Collaborating with Students in Instruction and Decision Making: The Untapped Resource
Publication Year: 2010
Subject: Student Engagement & Motivation
“This book reveals how powerful learning could be if students and educators shared more of the teaching responsibilities! Involving students in the teaching experience helps them learn more academically and do more socially.”
—Peggy King-Sears, Professor
George Mason University
“In this easy-to-read resource, the authors help educators understand that inclusion isn't something that we do to and for students, but rather, something we must do with students. The powerful anecdotes of educators and students planning, tutoring, and teaching side by side give us new hope and further direction for the creation of inclusive schools.”
—Cathy L. Taschner, Assistant Superintendent
Oxford Area School District, PA
Take advantage of a resource that's right in your classroom—your students!
How can you meet the needs of a diverse student population in mixed-ability classrooms and maintain a ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Foreword: The Importance of Students’ Voices
- Letter to the Reader
- Chapter 1: Why Collaborate with Students?
- Rationale #1: Student Collaboration Facilitates 21st-Century Goals of Education
- Rationale #2: Student Collaboration Is Democratic Schooling
- Rationale #3: Student Collaboration Increases Self-Determination
- Rationale #4: Student Collaboration Increases Academic and Social Competence
- Rationale #5: Student Collaboration Facilitates Other School Reform Efforts
- Rationale #6: Student Collaboration Is an Untapped Resource in Times of Limited Fiscal and Human Resources
- Conclusion: So Why Not Collaborate with Students?
- Definition of Teaching
- What Is the Instructional Cycle?
- What Is the Research Base for Teaching with Students?
- Chapter 2: Students as Co-Teachers in Cooperative Learning Groups
- What Is Cooperative Learning?
- What Cooperative Learning Groups Are Not
- Five Essential Ingredients of Cooperative Group Learning: PIGS Face
- The Four Phases of Planning and Implementing Formal Cooperative Group Lessons
- Teacher Decisions at Each Phase of Planning and Implementation
- An Example of a Formal Cooperative Group Lesson
- What Do Students Say About Cooperative Group Learning?
- Chapter 3: Students as Peer Tutors and Partner Learners
- Meet Some Peer Tutors
- What Is Peer Tutoring/Partner Learning?
- Essential Ingredients of Peer Tutoring and Partner Learning
- Getting Started with Peer Tutoring and Partner Learning
- An Example of a Peer Tutoring Lesson
- What Does the Research Say and What Are Educators and Students Saying About Peer Tutoring and Partner Learning?
- Chapter 4: Students as Co-Teachers
- What Is Co-Teaching? What Are Some Examples of Adults Co-Teaching with Students?
- Co-Teaching Approaches
- Challenges Faced by Student Co-Teachers
- What Are Student Co-Teachers, Adult Co-Teachers, Administrators, and Learners in Co-Taught Classes Saying About Co-Teaching?
- Chapter 5: Empowering Students as Collaborative Creative Thinkers
- Barriers to Creative Thinking and Action
- Awareness Plans for Busting Barriers and Imagining Improvements
- Osborn-Parnes Creative Problem Solving (CPS) Process
- Thinking for Collaborative Problem Solving: Focusing Upon What You Can Do
- Chapter 6: Students as Instructional Decision Makers
- Collaborating with Students to Determine the Product of Learning
- Collaborating with Students to Differentiate Instruction for Struggling Learners
- Chapter 7: Students as Designers of Their Own Learning: Person-Centered Education
- Defining and Nurturing Self-Determination
- Making Action Plans (MAPS) as a Tool to Actualize Self-Determination
- Student-Led Individual Education Programs: A Tool for Students with Disabilities to Practice Self-Determination
- Personal Learning Plans as a Tool to Teach Self-Determination
- What Do Students Say About Self-Determination?
- Chapter 8: Students as Mediators of Conflict and Controversy
- Examples of Everyday School Conflicts
- Understanding Conflict
- An Example of a Classwide or Schoolwide Peer Mediation Program
- A Lesson Plan Example: Learning Friendly Disagreement Skills
- Chapter 9: Students as Collaborators in Responsibility
- A Circle of Courage Definition of Responsibility
- The Self-Discipline Pyramid
[Page ii]This book is dedicated to the most valuable resource in schools today—the students themselves and the teachers and other school personnel who meaningfully collaborate with students in instruction, advocacy, and decision making to unleash a powerful force to facilitate change and progress in education.
Copyright © 2010 by Corwin
All rights reserved. When forms and sample documents are included, their use is authorized only by educators, local school sites, and/or noncommercial or nonprofit entities that have purchased the book. Except for that usage, no part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Villa, Richard A., 1952-
Collaborating with students in instruction and decision making: the untapped resource / Richard A. Villa, Jacqueline S. Thousand, Ann I. Nevin; foreword by Paula Kluth and Peyton Goddard.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 978-1-4129-7217-8 (pbk.)
1. Peer-group tutoring of students. 2. Teacher-student relationships. 3. Student participation in administration. 4. Student participation in curriculum planning. 5. Education—Decision making. I. Thousand, Jacqueline S., 1950-II. Nevin, Ann. III. Title.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
10 11 12 13 14 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: Jessica Allan
Editorial Assistant: Sarah Bartlett
Production Editor: Eric Garner
Copy Editor: Paula L. Fleming
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Proofreader: Susan Schon
Indexer: Jean Casalegno
Cover Designer: Karine Hovsepian
List of Tables and Figures[Page ix]
- Table I.1 Student Collaboration Quiz (for Teachers) 9
- Table 1.1 Analysis of Professional Standards Demonstrated When Teachers Collaborate with Their Students 16
- Table II.1 Peers Help Peers Acquire Skills Across the Curriculum 24
- Table 2.1 A Dozen Quick Cooperative Learning Structures 31
- Table 2.2 Ten Ways to Structure Positive Interdependence 40
- Table 2.3 Ten Ways to Structure Individual Accountability 44
- Table 2.4 Group Processing: Procedures, Definitions, and Examples 49
- Table 2.5 Shel Silverstein's “The Little Boy and the Old Man” 52
- Table 2.6 Question and Answer Template for “The Little Boy and the Old Man” Poem 52
- Table 2.7 Roles for Poem Interpretation Lesson 53
- Table 2.8 Questions for Group Processing 55
- Table 3.1 Examples of Traditional and Simplified Miranda Rights 61
- Table 3.2 Examples of Cued Responses for Miranda Rights Role-Play 62
- Table 3.3 A Quick Guide to Establishing Partner Learning Systems 64
- Table 3.4 Peer Tutoring/Partner Learning: What to Do and What Not to Do 67
- Table 3.5 Peer Tutors Think Like Teachers 68
- Table 3.6 Peer Tutor Code of Ethics 69
- Table 3.7 Peer Tutor Log 70
- Table 4.1 Seven Variations of Parallel Co-Teaching 82 [Page x]
- Table 4.2 Frequently Asked Questions About Student Co-Teachers at Etiwanda High School 84
- Table 4.3 Sample Recruitment Form 85
- Table 4.4 Sample Student Co-Teaching Observation Form 87
- Table 4.5 Student Co-Teacher Competencies 89
- Table 4.6 Issues for Discussion and Planning 90
- Table 4.7 Student Co-Teacher Assessment of Level of Comfort With Co-Teaching Roles 91
- Table 4.8 Co-Teaching Roles, Responsibilities, and Expectations 92
- Table 4.9 Sample Drama Lesson Using the Co-Teaching Lesson Plan Format 94
- Table III.1 Whose School Is This, Anyway? 100
- Table 5.1 The SODAS IF Problem-Solving Template With Parallel CPS Stages 120
- Table 6.1 K-W-H Strategy to Determine Collaboratively the Focus of the Unit Content 126
- Table 6.2 Product Options by Levels of Bloom's Taxonomy and Dimensions of Multiple Intelligences 127
- Table 6.3 Facts About Demetri and Demands of an Elementary Science Classroom 133
- Table 6.4 Facts About Samuel and Demands of a Middle School Language Arts Classroom 134
- Table 6.5 Facts About Shamonique and Demands of a High School Social Studies Classroom 134
- Table 6.6 Ideas to Address Mismatches for Demetri 136
- Table 6.7 Ideas to Address Mismatches for Samuel 136
- Table 6.8 Ideas to Address Mismatches for Shamonique 137
- Table 7.1 Resources for Teaching Self-Determination Skills 141
- Table 7.2 The Eight Key MAPs Questions 142
- Table 7.3 Resources for Student-Led Individual Education Plans 147
- Table 7.4 Checklist for Student-Led Individual Education Plan Meeting 148
- Table 8.1 Understanding Conflict 156
- Table 8.2 A Sampler of Effective Bullying Prevention Programs 158
- Table 8.3 Sample Brochure for a Peer Mediation Program 160 [Page xi]
- Table 8.4 Sample Peer Mediation Session Agenda 161
- Table 8.5 Five Ways to Disagree in a Friendly Way 168
- Table 9.1 Planning Room Gatekeeping Procedures 185
- Table E.1 How Advocates Go Beyond Benevolence 191
- Figure 1.1 Circle of Courage and Goals of Education 12
- Figure 1.2 Circle of Courage and Collaboration Techniques 13
- Figure II.1 The Instructional Cycle 20
- Figure II.2 Template for Gathering Information About Student Characteristics and Classroom Demands 22
- Figure 2.1 Cooperative Group Learning Lesson Plan Template 35
- Figure 2.2 Silverstein's “The Little Boy and the Old Man”: One-Page Cooperative Group Learning Lesson Plan 51
- Figure 3.1 Peer Tutor and Partner Learning Lesson Plan Template 71
- Figure 3.2 Lesson Plan for Third Graders as Peer Tutors to Learn Math Facts 71
- Figure III.1 Advance Organizer for Part III: Decision Making With Students 101
- Figure 5.1 A Dozen Awareness Plans 107
- Figure 7.1 Visual Summary of Evan's MAPs Meeting 144
- Figure 7.2 Evan and Mr. Rosenberg, His MAPs Facilitator 145
- Figure 7.3 Personal Learning Plan Project Development Cycle 150
- Figure 8.1 Lesson Plan Template for Teaching Social Skills to Resolve Conflicts and Controversies 165
- Figure 8.2 Lesson Plan for Teaching Social Skills to Resolve Conflicts and Controversies: Teaching Friendly Disagreeing Skills 166
- Figure 9.1 Self-Discipline Pyramid 173
- Figure 9.2 STAR Review Plan Script 181
- Figure 9.3 Sample Behavior Contract and Recording System 184
Corwin gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals:
- Sherry L. Annee, Biotechnology Instructor
- Brebeuf Jesuit Preparatory School
- Indianapolis, IN
- Laurie Emery, Principal
- Old Vail Middle School
- Vail, AZ
- Richard Jones, Principal
- John Adams Middle School
- Rochester, MN
- Toni Jones, Principal
- Deer Creek Public School
- Edmond, OK
- Beth Madison, Principal
- George Middle School
- Portland, OR
About the Authors
Epilogue: Beyond Benevolence to Befriending and Advocacy[Page 189]
What the world needs now is less benevolence and more social justice!
—Norman Kunc and Emma Van der Klift (Personal communication, 2008)
What is involved in befriending and advocacy? Why should teachers help their students become advocates? What core values must students show when they become advocates? Can you agree that when students become advocates, they show that they can take action on behalf of themselves and others? What happens when students gain experiences that show them how to make their own social worlds?
In this Epilogue, we invite readers to extend their work in collaborating with students to examine ways that students can develop collaboration, creativity, and self-advocacy skills to employ in advocacy for themselves and other members of the student body. How can students consciously build and maintain friendships? The notion of “befriending” captures all of the goals of education—independence, mastery, generosity, and belonging—in ways that make room for social justice in students lives. We include how-to strategies, resource tools, and real-life vignettes depicting the strategies in operation. We begin with cautions about how to use and not abuse these best-practice strategies and procedures.
As described in Chapter 1, the goals of education clearly call for advocacy skills. For example, we described four educational objectives or components of self-esteem—belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity (first articulated by Brendtro et al., 2002). When asked what are the goals of education for their children, Villa and Thousand (2005) noted that teachers, parents, administrators, professors, and students agree that generosity is a goal that is important to them. Generosity is described in many and varied ways—“being a contributing member of society, valuing diversity, being empathetic, offering compassion and caring and support to others, being a responsible citizen, exercising global stewardship” (Villa & Thousand, p. 42).
[Page 190]Teachers and educational administrators can be assured that there is a sound theoretical and research base on which to build their programs for advocacy. The theoretical framework is derived from social emotional learning theory. Students who become advocates acquire important social-emotional skills, especially when teachers use a cooperative group learning approach to teach advocacy skills. According to Zins, Bloodworth, Weissberg, and Wahlberg (2007), students not only develop important skills in negotiation and conflict resolution but also a peer culture for supporting academic achievement.
Social-emotional instruction can produce significant improvements in school attitude, school behavior, and school performance; in fact, a meta-analysis of 165 studies of school-based prevention activities found interventions with social competency instruction decreased rates of student dropout and increased attendance (Elias, Gara, Schuyler, Branden-Muller, & Sayette, 1991). Research has also shown that social-emotional learning develops important bonds among students, which can be a protective factor against many problem behaviors. In addition, students’ positive attitudes and commitment to school significantly increase, as well as the grades and standardized achievement scores of male students (Hawkins, Guo, Hill, Battin-Pearson, & Abbott, 2001).
Teachers and administrators can be assured that many of the same goals that are embedded in character education are also achieved when students become advocates. Because social-emotional learning is an important aspect of character education programs, many effective programs rely on implementation of social-emotional programs that use varied instructional procedures (Elias et al., 1991). Character education, broadly defined, encompasses all aspects of schooling, including “responsibility and advocacy for common welfare” (Berkowitz & Simmons, 2003, p. 118).
The authors also are aware of the potential negative aspects of advocacy. Teachers and students must be hyperconscious of what Van der Klift and Kunc (2002) described as “the politics of help” (p. 21), reminding us that “our society still perceives those with disabilities as constant receivers of help. Descriptors such as ‘less fortunate’ and ‘needy’ and telethons and tear jerker journalism all continue to perpetuate this view” (p. 21). Students in the advocacy role must guard against this attitudinal barrier to full participation of their partners in the advocacy relationship. Several ways to get around this attitudinal barrier are shown in Table E.1.Table E.1 How Advocates Go Beyond Benevolence
The bottom line is that everyone will need to go beyond benevolent helping relationships. We hope you agree with Norman Kunc and Emma Van der Klift who say, “What the world needs now is less benevolence and more social justice!” (Personal communication, San Diego 10th Annual Leadership Conference, San Marcos, CA. July 22, 2008).[Page 191][Page 192]
accommodation: Physical, environmental, instructional supports or services that align with a student's learning style and preferences so that the presence of the student's disability does not unnecessarily affect learning.
active learning: This term refers to any process that involves students in doing things and thinking about the things they are doing. Active learning might include a spectrum of activities, from a modified lecture format to role-playing, simulation, games, project work, cooperative problem solving, collaborative research, partner learning, service learning, and teaching others.
collaboration: Collaboration is a process in which people “work jointly with others or together esp[ecially] in an intellectual endeavor” (Merriam Websters Collegiate Dictionary, 2003, s.v. “collaborate”). In the context of this book, students, teachers, para-educators, and others collaborate to increase the effectiveness of instruction for students in diverse classrooms.
components of self-determined behavior: “choice-making skills, decision-making skills, problem-solving skills, goal-setting and attainment skills, independence, risk-taking and safety skills, self-observation, evaluation, and reinforcement skills, self-instruction skills, self-advocacy and leadership skills, internal locus of control, positive attributions of efficacy and outcome expectancy, self-awareness, self-knowledge” (Wehmeyer, 2007, p. 8).
cooperative process: The cooperative process is an essential element of successful co-teaching and includes face-to-face interaction, positive interdependence, interpersonal skills, monitoring the progress of the co-teachers, and individual accountability.
cooperative learning: Cooperative learning is an instructional structure in which students work together toward mutual goals while simultaneously maintaining positive relationships with group members so as to achieve individual and collective goals.
co-teaching: Co-teaching is two or more people sharing responsibility for teaching the same group of learners.
DI: DI is an acronym for differentiated instruction, which is defined as a way for teachers to recognize and react responsively to their students’ varying background knowledge, readiness, languages, learning preferences, and interests (Hall, 2002).
[Page 194]ELL: ELL is an acronym for English language learner. Teachers of English language learners assist these students either through in-classroom support or resource room support. Instruction of English language learners is sometimes referred to as English as a foreign language (EFL) or English for speakers of other languages (ESOL).
IDEIA: IDEIA is an acronym for the Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act, the 2004 reauthorization of the federal legislation that guarantees students with disabilities a free and appropriate education in the least restrictive possible environment. This latest reauthorization emphasizes the importance of students with disabilities having access to the core general education curriculum through highly qualified teachers and providing early learning support for struggling learners through a Response to Intervention (RTI) approach.
MAPs (Making Action Plans): MAPs is a person-centered planning process to lay out a road map for working toward and achieving goals for the focus person. MAPs identifies where the person currently is, what the goal is, and how others will assist the individual in reaching the goal. The framework establishes a person's history, identity, dreams, nightmares, strengths, gifts, needs, and action strategies.
monitoring: Monitoring student progress toward learning goals occurs on a regular basis.
NCLB: NCLB is the acronym for the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, a federal mandate for ensuring that schools and teachers are accountable for the academic progress of all students in public schools.
peer tutoring/partner learning: Cross-age and peer tutoring are methods of instruction in which learners help each other and, in turn, learn by teaching. Peer tutoring is the process by which a competent student, with minimal training and with a teacher's guidance, helps one or more students at the same grade level learn a skill or concept. Cross-age tutors are students in higher grade levels who work with younger students.
peer buddy: A peer buddy is a student of the same age who agrees to be a friend with another student to (a) assist the student in moving throughout the school and grounds, (b) introduce the student to other students, and (c) establish a friendly atmosphere.
peer mediator: A peer mediator is a classmate or a slightly older student who has been trained to conduct a mediation meeting. The mediator makes sure that mediation meetings are helpful and fair.
peer mediator program: A peer mediation gives students who experience conflicts at school a chance to sit face-to-face and talk, uninterrupted, so each person involved in the conflict is heard. After the problem is defined, solutions are created and evaluated. When an agreement is reached by all involved, it is written and signed.
RTI: RtI is an acronym for Response to Intervention, which allows professional educators to design and evaluate academic and behavioral interventions for [Page 195]students at increasing levels of intensity, depending on the students’ reactions to the intervention. RTI features the following elements: (1) high-quality classroom instruction, (2) research-based instruction, (3) classroom performance measures, (4) universal screening, (5) continuous progress monitoring, (6) research-based interventions, (7) progress monitoring during interventions, and (8) fidelity measures (Graner, Faggella-Luby, & Fritschmann, 2005).
self determination: Individuals who “know how to choose, know what they want and how to get it. From an awareness of personal needs, self-determined individuals choose goals, then doggedly pursue them. This involves asserting an individual's presence, making his or her needs known, evaluating progress toward meeting goals, adjusting performance and creating unique approaches to solve problems” (Martin & Marshall, 1995, p. 147).
stages of co-teacher development: Just as groups experience stages of development, co-teachers should expect to experience and need different communication skills, depending on whether they are just beginning (forming), deciding how they'll work together (functioning), working through the problems they might face (formulating), or managing conflicts of ideas or procedures about what to emphasize or how to teach certain students (fermenting). The social interaction and communication skills they use at each of these stages will facilitate the development of their cohesiveness as a co-teaching team (Villa et al., 2008).[Page 196]
Resources[Page 197][Page 198]Resource A. Cooperative Group Learning Lesson Plan Template[Page 199]Resource B. Peer Tutor and Partner Learning Lesson Plan Template
What is the room arrangement? Will other spaces outside of the classroom be used?
What materials do the peer tutors and partner learners need?
How is student learning assessed?
What specific supports, aids, or services do select students need?
What does the tutor and tutor partner do before, during, and after the lesson?
Tasks Peer Tutor/Tutee Peer Tutor/Tutee Before During After
Evaluation: Where and when will lesson be debriefed and evaluated?[Page 200]Resource C. Co-Teaching Lesson Plan Template[Page 201]Resource D. Syllabus for High School Course for Teaching Students to Be Co-Teachers
Course Description & Syllabus Form School: Etiwanda High School
Date Prepared: March 2008
Course Title: Assistant Teaching I/II
Brief Course Description: This course gives students the opportunity to work in a classroom environment on a daily basis to provide instructional assistance. The course will teach students fundamental principles and skills in teaching. Under the direction and supervision of a classroom teacher, assistant teachers will provide individual and small-group tutoring and, if appropriate, direct instruction as they practice the teaching skills they learn. The student will attend regular seminars conducted by EHS staff and have the opportunity to attend other inservices.[Page 202]Course Objectives/Outcomes
The student outcomes/goals to be achieved by the end of the course.
- Students will demonstrate understanding of basic instructional practices.
- Students will develop and deliver various components of a lesson in a supporting role with the classroom teacher. These components include anticipatory set, presentation of new material, demonstration, and closure.
- Assistants will help establish and maintain classroom routines and management and develop rapport with students in the classroom.
- Students will assist and support students in the class via individual and group tutoring.
- Students will develop skills in the use of various classroom technologies.
- Students will gain an understanding of various student needs based on such indicators as prior knowledge and multiple intelligences.
- Students will work with the classroom teacher to write performance objectives, plan units, and examine standards.
- Students will demonstrate understanding of Bloom's taxonomy, Costa's levels of questioning, AVID methodologies, and Marzano's strategies for increasing student achievement.
- Students will develop and practice public speaking and presentational skills.
- Students will practice various approaches to co-teaching: supportive, parallel, complementary, and team teaching.
- Students will learn about various assessments and assessment practices.
[Syllabus to be written in topic outline form, which will include appropriate references to basic text and/or curriculum resources. Syllabus must be written to reflect each grading period (by week, quarter, etc.). Include suggested homework policy and suggested grading criteria where appropriate. The syllabus should not be a copy of the table of contents.][Page 203]Course OutlineFirst Quarter
- Student's role
- Instructional partner
- Cooperative process
- Roles and responsibilities
- Class observations and practical experience
- Lesson planning
- Anticipatory set
- Presenting new material
- Checking for understanding
- Guided practice
- Sample lesson plans
- Classroom routines and procedures
- Strategies and techniques
- Blackboard configuration (BBC)
- Classroom management
- Tutor training
- Individualized tutoring strategies
- AVID tutoring strategies and methodologies
- Tutorial skills
- Organizational skills
- WICR strategies
- Cornell note taking
- Costa's levels of questioning
- Continue above
- Add four approaches to co-teaching:
- Team Teaching
- Continue above
- Add effective instructional practices
- Performance criteria [Page 204]
- Marzano's strategies
- Bloom's taxonomy
- Multiple intelligences
- Presentational skills
- Public speaking
- Classroom technology
- LCD projector
Course Grading Policy
- Continuing practice and study of above
- Add final project
- Attendance and participation in regular seminars and training
- Assessments by teacher
- Classroom surveys
- Assistant Teaching Portfolio
The Assistant Teaching Portfolio is a record of the student's experience. The teacher and student will negotiate the contents of the portfolio and the rubric to assess it. The portfolio may include the following:
- Journal entries and other writing assignments
- Objectives and goals, lesson/unit plans
- Self-assessments and reflection
- Reports on progress of individuals in class
- Self-analysis of a lesson taught
Complete homework as assigned by the teacher as needed.
SOURCE: Adapted from materials developed by James Cronin, high school administrator at Etiwanda High School, CA; used with permission.[Page 205]Resource E. Template for Product-Activity Matrix Integrating Bloom's Taxonomy and Gardner's Multiple Intelligence Theory[Page 206]Resource F. Template for Facts About the Learner, Classroom Demands, Mismatches, and Potential Solutions[Page 207]Resource G. Student Collaboration Quiz
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