Publication Year: 2005
Play is an underlying theme of the Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) but it is often a challenge for practitioners to provide a play based curriculum. This book investigates the values and beliefs that underpin play and demonstrates through case studies how play opportunities can be observed, planned and assessed in a meaningful context for the child. Organized into four sections that mirror the EYFS, this book takes you through the curriculum framework demonstrating how play underpins each of these principles and is the common thread that links them together. Chapters include: - celebrating children's play choices - ways to work with parents - inspiring environments for inspirational play - the role of play in supporting key relationships - creative play for flexible learning Incorporating ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Explaining Play's Functions and its Development
- Functions of Play
- Development of Play
- Support for Play's Development
- Kinds of Play Theories
- Psychoanalytic Theory and Play
- Cognitive-Developmental Theory and Play
- Cultural-Ecological Theory and Play
- Evolutionary and Comparative Theories and Play
- Major Groupings and Play: Gender, Socioeconomic Status, and Disability
- Socioeconomic Status
- Bad Play
- Types of Bad Play
- Ambiguous Play
- Chapter 2: The Emergence of Play in Infancy and the Toddler Years
- Play Versus Exploration
- In Theory
- In Practice: Cues for Distinguishing Exploration from Play
- How is this Distinction Useful?
- Types of Play in Infancy and the Toddler Years
- Sensorimotor Play
- Make-Believe Play
- Supporting Infants' and Toddlers' Play
- When Caregivers Play with Their Children
- When Children Play with Other Children
- When Feeling Secure is What Matters Most
- Chapter 3: Play in Early Childhood: The Golden Age of Make-Believe
- Motives for Make-Believe Play
- Questions about Make-Believe Play
- What are the Functions of Make-Believe Play?
- How Should We Classify Young Children's Play?
- How Should We Describe, Evaluate, and Explain Group Differences?
- How Valid are the Common Concerns about Young Children's Play?
- Chapter 4: Play in Late Childhood: Rule-Governed Play
- Socialization, Rules, and “Bad Play”
- Play and Socialization: Beyond the Classic Distinctions
- Play by the Rules
- “Bad Play” in Late Childhood
- Industry, Fantasies, and Mastery
- Industry and Collections
- Fantasy and Imaginative Play in Late Childhood
- A New Meaning for Mastery
- Chapter 5: Children's Humor
- Defining Humor
- What's so Funny?
- Humor in Infancy and the Toddler Years
- Humor in Early Childhood
- The Elementary School Years: Integrating Social and Cognitive Humor
- Chapter 6: Electronic Play: Computer, Console, and Video Games
- Demographics of Electronic Play: Who is Playing? and Where? and When?
- Different Types of Electronic Play: What is Being Played?
- Why do Children Play these Games?
- Children's Development and Electronic Play
- Infants and Toddlers
- School-Aged Children
- Gender Differences and Electronic Play
- Common Concerns about Electronic Play
- What Role Should Parental Guidance Play?
- Chapter 7: Organized Youth Sports
- A Historical Perspective
- The Nineteenth Century and Character Development
- The Twentieth Century and Nonprofit Agencies
- Organized Youth Sports Today
- Age Changes and Organized Youth Sports
- Accommodating Children's Age and Stage
- The Issue of Readiness
- Parents and Organized Youth Sports
- Serious Problems in Organized Youth Sports
- Organized Youth Sports as Play?
- Concluding Remarks
- Chapter 8: Home and Outdoor Play
- The Home Setting and Children's Play
- Commercialization of Toys
- Designing Play Space in the Home
- Play in Outdoor Settings
- Playgrounds Today
- Successful Design Features of Playgrounds
- Concluding Remarks
- Chapter 9: Schooling and Play
- Early Childhood Education and Play
- The Built Environment
- Teachers Relating Directly to Children
- Play in Elementary Schools
- Misbehaving Play
- Chapter 10: Restorative Play in Stressful Environments
- Stress and its Expected Consequences in Childhood
- Conceptualizing Stress
- Two Examples of Stressful Environments: Hospitals and Refugee Camps
- When the Problem is in the Environment, Not in the Child
- Play as a Means to Assess and Relieve Stress
- Lack of Play as a Means to Assess Stress
- Play as a Means to Relieve Stress
- Four Dimensions for a Good-Quality Play Program
- A Protected Time and Space
- Age-Appropriate and Culturally Sensitive Play Materials
- A Carefully Balanced Adult Presence and Involvement
- The Presence and Involvement of Peers, Family, and the Community at Large
- Chapter 11: Play Therapy
- Play Therapy: The Psychoanalytic Tradition
- Play Therapy: The Humanistic Tradition
- Play Therapy: Cognitive-Developmental Approaches
- Play Therapy: Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Approaches
- Art Therapy
- Concluding Remarks: Does Play Therapy Work?
Copyright © 2005 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Children's play / W. George Scarlett… [et al.].
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-2999-1 (pbk.)
1. Play 2. Child development. I. Scarlett, W. George.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
04 05 06 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquisitions Editor: James Brace-Thompson
Editorial Assistant: Karen Ehrmann
Production Editor: Denise Santoyo
Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.
Indexer: Pamela Van Huss
Cover Designer: Janet Foulger
Illustrator: David Murray
Photographer: Kim Walls
Why study children's play? One answer is obvious. Doing so helps those developing careers working with children. They need to understand play, because understanding is useful, even necessary, for doing their jobs. For teachers, play can be central to developing curriculum. For clinicians, it can be central to assessing and treating problems. If we consider parenting a career, for parents, play can be central to raising children. There are, therefore, practical reasons for studying children's play.
However, we don't see practical reasons as being necessary or even the most important for studying children's play, and this book was written with that thought in mind. To convey what we mean, an analogy might help. Few people justify studying music mainly as a way to foster careers. Understanding and appreciating music is in and of itself good—because music is complex and beautiful. The same is true with children's play. This book is intended to turn readers on to play's complexity and beauty.
One further preliminary note: Before knowing much about play, many see play as a small subject, a secondary aspect of children's development. Surprisingly, this view is reinforced in textbooks on child development by there being relatively little discussion about children's play. There are lengthy discussions about brain development, cognitive development, and the development of attachments and moral judgment, but not much about the development of play.
This is puzzling for two reasons in particular: First, given the opportunity, children usually choose to play. Play is, therefore, a central value for children, which should alert us to the fact that it is important. Second, some of the best minds in psychology and education have studied play and, in so doing, have shown that play is indeed complex, beautiful, and important for children's development.
However, in this book, we don't wish to explain the puzzle as to why play is not thought of or treated as being so important. In this book, we wish simply to explain children's play and foster in readers a deep appreciation for its complexity, its many forms, its many interesting uses, and perhaps most of all, its beauty. We want readers to see play for what it is at its core, namely, an expression of the human spirit.[Page xii]
The authors would like to express their gratitude to those who contributed significantly to this book. We are particularly grateful to Kim Walls, who provided most of the book's photographs, to David Murray, who drew the sketches, and to Jason Kuhn, who assisted in the writing of two of the chapters. Audra Plewak, Rosa Maria Ares, and Gregory Chertok provided significant assistance in drafting the chapter on organized youth sports. Brett Levin provided assistance on Chapter 6, and Lamio Sol contributed to developing the original book proposal. Last, but not least, our editor, Jim Brace-Thompson, provided invaluable guidance and much-appreciated support throughout the writing process.[Page xiv]
Web Resources[Page 247]
A word of caution: These Web sites vary in the quality of the information they provide. In addition, their content is likely to evolve over time. Therefore, as with any Web site, we encourage the reader to exert caution in the analysis and use of their content.Across Chapters
Tufts University Child and Family WebguideFor Specific ChaptersChapter 2: The Emergence of Play in Infancy and the Toddler Years
Toys' safetyChapter 4: Play in Late Childhood: Rule-Governed Play
Games with rules
Guidelines for distinguishing aggression from play fighting
Relational aggression[Page 248]Chapter 6: Electronic Play: Computer, Console, and Video Games
Game Spot—information and resources regarding games
Penny-Arcade—information and resources regarding games and the game industry
Entertainment Software Association1
Entertainment Software Rating Board
National Institute on Media and the FamilyChapter 7: Organized Youth Sports
Sport in Society
Center for Sports Parenting
National Youth Sports Safety Foundation
University of Michigan: Institute for the Study of Youth Sport
Youth Sports on the Web
North American Youth Sports Institute
Youth Sports Trust
Special Olympics Web site[Page 249]Chapter 9: Schooling and Play
Lego curriculum @ Netlab
Robot Education @ NASA
Lego Related Links
National Association for the Education of Young Children
1. Formerly known as the Interactive Digital Software Association (IDSA).[Page 250]
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About the Authors[Page 281]
W. George Scarlett is Professor in the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development at Tufts University. He is a graduate of Yale and Clark universities, has authored numerous articles on children's play, and has coauthored books on parenting, managing behavior problems, and religious-spiritual development. His past research includes research on play and its development in diverse media during early childhood, play assessment techniques for work with atypical children, and play of children with serious problem behavior. For over two decades he has taught undergraduate and graduate courses on children's play.
Sophie Naudeau currently writes and conducts research on positive youth development and play among war-affected children and children of incarcerated parents. She is a graduate of the Sorbonne and a former Fulbright fellow. She has done extensive fieldwork with refugee children in diverse cultures (Bosnia, Guinea-Conakry Sierra Leone, Thailand, and Cambodia).
Dorothy Salonius-Pasternak is Senior Researcher at the Harvard Medical School Center for Mental Health and Media and also conducts research on resilience and chronic illness through the Judge Baker Children's Center, Joslin Diabetes Center, and Tufts University. She is a graduate of Wesleyan and Tufts universities and was formerly affiliated with the National Research Institute in Finland and the Yale New Haven Hospital.
Iris Ponte has worked for Sesame Street Research at the Children's Television Workshop in New York and has been an early childhood educator for the Department of Child Development's laboratory school at Tufts University. She is a graduate of Holy Cross College and a former Watson Scholar. She has conducted research on preschools in the United Kingdom, Taiwan, China, Japan, and Newfoundland.[Page 282]