Clinical Supervision: A Systems Approach


Elizabeth L. Holloway

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    Preface: A Scientist-Practitioner's Journey

    Recently, my colleague, who has long taught and practiced supervision and is a well-respected process researcher, reflected on an esteemed counseling psychologist's comment to her: “Research in supervision is the biggest joke in our profession. There is no distinct body of knowledge to uncover.”

    It must be admitted that supervision, in the broader domain of professional psychology, has largely been devalued or unnoticed. The supervisory enterprise has not been much more than a footnote of professional psychology, undoubtedly because of its connection to practice (Holloway & Wolleat, 1994).

    In fact, supervision was not recognized as a unique practice until the 1980s. Educators have often assumed that the act of teaching counseling is not much different from the act of doing counseling—that counselors become supervisors because they are counselors.

    That supervision has a distinct knowledge base was established at last by using empirical research to develop models of practice. This is true even though supervision is ironically based on “practice” and “the teaching of practice.” Furthermore, the knowledge generated by practitioners has not been integrated with empirical knowledge or recognized in the professional research literature. Yet the learning of practice, the application of principles of practice in a systematic and deliberate way, is critical to the teaching of supervision. Students of professions want to know “what and how to do.” They also need to discover what is “effective doing.” Unfortunately, the work of research to date is not often relevant to the scientist-practitioner of supervision.

    My struggle to uncover the tacit knowledge of practitioners of supervision has been shaped by the people with whom I have worked over the last 19 years in research, practice, and teaching. The weaving together of the insights gained from my experiences is the mission of this book. I have tried to bring forth the relevant and critical questions that go beyond the scattered musings of my own reflections. I must admit that I have never written this way about supervision before—I have only talked this way. Although I have studied supervision empirically for many years and led workshops on the practice of supervision, I myself began to bridge the knowledge of the working supervisor and the knowledge of science only with my goal clearly in mind.

    My process of asking different questions is intrinsically woven into the substance of this book. I have not written a typical training manual, listing techniques in one, two, three fashion. Instead, the chapters challenge practitioners and educators to reflect on what they do in supervision, examine the meaning of their work, uncover their own intuition, and articulate to others what they know.

    In attempting to synthesize the research and practice knowledge of supervision, I have looked for examples and models that are immediately practical and relevant to the reflective questioner. These examples offer but a glimpse of all that can happen in the multilayered relationships we create in supervision. By working through the examples, one can reveal a way to apply a framework, the Systems Approach to Supervision (SAS) to the real work of supervision. The framework both comes from the work and simultaneously gives back to the work a specific way to talk about it. It is a model that leads to a critical analysis of what we do and, in turn, how supervisees and clients are affected. From the mindful regard of the relational contexts comes the possibility of the articulation of our efforts. In the end, I have discovered, we collectively benefit by a more grounded and considered approach to supervision.

    I remember the story a colleague told me about her teaching. She asked graduate students to join her on a guided fantasy in which they were to imagine themselves as researchers. The pictures they drew were of people alone, alienated from friends, white-coated, hair-bunned, and in a sterile environment. As she told this story, I was struck with what the students were conveying. To be a researcher was to be involved in a solitary, individual process in a pictureless world. To them, the research world was totally separate from where most of these students imagined themselves—the practice world filled with colorful stories and felt experiences.

    The picture of researchers the students made is remarkably different from my own experience and has far-reaching adverse consequences for the development of a practitioner-relevant body of conceptual and empirical knowledge in supervision. For this reason, I include here two stories in which I articulate my process of bridging my practice and science selves. Besides describing and acknowledging events and people along the way, stories are intrinsically a part of the process as well. The following story (see Holloway, 1992a) provides an example of how each intentional expression of the learner's experience can lead to the next building block of understanding.

    The Grievance

    I returned recently to the University of Wisconsin, the bed of my beginning. I've had many flashbacks. The same halls that I walk now I walked 15 years ago to prepare for a future life. I've looked from a distance at my old office, the one that used its window to look inward. There, I began my work in supervision, for one of my jobs was to supervise master's students' work in counseling. One experience supersedes the view of all others.

    I became his supervisor in his last term of practice. It never felt to me that he was present. His clients begged for his attention even though he often spoke to them. Watching his work, his separateness from self struck me full force. I consulted. I documented. I worked to help him learn. With my adviser's support, I told him that I could not pass him on.

    He asked to record our sessions so he could expand his skills, to keep working at it. I said of course. Later, I received notice. I was to meet with the collegewide grievance board.

    I walked into the room, and facing me were five very full professors. On the expansive wood table in front of them stood a small, black tape recorder. I knew it held my conversations in supervision. I sat down, looked across at them, and began responding to their queries regarding work with my student. I was clear and articulate, calmly referring to my notes of dates and clients and evaluative criteria …

    I was screaming on the inside—“They've heard my words. Do I know anything about supervision? About him? Will my words betray me?”

    It was time. They pushed it on. I heard my voice. I heard his voice. I heard our conversation, disjointed and forced. They looked at me disapprovingly. Could I make sense of this jumbled talk? Didn't they see that was just it? I struggled to explain the meaning of the interactional process. What they heard would be just what they would hear with his clients, too. Is this someone they would go to for help? He dropped out. He's not to be a counselor. I made a dissertation of supervision.

    I learned in the moment of defending my act of supervision that it is not sufficient to just “do.” I must also reflect on my own process of doing in a manner that makes it accessible to others. As a teacher, my goal became to connect science and practice, the true nature of supervision.

    Discover with Science

    I came to Santa Barbara to work at the university. I bought a wardrobe and unpacked my data. I stayed fascinated with the talk of supervision. In a year's time I had collected more boxes of audiotapes. I did supervision, I taught it, and I did research on it. These acts were never consciously hooked. I remember the moments with my collaborator in the computer room on campus. He, copying the last of the printouts. I, nattering on about statistical methods of interrater reliability and sequential analysis with the master. “But, instead, why couldn't we do it this way? Why won't it work? Why isn't there another way? There is a question.”

    Looking up from his swirling numbers, his face very still, his eyes with an edge of amusement, he said, “I think that you are onto something.” I thrilled. I laughed. I danced across the room. I gloated.

    We wrote a paper together. We began a life together. We collaborated. We populated.

    To me, the great potential before us as supervisors is to explicitly live out the connections between science knowledge and practice knowledge. The result will be a scientific practice that encompasses not just knowledge gained from traditional research but also knowledge transferred from critical inquiry methods into our practice. Most of all, it is the articulation of our findings—what knowledge we use, how we are uncovering that knowledge, and how it is relevant to the immediacy of the client or supervisee dilemma—that is the heart of a systematic and deliberate supervisory process.

    We each find our own way of discovering, organizing, and understanding the supervisory process. For many of us, there is a history of being supervised, supervising, and being trained to supervise. Through thinking, through talking, through writing, we can share with excitement and humility our discoveries, learn each other's languages of knowing, and open ourselves to all aspects of our work. My hope is that this book will contribute to a language of supervision, a way to ask questions, and a way to express knowledge that will result in a more meaningful empiricism.


    This book had its origins in my work with Martin Acker at the University of Oregon. The many hours that we spent talking about supervision practice and teaching led to our first joint workshop at the Oregon Association for Counselor Education and Supervision in 1988. A matrix for analyzing task and function in supervision was the focus of our approach—Engagement and Power in Clinical Supervision (EPICS). Chapter 2 was developed from this initial conceptualization. From this approach, we developed a series of vignettes depicting supervisory dilemmas. The transcripts of some of these vignettes appear in this book. Later, we developed the reflected interview that makes up Chapter 5 of this book. Marty's contribution to supervision is apparent in his reflections as the supervisor in this interview. Our collaboration during my years at Oregon encouraged and taught me how to integrate the science and practice knowledge of work in supervision. Marty's complexity of thinking and grace of being have greatly enriched my work and my life.


    Some of the information in Research Boxes 2.1, 3.1, 3.2, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, and 4.11 has been adapted from “Supervision: A Way of Teaching and Learning,” by Elizabeth L. Holloway, in Handbook of Counseling Psychology, edited by S. D. Brown and R. W. Lent. Copyright © 1992, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. It is used here by permission.

    Information in Research Box 5.1 has been adapted from “Discourse in Supervision,” by Elizabeth L. Holloway and Karen L. Poulin, in Therapeutic and Everyday Discourse as Behavior Change: Towards a Micro-Analysis in Psychotherapy Research, edited by J. Siegfried. Copyright © 1995, Ablex. Used here by permission.

  • Appendix: The Association for Counselor Education and Supervision Standards for Counselor Supervision

    Core Areas of Knowledge and Competency

    The proposed Standards include a description of eleven core areas of personal traits, knowledge and competencies that are characteristic of effective supervisors. The level of preparation and experience of the counselor, the particular work setting of the supervisor and counselor and client variables will influence the relative emphasis of each competency in practice.

    These core areas and their related competencies have been consistently identified in supervision research and, in addition, have been judged to have face validity as determined by supervisor practitioners, based on both select and widespread peer review.

    • Professional counseling supervisors are effective counselors whose knowledge and competencies have been acquired through training, education, and supervised employment experience. The counseling supervisor:
      • demonstrates knowledge of various counseling theories, systems, and their related methods;
      • demonstrates knowledge of his/her personal philosophical, theoretical and methodological approach to counseling;
      • demonstrates knowledge of his/her assumptions about human behavior; and
      • demonstrates skill in the application of counseling theory and methods (individual, group, or marital and family and specialized areas such as substance abuse, career-life, rehabilitation) that are appropriate for the supervisory setting.

      NOTE: These standards were authored by the ACES Supervision Interest Network and were adopted by the American Association for Counseling and Development in 1989. © ACA. Reprinted with permission. No further reproduction authorized without written permission of the American Counseling Association.

    • Professional counseling supervisors demonstrate personal traits and characteristics that are consistent with the role. The counseling supervisor:
      • is committed to updating his/her own counseling and supervisory skills;
      • is sensitive to individual differences;
      • recognizes his/her own limits through self-evaluation and feedback from others;
      • is encouraging, optimistic and motivational;
      • possesses a sense of humor;
      • is comfortable with the authority inherent in the role of supervisor;
      • demonstrates a commitment to the role of supervisor;
      • can identify his/her own strengths and weaknesses as a supervisor;
      • can describe his/her own pattern in interpersonal relationships.
    • Professional counseling supervisors are knowledgeable regarding ethical, legal and regulatory aspects of the profession, and are skilled in apply this knowledge. The counseling supervisor:
      • communicates to the counselor a knowledge of professional codes of ethics (e.g., AACD, APA);
      • demonstrates and enforces ethical and professional standards;
      • communicates to the counselor an understanding of legal and regulatory documents and their impact on the profession (e.g., certification, licensure, duty to warn, parents' rights to children's records, third party payment, etc.);
      • provides current information regarding professional standards (NCC, CCMHC, CRC, CCC, licensure, certification, etc.);
      • can communicate a knowledge of counselor rights and appeal procedures specific to the work setting; and
      • communicates to the counselor a knowledge of ethical considerations that pertain to the supervisory process, including dual relationships, due process, evaluation, informed consent, confidentiality, and vicarious liability.
    • Professional counseling supervisors demonstrate conceptual knowledge of the personal and professional nature of the supervisory relationship and are skilled in applying this knowledge. The counseling supervisor:
      • demonstrates knowledge of individual differences with respect to gender, race, ethnicity, culture and age and understands the importance of these characteristics in supervisory relationships;
      • is sensitive to the counselor's personal and professional needs;
      • expects counselors to own the consequences of their actions;
      • is sensitive to the evaluative nature of supervision and effectively responds to the counselor's anxiety relative to performance evaluation;
      • conducts self-evaluations, as appropriate, as a means of modeling professional growth;
      • provides facilitative conditions (empathy, concreteness, respect, congruence, genuineness, and immediacy);
      • establishes a mutually trusting relationship with the counselor;
      • provides an appropriate balance of challenge and support; and
      • elicits counselor thoughts and feelings during counseling or consultation sessions, and responds in a manner that enhances the supervision process.
    • Professional counseling supervisors demonstrate conceptual knowledge of supervision methods and techniques, and are skilled in using this knowledge to promote counselor development. The counseling supervisor:
      • states the purposes of supervision and explains the procedures to be used;
      • negotiates mutual decisions regarding the needed direction of learning experiences for the counselor;
      • engages in appropriate supervisory interventions, including role-play, role reversal, live supervision, modeling, interpersonal process recall, microtraining, suggestions and advice, reviewing audio and video tapes, etc.;
      • can perform the supervisor's functions in the role of teacher, counselor, or consultant as appropriate;
      • elicits new alternatives from counselor for identifying solutions, techniques, responses to clients;
      • integrates knowledge of supervision with his/her style of interpersonal relations;
      • clarifies his/her role in supervision;
      • uses media aids (print material, electronic recording) to enhance learning; and
      • interacts with the counselor in a manner that facilitates the counselor's selfexploration and problem solving.
    • Professional counseling supervisors demonstrate conceptual knowledge of the counselor developmental process and are skilled in applying this knowledge. The counseling supervisor:
      • understands the developmental nature of supervision;
      • demonstrates knowledge of various theoretical methods of supervision;
      • understands the counselor's roles and functions in particular work settings;
      • can identify the learning needs of the counselor;
      • adjusts conference content based on the counselor's personal traits, conceptual development, training, and experience; and
      • uses supervisory methods appropriate to the counselor's level of conceptual development, training, and experience.
    • Professional counseling supervisors demonstrate knowledge and competency in case conceptualization and management. [The counseling supervisor:]
      • recognizes that a primary goal of supervision is helping the client of the counselor;
      • understands the roles of other professionals (e.g., psychologists, physicians, social workers) and assists with the referral process, when appropriate;
      • elicits counselor perceptions of counseling dynamics;
      • assists the counselor in selecting and executing data collection procedures;
      • assists the counselor in analyzing and interpreting data objectively;
      • assists the counselor in planning effective client goals and objectives;
      • assists the counselor in using observation and assessment in preparation of client goals and objectives;
      • assists the counselor in synthesizing client psychological and behavioral characteristics into an integrated conceptualization;
      • assists the counselor in assigning priorities to counseling goals and objectives;
      • assists the counselor in providing rationale for counseling procedures; and
      • assists the counselor in adjusting steps in the progression toward a goal based on ongoing assessment and evaluation.
    • Professional counseling supervisors demonstrates [sic] knowledge and competency in client assessment and evaluation. The counseling supervisor:
      • monitors the use of tests and test interpretations;
      • assists the counselor in providing rationale for assessment procedures;
      • assists the counselor in communicating assessment procedures and rationales;
      • assists the counselor in the description, measurement, and documentation of client and counselor change; and
      • assists the counselor in integrating findings and observations to make appropriate recommendations.
    • Professional counseling supervisors demonstrate knowledge and competency in oral and written reporting and recording. The counseling supervisor:
      • understands the meaning of accountability and the supervisor's responsibility in promoting it;
      • assists the counselor in effectively documenting supervisory and counseling related interactions;
      • assists the counselor in establishing and following policies and procedures to protect the confidentiality of client and supervisory records;
      • assists the counselor in identifying appropriate information to be included in a verbal or written report;
      • assists the counselor in presenting information in a logical, concise, and sequential manner; and
      • assists the counselor in adapting verbal and written reports to the work environment and communication situation.
    • Professional counseling supervisors demonstrates [sic] knowledge and competency in the evaluation of counseling performance. The counseling supervisor:
      • can interact with the counselor from the perspective of evaluator;
      • can identify the counselor's professional and personal strengths, as well as weaknesses;
      • provides specific feedback about such performance as conceptualization, use of methods and techniques, relationship skills, and assessment;
      • determines the extent to which the counselor has developed and applied his/her own personal theory of counseling;
      • develops evaluation procedures and instruments to determine program and counselor goal attainment;
      • assists the counselor in the description and measurement of his/ her progress and achievement; and
      • can evaluate counseling skills for purposes of grade assignment, completion of internship requirements, professional advancement, and so on.
    • Professional counseling supervisors are knowledgeable regarding research in counseling and counselor supervision and consistently incorporate this knowledge into the supervision process. The counseling supervisor:
      • facilitates and monitors research to determine the effectiveness of programs, services and techniques;
      • reads, interprets, and applies counseling and supervisory research;
      • can formulate counseling or supervisory research questions;
      • reports results of counseling or supervisory research and disseminates as appropriate (e.g., inservice, conference, publications); and
      • facilitates an integration of research findings in individual case management.
    The Education and Training of Supervisors

    Counseling supervision is a distinct field of preparation and practice. Knowledge and competencies necessary for effective performance are acquired through a sequence of training and experience which ordinarily includes the following:

    • Graduate training in counseling;
    • Successful supervised employment as a professional counselor;
    • Certification as a National Certified Counselor, Certified Clinical Mental Health Counselor, Certified Rehabilitation Counselor, or Certified Career Counselor;
    • Certification by a state department of education or licensure by a state as a professional counselor;
    • Graduate training in counseling supervision including didactic courses, seminars, laboratory courses, and supervision practica;
    • Continuing educational experiences specific to supervision theory and practice (e.g., conferences, workshops, self-study); and
    • Research activities related to supervision theory and practice.

    The supervisor's primary functions are to teach the inexperienced counselor and to foster their professional development, to serve as consultants to experienced counselors, and to assist at all levels in the provision of effective counseling services. These responsibilities require personal and professional maturity accompanied by a broad perspective on counseling that is gained by extensive, supervised counseling experience. Therefore, training for supervision generally occurs during advanced graduate study or continuing professional development. This is not to say, however, that supervisor training in the pre-service stage is without merit. The presentation of basic methods and procedures may enhance students' performance as counselors, enrich their participation in the supervision process, and provide a framework for late study.

    August 1988


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    Author Index

    • Abadie, P. D., 73, 117
    • Abbey, D. S., 5
    • Alexander, C, 44, 49, 51
    • Alexander, P. A., 12
    • Airman, I., 44, 49, 50, 51
    • Altucher, N., 14
    • American Counseling Association, 106
    • American Psychological Association (APA), 104, 107
    • Anchor, K. N., 89
    • Ashby, J. D., 53
    • Atkinson, D. R., 91
    • Barak, S. A., 53
    • Barker, E. N., 53, 54
    • Barmann, B., 4
    • Barrett-Lennard, G. T., 53, 54, 93
    • Bartell, P. A., 108
    • Bartlett, W. E., 5
    • Baumeister, R. R, 79
    • Berenson, B. G., 53
    • Berger, C. E., 51
    • Bergin, A. E., 12
    • Bernard, J. M., 3—5, 72, 75, 91
    • Beutler, L. E., 73, 89
    • Blackmon, B., 74, 93
    • Borders, L. D., 87, 90, 104
    • Boyd, J., 5
    • Bradley, R, 85
    • Bradley, L. J., 107
    • Brenock, K., 45, 46, 49, 96, 118
    • Brome, D. R., 91
    • Burns, C. I., 15
    • Butler, S. R, 95
    • Byrne, D., 89
    • Calabrese, A. M., 51
    • Carey, J. C, 54
    • Carifio, M. S., 62
    • Carkhuff, R. R., 53
    • Carroll, M., 73
    • Casali, S. L., 94
    • Charles, D., 15, 87
    • Chenault, J., 14
    • Cherniss, C, 100
    • Chevron, E. S., 95
    • Chi, M. T. H., 12
    • Chickering, A. W., 4
    • Clairborn, C. D., 15
    • Cliffe, K., 95
    • Clyne-Jackson, S., 107
    • Cole, M., 99, 100
    • Coleman, H. L. K., 94
    • Cook, D. A., 93
    • Cormier, L. S., 12
    • Cornfeld, J. L., 87, 90
    • Craddick, R., 99, 100
    • Crimmings, A. M., 3, 4, 42, 62, 80, 86
    • Cron, E. A., 90
    • Cummings, A. L., 15
    • Daniels, M. H., 87, 88
    • Dell, D. M, 25, 70, 71, 72
    • Delworth, U., 4, 85, 89
    • Demos, G. G., 73
    • DePaulo, B. M., 79
    • Dodds, J. B., 99, 100
    • Dodenhoff, J. T., 54, 95, 97
    • Doehrman, M. J., 96
    • Donham, G., 75
    • Dunlap, D., 44
    • Dustin, R? 14
    • Dye, H. A., 72, 104
    • Efros, E, 73, 117
    • Efstation, J. F., 52, 53, 79
    • Egan, G., 12
    • Ekstein, R., 4, 97, 99, 100
    • Ellickson, J. L., 51, 88, 94 96, 97
    • Ellis, A., 4
    • Ellis, M. V., 25, 72
    • Emerson, S., 107
    • Ericson, P. M., 96
    • Feinberg, L. B., 53, 70
    • Ferrin, H., 14
    • Flavell, J. H., 12
    • Foley, S., 95
    • Folger, J. P., 116, 117, 118
    • Follett, M. P., 44
    • Fong, M. L., 87, 90
    • Ford, D. H., 53
    • Fredenberger, J. J., 99
    • Freeman, E. M., 74, 93
    • French, J. R. P., Jr., 32—34, 44, 76
    • Freund, R. D., 45, 46, 47, 73, 117
    • Friedlander, M. L., 14, 45—46, 49, 52—54, 79, 94, 96, 118
    • Friedler, E, 73
    • Gardner, S. L., 45, 46, 47, 73, 117
    • Garfield, S. L., 12, 94
    • Garner, R., 12
    • Gelson, C. J., 87, 90
    • Gendlin, E., 54
    • George, R. L., 14
    • Glaser, R., 12
    • Glickman, A. S., 107
    • Gluck, M. R., 54, 89
    • Goldberg, D. A., 73
    • Goldman, P., 44
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    • National Association of Social Workers (NASW), 106
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    • Zuwaylif, E, 73

    Words of Supervision


    Our words shape the space between us.

    They fall from us to be heard as they are meant.

    The journey, across the abyss of our separateness, is filled With the shadows of history and talks past.

    Now meaning becomes the property of the other.

    To shape, to form, to turn over in the mind, And then, to let words fall away.

    Thus continues a cycle of intention, of meaning, of purpose, Blanketing time, layer on layer, clouding the transparency Of the soul.

    The soul, perhaps to be delivered full and vulnerable on The next turn, the next word.

    In supervision we talk. We move one phrase upon another

    To create a language of understanding and Weave a relationship of history.

    The warp of our talk is the relationship.

    It girds itself against the errors of our words,

    The misspokens, the not spokens,

    The misunderstandings of our history.

    The weft moves back and forth between us. You feel the

    Rhythm of the shaft work itself around a warp of Relationship, changing tension as it moves, creating a

    Pattern of woven goods that reflect the color of our Intentions and the design of our meaning.

    About the Author

    Elizabeth L. Holloway is Professor in the Department of Counseling Psychology and Director of the Educational and Psychological Training Center at the University of Wisconsin—Madison. She has a long career in the research, teaching, and practice of clinical supervision. She is a Fellow of Division 17 Counseling Psychology of the American Psychological Association and holds a Diplomate in Counseling Psychology of the American Board of Professional Psychology. She has been a leader in professional training issues both nationally and internationally, evidenced by her writings, research awards, and keynote addresses on supervision and professional training in many parts of the world.

    This book focuses on her model for the training and practice of supervision. It has evolved from her experience in working with practicing supervisors and educators in the United States, Great Britain, Europe, and Asia. She has tried to capture for the printed page the dynamic thinking and work that has unfolded at these workshops. She says, “My greatest personal challenge in creating this book was to bridge the knowledge of researchers and practitioners while making it accessible to both groups. Building bridges has always been an integral part of my professional and personal life.”

    The SAS Model: A Systems Approach to Clinical Supervision

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