Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific: How Can Countries Adapt?
Publication Year: 2012
Climate change is now widely regarded as one of the most serious challenges the world faces, and adapting to it is an urgent requirement for countries across the world. The less developed countries of the Asia and Pacific region, despite contributing the least to the emission of greenhouse gases, are the most vulnerable to the effects of climate change.
Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific: How Can Countries Adapt compiles policies and best practices on climate change adaptation, emphasizing the fact that the Asia and Pacific region needs immediate measures—both structural and nonstructural—in order to adapt to climate change. The discussions elaborate on issues related to water resources, agriculture, and natural resources management, which are some of the most vital sectors for the region from ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Review of the Economics of Climate Change on Southeast Asia
- Chapter 2: Agricultural Impact of Climate Change: A General Equilibrium Analysis with Special Reference to Southeast Asia
- Chapter 3: Monitoring the Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Food Security
- Chapter 4: Framework Conditions for Integrating Climate Change Adaptation into Natural Resource Planning
- Chapter 5: Valuing Natural Resource Management: Climate Change Adaptation in the European Union
- Chapter 6: Monitoring the Vulnerability and Adaptation Planning for Water Security
- Chapter 7: Water Management Practices and Climate Change Adaptation: South Asian Experiences
- Chapter 8: Adaptation Measures for Climate Change in Japan
- Chapter 9: Climate Change Impacts on the Mekong River Delta
- Chapter 10: Integrated Approach to Climate Change Impact Assessment on Agricultural Production Systems
- Chapter 11: Adaptation in Urban Settings: Asian Experiences
- Chapter 12: Flood Disasters and Warning Systems in Northern Thailand
- Chapter 13: Integrated Flood Analysis System: An Efficient Tool to Implement Flood Forecasting and Warning Systems
- Chapter 14: Effectiveness of Early Warning Systems and Monitoring Tools in the Mekong Basin
- Chapter 15: Insurance Solutions to Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific
- Chapter 16: Community-Based Approaches to Climate Change Adaptation: Lessons and Findings
- Chapter 17: Learning to Adapt: Case of Gender Alliance in Japan
- Chapter 18: Structural and Nonstructural Adaptation Measures of Climate Change in India
- Chapter 19: Adapting to Climate Change: Developing Local Capacity
- Chapter 20: Financing Adaptation Responses: Disaster Mitigation in Viet Nam
- Chapter 21: Economic Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on Agriculture at Farm Level
- Chapter 22: Supporting Climate Action Plans: The Role of the Adaptation Knowledge Platform
- Chapter 23: Enhancing the Adaptive Capacity in the Asia and Pacific Region: Opportunities for Innovation and Experimentation
- Chapter 24: Current Status of Adaptation Planning in the Region
- Chapter 25: Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation into Development Planning
- Conclusions, Policy Implications, and the Way Forward
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List of Tables[Page ix]
- 2.1 Projected Climate Changes and Their Impacts on Agricultural Productivity, 2080 21
- 2.2 Regional Impacts of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity, 2080 22
- 2.3 Impact on Global Welfare and Production, 2080 (% change) 25
- 2.4 Macroeconomic Impacts of Climate Change on Southeast Asian Countries, 2080 (% change) 28
- 2.5 Impacts on Agricultural Production and Trade in Southeast Asian Countries, 2080 (% change) 30
- 2.6 Impacts of Climate Change under Alternative Baseline Agricultural Productivity, 2080 (% change relative to alternative baseline) 32
- 4.1 Selected Adaptation Initiatives in Developing Asian Countries 54
- 4.2 Categorized Estimates of Adaptation Funds (US$ billion) 60
- 5.1 Spatial Assessment for Climate Change Adaptation 72
- 5.2 Timing of Climate Change Adaptation Related to Selected Measures 72
- 6.1 Annual Water Withdrawal by Sector, 2004 83
- 6.2 Summary of Key Observed Past and Present Climate Trends and Variability 85
- 6.3 Status of Coral Reefs in Selected Regions of Asia, 2004 87
- 6.4 Projected Changes in Surface Air Temperature and Precipitation in Asia 88
- 6.5 Vulnerability of Key Sectors to the Impacts of Climate Change in Asia 90
- 6.6 Regional-scale Impacts of Climate Change by 2080 92
- 6.7 Typology of Agricultural Water Management Systems 95
- 6.8 Complete Frameworks and Supporting Toolkits 98
- 6.9 Water Sector Tools 100
- 10.1 Simulated Cropping Pattern with Climate and Social Scenarios 152
- 13.1 Examples of Satellite-Based Rainfall Data Products Available on the Internet 183 [Page x]
- 13.2 Parameter Classification (PDHM, Global Map) 188
- 15.1 Natural Disasters, 1975–2007 212
- 15.2 Challenges to Propagate Climate Insurance in Asia and the Pacific 213
- 15.3 Public-Private Partnership (PPP) for Climate-related Insurance 215
- 17.1 Sex versus Age Cross-tabulation 232
- 18.1 Humanitarian Aid to Selected Asian Countries from 2001 238
- 18.2 Sources of Long-term Funding and Assistance to Tamil Nadu State 242
- 18.3 Claims Settled under Weather Insurance Scheme 1999–2000 247
- 19.1 Effects of Water-using Sectors on Development (WED-AIM) in Sri Lanka with Climate Change Impacts 255
- 21.1 Mean Values of the Variables Used in the Ricardian Model 281
- 21.2 Estimated Regression Coefficients of the Ricardian Model 282
- 21.3 Statistical Test on Effect of Climate Variables on Net Revenue 283
- 21.4 Marginal Effects of Climate Variables on Net Revenue 283
- 21.5 HADCM3 Projections for Losses in Net Revenue Per Acre in Different Districts 284
- 23.1 Overview of Ongoing Adaptation Related Actions and Policies in Country Plans 298
- 23.2 Capacity Building and Training Indicators for Climate Change Adaptation Mainstreaming 312
- 25.1 Regional Prioritization of Key Vulnerable Sectors 331
List of Figures[Page xi]
- 2.1 Impacts of Climate Change on International Prices and World Trade of Agricultural Goods, 2080 26
- 2.2 Decomposition of Welfare Impacts, 2080 29
- 2.3 Crop Imports as Percent of Domestic Demand, Southeast Asia, 2010–2080 31
- 2.4 Grain Self-sufficiency Ratio, Measured as Grain Output as % of Domestic Demand, Southeast Asia, 2010–2080 31
- 3.1 Linkages among Facets of Climate Change, Drivers of Adaptation, and Mitigation Options 39
- 4.1 Global Temperature Rise over Time 48
- 4.2 Projected Impacts of Climate Change 49
- 4.3 Mainstreaming and Adaptive Capacity Building 56
- 5.1 Conceptual Framework of Approaches to Climate Adaptation Planning and Their Integration 71
- 6.1 Number of Water-related Disasters in Different Continents, 1980–2006 81
- 6.2 Number of Water-related Disaster Fatalities in Different Continents, 1980–2006 81
- 9.1 Geomorphologic Land Classification Map of Mekong Delta in Viet Nam 132
- 9.2 Historical Records of the Floods at Selected Locations 135
- 9.3 Simulation of the Flood Phase under the Sea-level Rise with 0.5 m in Future 136
- 10.1 Assessment Framework 140
- 10.2 The Seyhan River Basin of Turkey 142
- 10.3 Major Components and Paths of Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Production System in the Seyhan River Basin 143
- 10.4 Approach Used in Integrated Impact Assessment 144
- 10.5 Projected Changes in January Precipitation of Turkey in the 2070s 145 [Page xii]
- 10.6 Changes in Monthly Average Temperature in the Seyhan River Basin 147
- 10.7 Changes in Total Snowfall in Volume Equivalent to Water 147
- 10.8 Changes in Water Resources Reliability 148
- 10.9 Estimated Grain Yield in Wheat and Maize in the 2070s 150
- 10.10 Differences in Changes of Wheat Grain Yield in the 2070s among the Counties in Adana Province 151
- 12.1 Location of Flash Floods and Overbank Flow Inundation in Recent Years 172
- 12.2 Time Lag of Peak Water Levels between Upstream and Downstream Stations Used for Flood Early Warning 175
- 13.1 Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) 180
- 13.2 IFAS Main Structure and Functions 182
- 13.3 PWRI Distributed Hydrological Model (PDHM) Ver.2 184
- 13.4 Automatic Delineation of Basin Boundary and River Channel Network with DEM 187
- 13.5 Comparison of Raw Satellite-based Rainfall Data and Areal Average Ground-based Rainfall Data for the Yoshino River Basin and the Tone River Basin, Japan 190
- 13.6 Effect of ICHARM's Self-correction Method to Correct the Underestimation of Satellite-based Rainfall Data without Any External/Ancillary/Ground-based Data for Basin-average Rainfall Intensity 191
- 13.7 Effect of ICHARM's Self-correction Method to Correct the Underestimation of Satellite-based Rainfall Data without Any External/Ancillary/Ground-based Data for Basin-average Rainfall Intensity for Typhoon Morakot, Taipei, China 192
- 13.8 Data Plots for Raw and Self-corrected Satellite-based Rainfall Data against Round-truth Data, Removing the Data, Which the Time More than Six Hours Passed from the Direct Microwave Measurements 192
- 13.9 Example of Flood Runoff Simulations with IFAS (PDHM Ver.2) 193
- 14.1 Mean Monthly Rainfall and Temperature at Two Selected Sites within the Mekong Basin 197
- 15.1 Natural Disasters Reported, 1975–2009 207
- 15.2 Estimated Damage Caused by Reported Natural Disasters 1975–2009 208
- 16.1 Rainfall in South Gobi, Mongolia 220 [Page xiii]
- 18.1 Humanitarian Aid in 15 Countries 237
- 18.2 Choice between Structural and Nonstructural Measures of Adaptation 240
- 19.1 Action Impact Matrix Types for Analyzing SD-CC Adaptation Links 254
- 20.1 Schematic View of the Self Reliant Fund 272
- 23.1 Adaptive Capacity Conceptual Framework 296
- 23.2 Initiatives to Raise Awareness in Sectoral Agencies 302
- 23.3 Collaboration and Use of Instruments among Sectoral Agencies 304
- 23.4 Current Focus of Adaptation Activities 305
- 23.5 Priorities in Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation 306
- 23.6 Trends in Assessment on Climate Change Risk 306
- 23.7 Classification of Adaptive Capacity of Countries 308
- 23.8 Stakeholders' Involvement in Adaptive Capacity Building 312
- 23.9 The Role of Private Sector in Promoting Adaptive Capacity 314
- 23.10 An Integrated Approach for Enhancing Adaptive Capacity 317
- 24.1 Climate Change and Development 322
- 24.2 Framework of Development Policies and Actions 324
- 24.3 National Development Plans of Asian Developing Countries 325
- 25.1 Human Systems Prioritized by Parties in National Communications 330
- 25.2 Key Sectors Identified in the NAPA Projects as on July 2011 332
- 25.3 Nairobi Work Program on Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation to Climate Change 333
- 25.4 Institutional Arrangements under the Convention as of July 2011 336
List of Abbreviations[Page xv]
ABC atmospheric brown cloud ADB Asian Development Bank ADBI Asian Development Bank Institute AEGIS agricultural and environmental geographic information systems AEZ agro-ecological zone AF Adaptation Fund AFD French Development Agency AHNIP Appropriate Hydrological Network Improvement Project AIDADS an implicitly direct additive demand system AIM action impact matrix AIT Asian Institute for Technology APFED Asia-Pacific Forum for Environment and Development APWF Asia-Pacific Water Forum AR4 Fourth Assessment AWG-LCA Ad hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action BAP Bali Action Plan BAPW Buenos Aires Programme of Work BOE barrel oil equivalent BQA Better Air Quality CASA Church's Auxillary Social Action CAT bond catastrophe bond CC climate change CBO community-based organisations CBT capacity building and training CCA climate change adaptation CCCS Centre for Climate Change Studies CCS Climate change strategy CDD Cooling Degree Days CDM Clean Development Mechanism CES constant elasticity of substitution CFC chlorofluorocarbon CGE computable general equilibrium COP Conference of the Parties [Page xvi] CRED Center for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters DAC Development Assistance Committee DHM distributed hydrological model DSS decision support systems DST Department of Science and Technology, Government of India EC European Commission EEA European Environmental Agency EIT economies in transition EMRI Emergency Management and Research Institute EPOC Environment Policy Committee EU European Union EV equivalent variation F&SP flood and storm prevention FAO Food and Agriculture Organization FAR First Assessment Report FFSP Fund for Flood and Storm Prevention FMM flood management and mitigation FTP file transfer protocol GCM general circulation model GDP gross domestic product GEF Global Environment Facility GFAS global flood alert system GHG greenhouse gas GIS geographic information system GLOF glacial lake outburst flood GPRS general packet radio service GTAP Global Trade Analysis Project HFC hydrofluorocarbon HYCOS Hydrological Cycle Observing System IC indifference curve ICCAP Climate Change on Agricultural Production System in Arid Areas ICHARM International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management ICLEI Local Governments for Sustainability IDI Infrastructure Development Institute IFAS Integrated Flood Analysis System IFNet International Flood Network IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute IGES Institute for Global Environmental Strategies IIASA International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis IIED International Institute for Environment and Development IMD Indian Meteorological Department [Page xvii] IMF International Monetary Fund IMPAM Irrigation Management Performance Assessment Model IPB Institut Pertanian Bogor IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IRRI International Rice Research Institute IRS Indus River System IRWR internal renewable water resources IWRM Integrated Water Resources Management JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency JMA Japan Meteorological Agency JSCE Japan Society of Civil Engineers KfW German Development Bank KP Kyoto Protocol LAM Local Area Model Lao PDR Lao People's Democratic Republic LDC least developed countries LIPI The Indonesian Institute of Sciences LMMA locally managed marine areas LP linear program model LSIP Lower Seyhan Irrigation Project LUT Land Utilization Types MASSCOTE Mapping System and Services for Canal Operation Techniques MDG Millennium Development Goal MLIT Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism MoEF Ministry of Environment and Forests MoWR Ministry of Water Resources MRC Mekong River Commission MSE Madras School of Economics MSSRF M S Swaminathan Research Foundation NAPA national adaptation programmes of action NAPCC National Action Plan on Climate Change NARBO Network of Asian River Basin Organizations NATCOM India's Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC NCRC NGO Coordination and Rehabilitation Center NDPRCC National Development Planning Response to Climate Change NGO nongovernmental organization NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration NPM non-pesticidal management NWP Nairobi Work Programme ODA official development assistance [Page xviii] OECD Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development PAGASA Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration PDC Population and Development Consolidation PDHM PWRI-distributed hydrological model PPP public-private partnership PRA participatory rural appraisal method PRC People's Republic of China PSC Project Steering Committee PTFCC Presidential Task Force on Climate Change PWRI Public Works Research Institute RAG Research Advisory Group RAP Rapid Appraisal Process RBO River Basin Organizations RCM Regional Climate Model REDD reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation RIHN Research institute for Humanity and Nature SAARC South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation SAR Second Assessment Report SCCF Special Climate Change Fund SD sustainable development SEDP Socio-Economic Development Plans SEI Stockholm Environment Institute SENSA Swedish Environmental Secretariat for Asia SIDS small island developing states SNC Second National Communication SOLUS sustainable options for land use SOM soil organic matter SPA strategic priority on adaptation SRES Special Report on Emission Scenarios SRI system of rice intensification SSARR stream flow synthesis and reservoir regulation model SST sea surface temperature TAR Third Assessment Report TFP total factor productivity TMD The Meteorological Department UN United Nations UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNEP United Nations Environment Programme [Page xix] UNEPRRC.AP United Nations Environment Programme Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific UNESCAP United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific UNFCCC United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change UN/ISDR UNU United Nations Strategy for Disaster Reduction Secretariat United Nations University URBS US system based on the unified river basin simulator model United States USAID USDA-ARS United States Agency for International DevelopmentUnited States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural ResearchService US$ US dollar VIA vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation WBGT wet bulb globe temperature WFD Water Framework Directive WHA World Health Assembly WHO World Health Organization WKC WHO Kobe Centre WMO World Meteorological Organization WRF weather research forecast WUA water users associations °C degree Celsius CH4 methane cm centimeter CO2 carbon dioxide km kilometer km2 square kilometer kWh Kilowatt hour m3 cubic meter MtCO2-eq metric ton of carbon dioxide equivalent maf million acre-feet Mha million hectares mm millimeter MW Megawatt N2O nitrous oxide ppb parts per billion ppm parts per million ppt parts per trillion W Watt
Developing countries of the Asia and Pacific region are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The poor in these countries are at especially high risk, given their heavy dependence on agriculture, strong reliance on ecosystem services, rapid growth and intense concentrations of population, and relatively poor health services. Developing countries are usually also characterized by insufficient capacity to adapt to climate change impacts, inadequate infrastructure, meager household income and savings, and limited support from public services. There is a real danger that climate change impacts may derail the significant progress countries in Asia and the Pacific have made toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals.
To cope with impacts already locked into the climate system, the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), in collaboration with the Regional and Sustainable Development Department and other operational departments of the Asian Development Bank, has put in place integrated adaptation solutions to address the causes and consequences of climate change in the Asia and Pacific region. This book is based on papers presented at two ADBI workshops on climate change adaptation held in Tokyo, Japan, in 2009, and Colombo, Sri Lanka, in 2010. The main objective of these workshops was to bring together leading academics and policymakers from the Asia and Pacific region to share good practices. The two workshops generated common insights and understanding, assessed policy implications, and identified further capacity building needs, all of which are captured by this book.
This book is being published as part of ADBI's efforts to produce knowledge products that can be used to promote inclusive and sustainable growth, one of our three priority themes. I am confident that this book will contribute to policy development and academic understanding in an area where new insights are badly needed. I hope this book will also help countries in Asia and the Pacific to set up and implement robust institutional frameworks for mainstreaming climate change concerns into development planning so that they can adapt to uncertainties, and sustainably manage their critical resources for the long-term development of their people., Dean and CEO, Asian Development Bank Institute[Page xxii]
The book is based on papers presented at two workshops on climate change adaptation held in Tokyo, Japan, and Colombo, Sri Lanka. We would like to thank the workshop participants for making the discussions intellectually stimulating and for sharing their experiences. We are grateful for the contributions of all resource persons who not only shared their wisdom, experiences, and perspectives, but also were willing to spend many days in writing them in an easily understandable, useful, and usable way. This book would not have been possible without generous support of the time, energy, and intellectual analysis of contributors at our partner institutions. Special thanks to our colleagues in ADB headquarters Katsuji Matusnami, Robert Dobias, Newin Sinsri, Suphachol Suphalsai, and Jung Tae Yong, who offered us challenging and sometimes provoking thoughts that helped us to shape our ideas and workshop contents. This book owes its existence to the energy and efforts of the ADBI team. Masahiro Kawai, ADBI Dean, provided vision and intellectual leadership. A special word of thanks in this respect is also owed to Worapot Manupipatpong and Mario Lamberte, former ADBI Directors, for their never-ending support to design the workshops and provide us with challenging feedback on this book. Tadashige Kawasaki and Alastair Dingwall played a major role in bringing this book to completion, as did Ainslie Smith, who was largely responsible for the editing and production. We are grateful to Mari Kimura, Joana Portugal, Apsara Chandanie, and Yuko Ichikawa for their research assistance and administrative support.[Page xxiv]
- Adaptation refers to adjustments or management strategies to deal with climate risks and their effects. It relates to practices, processes, and structures that moderate harm or realize opportunities associated with climate change. It is a very broad concept and can be used in a variety of ways. It can be anticipatory and reactive, autonomous and planned, and can be implemented by both public and private actors. Private actors include individuals, households, communities, commercial companies, and NGOs. Public actors include government bodies at all levels.
- Adaptive capacity is defined as the ability of people and systems to adjust to climate change, for example, individual or collective coping strategies for the reduction and mitigation of risks or by changes in practices, processes or structures of systems. Adaptive capacity cannot be easily measured and is not well understood. It is related to general levels of sustainable development such as political stability, economic well-being, human and social capital, and climate specific aspects.
- Carbon sequestration is the process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir.
- Climate can be understood as average weather. It represents the state of the climate system over a given time period and is usually described by the means and variation of variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind, most commonly associated with weather.
- Climate variability refers to variations in the mean state and other statistics of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events. Variability may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system or to variations in natural or anthropogenic external forcing.
- Climate change refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural variability observed over comparable time periods.
- Disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses that exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources. [Page 350]
- Disaster prevention includes all activities undertaken to avoid the adverse impact of hazards and related environmental, technological, and biological disasters.
- Disaster risk reduction represents the systematic development and application of policies, strategies, and practices to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, and to avoid or to limit adverse impact of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development.
- Mainstreaming refers to the incorporation of climate-change-adaptation initiatives (measures, options, strategies) into other existing policies, programs, management systems or decision-making structures that are not necessarily about climate or climate change.
- Maladaptation refers to development resulting in actions that do not succeed in reducing vulnerability of systems and social groups.
- Models are a representation of a real system, and usually describe the structure or function of that particular system.
- Mitigation entails all human interventions that reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas.
- Preparedness includes all activities and measures taken in advance to ensure effective response to the impact of disasters, including the issuance of timely and effective early warnings and the temporary removal of people and property from a threatened location.
- Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of future generations to meet their own needs.
- Tools refer to approaches and instruments that can be employed to analyze and plan for and/or implement mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into development planning.
- Vulnerability is a more dynamic concept that encompasses exposure to risks, hazards, shock and stress, difficulties in coping with contingencies, and access to assets. In the context of climate change, vulnerability is used in this report to mean that the risk of climate change will cause a decline in the well-being of poor people and poor countries. This refers to the degree to which a system is susceptible or unable to cope with the adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. This vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed, as well as its adaptive capacity.
About the Editors and Contributors[Page 351]Editors
Venkatachalam Anbumozhi, Capacity Building Specialist, Asian Development Bank Institute, Japan.
Meinhard Breiling, Senior Researcher, Technology, Tourism, Landscape, Inter-faculty Cooperation Centre, Vienna University of Technology, Austria.
Selvarajah Pathmarajah, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.
Vangimalla R. Reddy, Research Leader, USDA-ARS, Crop Systems and Global Change Laboratory, United States.Contributors
Midori Aoyagi, Chief of the Environmental Planning Section, Social and Environmental Systems Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan.
Agastin Baulraj, Associate Professor of Economics, St John's College, Manonma-niam Sundranar University, India.
Zhijun Chen, Water Resources Development and Conservation Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Thailand.
Robert Dobias, Senior Advisor, Asian Development Bank, Philippines.
David H. Fleisher, Agricultural Engineer, USDA-ARS, Crop Systems and Global Change Laboratory, United States.
Serena Fortuna, Program Officer, Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Environment Programme, Thailand.
Kazuhiko Fukami, Leader, Hydrologic Engineering Research Team, International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management under the auspices of UNESCO, Japan.
[Page 352]Sevi Govindaraj, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India.
Shigeko Haruyama, Professor, Mie University, Graduate School of Bio Resources and University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Frontier Science, Japan.
Srikantha Herath, Senior Academic Program Officer, Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Japan.
Chu Thai Hoanh, Senior Officer, International Water Management Institute, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Lao People's Democratic Republic.
Tae Yong Jung, Principal Climate Change Specialist, Asian Development Bank, Philippines.
Takahiro Kawakami, Researcher, Hydrologic Engineering Research Team, International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management under the auspices of UNESCO, Japan.
Ikuyo Kikusawa, Visiting Researcher, Program Management Office, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan.
Hideki Kimura, Manager, Mitsui & Co. Ltd., Japan.
Masanori Kobayashi, Coordinator, Program Management Office, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan.
Guillaume Lacombe, Researcher-Hydrologist, International Water Management Institute, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Lao People's Democratic Republic.
Jostacio M. Lapitan, Technical Officer, Urbanization and Emergency Preparedness, WHO Centre for Health Development, Japan.
Jun Magome, Researcher, Japan Water Agency, Japan.
Worapot Manupipatpong, Former Director, Capacity Building and Training, Asian Development Bank Institute.
Yuri Murayama, Researcher, IR3S, University of Tokyo, Japan.
Seishi Nabesaka, Researcher, Water-related Hazard Research Group, International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management under the auspices of UNESCO, Japan.
[Page 353]Youssef Nassef, Regional Manager, Adaptation Technology and Science Program, UN Framework Convention for Climate Change Secretariat, Germany.
Bui Duong Nghieu, Senior Researcher, Institute of Financial Science, Ministry of Finance, Viet Nam.
Toshio Okazumi, Director, River Management Office, River Improvement and Management Division, River Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism, Japan.
Taikan Oki, Professor, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.
Eiji Otsuki, Director, International Water Management Coordination, River Planning Division, River Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan.
Go Ozawa, Researcher, Hydrologic Engineering Research Team, International Center for Water Hazard and Risk Management under the auspices of UNESCO, Japan.
Kuppannan Palanisami, Director, TATA Policy Research Program, International Water Management Institute, Hyderabad Office, India.
Coimbatore Ramarao Ranganathan, Professor, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India.
K. Raja Reddy, Professor, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, United States.
Samiappan Senthilnathan, Assistant Professor, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India.
Tomonori Sudo, Advisor, Office for Climate Change, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan.
Tomonobu Sugiura, Researcher, Japan Water Agency, Japan.
Thada Sukhapunnaphan, Director, Hydrology and Water Management Center for Upper Northern Region, Royal Irrigation Department, Thailand.
Dennis J. Timlin, Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS, Crop Systems and Global Change Laboratory, United States.
Thierry Valéro, Institute of Research for Rural Development, Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.[Page 354]
Tsugihiro Watanabe, Professor, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Japan.
Yang Yang, Research Associate, Wye Research and Education Center, University of Maryland, United States.
Harumi Yashiro, Manager, Risk Modeling Group, Tokyo Marine and Nichido Risk Consulting Co. Ltd., Japan.
Fan Zhai, Managing Director, Asset Allocation and Strategic Research Department, China Investment Cooperation, People's Republic of China.
Juzhong Zhuang, Assistant Chief Economist, Asian Development Bank, Philippines.