6 August: 197204.
    BrowneJ (2010) Securing a sustainable future for higher education: An independent review of higher education funding and student finance; available at www.bis.gov.uk/assets/biscore/corporate/docs/s/10-1208-securing-sustainable-higher-education-browne-report.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    BrugJ, ConnerM, HarréN, KremersS, McKellerS, and WhitelawS (2005) The transtheoretical model of change: A critique. Health Education Research 20(2): 244258.
    BrugaR, BalfeM, JeffaresI, ConroyRN, ClarkeE, FitzgeraldM, O'DonnellE, VaughanD, ColemanC, McGeeH, GillespieP, and O'DonovanD (2011) Where do young adults want opportunistic chlamydia screening services to be located? Journal of Public Health 33 (4): 571578.
    BrysonJM, Quinn PattonM, and BowmanRA (2011) Working with evaluation stakeholders: A rationale, step-wise approach and toolkit. Evaluation and Programme Planning 34: 112.
    BuchthalOV, DoffAL, HsuLA, SilbanuzA, HeinrichKM, and MaddockJE (2011) Avoiding a knowledge gap in a multiethnic statewide social marketing campaign: Is cultural tailoring sufficient? Journal of Health Communication 16 (3): 314327.
    BullerDB, WoodhallWG, HallJR, BorlandR, AxB, BrownM, and HinesJM (2001) A web-based smoking cessation and prevention program for children aged 12-15, pp. 357372 in Rice RE and Aktin CK (eds) Public Communication Campaigns,
    3rd edition.
    Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
    BurkeRC, WilsonJ, KowalskiA, MurrillC, CutlerC, SweeneyM, and BegierEM (2011) NYC condoms use and satisfaction and demand for alternative condom products in New York City sexually transmitted disease clinics. Journal of Urban Health 88(4): 749758.
    BurnsME, See TaiS, LaiR, and NazarethI (2006) Interactive health communication applications for people with chronic disease (review). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 19(4): CD004274.
    ByrdTL, PetersonSK, ChavezR, and HeckertA (2004) Cervical screening beliefs among young Hispanic women. Preventive Medicine 38(2): 192197.
    CallaghanP, KhalilE, and MorresI (2010) A prospective evaluation of the Transtheoretical Model of Change applied to exercise in young people. International Journal of Nursing Studies 47(1): 312.
    CampbellMK, HudsonMA, ResnicowK, BlakeneyN, PaxtonA, and BaskinM (2009) Church-based health promotion interventions: Evidence and lessons learned; available at http://nysdiabetes.forumone.com/userfiles/Church-Based-Health-Promotion-Interventions_Evidence-and-Lessons-Learned.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    CampbellMK, JamesA, HudsonMA, CarrC, JacksonE, OatesV, DemissieS, FarrellD, and TessaroI (2004) Improving multiple behaviours for colorectal cancer prevention among African American church members. Health Psychology 23(5): 492502.
    Cancer Research UK (2009) Policy statement: Sunbeds; available at http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/prod_consump/groups/cr_common/@nre/@sta/documents/generalcontent/014390.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    CaprioS, DanielsSR, DrewnowskiA, KaufmanFR, PalinkasLA, RosenbloomAL, SchwimmerJB (2008) Influence of race, ethnicity and culture on childhood obesity: Implications for prevention and treatment. Diabetes Care 31(11): 22112220.
    CardJJ, SolomonJ, and CunninghamSD (2011) How to adapt effective programs for use in new contexts. Health Promotion Practice 12(1): 2535.
    CashenMS, DykesP, and GerberB (2004) E-health technology and Internet resources: Barriers for vulnerable population. Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing 19(3): 209214.
    CassellMM, JacksonC, and CheuvrontB (1998) Health communication on the Internet: An effective channel for behaviour change? Journal of Health Communication 3 (1): 7179.
    CatesJR, ShaferA, DiehlSJ, and DealAM (2011) Evaluating a county-sponsored social marketing campaign to increase mothers’ initiative of HPV vaccine for their pre-teen daughters in a primarily rural area. Social Marketing Quarterly 17(1): 426.
    CavillN, BuxtonK, BullF, and FosterC (2006) Promotion of physical activity among adults, evidence into practice briefing. NICE, London; available at www.nice.org.uk/niceMedia/pdf/physical_activity_eip_v3.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (CDC) (2009) Evaluation briefs: Developing process evaluation questions. No. 4; available at www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/evaluation/pdf/brief4.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (CDC) (2012) Right to Know; available at www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/disabilityandhealth/righttoknow/, last accessed 16 November 2012.
    Center for Communication Programs (CCP) (2003) A field guide to designing a health communication strategy. Johns Hopkins University; available at www.jhuccp.org, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    CharA, SaavalaM, and KulmalaT (2011) Assessing young unmarried men's access to reproductive health information and services in rural India. BMC Public Health 17(11): 476.
    Charities Evaluation Service (2012) available at www.ces-vol.org.uk, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    ChiaoC, MishraV, and KsobiechK (2011) Spousal communication about HIV prevention in Kenya. Journal of Health Communication 16(10): 10881105.
    ChoH, and ChoiJ (2010) Predictors and the role of attitude toward the message and perceived message quality in gain- and loss-frame antidrug persuasion of adolescents. Health Communication 25(4): 303311.
    ChivuCM, and ReidpathDD (2010) Social deprivation and exposure to health promotion: A study of the distribution of health promotion resources to schools in England. BMC Public Health 10: 473.
    ChristensenCL, BowenDJ, HartA, KuniyukiA, SaleebaAE, and Kramish CampbellM (2005) Recruitment of religious organizations into a community-based health promotion programme. Health and Social Care in the Community 13(4): 313322.
    ClaymanML, ManganelloJA, ViswanathK, HesseBW, and AroraNK (2010) Providing health messages to Hispanics/Latinos: Understanding the importance of language, trust in health information sources, and media use. Journal of Health Communication 15(Suppl. 3): 252263.
    ClineRJW, and HaynesKM (2001) Consumer health information seeking on the Internet: The state of the art. Health Education Research 16(6): 671692.
    CoombesY (2010) Feeding back evaluation results to stakeholder participants, in ThorogoodM, and CoombesY (eds) (2010) Evaluating Health Promotion: Practice and methods,
    3rd edition.
    Oxford University Press, Oxford, p. 187196.
    CorcoranN (2011) Working on Health Communication. Sage, London.
    Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly Health Authority (1999) Bones in Mind osteoporosis project. Cornwall and IOS HP Department, Cornwall.
    CottrellL, HarrisCV, DeskinsS, BradlynA, and CoffmanJW (2010) Developing culturally tailored health belief-based intervention materials to improve child and parent participation in a cardiovascular screening program. Health Promotion Practice 11(3): 418427.
    CreelAH, RimalRN, MkandawireG, BoseK, and BrownJW (2011) Effects of a mass media intervention on HIV related stigma: ‘Radio Diaries’ program in Malawi. Health Education Research 26(3): 456465.
    CugelmanB, ThelwallM, and DawesP (2011) Online interventions for social marketing health behavior change campaigns: A meta analysis of psychological architectures and adherence factors. Journal of Medical Internet Research 13(1): e17.
    CumminsS, and MacintyreS (2002) ‘Food deserts’ - evidence and assumptions in health policy making. British Medical Journal 325: 436438.
    Da CostaTM, SalomaoPL, MarthaAS, PisaIT, and SigulemD (2010) The impact of short message service text messages sent as appointment reminders to patients call phones at outpatients clinics in Sao Paulo, Brazil. International Journal Medical Information 79(1): 6570.
    DaleR, and HanburyA (2010) A simple methodology for piloting and evaluating mass media interventions: An exploratory study. Psychology, Health and Medicine 15(2): 231242.
    DarkerCD, FrenchDP, EvesFF, and SniehottaFF (2010) An intervention to promote walking amongst the general population based on an extended theory of planned behaviour: A waiting list randomised controlled trial. Psychology and Health 25(1): 7188.
    De LeeuwE (2011) Do healthy cities work? A logic of method for assessing impact and outcome of healthy cities. Journal of Urban Health 89(2): 115.
    Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2004) Healthy Living Blueprint for Schools. The Stationery Office, London.
    Department for Transport (DfT) (2012a) Interactive driving challenge; available at http://think.direct.gov.uk/, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    Department for Transport (DfT) (2012b) Tales of the Road; available at www.talesoftheroad.direct.gov.uk, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    Department for Transport (DfT) (2012c) Think Bike. Think Biker; available at www.think.direct.gov.uk/motorcycles.html, last accessed 16 November 2012.
    Department of Health (DH) (1992) The Health of the Nation. HMSO, London.
    Department of Health (DH) (2001) National Service Framework for Older People. The Stationery Office, London.
    Department of Health (DH) (2004) Choosing Health: Making healthy choices easier. The Stationery Office, London.
    Department of Health (DH) (2008) COI Research Management Summary on Behalf of the Department of Health Chlamydia Screening and Sexual Health Marketing - Research with Young People conducted by Define available at www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_114607.pdf, last accessed 20 August 2012.
    Department of Health (DH) (2009a) Change4Life; available at www.nhs.uk/Change4Life/, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    Department of Health (DH) (2009b) Sex Worth Talking About campaign toolkit; available at www.nhs.uk/sexualhealthprofessional/Documents/SWTA_campaign_toolkit_final.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    Department of Health (DH) (2010a) Healthy lives, healthy people: Our strategy for public health in England; available at www.dh.gov.uk, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    Department of Health (DH) (2010b) Change4Life convenience stores evaluation report: Promoting the purchase of fresh fruit and vegetables in deprived areas; available at www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/@ps/documents/digitalasset/dh_120801.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    Department of Health (DH) (2012) Bowel Cancer Campaign Second Phase Launched; available at http://campaigns.dh.gov.uk/2012/08/27/be-clear-on-cancer-leaflet
    De WitJBF, VefR, SchuttenM, and Van SteenbergenJ (2005) Social-cognitive determinants of vaccination behaviour against hepatitis B: An assessment among men who have sex with men. Preventive Medicine 40(6): 795802.
    DiedrichsPC, LeeC, and KellyM (2011) Seeing the beauty in everyday people: A qualitative study of young Australians’ opinions on body image, the mass media and models. Body Image 8(3): 259266.
    Di NoiaJ, and ProchaskaJO (2010) Mediating variables in a transtheoretical model dietary intervention program. Health Education and Behaviour 37(5): 753762.
    Di NoiaJ, ContentoIR, and ProchaskaJO (2008) Computer mediated intervention tailored on transtheoretical model stages and processes of change increases fruit and vegetable consumption among urban African-American adolescents. American Journal of Health Promotion 22(5): 336341.
    DoorisM (2001) Health promoting universities: Policy and practice: a UK perspective. CCPH 2001 conference papers; available at www.depts.washington.edu/ccph/pdf_files/p-dooris.pdf.
    DoorisM (2005) Healthy settings: Challenges to generating evidence of effectiveness. Health Promotion International 21(1): 5565.
    DoorisM, and DohertyS (2009) National Research and Development Project on Healthy Universities; available at www.hsaparchive.org.uk/rp/publications/projectreports/2009mdooris.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    DoorisM, and ThompsonJ (2001) Health-promoting universities: An overview, pp. 156168 in Scriven A and Orme J (2001) Health Promotion Professional Perspectives. Palgrave, Basingstoke.
    DownieRS, FyfeC, and TannahillA (1992) Health Promotion: Models and Values. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    Downing-MatibagTM, and GeisingerR (2009) Hooking up and sexual risk taking among college students: A health belief model perspective. Qualitative Health Research 19(9): 11961209.
    DrummondMF, SculpherMJ, TorranceGW, O'BrienBJ, and StoddartGL (2005) Methods for Economic Evaluation of Health Care Programmes,
    3rd edition.
    Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    DuanN, FoxS, PitkinK, DeroseK, CarsonS, and StockdaleS (2005) Identifying churches for community-based mammography promotion: Lessons from the LAMP study. Health Education and Behaviour 32(4): 536548.
    DuffyM, WimbushE, ReeceJ, and EadieD (2002) Net profits? Web site development and health improvement. Health Education 103(5): 278285.
    DunneC, and SomersetM (2004) Health promotion in university: What do students want? Health Education 104 (6): 360367.
    DunnKL, MohrP, WilsonCJ, and WittertGA (2011) Determinants of fast-food consumption: An application of the theory of planned behavior. Appetite 57(2): 349357.
    ECDC (2011) Evidence-based methodologies for public health. ECDC, Stockholm; available at www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/Publications/1109_TER_evidence_based_methods_for_public_health.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    ElderJP (2001) Behaviour Change and Public Health in the Developing World. Sage, London.
    ElliottMA, and ArmitageCJ (2009) Promoting drivers’ compliance with speed limits: Testing an intervention based on the theory of planned behaviour. British Journal of Psychology 100(1): 111132.
    EllisA, and BeattieG (1986) The Psychology of Language and Communication. Laurence Erlbaum, London.
    EvensonKR, and BradleyCB (2010) Beliefs about exercise and physical activity among pregnant women. Patient Education and Counseling 79(1): 124129.
    EysenbachG (2001) What is e-health? Journal of Medical Internet Research 3 (2); available at www.jmir.org/2001/2/e20/, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    FarrellyMC, NiederdeppeJ, and YarsevichJ (2003) Youth tobacco prevention mass media campaigns: Past, present, and future directions. Tobacco Control 12(Suppl. 1): i35i47.
    FernandoS (2003) Cultural Diversity, Mental Health and Psychiatry. Routledge, London.
    FerranteJM, ShawEK, and ScottJG (2011) Factors influencing men's decisions regarding prostate cancer screening: A qualitative study. Journal of Community Health 36(5): 839844.
    FertmanCI, and AllensworthDD (eds) (2010) Health Promotion Programmes: From theory to practice. Jossey Bass, San Francisco.
    FishbeinM, and CapellaJN (2006) The role of theory in developing effective health communications. Journal of Communication 56(S1): S1S17.
    ForsM, and MorenoA (2002) The benefits and obstacles of implementing ICTs strategies for development from a bottom-up approach. Aslib Proceedings 54(3): 198206; available at www.emeraldinsight.com, last accessed 16 November 2012.
    FreudenbergN (2005) Public health advocacy to change corporate practices: Implications for health education practice and research. Health Education and Behaviour 32(3): 298319.
    FreudenburgN, BradleySP, and SerranoM (2009) Public health campaigns to change industry practices that damage health: An analysis of 12 case studies. Health Education and Behaviour 36(2): 230249.
    GagnonM, JacobJD, and HolmesD (2010) Governing through (in)security: A critical analysis of a fear-based public health campaign. Critical Public Health 20(2): 245256.
    GainerE, SolletC, UlmannM, LevyD, and UlmannA (2003) Surfing on the morning after: Analysis of an emergency contraception website. Contraception 67(3): 195199.
    GalarceEM, RamanadhanS, WeeksS, SchneiderEC, GraySW, and ViswanathK (2011) Class, race, ethnicity and information needs in post-treatment cancer patients. Patient Education and Counseling 85(3): 432439.
    GibsonDR, ZhangG, PappasL, MitchellJ, and KegelesSM (2010) Effectiveness of HIV prevention social marketing with injecting drug users. American Journal of Public Health 100(10): 18281831.
    GlanzK, and YarochAL (2004) Strategies for increasing fruit and vegetable intake in grocery stores and communities: Policy, pricing and environmental change. Preventive Medicine 39(Suppl. 1): S75S80.
    Global Monitoring Media Project (GMMP) (2010) Who makes the news? available at www.awcfs.org/dmdocuments/reports/gmmp_global_report_en.pdf.
    GorskyM, Krajewski-siudaK, DutaW, and BerridgeV (2010) Anti-alcohol posters in Poland 1945-1989: Diverse meanings, uncertain effects. American Journal of Public Health 100 (11): 20592069.
    GouldD (2004) Writing a media analysis; available at www.mediaevaluationproject.org/workingpaper2, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    GraffM, DaviesJ, and McNortonM (2004) Cognitive style and cross-cultural differences in Internet use and computer attitudes. European Journal of Open, Distance and E-Learning (II); available at www.eurodl.org.
    GreenEC, and WitteK (2006) Can fear arousal in public health campaigns contribute to the decline of HIV prevalence? Journal of Health Communication 11 (3): 245259.
    GreenJ, and TonesK (2011) Health Promotion Planning and Strategies,
    2nd edition.
    Sage, London.
    GrierS, and BryantCA (2005) Social marketing in public health. Annual Review Public Health 26(1): 319339.
    GriffithC, JohnsonAM, FentonKA, ErensB, HartGJ, WellingsK, and MercerCH (2011) Attitudes and first heterosexual experiences among Indians and Pakistanis in Britain: Evidence from a national probability survey. International Journal of Sexually Transmitted Disease and AIDS 22(3): 131139.
    GrilliR, RamseyC, and MinozziS (2006) Mass media interventions: Effects in health services utilization. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 1: CD000389.
    GuidaGF (2010) Mass media and communication. Council for Cardiology Practice news editorial; available at www.escardio.org, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    HaleJL, and DillardJP (1995) Fear appeals in health promotion campaigns: Too much, too little, or just right? pp. 6580 in MaibachE, and ParrottRL (eds) Designing Health Messages. Sage, London.
    HallIJ, Johnson-TurbesA, and WilliamsKN (2010) The potential of black radio to dissemination health messages and reduce disparities. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC); available at www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2010/jul/09_0194/htm, last accessed 16 November 2012.
    HallJ, and VisserA (2000) Health communication in the century of the patient (Editorial). Patient Education and Counseling 41(1): 115116.
    HamelLM, RobbinsLB, and WilburJ (2010) Computer and web-based interventions to increase preadolescent and adolescent physical activity: A systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 67(2): 251268.
    HanksAS, JustDR, SmithLE, and WansinkB (2012) Healthy convenience: Nudging students toward healthier choices in the lunchroom. Journal of Public Health 31 January [Epub ahead of publication].
    HarrabinR, CooteA, and AllenJ (2003) Health in the News. Kings Fund Publications, London; available at www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications.
    HarrisJR, CheadleA, HannonPA, ForehandM, LichielloP, MahoneyE, SnyderS, and YarrowJA (2012) Framework for disseminating evidence-based health promotion practices. Prevention of Chronic Diseases 9; available at www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2012/11_0081.htm, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    HarrisonT (2003) Evidence-based multidisciplinary public health, pp. 228245 in OrmeJ, PowellJ, TaylorP, HarrisonT, and GreyM (eds) Public Health for the 21st Century. Open University Press, Buckingham.
    HaugS, MeyerC, UlbrichtS, SchorrG, RügeJ, RumpfHJ, and JohnU (2010) Predictors and moderators of outcome in different brief interventions for smoking cessation in general medical practice. Patient Education and Counselling 78(1): 5764.
    Health Development Agency (HDA) (2004) The effectiveness of public health campaigns. HDA Briefing 7; available at www.nice.org.uk/niceMedia/documents/CHB7-campaigns-14-7.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    Health Development Agency (HDA) (2005) HDA Evidence Base, Process and Quality Standards Manual for Evidence Briefings,
    3rd edition.
    Health Development Agency, London.
    Healthy Universities (2011) Communicating health as part of a whole system healthy universities approach; available at www.healthyuniversities.ac.uk/toolkit/uploads/files/communicating_health_messages_guidance_package.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    HenleyN, and DonovanRJ (2003) Young people's responses to death threat appeals: Do they really feel immortal? Health Education Research 18 (1): 114.
    HesseBW, JohnsonLE, and DavisKL (2010) Editorial: Extending the reach, effectiveness, and efficiency of communication: Evidence from the centers of excellence in cancer communication research. Patient Education and Counseling 81(Suppl.): S1S5.
    HillEK, AlpiKM, and AuerbachM (2010) Evidence-based practice in health education and promotion: A review and introduction to resources. Health Promotion Practice 11(3): 358366.
    HillL (2004) Alcohol promotion via mass media: The evidence on (in)effectiveness. Eurocare ‘Bridging the Gap’ conference report, Warsaw; available at www.eurocare.org.
    HillsM, and McQueenDV (2007) At issue: Two decades of the Ottawa Charter. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education Special edition 2; available at www.iuhpe.org/upload/File/PE_Ottawa_07a.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    HoekJ, WilsonN, AllenM, EdwardsR, ThomsonG, and LiJ (2010) Lessons from New Zealand's introduction of pictorial health warnings on tobacco packaging. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 88: 861866.
    HoganDR, BaltussenR, HayashiC, LauerJA, and SalomonJA (2005) Cost effectiveness analysis of strategies to combat HIV/AIDs in developing countries. British Medical Journal 331(17): 14311435.
    HolmbergC, HarttigU, SchulzeMB, and BoeingH (2011) The potential of the Internet for health communication: The use of an interactive on-line tool for diabetes risk predictions. Patient Education and Counseling 83(1): 106112.
    HolmesD (2010) Campaigns: Celebrities and cancer campaigns: Time for a re-think? The Lancet 11 (4): 320.
    Hopman-RockM, BourghoutsJAJ, and LeursMTW (2004) Determinants of participation in a health education and exercise program on television. Preventive Medicine 41(3): 232239.
    HorvathKJ, HarwoodEM, Courtenay-QuirkC, McFarlaneM, FisherH, DickensonT, KachurR, and RosserBRS (2010) Online resources for persons recently diagnosed with HIV/AIDs: An analysis of HIV-related webpages. Journal of Health Communication 15(5): 516531.
    House of Commons (2012) Population ageing. Statistics available at www.parliament.uk/briefing-papers/SN03228.pdf, last accessed 20 August 2012.
    House of Commons Health Committee (2009) Health Inequalities 2008-9 Third Report, Vol. 1. The Stationery Office, London.
    HughnerR, and KleineS (2004) Views of health in the lay sector: A compilation and review of how individuals think about health. Health 8(4): 395422.
    HuhmanME, PotterLD, NolinMJ, PiesseA, JudkinsDR, BanspachSW, and WongFL (2010) The influence of the VERB campaign on children's physical activity in 2002 to 2006. American Journal of Public Health 100(4): 635683.
    HumphrysJ (2012) Billboard behaviours as part of BBC Radio 4's Today Programme; available at www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-17668616, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    HutchisonAJ, BreckonJD, and JohnstonLH (2009) Physical activity behaviour change interventions based on the transtheoretical model: A systematic review. Health Education and Behaviour 36(5): 829845.
    HuttnerB, GoossensH, VerhejiT, and HarbarthS (2010) Characteristics and outcomes of public campaigns aimed at improving the use of antibiotics in outpatients in high income countries. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 10(1): 1731.
    Improvement and Development Agency (2011) Get a new hair cut and a new mental attitude; available at www.idea.gov.uk/idk/core/page.do?pageId=25067289, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    JackL (2010) Health promotion practice and the next 5 years: Thoughts from the newly appointed editor-in-chief. Health Promotion Practice 11(1): 56.
    JacksonC, LawtonR, KnappP, RaynorDK, ConnorM, LoweC, and ClossSJ (2005) Beyond intention: Do specific plans increase health behaviours in patients in primary care? A study of fruit and vegetable consumption. Social Science and Medicine 60(10): 23832391.
    JacobsEA, KaravolosK, RathouzPJ, FerrisTG, and PowellLH (2005) Limited English proficiency and breast and cervical screening in a multiethnic population. American Journal of Public Health 95(8): 14101416.
    JamiesonA (2002) Theory and practice in social gerontology, pp. 720 in JamiesonA, and VictorC (eds) Researching Ageing and Later Life. Open University Press, Buckingham.
    JanzNK, and BeckerMH (1984) The health belief model a decade later. Health Education Quarterly 11(1): 147.
    JohnsonJ (2011) 10 apps for counting calories; available at http://iphone.appstorm.net/roundups/lifestyle-roundups/10-iphone-apps-for-counting-calories/, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    JonesRK, and BiddlecomAE (2011) Is the internet filling the sexual health information gap for teens? An exploratory study. Journal of Health Communication 16(2): 112123.
    JonesS, and DonovanRJ (2004) Does theory inform practice in health promotion in Australia? Health Education Research 19 (1): 114.
    KakaiH, MaskarinecG, ShumayDM, TatsumuraY, and TasakiK (2003) Ethnic difference in choices of health information by cancer patients using complementary and alternative medicine: An exploratory study with correspondence analysis. Social Science and Medicine 56(2): 851862.
    KamiyaK (2012) Health management and future activities of Fukushima Prefecture. Seminar on Fukushima Reconstruction, Japan; available at www.iae.or.jp/jyosen/pdf/Fukushima(Feb_4th)/16_KAMIYA(Japan)/Prof_Kamiya(Japan)_English.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    KatzJ, and LazarsfeldE (1955) Personal Influence. Free Press, New York.
    KatzJ, PerbedyA, and DouglasJ (eds) (2000) Promoting Health: Knowledge and practice. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
    KempGA, EagleL, and VerneJ (2011) Mass media barriers to social marketing interventions: The example of sun protection in the UK. Health Promotion International 26(1): 3745.
    KharbandaEO, StockwellMS, FoxHW, AndresR, LaraM, and RickertVI (2011) Text message reminders to promote human papillomavirus vaccination. Vaccine 29(14): 25372541.
    KhowajaLA, KhuwajaAK, NayaniP, JessaniS, KhowajaMP, and KhowajaS (2010) Quit smoking for life - social marketing strategy for young: A case for Pakistan. Journal of Cancer Education 25(4): 637642.
    KingR, EsteyJ, AllenS, KegelesS, WolfW, ValentineC, and SefufiliraA (1995) A family planning intervention to reduce vertical transmission of HIV in Rwanda. AIDS 9(Suppl. 1): 4551.
    KirigiaJM, SeddohA, GatwiriD, MuthuriLHK, and SeddohJ (2005) E-health: Determinants, opportunities, challenges and the way forward for countries in the WHO Africa region. BMC Public Health 5(137); available at www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/5/137, last accessed 20 April 2012
    KirkA, MacMillanF, and WebsterN (2010) Application of the Transtheoretical Model to physical activity in older adults with Type 2 diabetes and/or cardiovascular disease. Psychology of Sport and Exercise 11(4): 320324.
    KnaiC, PomerleauJ, LockK, and McKeeM (2006) Getting children to eat more fruit and vegetables: A systematic review. Preventive Medicine 42(2): 8595.
    KnerrW (2011) Does condom social marketing improve health outcomes and increase usage and equitable access? Reproductive Health Matters 19 (37): 166173.
    KobetzE, VatalaroK, MooreA, and EarpJA (2005) Taking the transtheoretical model into the field: A curriculum for lay health advisors. Health Promotion Practice 6(3): 329337.
    Koch-WeserS, BradshawYS, GualtieriL, and GallagherSS (2010) The internet as a health information source: Findings from the 2007 health information national trends survey and implications for health communication. Journal of Health Communication 15(Suppl. 3): 279293.
    KoehlyLM, PetersJA, KenenR, HoskinsLM, ErsigAL, KhunNR, LoudJT, and GreeneMH (2009) Characteristics of health information gatherers, disseminators and blockers with families at risk of hereditary cancer: Implications for family health communication interventions. American Journal of Public Health 99(12): 22032209.
    KorpP (2006) Health on the Internet: Implications for health promotion. Health Education Research 21(1): 7886.
    KotheEJ, MillanBA, and AmaratungaR (2011) Randomised controlled trial of a brief theory-based intervention promoting breakfast consumption. Appetite 56(1): 148155.
    KotlerJA, SchiffmanJM, and HansonKG (2012) The influence of media characters on children's food choices. Journal of Health Communication 4 April [Epub ahead of publication].
    KrepsGL (2003) The impact of communication on cancer risk, incidence, morbidity, mortality and quality of life. Health Communication 15(2): 161169.
    KrepsGL (2012) Translating health communication research into practice: The importance of implementing and sustaining evidence-based health communication interventions. Atlantic Communication Journal 20(1): 515.
    KrepsGL, and MaibachEW (2008) Transdisciplinary science: The nexus between communication and public health. Journal of Communication 58(4): 732748.
    KrepsGL, and NeuhauserL (2010) New directions in eHealth communication: Opportunities and challenges. Patient Education and Counseling 78(2010): 329336.
    KrepsGL, and SparksL (2008) Meeting the health literacy needs of immigrant populations. Patient Education and Counseling 71(3): 328332.
    KreuterMW, LukwagoSN, BucholtzDC, ClarkeEM, and Sanders-ThompsonV (2003) Achieving cultural appropriateness in health promotion programs: Targeted and tailored approaches. Health Education and Behaviour 30(2): 133146.
    KulukulualaniM, BraunKL, TsarkJU (2008) Using a participatory four step protocol to develop culturally targeted cancer education brochures. Health Promotion Practice 9(4): 34455.
    LajunenT, and RäsänenM (2004) Can social psychological models be used to promote bicycle helmet use among teenagers? A comparison of the health belief model, theory of planned behaviour and the locus of control. Journal of Safety Research 35(1): 115123.
    LancasterR, and WardR (2002) Management of work-related road safety. Report for HSE/Scottish Executive. The Stationery Office, Norwich; available at www.hse.gov.uk
    LangilleJD, BerryTR, ReadeIL, WitcherC, LoitzCC, and RodgersWM (2011) Strength of messaging in changing attitudes in a workplace wellness program. Health Promotion Practice 12(2): 303311.
    LatimerAE, Krishnan-SarinS, CavalloDA, DuhigA, SaloveyP, and O'MalleySA (2012) Targeted smoking cessation messages for adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health 50(1): 4753.
    LavinD, and GroarkeA (2005) Dental-floss behaviour: A test of the predictive utility of the theory of planned behaviour and the effects of making implementation interventions. Psychology, Health and Medicine 10(3): 243252.
    LeakeAR, BermudoVC, JacobJ, JacobMR, and InouyeJ (2011) Health is wealth: Methods to improve attendance in a lifestyle intervention for a largely immigrant Filipino-American sample. Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health 7 June [Epub ahead of publication].
    LeeJT, TsaiJL, TsouTS, andChenMC (2011) Effectiveness of a theory-based postpartum sexual health education program on women's contraceptive use: a randomized controlled trial. Contraception 84(1): 4856.
    LeeRG, and GarvinT (2003) Moving from information transfer to information exchange in health and health care. Social Science and Medicine 56(3): 449464.
    LevandowskiBA, SharmaP, LaneSD, WebsterN, NestorAM, CibulaDA, and HuntingtonS (2006) Parental literacy and infant health: An evidence-based health start intervention. Health Promotion Practice 7(1): 95102.
    LevinJ, and HeinJF (2012) A faith-based prescription for the surgeon general: Challenges and recommendations. Journal of Religion and Health 51(1): 5771.
    LewinK (1951) Field Theory in Social Science: Selected theoretical papers. Harper Row, New York.
    LewisYR, ShainL, QuinnSC, TurnerK, and MooreT (2002) Building community trust: Lessons from an STD/HIV peer educator program with African American barbers and beauticians. Health Promotion Practice 3(2): 133143.
    LiangW, WangJ, ChenM, FengS, YiB, and MandelblattJS (2009) Cultural views, language ability, and mammography use in Chinese American women. Health Education and Behaviour 36(6): 10121020.
    LiebermanDA (2001) Using interactive media in communication campaigns for children and adolescents, pp. 373388 in RiceRE, and AktinCK (eds) Public Communication Campaigns,
    3rd edition
    . Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
    LinP, SimoniJM, and ZemonV (2005) The health belief model, sexual behaviours and HIV risk among Taiwanese immigrants. Aids Education and Research 17(5): 469483.
    LinW, YangH, HangC, and PanW (2007) Nutrition knowledge, attitude and behaviour of Taiwanese elementary school children. Asian Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16(Suppl. 2): 534546.
    LindsayS, KingG, KlassenAF, EssesV, and StachelM (2012) Working with immigrant families raising a child with a disability: Challenges and recommendations for healthcare and community service providers. Disability Rehabilitation 29 March [Epub ahead of publication].
    LinnanLA, and FergusonYO (2007) Beauty salons: A promising health promotion setting for reaching and promoting health among African American women. Health Education and Behaviour 34(3): 517530.
    LinnanLA, KimAE, WasilewskiY, LeeAM, YangJ, and SolomonF (2001) Working with licensed cosmetologists to promote health: Results from the North Carolina BEAUTY and health pilot study. Preventive Medicine 33(6): 606612.
    LinnanLA, Owens FergusonY, WasilewskiY, LeeAM, YangJ, SolomonF, and KatzM (2005) Using community-based participatory research methods to reach women with health messages: Results from the North Carolina BEAUTY and health pilot project. Health Promotion Practice 6(2): 164173.
    LinnanLA, ReiterPL, DuffyC, HalesD, WardDS, and VieraAJ (2011) Assessing and promoting physical activity in African American barbershops: Results of the FITStop pilot study. American Journal of Men's Health 5 (1): 3846.
    LochardJ (2004) Living in contaminated territories: A lesson in stakeholder involvement. Centre d'etude sur l'evaluation de la protection dans la domaine Nucleaire (CEPN) France; available at http://irpa11.irpa.net/pdfs/KL-9b.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    LongfieldK, PanvanouvongX, ChenJ, and KaysMB (2011) Increasing safer sexual behavior among Lao kathoy through an intergrated social marketing approach. BMC Public Health 11: 872.
    MaM, DollarKM, KiblerJL, SarpongD, and SamuelsD (2011) The effects of priming on a public health campaign targeting cardiovascular risks. Prevention Science 12(3): 333338.
    MacdonaldG, and DaviesJK (2007) Reflection and vision: Proving and improving the promotion of health, in DavisJK, and MacdonaldG (eds) Quality, Evidence and Effectiveness in Health Promotion. Routledge, London, p. 518.
    MacDonaldT (1998) Re-thinking Health Promotion. Routledge, London
    MaciasW, Stravchansky LewisL, and SmithTL (2005) Health-related message boards/chat rooms on the web: Discussion content and implications for pharmaceutical sponsorships. Journal of Health Communication 10(3): 209223.
    MagnocD, TomakaJ, and Bridges-ArzagaA (2011) Using the web to increase physical activity in college students. American Journal of Health Behaviour 35(2): 142154.
    MarekE, DergezT, BozsaS, GoczeK, Rebek - NagyG, KricskovicsA, KissI, EmberI, GoczeP (2011) Incomplete knowledge - unclarified roles in sex education: results of a national survey about human papillomavirus infections. European Journal of Cancer Care 20(6) 759768.
    MarkensS, FoxSA, TaubB, and GilbertML (2002) Role of black churches in health promotion programs: Lessons from the Los Angeles mammography promotion in churches program. American Journal of Public Health 92(5): 805810.
    MarksL (2003) Evidence-based practice in tackling inequalities in health. Report of a research and development project, University of Durham; available at www.dur.ac.uk/resources/public.health/publications/Inequalities%20Report.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    MarrB, and KershawJ (1998) Caring for older people. Developing specialist practice. Hodder Arnold, London.
    MarstonC (2004) Gendered communication among young people in Mexico: Implications for sexual health interventions. Social Science and Medicine 59(3): 445456.
    MartinsonBE, and HindmanDB (2005) Building a health promotion agenda in local newspapers. Health Education Research 20(1): 5160.
    MatthewsB (2004) Grey literature: Resources for locating unpublished research. C…RL News 65(3): 518519.
    MazorKM, CalviJ, CowanR, CostanzaME, HanPK, GreeneSM, SaccoccioL, CoveE, and WilliamsRD (2010) Media messages about cancer: What do people understand? Journal of Health Communication 15 (Suppl. 2): 126145.
    McCartneyM (2011) The press release, relative risks and the polypill. British Medical Journal 343: 4720.
    McCormackLA, LaskaMN, LarsonNI, and StoryM (2010) Review of the nutritional implications of farmers’ markets and community gardens: A call for evaluation and research efforts. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 110(3): 399408.
    McCoyMR, CouchD, DuncanND, and LynchGS (2005) Evaluating an Internet weight-loss program for diabetes prevention. Health Promotion International 20(3): 221228.
    McDanielAM, CasperGR, HutchinsonSK, and StrattonRM (2005) Design and testing of an interactive smoking cessation intervention for inner-city women. Health Education Research 20(3): 379384.
    McQueenDV (2000) Strengthening the evidence base for health promotion. Health Promotion International 16(3): 261268.
    McQueenDV (2002) The evidence debate (editorial). Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 56(2): 8384.
    Mejia-DownsA, FruthSJ, CliffordA, HineS, HuckstepJ, WilkinsonH, and YoderJ (2011) A preliminary exploration of the effects of a 6-week interactive video dance exercise program in an adult population. Cardiopulmonary Physical Therapy Journal 22(4): 511.
    Mencap (2012) Stand By Me; available at www.mencap.org.uk/standbyme, last accessed 16 November 2012.
    MevissenFEF, RuiterRAC, MeertensRM, ZimbileF, and SchaalmaHP (2011) Justify your love: Testing an online STI risk communication intervention designed to promote condom use and STI testing. Psychology and Health 26(2): 205221.
    MierN, OryMG, and MedinaAA (2010) Anatomy of culturally sensitive interventions promoting nutrition and exercise in Hispanics: A critical examination of existing literature. Health Promotion Practice 11(4): 541554.
    MiltonK, KellyP, BullF, and FosterCA (2011) Formative evaluation of a family-based walking intervention - Furness Families Walk4 Life. BMC Public Health 11: 614.
    MinardiH, and RileyM (1997) Communication in Health Care: A skills-based approach. Butterworth-Heinemann, London.
    MonahanJL (1995) Thinking positively using positive affect when designing health messages, pp. 8198 in MaibachE, and ParrottRL (eds) Designing Health Messages. Sage, London.
    MoodiM, MoodMB, SharifiradGR, ShahnaziH, and SharifzadehG (2011) Evaluation of breast self examination program using health belief model in female students. Journal of Research in Medical Science 16(3): 316322.
    MooneyA, StathamJ, BoddyJ, and SmithM (2010) The National Child Measurement Programme: Early experiences of routine feedback to parents of children's weight and height. Institute of Education, University of London; available at www.change4lifewm.org.uk/resources/temp_-_early_experiences_of_routine_feedback.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    MoorleyCR (2012) Life after stroke: Personal, social and cultural factors - an inner city Afro Caribbean experience. PhD thesis, University of East London.
    MORI (2005) Technology tracker. Technology research information, MORI; available at www.ipsos-mori.com, last accessed 16 November 2012.
    MorrellP (2001) Social factors affecting communication, pp. 3344 in EllisRB, GatesRJ, and KenworthyN (eds) Interpersonal Communication in Nursing. Churchill Livingstone, London.
    MoserRP, GreenV, WeberD, and DoyleC (2005) Psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption among African American men. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behaviour 37(6): 306314.
    MurnaghanDA, BlanchardCM, RodgersWM, LaRosaJN, MacQuarrieCR, MacLellanDL, and GrayBJ (2010) Predictors of physical activity, healthy eating and being smoke-free in teens: A theory of planned behaviour approach. Psychology and Health 25(8): 925941.
    MuturiN, and AnS (2010) HIV/AIDS stigma and religiosity among African American women. Journal of Health Communication 15(4): 388401.
    NaidooJ, and WillsJ (2009) Public Health and Health Promotion Practice,
    3rd edition.
    Balliere Tindall, London.
    National Cancer Institute (2010) Evaluating online sources of information; available at www.cancer.gov, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    NSMC (2011) The big pocket guide available at thensmc.com/sites/default/files/Big_pocket_guide_2011.pdf, last accessed 20 August 2012.
    NayakS, RobertsMS, ChangCH, and GreenspanSL (2010) Health beliefs about osteoporosis and osteoporosis screening in older women and men. Health Education Journal 69(3): 267276.
    NealeJ, McKeganeyN, HayG, and OliverJ (2001) Recreational drug use and driving: A qualitative study. The Scottish Executive Central Research Unit, The Stationery Office, Edinburgh; available at www.scotland.gov.uk.
    NettoG, BhopalR, LederleN, KhatoonJ, and JacksonA (2010) How can health promotion interventions be adapted for minority ethnic communities? Five principles for guiding the development of behaviour interventions. Health Promotion International 25(2): 24857.
    NeuhauserL, and KrepsGL (2008) Online cancer communication: Meeting the literacy, cultural and linguistic needs of diverse audiences. Patient Education and Counseling 71(3): 365377.
    NewmanM, and HarrierD (2006) Teaching and learning resources for evidence-based practice; available at www.mdx.ac.uk.
    NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (2001) Undertaking systematic reviews of research on effectiveness: CRD's guidance for those carrying out or commissioning reviews. CRD Report 4, 2nd edn; available at www.york.ac.uk/inst/crd/pdf/Systematic_Reviews.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    NHS Health Scotland (2007) Healthy Living Neighbourhood Shops project: A report on the success of marketing healthy options in convenience stores in Scotland; available at www.healthscotland.com/uploads/documents/3857-Healthyliving_Neighbourhood_Shops_Project.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    NICE (2005) Proposals for making the guideline development process more efficient. Consultation document; available at www.nice.org.uk/niceMedia/pdf/boardmeeting/brdnov05item5b.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    NICE (2008) Guidance for midwives, health visitors, pharmacists and other primary care services to improve the nutrition of pregnant and breastfeeding mothers and children in low income households. Public Health Guidance PH11; available at http://guidance.nice.org.uk/PH11, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    NICE (2010) Preventing unintentional injuries in children and young people under 15: Road design and modification self-assessment tool. Public Health Guidance PH31; available at http://guidance.nice.org.uk/PH31, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    NICE (2011) Preventing type 2 diabetes: Population and community-level interventions in high-risk groups and the general population. Public Health Guidance PH35; available at http://guidance.nice.org.uk/PH35, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    NiederdeppeJ, FarrellyMC, NonnemakerJ, DavisKC, and WagnerL (2011) Socioeconomic variation in recall and perceived effectiveness of campaign advertisements to promote smoking cessation. Social Science and Medicine 72(5): 773780.
    NoarSM (2006) A 10-year retrospective of research in health mass media campaigns: Where do we go from here? Journal of Health Communication 11 (1): 2142.
    NoarSM (2012) An audience-channel-message-evaluation (ACME) framework for health communication campaigns. Health Promotion Practice 13(4): 4818.
    NorthouseLL, and NorthousePG (1998) Health Communication: Strategies for health professionals,
    3rd edition.
    Appleton and Lange, London.
    NutbeamD (1999) The challenge to provide ‘evidence’ in health promotion (Editorial). Health Promotion International 14(2): 99101.
    O'DonnellMP (2009) Definition of health promotion 2.0: Embracing passion, enhancing motivation, recognising dynamic balance and creating opportunities. American Journal Health Promotion 24(1): iv.
    O'GradyL, WittemannH, BenderJL, UrowitzS, WiljerD, and JadadAR (2009) Measuring the impact of a moving target: A dynamic framework for evaluating collaborative, adaptive, interactive technologies. Journal of Medical Internet Research 11(2): e20.
    O'HalloranR, HicksonL, and WorrallL (2008) Environmental factors that influence communication between people with communication disability and their healthcare providers in hospital: A review of the literature within the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework. International Journal of Communication Disorders 43(6): 601632.
    O'HegartyM, PedersonLL, NelsonDF, MoweryP, GableJM, and WortleyP (2006) Reactions of young adult smokers to warning labels on cigarette packages. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 30(6): 467473.
    Office for National Statistics (ONS) (2001) Census 2001; available at www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/census/census-2001/index.html, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    Office for National Statistics (ONS) (2006) Social trends 41 available at www.ons.gov.uk/ons/rel/social…/social-trends-41-e-society.pdf, last accessed 20 August 2012.
    OronjeRN, UndieCC, ZuluEM, and CrichtonJ (2011) Engaging media in communicating research on sexual and reproductive health and rights in sub-Saharan Africa: Experiences and lessons learned. Health Research and Policy Systems 16(9, Suppl. 1): S7.
    Overseas Development Institute (2006) Evidence-based policy making; available at www.odi.org.uk/resources/details.asp?id=2804˜=evidence-based-policymaking-work-relevance-developing-countries, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    OyediranKA, FeyosetanOI, and AkpanT (2011) Predictors of condom-use among young never-married males in Nigeria. Journal of Health and Population Nutrition 29(3): 273285.
    PadillaRP, BillS, RaghunathSG, FernaldD, HavranekEP, and SteinerJF (2010) Designing a cardiovascular disease prevention website for Latinos: Qualitative community feedback. Health Promotion Practice 11(1): 140147.
    PaekH, HilyardK, FreimuthV, BargeJK, and MindlinM (2010) Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: Implications for effective health and risk communication. Journal of Health Communication 15(4): 428444.
    PanagopoulouE, MontgomeryA, and BenosA (2011) Health promotion as a behavioural challenge: Are we missing attitudes? Global Health Promotion 18 (2): 5457.
    ParkerEA, BaldwinGT, IsraelB, and SalinasM (2004) Application of health promotion theories and models for environmental health. Health Education and Behaviour 31(4): 491509.
    PechmannC, and ReiblingET (2000) Anti-smoking advertising campaigns targeting youth: Case studies from USA and Canada. Tobacco Control 9(Suppl. ii): ii8ii31.
    PetersonJ, AtwoodJR, and YatesB (2002) Key elements for church-based health promotion programs: Outcome-based literature review. Public Health Nursing 19(6): 401411.
    PetersonM, AbrahamA, and WaterfieldA (2005) Marketing physical activity: Lessons learned from a statewide media campaign. Health Promotion Practice 6(4): 437446.
    Philips-GuzmanCM, Martinez-DonateAP, HovellMF, BlumbergEJ, SipanCL, RovinakLS, and KelleyNJ (2011) Engaging local businesses in HIV prevention efforts: The consumer perspective. Health Promotion Practice 12(4): 620629.
    PhillipsRO, UllebergP, and VaaT (2011) Meta-analysis of the effect of road safety campaign on accidents. Accident Analysis and Prevention 43(3): 12041218.
    PlantA, MontoyaJA, RotblattH, KerndtPR, MallKL, PappasLG, KentCK, and KlausnerJD (2010) Stop the sores: The making and evaluation of a successful social marketing campaign. Health Promotion Practice 11(1): 2333.
    PolandB, and DoorisM (2010) A green and healthy future: The settings approach to building health, equity and sustainability. Critical Public Health 20(3): 281298.
    PolandB, KrupaG, and McCallD (2009) Settings for health promotion: An analytic framework to guide intervention design and implementation. Health Promotion Practice 10 (4): 505516.
    Population Communication Services/Center for Communication Programs (JHU/CCP) (2003) A field guide to designing a health communication strategy. Johns Hopkins University; available at www.jhuccp.org/node/1033, last accessed 20 August 2012.
    Population Reference Bureau (PRB) (2005) Promoting healthy behaviour; available at www.prb.org/pdf05/promotinghealthybehavior_eng.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    PovlsenL, OlsenB, and LadelundS (2005) Educating families from ethnic minorities in type 1 diabetes: Experiences from a Danish intervention study. Patient Education and Counseling 59(2): 164170.
    ProchaskaJO, and DiclementeCC (1983) Stages and processes of self-change in smoking: Toward an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 51(3): 390395.
    PurdyC (2011) Using the Internet and social media to promote condom use in Turkey. Reproductive Health Matters 19(37): 157165.
    RadaJ, RatimaM, and Howden-ChapmanP (1999) Evidence-based purchasing of health promotion: Methodology for reviewing evidence. Health Promotion International 14(2): 177187.
    RandolfW, and ViswanathK (2004) Lessons learned from public health mass media campaigns: marketing health in a crowded media world. Annual Review of Public Health 25(1): 419437.
    RaphaelD (2000) The question of evidence in health promotion. Health Promotion International 15(4): 355367.
    ReidLV, HatchJ, and ParrishT (2003) The role of a historically black university and the black church in community-based health initiatives: The project DIRECT experience. Journal of Public Health Management Practice November (Suppl.): S7073.
    ReinertB, CampbellC, CarverV, and RangeLM (2003) Joys and tribulations of faith-based youth tobacco prevention: a case study in Mississippi. Health Education Practice 4(3): 228238.
    ReinertB, CarverV, RangeLM, and PikeC (2008) Collecting health data with youth at faith-based institutions: Lessons learned. Health Promotion Practice 9(1): 6873.
    ReiningerBM, BarrosoCS, Mitchell BennettL, CantuE, FernandezME, GonzalezDA, ChavezM, FreebergD, and McAllisterAL (2010) Process evaluation and participatory methods in an obesity prevention media campaign for Mexican Americans. Health Promotion Practice 11(3): 347357.
    RelefordBJ, FrencherSK, and YanceyAK (2010a) Health promotion in barbershops: Balancing outreach and research in African American communities. Ethnicity and Diversity 20(2): 185188.
    RelefordBJ, FrencherSK, YanceyAK, and NorrisK (2010b) Cardiovascular disease control through barbershops: Design of a nationwide outreach program. Journal of the National Medical Association 102(4): 336345.
    ResnicowK, JacksonA, BraithwaiteR, DiIorioC, BlissetD, RahotepS, and PeriasamyS (2002) Health body/health spirit: A church-based nutrition and physical activity intervention. Health Education Research 17(5): 562573.
    ResnicowK, JacksonA, WangT, DeAK, McCartyF, DudleyW, and BaranowskiT (2001) A motivational interviewing intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake through black churches: Results of the eat for life trial. American Journal of Public Health 91(10): 16861693.
    RibislKM (2003) The potential of the Internet as a medium to encourage and discourage youth tobacco use. Tobacco Control 12(Suppl. 1): i48i59.
    RiceD (2001) The internet and health communication: a framework of experiences, pp. 546 in RiceRE, and KatzJE (eds) The Internet and health communication: experiences and expectations. London: Sage.
    RimalRN, and LapinskiMK (2009) Why health communication is important in public health. Bulletin World Health Organization 87(4): 247248.
    RisiL, BindmanJP, CampbellOMR, ImrieJ, EverettK, BradleyJ, and DennyL (2004) Media interventions to increase cervical screening uptake in South Africa: An evaluation of effectiveness. Health Education Research 19(4): 457468.
    RobinsonL (2004) Beliefs, values and intercultural communication, pp. 110120 in RobbM, BarrettS, KomaromyC, and RogersA (eds) Communication, Relationships and Care: A reader. Routledge, London.
    RobinsonM (2002) Communication and Health in a multiethnic Society. Policy Press, Bristol.
    RoelensK, VerstraelenH, Van EgmondK, and TemmermanM (2006) A knowledge, attitudes, and practice survey among obstetrician-gynaecologists on intimate partner violence in Flanders, Belgium. BMC Public Health 6: 238.
    RomerD, SznitmanS, DiClementeR, SalazarLF, VanablePA, CareyMP, HennessyM, BrownLK, ValoisRF, StantonBF, FortuneT, and JuzangI (2009) Mass media as an HIV prevention strategy: Using culturally sensitive messages to reduce HIV associated sexual behaviour of at risk African American youth. American Journal of Public Health 99(12): 21502159.
    RosenstockIM (1966) Why people use health services. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly XLIV 3 (2): 94127.
    RosenstockIM, StretcherVJ, and BeckerMM (1988) Social learning theory and the health belief model. Health Education Quarterly 15(2): 175183.
    RossiPH, LipseyMW, and FreemanHE (2004) Evaluation: A systematic approach,
    7th edition.
    Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.
    RoweR, and GarciaJ (2003) Evidence on access to maternity and infant care in England. National Perinatal Epidemiological Unit, Oxford.
    RussellCA, ClappJD, and DeJongW (2005) Done 4: Analysis of a failed social norms marketing campaign. Health Communication 17(1): 5765.
    RutterD, and QuineL (eds) (2002) Changing Health Behaviour. Open University Press, Buckingham.
    RuudJS, BettsN, KritchK, NitzkeS, LohseB, and BoecknerL (2005) Acceptability of stage-tailored newsletters about fruit and vegetables by young adults. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 105(11): 17741778.
    RychetnikL, and WiseM (2004) Advocating evidence-based health promotion: Reflections and a way forward. Health Promotion International 19(2): 247257.
    SackettD, RosenbergW, Muir GreyJAM, HayesRB, and WilliamsonWS (1996) Evidence-based medicine: What it is and what it isn't (editorial). British Medical Journal 312: 7172.
    SalehiL, MohammadK, and MontazeriA (2011) Fruit and vegetables intake among elderly Iranians: A theory-based interventional study using the five-a-day program. Nutrition Journal 14(10): 123.
    Samaritans, The (2006) txt Samaritans 4 emotional support; available at www.samaritans.org.uk.
    ScheierLM, and GrenardJL (2010) Influence of a nationwide social marketing campaign on adolescent drug use. Journal of Health Communication 15(3): 240271.
    SchüzaB, MarxC, WurmS, WarnerC, ZiegelmannJP, SchwarzerR, and Tesch-RömeraC (2011) Medication beliefs predict medication adherence in older adults. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 70(2): 179187.
    SebastianMP, KhanME, and RoychowdhuryS (2010) Promoting healthy spacing between pregnancies in India: Need for differential education campaigns. Patient Education and Counseling 81(3): 395401.
    ShaferA, CatesJR, DiehlSJ, and HartmannM (2011) Asking Mom: Formative research for an HPV vaccine campaign targeting mothers of adolescent girls. Journal of Health Communication 16(9): 9881005.
    SharangpaniR, BoultonKE, WellsE, and KimC (2011) Attitudes and behaviours of international air travellers toward pandemic influenza. Journal of Travel Medicine 18(3): 203208.
    SharpC (2005) The improvement of public sector delivery: Supporting evidence-based practice through action research. September, Scottish Executive Research; available at www.scotland.gov.uk/Publications/2005.
    SivaramS, JohnsonS, BentleyME, GoVF, LakinC, SrikishnamAK, CelentonoK, and SolomonS (2005) Sexual health promotion in Chennai, India: The key role of communication among social networks. Health Promotion International 20(4): 327333.
    SmithBJ, TangKC, and NutbeamD (2006) WHO health promotion glossary: New terms. Health Promotion International 20(1): 16.
    SolomonFM, LinnanLA, WasilewskiY, LeeAM, KatzMI, and YangJ (2004) Observational study in ten beauty salons: Results informing development of the North Carolina BEAUTY and health project. Health Education and Behaviour 31(6): 790807.
    SowdenAJ, and ArblasterL (2006) Mass media interventions for preventing smoking in young people (Review). The Cochrane Library Issue 1; available at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD001006/pdf/standard, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    SparksL, and NussbaumJF (2008) Health literacy and cancer communication with older adults. Patient Education and Counseling 71(3): 345350.
    SpearZ (2009) Pinch media: iPhone app usage declining rapidly after first downloads; available at www.appleinsider.com/articles/09/02/19/iphone_app_usage_declining_rapidly_after_first_downloads.html, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    SpellerV, WimbushE, and MorganA (2005) Evidence-based health promotion practice: How to make it work. Global Health Promotion 12(Suppl. 1): 1520.
    SpotswoodF, and TappA (2010) Socio cultural change - the key to social marketing success? A case study of increasing exercise in working class communities. International Journal of Health Promotion and Education 48(2): 5257.
    SridharanS, and NakaimaA (2011) Ten steps to making evaluation matter. Evaluation and Program Planning 34(2): 135146.
    StephensonCM, and StephensonMR (2011) Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: part 1: Using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works. Noise Health 13: 113121.
    StrandbygaardU, ThomsenSF, and BackerV (2010) A daily reminder increases adherence to asthma treatment: A three-month follow-up study. Respiratory Medicine 104 (2): 166171.
    StretcherVJ, ShiffmanS, and WestR (2005) Randomised controlled trial of a web-based computer-tailored smoking cessation program as a supplement to nicotine patch therapy. Addiction 100(5): 682688.
    SugermanS, BackmanD, FoesterSB, GhirardelliA, LinaresA, and FongA (2011) Using an opinion poll to build an obesity prevention social marketing campaign for low income Asian and Hispanic immigrants: Report of findings. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behaviour 43(4, Suppl. 2): S53S66.
    SuggsLS (2006) A 10-year retrospective of research in new technologies for health communication. Journal of Health Communication 11(1): 6174.
    SureshK (2011) Evidence-based communication for health promotion: Indian lessons of the last decade. Public Health Education 55(4): 276285.
    SwinneyJ, Anson-WonkkaC, MakiE, and CorneauJ (2001) Community assessment: A church community and the parish nurse. Public Health Nursing 18(1): 4044.
    SynderL (2007) Health communication campaigns and their impact on behaviour. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behaviour 39(2, Suppl.): S32S40.
    Talk to Frank (2012) Talk to Frank; available at www.talktofrank.com/, last accessed 16 November 2012.
    TangKC, EhsaniJP, and McQueenDV (2003) Evidence-based health promotion: Recollections, reflections and reconsiderations. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 57(11): 841843.
    TaylorM, DlaminiSB, Meyer-WeitzA, SathipardsadR, JinabhaiCC and EsterhuizenY (2010) Changing sexual behaviour to reduce HIV transmission - a multi-faceted approach to HIV prevention and treatment in a rural South Africa setting. AIDS Care 22(11): 13951402.
    Taylor-ClarkeKA, ViswanathK, and BlendonRJ (2010) Communication inequalities during public health disasters: Katrina's wake. Health Communication 25(3): 221229.
    TeHIP (2005) The impact of e-health and assistive technologies in health care. The E-health Innovation Professionals Group; available at www.tehip.org.uk, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    Text4Baby (2012) www.text4baby.org, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    ThackerayR, and NeigerBL (2009) A multidirectional communication model: Implications for social marketing practice. Health Promotion Practice 10(2): 171175.
    ThackerayR, KellerH, HeilbronnerJM, and DellingerLK (2011) Social marketing's unique contribution to mental health stigma reduction and HIV testing: Two case studies. Health Promotion Practice 12(2): 172177.
    ThalackerKM (2011) Hypertension and the Hmong community: Using the health belief model for health promotion. Health Promotion Practice 12(4): 538543.
    ThesenvitzJ, HershfieldL, and MacdonaldR (2011) Health communication outcomes: At the heart of good objectives and indicators. Public Health Ontario; available at www.thcu.ca/resource_db/pubs/898209026.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    ThompsonCA, and RaviaJ (2011) A systematic review of behavioural interventions to promote intake of fruit and vegetables. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 111(10): 15231535.
    ThompsonL, and KumarA (2011) Responses to health promotion campaigns: Resistance, denial and othering. Critical Public Health 21(1): 105117.
    ThompsonN (2002) People Skills,
    2nd edition.
    Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke.
    ThorogoodM, and CoombesY (eds) (2010) Evaluating Health Promotion: Practice and methods,
    2nd edition.
    Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    ThurstonWE, and Blundell-GosselinHJ (2005) The farm as a setting for health promotion: Results of a needs assessment in South Central Alberta. Health and Place 11(1): 3143.
    TinkerA (1997) Older People in Modern Society. Longman, London.
    TolvanenM, LahtiS, MiettunenJ, and HausenH (2011) Relationship between oral health-related knowledge, attitudes and behaviour among 15-16-year-old adolescents - A structural equation modelling approach. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 70(2): 169176.
    TomassiniC (2005) The demographic characteristics of the oldest old in the United Kingdom. Population Trends 120(Summer): 1522.
    TonesK, and TilfordS (1994) Health Education: Effectiveness, efficiency and equity,
    2nd edition.
    Chapman and Hall, London.
    TrifilettiLB, GielenAC, SleetDA, and HopkinsK (2005) Behavioural and social sciences theories and models: Are they used in unintentional injury prevention research? Health Education Research 20 (3): 298307.
    TsourosAD, DowdingG, ThompsonJ, and DoorisM (eds) (1998) Health promoting universities, concept experience and framework for action. WHO, Copenhagen; available at www.who.dk/document/E60163.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    Turner-McGrievyG, and TateD (2011) Tweets, apps, and pods: Results of the 6 month mobile pounds off digitally (Mobile POD) randomised weight-loss intervention among adults. Journal of Medical Internet Research 13 (4): e120.
    TwombyEC, HoltzKD, and TessmanGK (2008) Multimedia science education on drugs of abuse: A preliminary evaluation of effectiveness for adolescents. Letter to the editor. Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education 55(1): 8.
    University of Central Lancashire (UCLAN), (2006) Health settings development unit; available at www.uclan.ac.uk/facs/health/hsdu/index.htm, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    UnniEJ, and FarrisKB (2011) Unintentional non adherence and belief in medicine in older adults. Patient Education and Counseling 83(2): 265268.
    US Department of Health and Human Services (2010) Healthy people 2020 brochure available at www.healthypeople.gov/2020/TopicsObjectives2020/pdfs/HP2020_brochure_with_LHI_508.pdf
    US Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (2010) Healthy people 2020; available at www.healthypeople.gov/document, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    ValloneDM, DukeJC, CullenJ, McCauslandKL, and AllenJA (2011) Evaluation of EX: A national mass media smoking cessation campaign. American Journal of Public Health 101(2): 302309.
    Van CauwenbergheE, MaesL, SpittaelsH, Van LentheFJ, BrugJ, OppertJM, and De BourdeaudhuijI (2010) Effectiveness of school-based interventions in Europe to promote healthy nutrition in children and adolescents: Systematic review of published and ‘grey’ literature. British Journal of Nutrition 103(6): 781797.
    Van den PutteB, YzerM, SouthwellBG, de BruijinGJ, and WillemsenMC (2011) Interpersonal communication as an indirect pathway for the effect of antismoking media content on smoking cessation. Journal of Health Communication 16(5): 470485.
    Van GemertC, DietzeP, GoldJ, Sacks-DavisR, StooveM, VallyH, and HellardM (2011) The Australian National Binge Drinking campaign: Campaign recognition among young people at the music festival who report risky drinking. BMC Public Health 20(11): 482.
    ViswanathK, and AckersonLK (2011) Race, ethnicity, language, social class, and health communication inequalities: A nationally-representative cross sectional study. PloS One 6(1): e14550.
    VydelingumV (2000) South Asian patients’ lived experience of acute care in an English hospital. Journal of Advanced Nursing 32(1): 100107.
    WakefieldMA, LokenB, and HornikRC (2010) Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour. The Lancet 376: 12611271.
    WallaceS (1998) Telemedicine in the NHS for the millennium and beyond, pp. 5599in LenaghanJ (ed.) Rethinking IT and Health. Institute for Public Policy Research London.
    WallcraftJ (2003) The Mental Health Service User Movement in England. Sainsbury Centre for Mental Health, London.
    WalshM, CartwrightL, CornishC, SugrueS, and Wood-MartinR (2011) The body composition, nutritional knowledge, attitudes, behaviours and future education needs of senior schoolboy rugby players in Ireland. International Journal of Sport, Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism 21(5): 365376.
    WangG, and LabartheD (2011) The cost effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce sodium intake. Journal of Hypertension 29(9): 16931699.
    WangM, MacdonaldVM, PaudelM, and BankeKK (2011) National scale up of zinc promotion in Nepal: Results from a post-project population-based survey. Journal of Health Nutrition 29(3): 207217.
    WangS, MossJR, and HillerJE (2005) Applicability and transferability of interventions in evidence-based public health. Health Promotion International 21(1): 7683.
    WanyoniKL, Themessl-HuberM, HumphriesG, and FreemanR (2011) A systematic review and meta-analysis of face-to-face communication of tailored health messages: Implications for practice. Patient Education and Counseling 85(3): 348355.
    WatzlawickP, BeavinJ, and JacksonD (1967) The Pragmatics of Human Communication. Norton, New York.
    WebbOJ, EvesFF, and KerrJ (2011) A statistical summary of mall-based stair-climbing interventions. Journal Physical Activity and Health 8(4): 558565.
    WeinbergDS, TurnerBJ, WangH, MyersRE, and MillerS (2004) A survey of women regarding factors affecting colorectal cancer screening compliance. Preventive Medicine 38(6): 669675.
    WeinreichNK (2011) Hands-on Social Marketing. Sage, London.
    WeitkunatR, PottgiesserC, MeyerN, CrispinA, FischerR, ScottenK, KeirJ, and ÜberlaK (2003) Perceived risk of bovine spongiform encephalopathy and dietary behaviour. Journal of Health Psychology 8(3): 373381.
    WestR (2005) Time for a change: Putting the transtheoretical model to rest. (Editorial). Addiction 11(8): 10361039.
    WhiteheadD (2004) The health promoting university (HPU): The role and function of nursing. Nurse Education Today 24(6): 466472.
    WhitelawS, BaxendaleA, BryceC, MachardyL, YoungI, and WitneyE (2001) ‘Settings’-based health promotion: A review. Health Promotion International 16(4): 339353.
    WhitelawS, GrahamN, BlackD, CoburnJ, and RenwickL (2012) Developing capacity and achieving sustainable implementation in healthy ‘settings’: Insights from NHS Health Scotland's Health Promoting Health Service project. Health Promotion International 27(1): 127137.
    WiggersJ, and Sanson-FisherR (2001) Evidence-based health promotion, pp. 126145 in ScottD, and WestonR (eds) Evaluating Health Promotion. Nelson Thornes, Cheltenham.
    WilkinsA, and MakDB (2007) Sending out an SMSL: An impact and outcome evaluation of the Western Australian Department of Health's 2005 chlamydia campaign. Health Promotion Journal of Australia 18(2): 113120.
    WilliamsJ (2011) The effect on young people of suicide reports in the media. Mental Health Practice 14(8): 3437.
    WilliamsM, BowenA, and EiS (2010) An evaluation of the experiences of rural MSM who accessed an online HIV/AIDS health promotion intervention. Health Promotion Practice 11(4): 474482.
    WilsonBJ (2007) Designing media messages about health and nutrition: What strategies are the most effective? Journal of Nutrition Education and Behaviour 39 (2, Suppl.): S13S19.
    WitteK (2007) Theory-based interventions and evaluations of outreach efforts. National Network of Libraries for Medicine; available at www.nnlm.gov/evaluation/pub/witte, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    WongC, and TangCS (2005) Practice of habitual and volitional health behaviours to prevent severe acute respiratory syndrome among Chinese adolescents in Hong Kong. Journal of Adolescent Health 36(3): 193200.
    WongLP, and SamI (2010) Public sources of information and information needs for pandemic influenza A (H1N1). Journal of Community Health 35(6): 676682.
    World Bank (2012) Disabilities; available at http://youthink.worldbank.org/issues/disabilities, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    World Health Assembly (WHA) (1998) Resolution WHA 51.12 on health promotion: agenda item 20. WHO 16 May; available at www.who.int, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (1986) Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion, 17-21 November, Ottawa; available at www.who.int/hpr/NPH/docs/ottawa_charter_hp.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (1998) Health promotion: Milestones on the road to a global alliance. Fact sheet No. 171 revised June 1998; available at www.who.int, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2000) International classification of impairments, disabilities and handicaps. WHO, Geneva; available at www.who.int, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    World Health Organization (WHO) (2003) Healthy cities around the world: An overview of the healthy cities movement in six WHO regions. WHO, Belfast; available at www.euro.who.int/document/hcp/healthycityworld.pdf, last accessed 20 April 2012.
    WrightE, FortuneT, JuzangI, and BullS (2011) Text messaging for HIV prevention with young black men: Formative research and campaign development. AIDS Care 23(5): 534541.
    XiangyangT, LanZ, XuepingM, TaoZ, YuzhenS, and JagusztynM (2003) Beijing health promoting universities: Practice and evaluation. Health Promotion International 18(2): 107113.
    YaoCS, MerzEL, NakajiM, HarryKM, MalcarneVL, and SadlerGR (2012) Cervical cancer control: Deaf and hearing women's response to an educational video. Journal of Cancer Education 27(1): 6266.
    YorkstonKM, BourgeoisMS, and BaylorCR (2010) Communication and aging. Physical Medical and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America 21(2): 309319.
    ZaidiSM, BikakAL, ShaheryarA, ImamSH, and KhanJA (2011) Perceptions of anti-smoking messages amongst high school students in Pakistan. BMC Public Health 18(11): 117.
    ZazoveP, MeadorHE, ReedBD, SenA, and GorenfloDW (2012) Effectiveness of videos improving cancer prevention knowledge in people with profound hearing loss. Journal of Cancer Education 12 April [Epub ahead of publication].
    ZondervanM, KuperH, SolomonA, and BuchanJ (2004) Health promotion for trachoma control. Community Eye Health Journal 17(52): 5758.
    ZuureFR, DavidovichU, CoutinhoRA, KokG, HoebeCJ, Van den HoekA, JansenPL, Van Leeuwen-GilbertP, VerheuvelNC, WeeginkCJ, and PrinsM (2011) Using mass media and the internet as tools to diagnose hepatitis C infections in the general population. American Journal of Preventive Medicine 40(3): 345352.

    • Loading...
Back to Top