Cognitive Dissonance: Fifty Years of a Classic Theory

Books

Joel Cooper

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    List of Figures

    • 1.1 Attractiveness of the chosen and rejected alternatives following a decision 13
    • 1.2 Evaluation of boring tasks: degree of positive feelings toward a task 18
    • 1.3 Evaluation of interest of discussion by participants 23
    • 2.1 Degree of agreement after writing essay 31
    • 2.2 Changes of attitudes toward speaker ban as a function of choice and incentive 34
    • 2.3 A comparision of ‘actual’ beliefs and interpersonal judgements of beliefs 40
    • 3.1 Attitude change toward position advocated (1) 49
    • 3.2 Attitude change toward position advocated (2) 50
    • 3.3 Attitude toward shock in psychological research 54
    • 3.4 Ratings of attitude change and discomfort 56
    • 3.5 Attitude change as a function of pill condition 59
    • 3.6 Perceived choice as a function of pill condition 60
    • 4.1 Evaluation of the boring task by participants who believed the confederate was convinced or not 66
    • 4.2 Attitudes as a function of whether the listener was convinced 67
    • 4.3 Mean liking as a function of expectancy and choice 70
    • 4.4 The sequence of events leading to dissonance arousal 74
    • 4.5 The sequence of events leading from dissonance arousal to attitude change 78
    • 4.6 Attitudes toward the proposal as a function of consequence and position 84
    • 5.1 Housewives' willingness to help by assigned community reputation 91
    • 5.2 Spread of decision alternatives following a choice 94
    • 5.3 Interest of participants after compassion task in reading about their compassion levels 100
    • 5.4 Exacerbation of dissonance due to relevant affirmation 101
    • 5.5 The Self-Standard Model of dissonance arousal (1) 107
    • 5.6 The Self-Standard Model of dissonance arousal (2) 109
    • 5.7 Attitudes regarding handicapped facilities as a function of primed standards, level of self-esteem, and choice 113
    • 5.8 Interactions between self-esteem and priming on dissonance magnitude 115
    • 6.1 Attitude change based on vicarious dissonance: in-group vs. out-group speaker 124
    • 6.2 Vicarious dissonance: attitudes toward upfront fees as a function of choice, consequence, and group identification 126
    • 6.3 Vicarious discomfort as a function of choice, consequence, and identification 128
    • 6.4a Information shown to participants to have them believe they were non-prototypical University of Queensland students 131
    • 6.4b Information shown to participants to have them believe they were prototypical University of Queensland students 131
    • 6.5 Effect of self and other prototypicality on attitude change 132
    • 7.1 Spread of alternatives as a function of culture and personality test feedback 141
    • 7.2 Spreading of choice alternatives as a function of reference and culture 144
    • 7.3 Spread of the attractiveness of choice alternatives for European and Asian Canadians when choosing for themselves or for a friend 146
    • 7.4 Attitudes toward a tuition increase at South Korean universities 148
    • 7.5 Attitude change by Black and White participants 151
    • 7.6 Spreading of choice alternatives as a function of educational attainment (social class) 155
    • 8.1 Weight loss as a function of choice to participate in therapy 164
    • 8.2 Improvement in approach to a snake (in inches) as a function of therapy type and choice 168
    • 8.3 Degree of assertiveness after training 169
    • 8.4 Weight loss (in lbs) by effort condition 171
    • 8.5 Change in approach to a snake as a function of choice and effort 173
    • 8.6 Percentage of participants who purchased condoms 177
    • 8.7 Percentage of women redeeming their coupons for sun screen 179

    Acknowledgements

    Writing a manuscript for a solo authored book is not an individual venture. I want to acknowledge all of the people who helped turn my thoughts into manuscript pages and then into a book. Because this book is the culmination of research that transpired for a long time, my debts to my teachers and advisors run deep. The late Edward E. Jones inspired me to be an experimental social psychologist and taught me how to ask the questions that were worth pursuing. With almost equal gratitude, I thank Darwyn E. Linder and Jack W. Brehm for their patience, guidance and good will. All of my colleagues during the course of my career shaped my perspective on cognitive dissonance, but I would be remiss if I did not single out John M. Darley, Mark P. Zanna and George R. Goethals as being just a little special. I also want to acknowledge my former graduate student, Russell Fazio, and my former postdoctoral fellow, Jeff Stone, for being constant sources of ideas and for the collaborations that fill many of the pages of this book.

    I also thank my family whose support and encouragement are the bedrock of my life. My wife Barbara stands at the top of the list, but so too do my children Jason, Aaron and Grant and my daughters-in-law, Sharon and Ana. My grandchildren, Reuven and Judah cannot read this book yet, but just gazing at them is the source of so much inspiration.

    I also gratefully acknowledge the many people who read chapters and offered their assistance at many points along the way. Matthew Kugler, Amir Goren, Jessica Salvatore, Jeff Stone, Russell Fazio, Grant Cooper, Aaron Cooper, Dink Asano and Ana, Dragomir and Ljubica Bracilovic are among those people. I am also grateful to Vera Sohl for doing all of the hard administrative work to move the project through to fruition. Finally, I wish to thank my friend and series editor, Michael Hogg, and my editor at Sage, Michael Carmichael, for believing in this project.

    Dedication

    For Barbara

    Forward: Or, why I Wrote This Book

    Cognitive dissonance is a theory that has had an amazing fifty-year run. It began as a gadfly, an iconoclast exception to the way social psychologists typically thought about social processes. It generated excitement and anger – two elements that frequently lead to controversy, new data, and eventually to a synthesis. That certainly has been true of dissonance. The theory continues to generate exciting new data in our journals and conference presentations, and animates our classroom lectures. It has become a commonly used phrase in the popular press, frequently making its way into the pages of the New York Times. This book is about dissonance. And this book, like dissonance itself, is about many things.

    It is a book that pays homage to Leon Festinger, the social scientist who started the research tradition that for fifty years has been a dynamic and innovative theory. It paints a historical portrait of dissonance that sets the twenty-first century issues in the context of the excitement of its early years.

    But this is not a book about history. It is about an exciting evolution that has seen the theory change many times. What began as a simply stated theory about inconsistency is no longer about inconsistency. Or is it? That, too, is the subject of controversy. And one thing that can be said confidently about research in dissonance theory over the decades is that its controversies have not been mellow; they have usually been provocative and productive.

    Readers who are new to the field will quickly learn the basics (Chapter 1) and then begin the journey to the current issues facing the theory. Readers who are well versed in dissonance theory, who have taught it to their classes or who have conducted research using its principles, will be challenged to consider the implications of the new issues and controversies facing the field. Along the way, we will weave together such disparate concepts as autonomic somatic arousal, individual conceptions of the self, as well as cultural perspectives in modern-day dissonance theory.

    This book also has a personal agenda. All research compendia are necessarily selective. They have to be viewed through the author's lens. In the current volume I have selected what I believe to be a fair representation of the thousands of publications that bear the stamp of cognitive dissonance. But the lens is my own. I will necessarily disappoint some scholars and excite others. Readers should be aware that different experts, just as knowledgeable about dissonance as I, might have written a different book, highlighting different ideas and data. This book is my best judgment of where dissonance theory began and where it is going, and I hope the reader will catch the excitement that I still feel after contributing my own work on dissonance for forty years.

    What does dissonance look like as it reaches 50? Well, answering that now would prematurely give away the end of the story. It is safe to say that dissonance at 50 looks a little like self-discrepancy and a little like motivated cognition, a little like judgment and decision making and a little like self-esteem. And although it has been informed by these concepts and contributed to the development of concepts outside the framework of dissonance, the theory has maintained its own framework which continues to make it exciting to study.

  • Afterword: Toward a Modern Theory of Dissonance: What have We Learned?

    Fifty years ago, Leon Festinger taught us that we have a drive to rid ourselves of cognitive inconsistency. In so doing, he introduced the concept of cognition into social psychology and allowed us to see the occasions in which the discomfort that arose from cognitive inconsistency led us to change our view of the world. Sometimes, it made us alter the importance of our cognitions, sometimes it made us seek new information but, most frequently, it caused us to change our attitudes. Festinger and his colleagues pushed this elegantly straightforward principle wherever it would go, generating data to show us some of the subtle consequences of our pursuit of consistency. And, in no small measure, that elegantly straightforward theory rose to the level of a super-theory because it frequently led us to realize the limits of other principles, such as reinforcement, that had too often been left unquestioned and untested.

    In his address to the 95th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association in New York City in 1987, Festinger explained that he had left the field of social psychology in part because he felt so wedded to his statement of dissonance theory that, if he stayed in the field, he would have ended up defending every word of his original statement. And he did not think that was a good thing. ‘Let me put it clearly,’ he stated. ‘The only kind of theory that can be proposed and ever will be proposed that absolutely will remain inviolate for decades … is a theory that is not testable. If a theory is at all testable, it will not remain unchanged. It has to change.’

    And change is what this book has been about. Dissonance is no longer Festinger's inconsistency model, although it owes that model an enormous debt. The realm of dissonance is no longer restricted to comparing cognitions with one another to examine their logical consistency or inconsistency; it now includes considerations of responsibility for action, the consequences of our behavior, and our self-views. Modern theories of social cognition, motivated reasoning, and the self all play a role in understanding what cognitive dissonance is all about.

    The State of Play of Cognitive Dissonance

    There is no single direction of change that has captured the consensus of all social psychologists. Many distinguished researchers have taken the position that no change was needed and that dissonance is still a function of inconsistent cognitions (e.g., Beauvois and Joule, 1999; Harmon-Jones, Brehm, Greenberg, Simon, and Nelson, 1996), some think it is a subcategory of self- affirmation (Steele, 1988; J. Aronson, Cohen, and Nail, 1999) and others believe it is a theory about self-expectations (Aronson, 1992; 1999).

    In my view, the evidence leads to the conclusion that dissonance is a state of arousal that occurs when a person acts responsibly to bring about an unwanted consequence. The measuring rod for deciding if a consequence is undesired can be the internalized standards of one's society, culture, or family, or it can be very personal standards that have been generated by what one thinks of oneself. Either measuring rod is possible, but the playing field is not even. It tilts toward normative standards unless something in the environment specifically makes personal standards particularly accessible.

    The Legacy of Cognitive Dissonance

    Cognitive dissonance has already left many legacies in its wake, and there will almost certainly be more. Its legacies have been both practical and theoretical. At the theoretical level, cognitive dissonance helped us to see the limits of certain other principles that had been thought to be ubiquitously universal, such as reinforcement and learning theories. But more important, cognitive dissonance has informed, and been informed by, a host of other theories. Kunda's (1990) motivated cognition theory, Steele's (1988) self- affirmation theory, Tesser's (1990) self-evaluation maintenance theory, and Higgins's (1989) self-discrepancy theory are but some of the examples. Each of those theories was grounded in dissonance theory and each of those theories has left its imprint in the evolution of dissonance.

    In addition, cognitive dissonance research added methodological innovations to social psychology, including an emphasis on high-impact research in which meaningful and elaborate social situations were made very real to participants in experimental settings. But, even with its emphasis on the experimental method, research spawned new ways of examining derivations made by the theory, including use of connectionist modeling (Schultz and Lepper, 1996).

    On a more practical scale, dissonance has been used as a lens through which to view child-rearing practices, economic behavior (Quattrone and Tversky, 2004), political behavior, and psychopathology, as well as the other issues that were highlighted in Chapter 8. Through the lens of dissonance, we have also been able to gain more insights into the role of culture on our social behavior, and the effects have been reciprocal. The study of culture has helped us understand what is meant by dissonance.

    The Future of Dissonance

    There are avenues left unexplored. Is dissonance learned and, if so, how is it learned? How widespread is vicarious cognitive dissonance and how close will it come to fulfilling the promise we discussed in Chapter 6 for using the approach to change attitudes and behaviors in pro-social directions? Will it lead to techniques that can be used on a wide-scale basis for encouraging people to take better care of their physical and mental health? Will individual and cultural differences reveal fundamental differences in how dissonance is experienced or will the differences in the expression of dissonance lead to a greater understanding of individuals and culture?

    Finally, what theoretical challenges will cause us to see that at least some parts of even the most modern versions of dissonance theory, such as the Self-Standards Model, are simply wrong or need repair?

    Festinger explained, ‘All theories are wrong … One asks, “How much of the empirical realm can it handle and how must it be modified and changed as it matures.?”’ Festinger would have been pleased to see his theory mature, to see it cast off some of the assumptions that were contradicted in the empirical realm and replaced by more comprehensive views. As it matured, it began to look less and less like the edifice Festinger had constructed and more like a multifaceted structure that took behavior as its base and considered consequences, responsibility, and the self. I think Festinger would have smiled appreciatively at the maturation.

    And one thing more. Because all theories are wrong, the current one will undoubtedly be only a way-station to a future evolution.

    References

    Abelson, R.P., Aronson, E., McGuire, W., Newcomb, T., Rosenberg, M., and Tannenbaum, P. (eds) (1968). Theories of Cognitive Consistency: A Sourcebook. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally.
    Aronson, E. (1968) ‘Dissonance theory: progress and problems,’ in R.P.Abelson, E.Aronson, W.J.McGuire, T.M.Newcomb, M.J.Rosenberg, and P.H.Tannenbaum (eds), Theories of Cognitive Consistency: A Sourcebook. Chicago, IL: Rand McNally, pp. 5–27.
    Aronson, E. (1992) ‘The return of the repressed: dissonance theory makes a comeback,’Psychological Inquiry, 3 (4): 303–311. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli0304_1
    Aronson, E. (1999) ‘Dissonance, hypocrisy, and the self-concept,’ in E.Harmon-Jones and J.Mills (eds), Cognitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal Theory in Social Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 103–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10318-000
    Aronson, E. and Carlsmith, J.M. (1962) ‘Performance expectancy as a determinant of actual performance,’Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 65 (3): 178–182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0042291
    Aronson, E. and Carlsmith, J.M. (1963) ‘The effect of the severity of threat on the devaluation of forbidden behavior,’Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66: 584–588. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0039901
    Aronson, E. and Mills, J. (1959) ‘The effect of severity of initiation on liking for a group,’Journal of Abnonnal and Social Psychology, 59(2): 177–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0047195
    Aronson, J, Blanton, H., and Cooper, J. (1995) ‘From dissonance to disidentification: selectivity in the self-affirmation process,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68 (6): 986–996. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.68.6.986
    Aronson, J., Cohen, G., and Nail, P.R. (1999) ‘Self-affirmation theory: an update and appraisal,’ in E.Harmon-Jones and J.Mills (eds), Cognitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal Theory in Social Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 127–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10318-000
    Axsom, D. (1989) ‘Cognitive dissonance and behavior change in psychotherapy,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 25 (3): 234–252. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2889%2990021-8
    Axsom, D. and Cooper, J. (1985) ‘Cognitive dissonance and psychotherapy: the role of effort justification in inducing weight loss,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 21 (2): 149–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2885%2990012-5
    Baumeister, R.F. (1999) The Self in Social Psychology. New York, NY: Psychology Press.
    Beauvois, J. and Joule, R.V. (1999) ‘A radical point of view on dissonance theory,’ in E.Harmon-Jones and J.Mills (eds), Cognitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal Theory in Social Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychology Association, pp. 43–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10318-000
    Bergin, A.E. and Lambert, M.J. (1978) ‘The evaluation of therapeutic outcomes,’ in S.L.Garfield and A.E.Bergin (eds), Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change, vol. 2. New York: Wiley.
    Bem, D.J. (1965) ‘An experimental analysis of self-persuasion,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1 (3): 199–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2865%2990026-0
    Bem, D.J. (1967) ‘Self perception: an alternative interpretation of cognitive dissonance phenomena,’Psychological Review, 76 (3): 183–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0024835
    Bem, D.J. (1972) ‘Self-perception theory,’ in L.Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology', vol. 6. New York: Academic Press, pp. 1–62.
    Berkowitz, L. and Devine, P.G. (1989) ‘Research traditions, analysis, and synthesis in social psychological theories: the case of dissonance theory,’Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15 (4): 493–507. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167289154002
    Blanton, H., Cooper, J., Skurnik, I., and Aronson, J. (1997) ‘When bad things happen to good feedback: exacerbating the need for self-justification with self- affirmations,’Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23 (7): 684–692. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167297237002
    Blanton, H., Pelham, B.W., DeHart, T. and Carvalllo, M.‘Overconfidence as dissonance reduction,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37: 373–385. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2000.1458
    Bodley, J.H. (1994) Cultural Anthropology: Tribes, States and the Global System. NY: McGraw-Hill.
    Brace, P. (2005) ‘Out of touch: the presidency and public opinion,’Political Psychology, 26 (3): 486–487.
    Brehm, J.W. (1956) ‘Postdecision changes in the desirability of alternatives,’Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 52 (3): 384–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0041006
    Brehm, J.W. and Cohen, A.R, (1962) Explorations in Cognitive Dissonance. Oxford: Wiley. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11622-000
    Brehm, J.W. and Jones, R.A. (1970) ‘The effect on dissonance of surprise consequences,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 6 (4): 420–431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2870%2990053-3
    Carlsmith, J.M., Collins, B.E., and Helmreich, R.L. (1966) ‘Studies in forces compliance: I. The effect of pressure for compliance on attitudes change produced by face to face role playing and anonymous essay writing,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4 (1): 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0023507
    Chapanis, N.P. and Chapanis, A. (1964) ‘Cognitive dissonance,’Psychological Bulletin, 61 (1): 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0043457
    Chong, J. and Cooper, J. (2007) ‘Cognitive dissonance and vicarious dissonance in East Asia: Can I feel your discomfort but not my own?’ Poster presented at the meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Memphis, TN.
    Cohen, A.R. (1962) ‘A dissonance analysis of the boomerang effect,’Journal of Personality, 30 (1): 75–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.1962.30.issue-1
    Cooper, J. (1971) ‘Personal responsibility and dissonance: the role of foreseen consequences,’Journal Personality and Social Psychology18: 354–363. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0030995
    Cooper, J. (1980) ‘Reducing fears and increasing assertiveness: the role of dissonance reduction,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16: 199–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2880%2990064-5
    Cooper, J. (1998) ‘Unlearning cognitive dissonance: toward an understanding of the development of cognitive dissonance,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 34: 562–575. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.1998.1365
    Cooper, J. (1999) ‘Unwanted consequences and the self: in search of the motivation for dissonance reduction,’ in E.Harmon-Jones and J.Mills (eds), Cognitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal Theory in Social Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 149–175. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10318-000
    Cooper, J. and Fazio, R.H. (1984) ‘A new look at dissonance theory,’ in L.Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology vol. 17. Orlando, FL: Academic Press, pp. 229–264.
    Cooper, J. and Fazio, R. (1989) ‘Research traditions, analysis, and synthesis: building a faulty case around misinterpreted theory,’Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 15: 519–529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167289154005
    Cooper, J. and Goethals, G.R. (1974) ‘Unforeseen events and the elimination of cognitive dissonance,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29 (4): 441–445. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0036199
    Cooper, J. and Hogg, M.A. (2007) ‘Feeling the anguish of others: A theory of vicarious dissonance,’ in M.P.Zanna (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 39, San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Cooper, J. and Scalise, C.J. (1974) ‘Dissonance produced by deviations from lifestyles: the interaction of Jungian typology and conformity,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29: 566–571. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0036217
    Cooper, J. and Worchel, S. (1970) ‘The role of undesired consequences in the arousal and cognitive dissonance,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16: 312–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0028990
    Cooper, J., Fazio, R.H., and Rhodewalt, F. (1978) ‘Dissonance and humor: evidence for the un differentiated nature of dissonance arousal,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36: 280–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.36.3.280
    Cooper, J., Zanna, M.P. and Goethals, G.R. (1974) ‘Mistreatment of an esteemed other as a consequence affecting dissonance reduction,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10: 224–233. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2874%2990069-9
    Cooper, J., Zanna, M.P. and Taves, P. (1978b) ‘Arousal as a necessary condition for attitude change following induced compliance,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36: 1101–1106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.36.10.1101
    Croyle, R. and Cooper, J. (1983) ‘Dissonance arousal: physiological evidence,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45: 782–791. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.4.782
    Davis, K.E. and Jones, E.E. (1960) ‘Change in interpersonal perception as a means of reducing cognitive dissonance,’Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 61 (3): 402–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0044214
    Davis, M.H. (1983) ‘Measuring individual differences in empathy: evidence for a multidimensional approach,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44: 113–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.44.1.113
    Davis, M.H. (1994) Empathy: A Social Psychological Approach. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Dickerson, C.A., Thibodeau, R., Aronson, E., and Miller, D. (1992) ‘Using cognitive dissonance to encourage water conservation,’Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22 (11): 841–854. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jasp.1992.22.issue-11
    Du Bois, W.E.B. (1903) The Souls of Black Folk. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co.
    Elkin, R.A. and Leippe, M.R. (1986) ‘Physiological arousal, dissonance, and attitude change: evidence for a dissonance-arousal link and a “Don't remind me” effect,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (1): 5–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.51.1.55
    Elliot, A.J. and Devine, P.G. (1994) ‘On the motivational nature of cognitive dissonance: dissonance as psychological discomfort,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67: 382–394. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.67.3.382
    Ellis, A. (1975) ‘Does rational-emotive therapy seem deep enough?,’Rational Living, 10 (2): 11–14.
    Elms, A.C. and Janis, I.L. (1965) ‘Counter-norm attitudes induced by consonant vs. dissonant conditions of role-playing,’Journal of Experimental Research in Personality, 1 (1): 50–60.
    Fazio, R.H., Zanna, M.P., and Cooper, J. (1977) ‘Dissonance and self-perception: an integrative view of each theory's proper domain of application’, Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 13: 464–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2877%2990031-2
    Fernandez, N.Stone, J., Cascio, E., Cooper, J. and Hogg, M.A. (2007) ‘Vicarious hypocrisy: The use of attitude bolstering to reduce dissonance after exposure to a hypocritical ingroup member.’ Paper presented at the meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Memphis, TN.
    Festinger, L. (1954) ‘A theory of social comparison processes,’Human Relations, 7: 117–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001872675400700202
    Festinger, L. (1957) A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance. Evanston, IL: Row, Peterson.
    Festinger, L. and Carlsmith, J.M. (1959) ‘Cognitive consequences of forced compliance,’Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58: 203–210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0041593
    Festinger, L., Riecken, H.W., and Schachter, S. (1956) When Prophecy Fails. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10030-000
    Fointiat, V. (2004). ‘“I know what I have to do, but …” When hypocrisy leads to behavioral change,’Social Behavior and Personality, 32 (8): 741–746. http://dx.doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2004.32.8.741
    Freedman, J.L. (1965) ‘Long-term behavioral effects of cognitive dissonance,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 1 (2): 145–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2865%2990042-9
    Freud, S. (1933) New Introductory Lecture on Psychoanalysis. Oxford: Norton & Co.
    Frey, D. (1988) ‘Postdecisional preference for decision-relevant information as a function of the compence ot its source and the degree of familiarity with this information,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17: 42–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2881%2990005-6
    Fried, C.B. and Aronson, E. (1995) ‘Hypocrisy, misattribution, and dissonance reduction,’Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 21 (9): 925–933. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167295219007
    Galinsky, A., Stone, J., and Cooper, J. (2000) ‘The reinstatement of dissonance and psychological discomfort following failed affirmations,’European Journal of Social Psychology, 30: 123–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-0992%28200001/02%2930:1%3C%3E1.0.CO;2-2
    Gerard, H.B. and Mathewson, G.C. (1966) ‘The effects of severity of initiation on liking for a group: a replication,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2: 278–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2866%2990084-9
    Goethals, G.R. and Cooper, J. (1972) ‘Role of intention and postbehavioral consequences in the arousal of cognitive dissonance,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23: 292–301. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0033123
    Goethals, G.R. and Cooper, J. (1975) ‘When dissonance is reduced: the timing of self-justificatory attitude change,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32: 361–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.32.2.361
    Goethals, G.R., Cooper, J., and Naficy, A. (1979) ‘Role of foreseen, foreseeable, and unforseeable behavioral consequences in the arousal of cognitive dissonance,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37: 1179–1185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.37.7.1179
    Gonzales, A.E.J. and Cooper, J. (1975) ‘What to do with leftover dissonance: Blame it on the lights.’ Unpublished manuscript, Princeton University. Data reported in Zanna, M.P. and Cooper, J. (1976) ‘Dissonance and the attribution process,’ in J. H.Harvey, W.J.Ickes and R.F.Kidd (eds), New Directions in Attribution Research. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Gosling, P., Denizeau, M., and Oberle, D. (2006) ‘Denial of responsibility: a new mode of dissonance reduction,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90 (5): 722–733. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.90.5.722
    Harmon-Jones, E. (1999) ‘Toward an understanding of the motivation underlying dissonance effects: is the production of aversive consequences necessary?,’ in E.Harmon-Jones and J.Mills (eds), Cognitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal Theory in Social Psychology, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 71–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10318-000
    Harmon-Jones, E. and Mills, J. (eds) (1999) Cognitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal Theory in Social Psychology, Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10318-000
    Harmon-Jones, E., Brehm, J.W., Greenherg, J., Simon, L., and Nelson, D.E. (1996) ‘Evidence that the production of aversive consequences is not necessary to create cognitive dissonance,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70: 5–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.1.5
    Heider, F. (1946) ‘Attitudes and cognitive organization,’The Journal of Psychology, 21: 107–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00223980.1946.9917275
    Heine, S.J. and Lehman, D.R. (1997) ‘Culture, dissonance, and self-affirmation,’Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23: 389–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167297234005
    Higgins, E.T. (1989) ‘Self-discrepancy theory: what patterns of self-beliefs cause people to suffer?,’ in L.Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 22. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 93–136.
    Higgins, E.T., Rhodewalt, F., and Zanna, M.P. (1979) ‘Dissonance motivation: its nature, persistence, and reinstatement,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 15: 16–34http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2879%2990015-5
    Hill, D.M. (2005) ‘Race and cognitive dissonance: The role of double-consciousness in the experience of dissonance.’ Unpublished Masters' thesis. Princeton University.
    Hing, L.S., Li, W., and Zanna, M.P. (2002) ‘Inducing hypocrisy to reduce prejudicial responses among aversive racists,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38: 71–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2001.1484
    Hogg, M.A. (2001) ‘Social categorization, depersonalization, and group behavior,’ in M.A.Hogg and R.S.Tindale (eds), Blackwell Handbook of Social Psychology Group Processes. Oxford: Blackwell, pp. 56–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470998458
    Hogg, M.A. and Cooper, J. (2006) ‘Prototypicality as a necessary factor in the experience of vicarious cognitive dissonance.’ Unpublished manuscript. University of Queensland.
    Hoshino-Browne, E., Zanna, A.S., Spencer, S.J., Zanna, M.P., Kitayama, S., and Lackenbauer, S. (2005) ‘On the cultural guises of cognitive dissonance: the case of Easterners and Westerners,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89: 294–310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.89.3.294
    Hovland, C.I., Lumsdaine, A.A., and Sheffield, F.D. (1949) Experiments on Mass Communication (Studies in Social Psychology in World War II, vol. 3). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Hovland, C.I., Janis, I.L., and Kelley, H.H. (1953) Communication and Persuasion. New Haven: Yale University Press.
    Hull, C.L. (1952) A Behavior System: An Introduction to Behavior Theory Concerning the Individual Organism. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Iwao, S. (1988) ‘Social psychology's models of man: Isn't it time for East to meet West?’ Invited address to the International Congress of Scientific Psychology, Sydney, Australia.
    Jones, R.A., Linder, D.E., Kiesler, C.A., Zanna, M.P., and Brehm, J.W. (1968) 'Internal states or external stimuli: Observer's attitude judgments and the dissonance theory-self-perception controversy. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 4: 247–269. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2868%2990054-1
    Kelley, H.H. (1972) ‘Attribution in social interaction,’ in E.E.Jones, D.E.Kanouse, H.H.Kelly, R.E.Nisbett, S.Valins and B.Weiner (eds), Attribution: Perceiving the causes of behavior. Morristown, NJ: General Learning Press.
    Kihlstrom, J.F. and Cantor, N. (1984) ‘Mental representations of the self,’ in L.Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 17. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Kitayama, S., Ishii, K., Imada, T., Takemura, K. and Ramaswamy, J.‘Voluntary settlement and the spirit of independence: Evidence from Japan's “northern frontier,”’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91: 369–384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.91.3.369
    Kitayama, S., Snibbe, A.C., Markus, H.R., and Suzuki, T. (2004) ‘Is there any “free” choice?: Self and dissonance in two cultures,’Psychological Science, 15: 527–533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psci.2004.15.issue-8
    Kunda, Z. (1990) ‘The case for motivated reasoning,’Psychological Bulletin, 108: 480–498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.108.3.480
    Leary, M.R. and Tangney, J.P. (2003) Handbook of Self and Identity. New York: Guilford Press.
    Lepper, M.R., Zanna, M.P., and Abelson, R.P. (1970) ‘Cognitive irreversibility in a dissonance-reduction situation,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 16: 191–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0029819
    Linder, D.E., Cooper, J., and Jones, E.E. (1967) ‘Decision freedom as a determinant of the role of incentive magnitude in attitude change,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6: 245–254. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0021220
    London, P. (1967) ‘The induction of hypnosis,’ in J.E.Gordon (ed.), Handbook of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, New York: Macmillan.
    Losch, M.E. and Cacioppo, J.T. (1990) ‘Cognitive dissonance may enhance sympathetic tonus, but attitudes are changed to reduce negative affect rather than arousal,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26: 289–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2890%2990040-S
    Mackie, D.M. and Smith, E.R. (1998) ‘Intergroup relations: insights from a theoretically integrative approach,’Psychological Review, 105: 499–529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.105.3.499
    Mackie, D.M., Worth, L.T. and Asuncion, A.G. (1990) ‘Processing of persuasive in- group messages,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58: 812–822. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.58.5.812
    Markus, H.R. and Kitayama, S. (1991) ‘Culture and the self: implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation,’Psychological Review, 98: 224–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224
    Matthews, K.A., Kelsey, S.F., Meilahn, E.N., Kuller, L.H., and Wing, R.R. (1989) ‘Educational attainment and behavioral and biologic risk factors for coronary heart disease in middle-aged women,’American Journal of Epidemiology, 129: 1132–1144.
    Mendonca, P. (1980) ‘The effects of choice and client characteristics in the behavioral treatment of overweight chidren.’ Unplublished manuscript, University of Kansas.
    Mendonca, P.J. and Brehm, S.S. (1983) ‘Effects of choice on behavioral treatment of overweight children,’Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 1: 343–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.1983.1.4.343
    Miller, J.G. (1984) ‘Culture and the development of everyday social explanation,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46: 961–978. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.46.5.961
    Mills, J. (1965) ‘Avoidance of dissonant information,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 2: 589–593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0022523
    Miils, J. and Jellison, J.M. (1968) ‘Effect on opinion change of similarity between the communicator and the audience he addressed,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9: 153–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0021246
    Monin, B., Norton, M.I., Cooper, J., and Hogg, M.A. (2004) ‘Reacting to an assumed situation vs. conforming to an assumed reaction: the role of perceived speaker attitude in vicarious dissonance,’Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 7: 207–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1368430204046108
    Nel, E., Helmreich, R., and Aronson, E. (1969) ‘Opinion change in the advocate as a function of the persuasibility of his audience: a clarification of the meaning of dissonance,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 12: 117–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0027566
    Norton, M.I., Monin, B., Cooper, J., and Hogg, M.A. (2003) ‘Vicarious dissonance: attitude change from the inconsistency of others,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85: 47–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.85.1.47
    Pallak, M.S. and Piitman, T.S. (1972) ‘General motivational effects of dissonance arousal,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 21: 349–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0032266
    Pyszczynski, T. and Greenberg, J. (1987) ‘Toward an integration of cognitive and motivational perspectives on social inference: a biased hypothesis-testing model,’ in L.Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 20. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 297–340. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2601%2808%2960417-7
    Quattrone, G.A. and Tversky, A. (2004) ‘Self-deception and the voter's illusion,’ in E.Shafir (ed.), Preference, Belief, and Similarity: Selected Writings by Amos Tversk, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 825–844.
    Rhodewalt, F. and Comer, R. (1979) ‘Induced-compliance attitude change: Once more with feeling,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 15: 35–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2879%2990016-7
    Rogers, C.R. (1961) On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rosenberg, M. (1965) Society and the Adolescent Self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Ross, C.E. and Wu, C. (1995) ‘The links between education and health,’American Sociological Review, 60: 719–745. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2096319
    Rossi, A.S. (2001) Caring and Doing for Others: Social Responsibility in the Domains of Family, Work, and Community. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
    Sakai, H. (1981) ‘Induced compliance and opinion change,’Japanese Psychological Research, 23: 1–8.
    Sakai, H. and Andow, K. (1980) ‘Attribution of personal responsibility and dissonance reduction,’Japanese Psychological Research, 22: 32–41.
    Salovey, P. and Rothman, A.J. (eds). Social Psychology of Health. New York: Psychology Press.
    Salter, A. (1949) Conditioned Reflex Therapy: the Direct Approach to the Reconstruction of Personality. Oxford: Creative Age Press.
    Sanitioso, R., Kunda, Z., and Fong, G.T. (1990) ‘Motivated recruitment of autobiographical memories,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59: 229–241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.59.2.229
    Schachter, S. and Singer, J.E. (1962) ‘Cognitive, social, and physiological determinants of emotional state,’Psychological Review, 69: 379–399. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0046234
    Schachter, S. and Wheeler, L. (1962) ‘Epinephrine, chlorpromazine, and amusement,’Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 65: 121–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0040391
    Scher, S.J. and Cooper, J. (1989) ‘Motivational basis of dissonance: the singular role of behavioral consequences,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56: 899–906. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.56.6.899
    Schlenker, B.R. (1980) Impression Management: The Self-Concept, Social Identity, and Interpersonal Relations. Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Schultz, T.R. and Lepper, M.R. (1996) ‘The consonance model of dissonance reduction,’ in S.J.Read and L.C.Miller (eds), Connectionist Models of Social Reasoning and Social Behavior. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 211–244.
    Sedikides, C. and Gregg, A.P. (2003) ‘Portraits of the self,’ in M.A.Hogg and J.Cooper (eds), Sage Handbook of Social Psychology. London: Sage, pp. 110–138.
    Sherman, S.J. and Gorkin, L. (1980) ‘Attitude bolstering when behavior is inconsistent with central attitudes,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 16: 388–403. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031%2880%2990030-X
    Shrauger, J.S. (1975) ‘Responses to evaluation as a function of initial self-perceptions,’Psychological Bulletin, 82: 581–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076791
    Simon, L., Greenberg, J., and Brehm, J. (1995) ‘Trivialization: the forgotten mode of dissonance reduction,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 68: 247–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.68.2.247
    Skinner, B.F. (1953) Science and Human Behavior. Oxford: Macmillan.
    Smith, M.L. and Glass, G.V. (1977) ‘Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies,’American Psychologist, 32: 752–760. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.9.752
    Snibbe, A.C. and Markus, H.R. (2005) ‘You can't always get what you want: educational attainment, agency, and choice,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88: 703–720. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.88.4.703
    Stampfl, T.G. and Levis, D.J. (1967) ‘Essentials of implosive therapy: a learning theory-based psychodynamic behavioral therapy,’Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 72: 496–503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0025238
    Staw, B.E. (1974) ‘Attitudinal and behavioral consequences of changing a major organizational reward: A field experiment,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29: 742–751. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0036292
    Steele, C.M. (1975) ‘Name-calling and compliance,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 31: 361–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076291
    Steele, C.M. (1988) ‘The psychology of self-affirmation: sustaining the integrity of the self,’ in L.Berkowitz (ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, vol. 21. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, pp. 261–302.
    Steele, C.M. and Liu, T.J. (1983) ‘Dissonance processes as self-affirmation,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45: 5–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.1.5
    Steele, C.M., Hopp, H., and Gonzalez, J. (1988) ‘Dissonance and the lab coat.’ Unpublished manuscript, University of Washington.
    Steele, C.M., Spencer, S.J., and Lynch, M. (1993) ‘Self-image resilience and dissonance: the role of affirmational resources,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64: 885–896. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.64.6.885
    Stone, J. (1999) ‘What exactly have I done? The role of self-attribute accessibility in dissonance,’ in E.Harmon-Jones and J.Mills (eds), Cogtiitive Dissonance: Progress on a Pivotal Theory in Social Psychology. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, pp. 175–200. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10318-000
    Stone, J. and Cooper, J. (2001) ‘A self-standards model of cognitive dissonance,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology', 37: 228–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2000.1446
    Stone, J. and Cooper, J. (2003) ‘The effect of self-attribute relevance on how self-esteem moderates attitude change in dissonance processes,’Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39: 508–515. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-1031%2803%2900018-0
    Stone, J., Aronson, E., Crain, A.L., Winslow, M.P., and Fried, C.B. (1994) ‘Inducing hypocrisy as a means of encouraging young adults to use condoms,’Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 20: 116–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167294201012
    Stone, J., Wiegand, A.W., Cooper, J., and Aronson, E. (1997) ‘When exemplification fails: hypocrisy and the motive for self-integrity,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72: 54–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.72.1.54
    Stout, C.E. (2002) The Psychology of Terrorism: Theoretical Understandings and Perspectives, vol. III. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers/Greenwood Publishing Group.
    Sullivan, H.S. (1953) The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
    Tajfel, H. (1982) Social Identity and Intergroup Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Tedeschi, J.T., Schlenker, B.R., and Bonoma, T.V. (1971) ‘Cognitive dissonance: private ratiocination or public spectacle?,’American Psychologist, 26: 685–695. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0032110
    Tesser, A. (1990) ‘Smith and Ellsworth's appraisal model of emotion: a replication, extension, and test,’Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 16: 210–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167290162003
    Thibaut, J.W. and Keiley, H.H. (1959) The Social Psychology of Groups. New York: Wiley.
    Thibodeau, R. and Aronson, E. (1992) ‘Taking a closer look: reasserting the role of the self-concept in dissonance theory,’Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18: 591–602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167292185010
    Waterman, C.K. and Katkin, E.S. (1967) ‘Energizing (dynamogenic) effect of cognitive dissonance on task performance,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6: 126–131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0024573
    Weaver, K.D. and Cooper, J. (2002) ‘Self-standard accessibility and cognitive dissonance reduction.’ Poster presented at the meeting of the Society of Personality and Social Psychology.
    Wolpe, J. (1958) Psychotherapy by Reciprocal Inhibition. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Wolpe, J. (1967) ‘Phobic reactions and behavior therapy,’Conditional Reflex, 2: 162.
    Zanna, M.P. and Aziza, C. (1976) ‘On the interaction of repression-sensitization and attention in resolving cognitive dissonance,’Journal of Personality44: 577–593. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.1976.44.issue-4
    Zanna, M.P. and Cooper, J. (1974) ‘Dissonance and the pill: an attribution approach to studying the arousal properties of dissonance,’Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 29: 703–709. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0036651

    • Loading...
Back to Top