Climate Change in Asia and the Pacific: How Can Countries Adapt?

Books

Edited by: Venkatachalam Anbumozhi, Meinhard Breiling, Selvarajah Pathmarajah & Vangimalla R. Reddy

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: Climate Change Challenges, Scenarios, Risks, and Planning Tools

    Part II: Evolving Adaptation Measures in the Region

    Part III: Successful Programs and Measures of Adaptation in Vulnerable Areas

    Part IV: Action Plan for Policymakers and Planners to Reduce Risk Impact

    Part V: Capacity Building Strategies for Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation

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    List of Tables

    • 2.1 Projected Climate Changes and Their Impacts on Agricultural Productivity, 2080 21
    • 2.2 Regional Impacts of Climate Change on Agricultural Productivity, 2080 22
    • 2.3 Impact on Global Welfare and Production, 2080 (% change) 25
    • 2.4 Macroeconomic Impacts of Climate Change on Southeast Asian Countries, 2080 (% change) 28
    • 2.5 Impacts on Agricultural Production and Trade in Southeast Asian Countries, 2080 (% change) 30
    • 2.6 Impacts of Climate Change under Alternative Baseline Agricultural Productivity, 2080 (% change relative to alternative baseline) 32
    • 4.1 Selected Adaptation Initiatives in Developing Asian Countries 54
    • 4.2 Categorized Estimates of Adaptation Funds (US$ billion) 60
    • 5.1 Spatial Assessment for Climate Change Adaptation 72
    • 5.2 Timing of Climate Change Adaptation Related to Selected Measures 72
    • 6.1 Annual Water Withdrawal by Sector, 2004 83
    • 6.2 Summary of Key Observed Past and Present Climate Trends and Variability 85
    • 6.3 Status of Coral Reefs in Selected Regions of Asia, 2004 87
    • 6.4 Projected Changes in Surface Air Temperature and Precipitation in Asia 88
    • 6.5 Vulnerability of Key Sectors to the Impacts of Climate Change in Asia 90
    • 6.6 Regional-scale Impacts of Climate Change by 2080 92
    • 6.7 Typology of Agricultural Water Management Systems 95
    • 6.8 Complete Frameworks and Supporting Toolkits 98
    • 6.9 Water Sector Tools 100
    • 10.1 Simulated Cropping Pattern with Climate and Social Scenarios 152
    • 13.1 Examples of Satellite-Based Rainfall Data Products Available on the Internet 183
    • 13.2 Parameter Classification (PDHM, Global Map) 188
    • 15.1 Natural Disasters, 1975–2007 212
    • 15.2 Challenges to Propagate Climate Insurance in Asia and the Pacific 213
    • 15.3 Public-Private Partnership (PPP) for Climate-related Insurance 215
    • 17.1 Sex versus Age Cross-tabulation 232
    • 18.1 Humanitarian Aid to Selected Asian Countries from 2001 238
    • 18.2 Sources of Long-term Funding and Assistance to Tamil Nadu State 242
    • 18.3 Claims Settled under Weather Insurance Scheme 1999–2000 247
    • 19.1 Effects of Water-using Sectors on Development (WED-AIM) in Sri Lanka with Climate Change Impacts 255
    • 21.1 Mean Values of the Variables Used in the Ricardian Model 281
    • 21.2 Estimated Regression Coefficients of the Ricardian Model 282
    • 21.3 Statistical Test on Effect of Climate Variables on Net Revenue 283
    • 21.4 Marginal Effects of Climate Variables on Net Revenue 283
    • 21.5 HADCM3 Projections for Losses in Net Revenue Per Acre in Different Districts 284
    • 23.1 Overview of Ongoing Adaptation Related Actions and Policies in Country Plans 298
    • 23.2 Capacity Building and Training Indicators for Climate Change Adaptation Mainstreaming 312
    • 25.1 Regional Prioritization of Key Vulnerable Sectors 331

    List of Figures

    • 2.1 Impacts of Climate Change on International Prices and World Trade of Agricultural Goods, 2080 26
    • 2.2 Decomposition of Welfare Impacts, 2080 29
    • 2.3 Crop Imports as Percent of Domestic Demand, Southeast Asia, 2010–2080 31
    • 2.4 Grain Self-sufficiency Ratio, Measured as Grain Output as % of Domestic Demand, Southeast Asia, 2010–2080 31
    • 3.1 Linkages among Facets of Climate Change, Drivers of Adaptation, and Mitigation Options 39
    • 4.1 Global Temperature Rise over Time 48
    • 4.2 Projected Impacts of Climate Change 49
    • 4.3 Mainstreaming and Adaptive Capacity Building 56
    • 5.1 Conceptual Framework of Approaches to Climate Adaptation Planning and Their Integration 71
    • 6.1 Number of Water-related Disasters in Different Continents, 1980–2006 81
    • 6.2 Number of Water-related Disaster Fatalities in Different Continents, 1980–2006 81
    • 9.1 Geomorphologic Land Classification Map of Mekong Delta in Viet Nam 132
    • 9.2 Historical Records of the Floods at Selected Locations 135
    • 9.3 Simulation of the Flood Phase under the Sea-level Rise with 0.5 m in Future 136
    • 10.1 Assessment Framework 140
    • 10.2 The Seyhan River Basin of Turkey 142
    • 10.3 Major Components and Paths of Climate Change Impacts on Agricultural Production System in the Seyhan River Basin 143
    • 10.4 Approach Used in Integrated Impact Assessment 144
    • 10.5 Projected Changes in January Precipitation of Turkey in the 2070s 145
    • 10.6 Changes in Monthly Average Temperature in the Seyhan River Basin 147
    • 10.7 Changes in Total Snowfall in Volume Equivalent to Water 147
    • 10.8 Changes in Water Resources Reliability 148
    • 10.9 Estimated Grain Yield in Wheat and Maize in the 2070s 150
    • 10.10 Differences in Changes of Wheat Grain Yield in the 2070s among the Counties in Adana Province 151
    • 12.1 Location of Flash Floods and Overbank Flow Inundation in Recent Years 172
    • 12.2 Time Lag of Peak Water Levels between Upstream and Downstream Stations Used for Flood Early Warning 175
    • 13.1 Integrated Flood Analysis System (IFAS) 180
    • 13.2 IFAS Main Structure and Functions 182
    • 13.3 PWRI Distributed Hydrological Model (PDHM) Ver.2 184
    • 13.4 Automatic Delineation of Basin Boundary and River Channel Network with DEM 187
    • 13.5 Comparison of Raw Satellite-based Rainfall Data and Areal Average Ground-based Rainfall Data for the Yoshino River Basin and the Tone River Basin, Japan 190
    • 13.6 Effect of ICHARM's Self-correction Method to Correct the Underestimation of Satellite-based Rainfall Data without Any External/Ancillary/Ground-based Data for Basin-average Rainfall Intensity 191
    • 13.7 Effect of ICHARM's Self-correction Method to Correct the Underestimation of Satellite-based Rainfall Data without Any External/Ancillary/Ground-based Data for Basin-average Rainfall Intensity for Typhoon Morakot, Taipei, China 192
    • 13.8 Data Plots for Raw and Self-corrected Satellite-based Rainfall Data against Round-truth Data, Removing the Data, Which the Time More than Six Hours Passed from the Direct Microwave Measurements 192
    • 13.9 Example of Flood Runoff Simulations with IFAS (PDHM Ver.2) 193
    • 14.1 Mean Monthly Rainfall and Temperature at Two Selected Sites within the Mekong Basin 197
    • 15.1 Natural Disasters Reported, 1975–2009 207
    • 15.2 Estimated Damage Caused by Reported Natural Disasters 1975–2009 208
    • 16.1 Rainfall in South Gobi, Mongolia 220
    • 18.1 Humanitarian Aid in 15 Countries 237
    • 18.2 Choice between Structural and Nonstructural Measures of Adaptation 240
    • 19.1 Action Impact Matrix Types for Analyzing SD-CC Adaptation Links 254
    • 20.1 Schematic View of the Self Reliant Fund 272
    • 23.1 Adaptive Capacity Conceptual Framework 296
    • 23.2 Initiatives to Raise Awareness in Sectoral Agencies 302
    • 23.3 Collaboration and Use of Instruments among Sectoral Agencies 304
    • 23.4 Current Focus of Adaptation Activities 305
    • 23.5 Priorities in Mainstreaming Climate Change Adaptation 306
    • 23.6 Trends in Assessment on Climate Change Risk 306
    • 23.7 Classification of Adaptive Capacity of Countries 308
    • 23.8 Stakeholders' Involvement in Adaptive Capacity Building 312
    • 23.9 The Role of Private Sector in Promoting Adaptive Capacity 314
    • 23.10 An Integrated Approach for Enhancing Adaptive Capacity 317
    • 24.1 Climate Change and Development 322
    • 24.2 Framework of Development Policies and Actions 324
    • 24.3 National Development Plans of Asian Developing Countries 325
    • 25.1 Human Systems Prioritized by Parties in National Communications 330
    • 25.2 Key Sectors Identified in the NAPA Projects as on July 2011 332
    • 25.3 Nairobi Work Program on Impacts, Vulnerability, and Adaptation to Climate Change 333
    • 25.4 Institutional Arrangements under the Convention as of July 2011 336

    List of Abbreviations

    ABCatmospheric brown cloud
    ADBAsian Development Bank
    ADBIAsian Development Bank Institute
    AEGISagricultural and environmental geographic information systems
    AEZagro-ecological zone
    AFAdaptation Fund
    AFDFrench Development Agency
    AHNIPAppropriate Hydrological Network Improvement Project
    AIDADSan implicitly direct additive demand system
    AIMaction impact matrix
    AITAsian Institute for Technology
    APFEDAsia-Pacific Forum for Environment and Development
    APWFAsia-Pacific Water Forum
    AR4Fourth Assessment
    AWG-LCAAd hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative Action
    BAPBali Action Plan
    BAPWBuenos Aires Programme of Work
    BOEbarrel oil equivalent
    BQABetter Air Quality
    CASAChurch's Auxillary Social Action
    CAT bondcatastrophe bond
    CCclimate change
    CBOcommunity-based organisations
    CBTcapacity building and training
    CCAclimate change adaptation
    CCCSCentre for Climate Change Studies
    CCSClimate change strategy
    CDDCooling Degree Days
    CDMClean Development Mechanism
    CESconstant elasticity of substitution
    CFCchlorofluorocarbon
    CGEcomputable general equilibrium
    COPConference of the Parties
    CREDCenter for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters
    DACDevelopment Assistance Committee
    DHMdistributed hydrological model
    DSSdecision support systems
    DSTDepartment of Science and Technology, Government of India
    ECEuropean Commission
    EEAEuropean Environmental Agency
    EITeconomies in transition
    EMRIEmergency Management and Research Institute
    EPOCEnvironment Policy Committee
    EUEuropean Union
    EVequivalent variation
    F&SPflood and storm prevention
    FAOFood and Agriculture Organization
    FARFirst Assessment Report
    FFSPFund for Flood and Storm Prevention
    FMMflood management and mitigation
    FTPfile transfer protocol
    GCMgeneral circulation model
    GDPgross domestic product
    GEFGlobal Environment Facility
    GFASglobal flood alert system
    GHGgreenhouse gas
    GISgeographic information system
    GLOFglacial lake outburst flood
    GPRSgeneral packet radio service
    GTAPGlobal Trade Analysis Project
    HFChydrofluorocarbon
    HYCOSHydrological Cycle Observing System
    ICindifference curve
    ICCAPClimate Change on Agricultural Production System in Arid Areas
    ICHARMInternational Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management
    ICLEILocal Governments for Sustainability
    IDIInfrastructure Development Institute
    IFASIntegrated Flood Analysis System
    IFNetInternational Flood Network
    IFPRIInternational Food Policy Research Institute
    IGESInstitute for Global Environmental Strategies
    IIASAInternational Institute for Applied Systems Analysis
    IIEDInternational Institute for Environment and Development
    IMDIndian Meteorological Department
    IMFInternational Monetary Fund
    IMPAMIrrigation Management Performance Assessment Model
    IPBInstitut Pertanian Bogor
    IPCCIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
    IRRIInternational Rice Research Institute
    IRSIndus River System
    IRWRinternal renewable water resources
    IWRMIntegrated Water Resources Management
    JICAJapan International Cooperation Agency
    JMAJapan Meteorological Agency
    JSCEJapan Society of Civil Engineers
    KfWGerman Development Bank
    KPKyoto Protocol
    LAMLocal Area Model
    Lao PDRLao People's Democratic Republic
    LDCleast developed countries
    LIPIThe Indonesian Institute of Sciences
    LMMAlocally managed marine areas
    LPlinear program model
    LSIPLower Seyhan Irrigation Project
    LUTLand Utilization Types
    MASSCOTEMapping System and Services for Canal Operation Techniques
    MDGMillennium Development Goal
    MLITMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
    MoEFMinistry of Environment and Forests
    MoWRMinistry of Water Resources
    MRCMekong River Commission
    MSEMadras School of Economics
    MSSRFM S Swaminathan Research Foundation
    NAPAnational adaptation programmes of action
    NAPCCNational Action Plan on Climate Change
    NARBONetwork of Asian River Basin Organizations
    NATCOMIndia's Initial National Communication to the UNFCCC
    NCRCNGO Coordination and Rehabilitation Center
    NDPRCCNational Development Planning Response to Climate Change
    NGOnongovernmental organization
    NOAANational Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
    NPMnon-pesticidal management
    NWPNairobi Work Programme
    ODAofficial development assistance
    OECDOrganisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
    PAGASAPhilippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration
    PDCPopulation and Development Consolidation
    PDHMPWRI-distributed hydrological model
    PPPpublic-private partnership
    PRAparticipatory rural appraisal method
    PRCPeople's Republic of China
    PSCProject Steering Committee
    PTFCCPresidential Task Force on Climate Change
    PWRIPublic Works Research Institute
    RAGResearch Advisory Group
    RAPRapid Appraisal Process
    RBORiver Basin Organizations
    RCMRegional Climate Model
    REDDreducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation
    RIHNResearch institute for Humanity and Nature
    SAARCSouth Asian Association for Regional Cooperation
    SARSecond Assessment Report
    SCCFSpecial Climate Change Fund
    SDsustainable development
    SEDPSocio-Economic Development Plans
    SEIStockholm Environment Institute
    SENSASwedish Environmental Secretariat for Asia
    SIDSsmall island developing states
    SNCSecond National Communication
    SOLUSsustainable options for land use
    SOMsoil organic matter
    SPAstrategic priority on adaptation
    SRESSpecial Report on Emission Scenarios
    SRIsystem of rice intensification
    SSARRstream flow synthesis and reservoir regulation model
    SSTsea surface temperature
    TARThird Assessment Report
    TFPtotal factor productivity
    TMDThe Meteorological Department
    UNUnited Nations
    UNDPUnited Nations Development Programme
    UNEPUnited Nations Environment Programme
    UNEPRRC.APUnited Nations Environment Programme Regional Resource Centre for Asia and the Pacific
    UNESCAPUnited Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific
    UNFCCCUnited Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
    UN/ISDR UNUUnited Nations Strategy for Disaster Reduction Secretariat United Nations University
    URBS USsystem based on the unified river basin simulator model United States
    USAID USDA-ARSUnited States Agency for International DevelopmentUnited States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural ResearchService
    US$US dollar
    VIAvulnerability, impacts, and adaptation
    WBGTwet bulb globe temperature
    WFDWater Framework Directive
    WHAWorld Health Assembly
    WHOWorld Health Organization
    WKCWHO Kobe Centre
    WMOWorld Meteorological Organization
    WRFweather research forecast
    WUAwater users associations
    °Cdegree Celsius
    CH4methane
    cmcentimeter
    CO2carbon dioxide
    kmkilometer
    km2square kilometer
    kWhKilowatt hour
    m3cubic meter
    MtCO2-eqmetric ton of carbon dioxide equivalent
    mafmillion acre-feet
    Mhamillion hectares
    mmmillimeter
    MWMegawatt
    N2Onitrous oxide
    ppbparts per billion
    ppmparts per million
    pptparts per trillion
    WWatt

    Foreword

    Developing countries of the Asia and Pacific region are particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. The poor in these countries are at especially high risk, given their heavy dependence on agriculture, strong reliance on ecosystem services, rapid growth and intense concentrations of population, and relatively poor health services. Developing countries are usually also characterized by insufficient capacity to adapt to climate change impacts, inadequate infrastructure, meager household income and savings, and limited support from public services. There is a real danger that climate change impacts may derail the significant progress countries in Asia and the Pacific have made toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    To cope with impacts already locked into the climate system, the Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), in collaboration with the Regional and Sustainable Development Department and other operational departments of the Asian Development Bank, has put in place integrated adaptation solutions to address the causes and consequences of climate change in the Asia and Pacific region. This book is based on papers presented at two ADBI workshops on climate change adaptation held in Tokyo, Japan, in 2009, and Colombo, Sri Lanka, in 2010. The main objective of these workshops was to bring together leading academics and policymakers from the Asia and Pacific region to share good practices. The two workshops generated common insights and understanding, assessed policy implications, and identified further capacity building needs, all of which are captured by this book.

    This book is being published as part of ADBI's efforts to produce knowledge products that can be used to promote inclusive and sustainable growth, one of our three priority themes. I am confident that this book will contribute to policy development and academic understanding in an area where new insights are badly needed. I hope this book will also help countries in Asia and the Pacific to set up and implement robust institutional frameworks for mainstreaming climate change concerns into development planning so that they can adapt to uncertainties, and sustainably manage their critical resources for the long-term development of their people.

    MasahiroKawai, Dean and CEO, Asian Development Bank Institute

    Acknowledgments

    The book is based on papers presented at two workshops on climate change adaptation held in Tokyo, Japan, and Colombo, Sri Lanka. We would like to thank the workshop participants for making the discussions intellectually stimulating and for sharing their experiences. We are grateful for the contributions of all resource persons who not only shared their wisdom, experiences, and perspectives, but also were willing to spend many days in writing them in an easily understandable, useful, and usable way. This book would not have been possible without generous support of the time, energy, and intellectual analysis of contributors at our partner institutions. Special thanks to our colleagues in ADB headquarters Katsuji Matusnami, Robert Dobias, Newin Sinsri, Suphachol Suphalsai, and Jung Tae Yong, who offered us challenging and sometimes provoking thoughts that helped us to shape our ideas and workshop contents. This book owes its existence to the energy and efforts of the ADBI team. Masahiro Kawai, ADBI Dean, provided vision and intellectual leadership. A special word of thanks in this respect is also owed to Worapot Manupipatpong and Mario Lamberte, former ADBI Directors, for their never-ending support to design the workshops and provide us with challenging feedback on this book. Tadashige Kawasaki and Alastair Dingwall played a major role in bringing this book to completion, as did Ainslie Smith, who was largely responsible for the editing and production. We are grateful to Mari Kimura, Joana Portugal, Apsara Chandanie, and Yuko Ichikawa for their research assistance and administrative support.

  • Glossary

    • Adaptation refers to adjustments or management strategies to deal with climate risks and their effects. It relates to practices, processes, and structures that moderate harm or realize opportunities associated with climate change. It is a very broad concept and can be used in a variety of ways. It can be anticipatory and reactive, autonomous and planned, and can be implemented by both public and private actors. Private actors include individuals, households, communities, commercial companies, and NGOs. Public actors include government bodies at all levels.
    • Adaptive capacity is defined as the ability of people and systems to adjust to climate change, for example, individual or collective coping strategies for the reduction and mitigation of risks or by changes in practices, processes or structures of systems. Adaptive capacity cannot be easily measured and is not well understood. It is related to general levels of sustainable development such as political stability, economic well-being, human and social capital, and climate specific aspects.
    • Carbon sequestration is the process of removing carbon from the atmosphere and depositing it in a reservoir.
    • Climate can be understood as average weather. It represents the state of the climate system over a given time period and is usually described by the means and variation of variables such as temperature, precipitation, and wind, most commonly associated with weather.
    • Climate variability refers to variations in the mean state and other statistics of the climate on all temporal and spatial scales beyond that of individual weather events. Variability may be due to natural internal processes within the climate system or to variations in natural or anthropogenic external forcing.
    • Climate change refers to any change in climate over time, whether due to natural variability or as a result of human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural variability observed over comparable time periods.
    • Disaster is a serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic, or environmental losses that exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources.
    • Disaster prevention includes all activities undertaken to avoid the adverse impact of hazards and related environmental, technological, and biological disasters.
    • Disaster risk reduction represents the systematic development and application of policies, strategies, and practices to minimize vulnerabilities and disaster risks throughout a society, and to avoid or to limit adverse impact of hazards, within the broad context of sustainable development.
    • Mainstreaming refers to the incorporation of climate-change-adaptation initiatives (measures, options, strategies) into other existing policies, programs, management systems or decision-making structures that are not necessarily about climate or climate change.
    • Maladaptation refers to development resulting in actions that do not succeed in reducing vulnerability of systems and social groups.
    • Models are a representation of a real system, and usually describe the structure or function of that particular system.
    • Mitigation entails all human interventions that reduce the sources or enhance the sinks of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide is the major greenhouse gas.
    • Preparedness includes all activities and measures taken in advance to ensure effective response to the impact of disasters, including the issuance of timely and effective early warnings and the temporary removal of people and property from a threatened location.
    • Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of future generations to meet their own needs.
    • Tools refer to approaches and instruments that can be employed to analyze and plan for and/or implement mainstreaming of climate change adaptation into development planning.
    • Vulnerability is a more dynamic concept that encompasses exposure to risks, hazards, shock and stress, difficulties in coping with contingencies, and access to assets. In the context of climate change, vulnerability is used in this report to mean that the risk of climate change will cause a decline in the well-being of poor people and poor countries. This refers to the degree to which a system is susceptible or unable to cope with the adverse effects of climate change, including climate variability and extremes. This vulnerability is a function of the character, magnitude, and rate of climate variation to which a system is exposed, as well as its adaptive capacity.

    About the Editors and Contributors

    Editors

    Venkatachalam Anbumozhi, Capacity Building Specialist, Asian Development Bank Institute, Japan.

    Meinhard Breiling, Senior Researcher, Technology, Tourism, Landscape, Inter-faculty Cooperation Centre, Vienna University of Technology, Austria.

    Selvarajah Pathmarajah, Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Agricultural Engineering, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka.

    Vangimalla R. Reddy, Research Leader, USDA-ARS, Crop Systems and Global Change Laboratory, United States.

    Contributors

    Midori Aoyagi, Chief of the Environmental Planning Section, Social and Environmental Systems Division, National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan.

    Agastin Baulraj, Associate Professor of Economics, St John's College, Manonma-niam Sundranar University, India.

    Zhijun Chen, Water Resources Development and Conservation Officer, FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, Thailand.

    Robert Dobias, Senior Advisor, Asian Development Bank, Philippines.

    David H. Fleisher, Agricultural Engineer, USDA-ARS, Crop Systems and Global Change Laboratory, United States.

    Serena Fortuna, Program Officer, Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific, United Nations Environment Programme, Thailand.

    Kazuhiko Fukami, Leader, Hydrologic Engineering Research Team, International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management under the auspices of UNESCO, Japan.

    Sevi Govindaraj, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India.

    Shigeko Haruyama, Professor, Mie University, Graduate School of Bio Resources and University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Frontier Science, Japan.

    Srikantha Herath, Senior Academic Program Officer, Institute for Sustainability and Peace, United Nations University, Japan.

    Chu Thai Hoanh, Senior Officer, International Water Management Institute, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Tae Yong Jung, Principal Climate Change Specialist, Asian Development Bank, Philippines.

    Takahiro Kawakami, Researcher, Hydrologic Engineering Research Team, International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management under the auspices of UNESCO, Japan.

    Ikuyo Kikusawa, Visiting Researcher, Program Management Office, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan.

    Hideki Kimura, Manager, Mitsui & Co. Ltd., Japan.

    Masanori Kobayashi, Coordinator, Program Management Office, Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Japan.

    Guillaume Lacombe, Researcher-Hydrologist, International Water Management Institute, Southeast Asia Regional Office, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Jostacio M. Lapitan, Technical Officer, Urbanization and Emergency Preparedness, WHO Centre for Health Development, Japan.

    Jun Magome, Researcher, Japan Water Agency, Japan.

    Worapot Manupipatpong, Former Director, Capacity Building and Training, Asian Development Bank Institute.

    Yuri Murayama, Researcher, IR3S, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Seishi Nabesaka, Researcher, Water-related Hazard Research Group, International Centre for Water Hazard and Risk Management under the auspices of UNESCO, Japan.

    Youssef Nassef, Regional Manager, Adaptation Technology and Science Program, UN Framework Convention for Climate Change Secretariat, Germany.

    Bui Duong Nghieu, Senior Researcher, Institute of Financial Science, Ministry of Finance, Viet Nam.

    Toshio Okazumi, Director, River Management Office, River Improvement and Management Division, River Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport, and Tourism, Japan.

    Taikan Oki, Professor, Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Japan.

    Eiji Otsuki, Director, International Water Management Coordination, River Planning Division, River Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, Japan.

    Go Ozawa, Researcher, Hydrologic Engineering Research Team, International Center for Water Hazard and Risk Management under the auspices of UNESCO, Japan.

    Kuppannan Palanisami, Director, TATA Policy Research Program, International Water Management Institute, Hyderabad Office, India.

    Coimbatore Ramarao Ranganathan, Professor, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India.

    K. Raja Reddy, Professor, Department of Plant and Soil Sciences, Mississippi State University, United States.

    Samiappan Senthilnathan, Assistant Professor, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, India.

    Tomonori Sudo, Advisor, Office for Climate Change, Japan International Cooperation Agency, Japan.

    Tomonobu Sugiura, Researcher, Japan Water Agency, Japan.

    Thada Sukhapunnaphan, Director, Hydrology and Water Management Center for Upper Northern Region, Royal Irrigation Department, Thailand.

    Dennis J. Timlin, Soil Scientist, USDA-ARS, Crop Systems and Global Change Laboratory, United States.

    Thierry Valéro, Institute of Research for Rural Development, Vientiane, Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    Tsugihiro Watanabe, Professor, Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Japan.

    Yang Yang, Research Associate, Wye Research and Education Center, University of Maryland, United States.

    Harumi Yashiro, Manager, Risk Modeling Group, Tokyo Marine and Nichido Risk Consulting Co. Ltd., Japan.

    Fan Zhai, Managing Director, Asset Allocation and Strategic Research Department, China Investment Cooperation, People's Republic of China.

    Juzhong Zhuang, Assistant Chief Economist, Asian Development Bank, Philippines.


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