Cities and Crisis: New Critical Urban Theory

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Edited by: Kuniko Fujita

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  • SAGE Studies in International Sociology

    Series Editor (2010–ongoing)

    Sujata Patel, Professor of Sociology at University of Hyderabad, India

    Copyright

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    List of Figures

    • Figure 5.1 Annual percent change in employment in finance/insurance in the United States, State New York and Manhattan (County New York) 2001–10 157
    • Figure 5.2 Annual percent change in employment in the most concentrated finance subsectors (lq < 15) in Manhattan from 2007 to 2010 158
    • Figure 5.3 Geographic concentration index of employees working in selected subsectors of the financial services industry in 2008 162
    • Figure 5.4 Lending to companies and self-employed as share of balance sheet in comparison to the geographic concentration index of employees for credit, savings and cooperative banks 163
    • Figure 5.5 Three-pillars banking structure from a geographical perspective 164
    • Figure 5.6 Lending to companies and self-employed in € billions from 1999–2010 (except loans to financing institutions and insurance industry) 169
    • Figure 5.7 The interrelated downward spiral 170
    • Figure 5.8 Share (as percentage) of rented accommodation, latest country data available 171
    • Figure 5.9 Growth rates of loans for house purchases 173
    • Figure 5.10 Volume of leveraged loans (second lien) in billion USD 174
    • Figure 5.11 Growth rate of nominal residential property prices 175
    • Figure 5.12 Sovereign deficit/surplus as percentage of GDP 177
    • Figure 5.13 Interests of ten-year government bonds (in per cent) 178
    • Figure 6.1 Demonstration and protest march in Foley Square, Manhattan, New York, 2011 195
    • Figure 6.2 Occupy Wall Street encampment in Liberty Park, New York, 2011 195
    • Figure 6.3 Distribution of foreclosures in New York City, 2005 199
    • Figure 6.4 Distribution of foreclosures in New York City, 2008 199
    • Figure 6.5 Distribution of foreclosures in Bedford Stuyvesant and Bushwick, Brooklyn, 2008 200
    • Figure 6.6 Visual evidence of foreclosure, Bedford Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, 2010 201
    • Figure 6.7 Subprime mortgage lender advertisement and for sale signs. Bushwick, Brooklyn. 202
    • Figure 6.8 Land use in Community District 3. 202
    • Figure 6.9 Land Use in Community District 4. 203
    • Figure 6.10 Empty lot appropriated for ‘unofficial’ use, Bushwick, Brooklyn, 2010 203
    • Figure 6.11 Community garden, Bushwick, Brooklyn, 2010 204
    • Figure 6.12 Community garden, Bushwick, Brooklyn, 2010 204
    • Figure 6.13 Abandoned buildings in Bushwick, Brooklyn, 2010 205
    • Figure 6.14 Another abandoned building, Bushwick, Brooklyn, 2010 205
    • Figure 6.15 The Bedford Stuyvesant Restoration Center Family Health Center, Bedford Stuyvesant, Brooklyn, 2010 206
    • Figure 6.16 Commercial real estate for sale, Bushwick, Brooklyn, 2010 207
    • Figure 6.17 Paused construction in Prospect Heights, Brooklyn, 2009 207
    • Figure 6.18 Condominium construction intending to replace rental housing, Prospect Heights, Brooklyn, 2009 208
    • Figure 6.19 Homeless improvised shelter, Park Slope, Brooklyn, 2010 209
    • Figure 6.20 Residents outside the homeless women's shelter, Park Slope, Brooklyn, 2010 210
    • Figure 6.21 Bottle collectors on Park Slope, Brooklyn, 2008 211
    • Figure 6.22 Gold buying and pawn shop, Bushwick, Brooklyn, 2010 211
    • Figure 6.23 Secondhand store, Bushwick, Brooklyn, 2010 212
    • Figure 6.24 Unused commercial space repurposed as art display, Downtown Brooklyn, 2010 213
    • Figure 7.1 Reduced graph of world city system 222
    • Figure 8.1 Balance on current transactions, Germany, Spain, Portugal, Greece 239
    • Figure 8.2 General government current revenues as per cent of GDP, Greece and EU 15 240
    • Figure 10.1 Top 1 percent income share in selected countries (Australia, France, Japan and the US), 1914–2010 296
    • Figure 10.2 Top 1 percent income share in Japan: 1920–2010 301
    • Figure 10.3 Household income inequality among Tokyo's 46 districts (central city 23 wards and suburban 26 cities), 1971–2009 307
    • Figure 10.4 Comparison of spatial household income inequality between Tokyo's 49 districts (23 central city wards and 26 suburban cities) and Tokyo excluding 4 central core wards, 1971–2009 308
    • Figure 10.5 Percent household income growth by Tokyo (23 central city and 26 suburban cities) and 4 central core wards (Chiyoda, Chuo, Ninato and Shibuya), 1971–2009 311

    List of Tables

    • Table 2.1 City budgets as percentage of national budgets in 2010 70
    • Table 6.1 Percentage of home purchase loans issued by subprime lenders 198
    • Table 6.2 Neighborhoods targeted by the Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP1) 201
    • Table 7.1 Ranking of cities on measures of corporate power and prestige (top 15 cities per dimension) 222
    • Table 7.2 Principal component analysis of outdegree, indegree betweenness 223
    • Table 7.3 Summary statistics 224
    • Table 7.4 OLS analyses of centrality closeness (without and with regionally clustered standard errors; OLS regression for closeness openness; and with standardized regression coefficient below standard errors) 226
    • Table 7.A1 Tobit analyses of outdegree, indegree and betweenness (tstatistics in parentheses). 232
    • Table 7.A2 City financial centers among top 50 world cities by ‘Closeness’ and ‘InOutBetween’ (IOB) and these centers’ financial revenues by city 233
    • Table 8.1 Long term interest rates (annual rate) 241
    • Table 8.2 Real GDP growth and inflation rate (annual average rate), Greece 2008–12 242
    • Table 8.3 Domestic demand in Greece and EU 15. Contribution to changes in GDP (%). Annual percentage change 242
    • Table 8.4 Unemployment, Attica Region and Greece 244
    • Table 8.5 Youth unemployment rate <25 years, Attica Region and Greece 244
    • Table 8.6 Private building activity, number of construction permits, Attica Region and Greece, month of December 2010–11 244
    • Table 10.1 Household income household income inequality among Tokyo's 49 Districts 307
    • Table 10.2 Household income change by Tokyo's 49 districts (23 central city wards and 26 suburban cities) and Tokyo's 4 central core wards, 1971–2009, 10,000 yen 310

    About the Contributors

    The Editor

    Kuniko Fujita, Ph.D. is retired Professor of Sociology. She taught industrial sociology, urban sociology and globalization in the Sociology Department at Michigan State University; Japanese and comparative political economy in the Japanese Studies Department at the National University of Singapore; and international division of labor in the Law Department at Hiroshima University. She also worked with the World Bank and is the past president (2006–2010) of ISA RC-21 Urban and Regional Development Research. Her recent research interests include urban ecology, comparative studies, and financial crises and reflect on edited books and journals such as Residential Segregation in Comparative Perspective: Making Sense of Contextual Diversity (coeditor, Ashgate, 2012), special theme issue on Global Financial Crisis, State Regime Shift and Urban Theory in Environment and Planning A (guest editor, 2011), special issue on Urban Justice and Sustainability in Local Environment and International Journal of Justice and Sustainability (guest editor, 2009) and articles such as “Industry Cluster and Transnational Networks: Japan's New Direction in Regional Policy” (co-author, 2012), “Detroit” in Asia: A Multiscalar Case Study of Regional Development Policy in Thailand (co-author, 2012), ‘Tokyo’ in Encyclopedia of Urban Studies (Sage, 2010), ‘Zero Waste City: Tokyo's Quest for Sustainable Development’ (co-author, 2007).

    The Contributors

    Alexander Hicks is Professor of Sociology and Associated Faculty in Political Science and Film Studies, Emory University (PhD, Sociology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1979). He is author or co-editor of books including Social Democracy and Welfare Capitalism and The Handbook of Political Sociology, as well as of papers in leading Sociology and Political Science journals, including the American Sociological Review and the American Political Science Review. His work has been mostly on the politics and economics of social and economic policy in the relatively affluent democracies. He is currently serving on the editorial board of the American Sociological Review for the third three; and he was inaugural co-editor of the Socioeconomic Review in 2003–2006.

    Chris Pickvance is Emeritus Professor of Urban Studies in the School of Social Policy, Sociology and Social Research at the University of Kent, Canterbury. He co-founded the International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, co-edits the Blackwell Studies in Urban and Social Change book series and edits the Ashgate Cities and Society book series. He has been Secretary and President of the ISA Research Committee on Urban and Regional Development (RC21) and Chairman of Trustees of the Foundation for Urban and Regional Studies. In 2006 he was elected an Academician, Academy of Social Science.

    His interests include comparative analysis, urban theory, post-socialist transition, housing, environmental issues, urban policy and urban protest. His books include (edited with M. Harloe and J. Urry) Place, Policy and Politics: do localities matter? (Unwin Hyman, 1990) and (edited with E. Preteceille) State Restructuring and Local Power: a comparative perspective (Frances Pinter, 1990), (edited with K. Lang-Pickvance and N. Manning), Environmental and Housing Movements: grassroots experience in Hungary, Estonia and Russia, (Avebury, 1997) and Local Environmental Regulation in Post-socialism: a Hungarian case study (Ashgate, 2000). His recent publications include ‘Understanding UK sustainable housing policy’ in J. Flint and M. Raco (eds) The New Politics of Urban Planning (Policy Press, 2011) and ‘The limits of neoliberalism: is the concept of neoliberalism helpful in the study of urban policy?’ in M. Mayer and J. Kunkel (eds) Neoliberal Urbanism and its Contestations (Palgrave, 2012).

    Göran Therborn is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at the University of Cambridge, UK. Still a member of the university, Research Director in 2013, he now lives in Sweden. He has had a professorship of political science in Nijmegen, Netherlands, and professorships of sociology at Gothenburg and at Uppsala, Sweden. He has also been co-Director of the Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences. His recent publications include, ‘Monumental Europe: The National Years. On the Iconography of European Capital Cities’, (Housing, Theory and Society 19: 1, 2002), Between Sex and Power. Family in the World, 1900–2000 (2004), Inequalities of the World (2006), ‘Eastern Drama: Capital Cities in Eastern Europe, 1830–2006’ (special issue of the International Sociological Review (16: 2, 2006), Les sociétés d'Europe du XXe au XXIe siècle (2009), From Marxism to Postmarxism? (2010) The World. A Beginner's Guide (2011), Capital Cities in Africa (co-ed, with S. Bekker, 2011). He is currently working on processes of inequality, and on a global project on Cities of Power.

    Jerome Krase, Murray Koppelman Professor, and Professor Emeritus, at Brooklyn College of The City University of New York, received his BA in Sociology at Indiana University (1967) and his Ph.D. at New York University (1973). He is a public activist-scholar serving as a consultant to public and private agencies regarding urban community issues. He twice chaired the Brooklyn College Sociology Department. His interests have expanded globally into visual semiotic studies of urban neighborhood communities about which he researches, photographs, writes, lectures and exhibits. He is active in the American, European, and International Sociological Associations, International Visual Sociology Association (IVSA), Polish Institute of Arts and Sciences in America, American Association for the Advancement of Science and Human Rights Coalition, and Commission on Urban Anthropology. Professor Krase is Vice-President, Academy of Humanities and Sciences of CUNY, Treasurer, ISA's Visual Sociology Thematic Group, IVSA Executive Board Member, and Editorial Board Member Visual Studies, Urbanities, and CIDADES.

    Representative books and articles include: Self and Community in the City (1982); Ethnicity and Machine Politics co-authored with Charles LaCerra (1992), Race and Ethnicity in New York City (2005) and Ethnic Landscapes in an Urban World co-edited with Ray Hutchison (2006); Seeing Cities Change (2012). ‘Seeing Difference: Spatial Semiotics of Ethnic and Class Identity in Global Cities’, Visual Communication, (2011) with Timothy Shortell; ‘Berlin’, Streetnotes, (2011); ‘Diversity and Urban Living’, in Orte der Diversität: Formate, Cristina Allemann-Ghionda and Wolf-Dietrich Bukow eds. (2010); ‘Kein Mix’, Kulturaustausch, (2009) and ‘A Visual Approach to Multiculturalism’, in Beyond Multiculturalism, Giuliana Prato ed. (2009).

    Michael Indergaard is a Professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at St. John's University in Jamaica, New York. His work investigates how various sorts of actors gain economic or political advantages by brokering new market relationships and understandings in settings of economic transformation ranging from the industrial Midwest to postindustrial New York. He has written two books: Silicon Alley: The Rise and Fall of a New Media District (Routledge, 2004) and Pump and Dump: The Rancid Rules of the New Economy (Rutgers University Press, with Robert Tillman). His articles include: “Making Networks, Remaking the City,” Economic Development Quarterly (1996) 12(2): 172–187, “Retrainers as Labor Market Brokers: Constructing Narratives and Networks in the Detroit Area” Social Problems (1999) 46, 1: 67–87, “Community-based Restructuring? Institution Building in the Industrial Midwest” Urban Affairs Review (1997) 32, 5: 662–682, “The Webs They Weave: Malaysia's Multimedia Super-corridor and New York City's Silicon Alley” Urban Studies (2003) 40, 2: 379–401, “What to Make of New York's New Economy? The Politics of the Creative Field” Urban Studies (2009) 46, 5–6: 1063–1093, “Another Washington-New York Consensus? Progressives Back in Contention” Environment and Planning, A (2011) 43, 2: 286–306 and “Beyond the Bubbles: Creative New York in Boom, Bust and the Long Run,” Cities (forthcoming). He is co-editor (with Andy Pratt and Tom Hutton) of a forthcoming special issue of Cities on “Creative Cities after the Fall of Finance.”

    Nicos Souliotis studied Sociology in the Panteion University, Athens, and has done postgraduate studies in Paris where he obtained his Ph.D. from the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales (2005). He has taught urban sociology as visiting lecturer at the Departments of Planning and Architecture at the University of Thessaly (2006–2010). Since 2010 he is Research Fellow in the National Center for Social Research of Greece and teaches at the Greek Open University. His scientific interests, research activity and publications focus on urban cultural economy and urban policies, especially in Athens. He is currently participating in a research project carried by the NCSR on the effects of the sovereign debt crisis on the political and economic practices of Athenians.

    Ryan Hicks, who has a Masters in City and Regional Planning from the Cornell University's College of Architecture, Art, and Planning, is Community Development Associate at APD Solutions in Atlanta, as well as Senior Research Specialist at Emory University's Center For Community Partnerships.

    Sophie Body-Gendrot, Ph.D. in political science (Sciences-po, Paris), is Emeritus Professor and the former Director of the Center of Urban Studies at the University Paris-Sorbonne in France. She is a researcher at Cesdip/CNRS/French Ministry of Justice and the stepping President of the Society of European Criminology. She is an expert adviser on the issue of safety and public space in the program Urban Age at the London School of Economics in London. She is Officer of the French Legion of Honour. She is involved with international journals and research networks and is a consultant for the European Commission on criminological and urban issues. Her inter-disciplinary and cross-national research about risk management in cities connects urban violence, ethnic and racial discriminations and socio-economic inequalities with broader societal dysfunctions and public policies. Her most recent work in English as author or co-editor is: Globalization, Fear and Insecurity: the Challenges for Cities North and South (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012); The Routledge Handbook of European Criminology (Routledge, 2013); Violence in Europe. Historical and Contemporary perspective (Springer, 2007); Social Capital and Social Citizenship (Lexington Press, 2003); The Social Control of Cities (Blackwell, 2000); Minorities in European Cities, (Macmillan, 2000); The Urban Moment (Sage, 1999).

    Stefan Gärtner, Ph.D. is Head of the research unit ‘Spatial Capital’ at the Institute Work and Technology in Gelsenkirchen and lectureship at the Faculty of Social Science, Ruhr-University Bochum (both in Germany). Master and PhD in Spatial Planning at the University of Dortmund. Stefan combines working experiences at a savings bank and long lasting research experience in the following areas: Regional banking, space, place and money economy, regional and corporate cultural studies, urban and regional development, integrated local economic development, structural and cohesion policy. Academic awards: Honour Award ‘Foundation of German Cities, Communities, and Districts for the Promotion of Municipal Sciences 2002’ granted by the German Institute of Urban Affairs (Difu), Berlin and European Savings Banks Academic Award 2008 (1st place winner) granted by the European Savings Banks Group, Brussels. Memberships and others: Invited Expert for hearings in the State Parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia and Saxony on ‘The future of savings and regional banks’ and Membership in the Urban and Regional Development Committee (RC21), Society for Structural Policy [Gesellschaft für Strukturpolitik], and Regional Studies Association (RSA).

    Timothy Shortell, Ph.D., is Associate Professor and Director of the M.A. program in sociology at Brooklyn College of the City University of New York. He earned his doctorate in Social Psychology at Boston College (1992). He is co-editor of The World in Brooklyn: Gentrification, Immigration, and Ethnic Politics in a Global City (2012). His main research interest is social semiotics and he has published in Visual Communication, Mass Communication & Society, Social Science History, Encyclopedia of Global Religion, and others, on public discourse and public space. He is a member of the European Sociological Association, Society for Francophone Postcolonial Studies, Society for the Scientific Study of Religion, and the International Visual Sociology Association, and is currently on the board of the Visual Sociology thematic group of the International Sociological Association. In 2010, he received a Leonard and Claire Tow Faculty Travel Fellowship to study the spatial semiotics of collective identity in immigrant neighborhoods in Paris. In addition to his scholarship, he is an academic labor organizer and a contract enforcement officer for the Professional Staff Congress/CUNY.

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