Child Psychiatric Epidemiology: Concepts, Methods, and Findings

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Frank C. Verhulst & Hans M. Koot

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  • Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry Series

    Series Editor: Alan E. Kazdin, Yale University

    • CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

      by Donna M. Gelfand and Lizette Peterson

    • CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY

      by Magda Campbell, Wayne H. Green, and Stephen L. Deutsch

    • ASSESSMENT AND TAXONOMY OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

      by Thomas M. Achenbach

    • INFANT PSYCHIATRY

      by Klaus Minde and Regina Minde

    • SUICIDE AND ATTEMPTED SUICIDE AMONG CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

      by Keith Hawton

    • PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AMONG MENTALLY RETARDED CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

      by Johnny L. Matson and Cynthia L. Frame

    • HYPERKINETIC CHILDREN

      by C. Keith Conners and Karen C. Wells

    • LIFE EVENTS AS STRESSORS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE

      by James H. Johnson

    • CONDUCT DISORDERS IN CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE

      by Alan E. Kazdin

    • CHILD ABUSE

      by David A. Wolfe

    • PREVENTING MALADJUSTMENT FROM INFANCY THROUGH ADOLESCENCE

      by Annette U. Rickel and LaRue Allen

    • TEMPERAMENT AND CHILD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

      by William T. Garrison and Felton J. Earls

    • EMPIRICALLY BASED ASSESSMENT OF CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOPATHOLOGY

      by Thomas M. Achenbach and Stephanie H. McConaughy

    • MARRIAGE, DIVORCE, AND CHILDREN'S ADJUSTMENT

      by Robert E. Emery

    • AUTISM

      by Laura Schreibman

    • NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT IN CLINICAL CHILD PSYCHOLOGY

      by George W. Hynd

    • CHILD PSYCHOPATHOLOGY AND THE QUEST FOR CONTROL

      by Fred Rothbaum and John R. Weisz

    • DELINQUENCY IN ADOLESCENCE

      by Scott W. Henggeler

    • CHRONIC ILLNESS DURING CHILDHOOD AND ADOLESCENCE

      by William T. Garrison and Susan McQuiston

    • ANXIETY DISORDERS IN CHILDREN

      by Rachel G. Klein and Cynthia G. Last

    • CHILDREN OF BATTERED WOMEN

      by Peter G. Jaffe, David A. Wolfe, and Susan Kayc Wilson

    • SUBSTANCE ABUSE IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

      by Steven P. Schinke, Gilbert J. Botvin, and Mario A. Orlandi

    • CHILD PSYCHIATRIC EPIDEMIOLOGY

      by Frank C. Verhulst and Hans M. Koot

    • EATING AND GROWTH DISORDERS IN INFANTS AND CHILDREN

      by Joseph L. Woolston

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    Series Editor's Introduction

    Interest in child development and adjustment is by no means new. Yet only recently has the study of children benefited from advances in both clinical and scientific research. Advances in the social and biological sciences, the emergence of disciplines and subdisciplines that focus exclusively on childhood and adolescence, and greater appreciation for the impact of such influences as the family, peers, and school have helped accelerate research on developmental psychopathology. Apart from interest in the study of child development and adjustment for its own sake, the need to address clinical problems of adulthood naturally draws one to investigate precursors in childhood and adolescence.

    Within a relatively brief period, the study of psychopathology among children and adolescents has proliferated. Several different professional journals, annual book series, and handbooks devoted entirely to the study of children and adolescents and their adjustment document the proliferation of work in the field. Nevertheless, there is a paucity of resource material that presents information in an authoritative, systematic, and disseminable fashion. There is a need within the field to convey the latest developments and to represent different disciplines, approaches, and conceptual views on the topics of childhood and adolescent adjustment and maladjustment.

    The Sage series Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry is designed to uniquely serve several needs of the field. The series encompasses individual monographs prepared by experts in the fields of clinical child psychology, child psychiatry, child development, and related disciplines. The primary focus is on developmental psychopathology, which refers broadly here to the diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and prevention of problems that arise in the period from infancy through adolescence. A working assumption of the series is that understanding, identifying, and treating problems of youth must draw on multiple disciplines and diverse views within a given discipline.

    The task of individual contributors is to present the latest theory and research on various topics, including specific types of dysfunction, diagnostic and treatment approaches, and special problem areas that affect adjustment. Core topics within clinical work are addressed by the series. Authors are asked to bridge potential theory, research, and clinical practice and to outline current status and future directions. The goals of the series and the tasks presented to individual contributors are demanding. We have been extremely fortunate in recruiting leaders in the field who have been able to translate their recognized scholarship and expertise into highly readable works on contemporary topics.

    Child Psychiatric Epidemiology, prepared by Dr. Frank C. Verhulst and Mr. Hans M. Koot, examines dysfunction among children and how the field of developmental psychopathology has been informed by epidemiological research. The text describes critical concepts and approaches for conducting epidemiological studies. Central issues related to diagnosis, assessment, sampling, and cross-cultural studies are presented in a highly readable fashion. Research on the prevalence and patterns of childhood dysfunction and how these are influenced by such factors as age, sex, and social class are presented in detail. Findings from studies completed in several countries, punctuated by the excellent work that the authors themselves have conducted, convey current knowledge on childhood disorders. Apart from presenting the substantive findings and methods of epidemiological research, the book demonstrates how central the topic is for our understanding of developmental psychopathology.

    AlanE.KazdinPh. D.

    Preface

    Since general epidemiology shifted its emphasis from infectious diseases and nutritional deficiencies to the “modern” diseases, such as high blood pressure and other chronic physical conditions, epidemiological methods became available for the study of psychiatric conditions. What both chronic physical conditions and psychiatric disorders have in common is that they often are multifactorially determined. In the late 1950s, the first true child psychiatric epidemiological study was launched. A new dimension was introduced into the field of child psychopathology, which until then had derived its knowledge mainly from case studies and theoretical reflections.

    Two main fields of activity in epidemiology can be distinguished. The first concerns the development of diagnostic assessment methods, and the second concerns the study of patterns of disease occurrence and the factors influencing these patterns. Epidemiological efforts have added much to our knowledge of child psychopathology. However, we are still far from a situation in which epidemiological data form the basis for clinical as well as public health decisions. Well-designed and conducted epidemiological studies may further enhance our knowledge of child psychopathology, which may benefit troubled children and their families. The ultimate goal of epidemiology is to improve the care of disordered children and to implement effective preventive measures.

    This book is intended for students and professionals in psychiatry, psychology, social work, criminology, and other fields concerned with maladaptive behavior in children and adolescents. It provides detailed information on critical concepts, designs, and approaches to the field of child psychiatric epidemiology. A framework is presented for interpreting and conducting epidemiological studies concerned with child psychopathology. Major community surveys are critically evaluated. Furthermore, it provides basic concepts as well as practical guidelines concerning assessment and diagnostic issues relevant to child psychiatric epidemiology.

    In preparing this book, we have been greatly aided by Drs. Thomas Achenbach, Rob Giel, and Bert Hofman and by Jan van der Ende. We are especially grateful to Tom Achenbach, whose collaboration, advice, and help has been indispensable. Many of our ideas and examples come from our own research, which was supported by grants from the Sophia Foundation for Medical Research as well as the Health Research Promotion Programme, for which we are very grateful.

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    Author Index

    About the Authors

    Frank C. Verhulst is Professor and Director of Child Psychiatry at Sophia Children's Hospital/Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands. He received his medical degree from the Erasmus University Rotterdam. As a medical student, he obtained a special graduateship at the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, in the United States. He was trained in general psychiatry, neurology, and child psychiatry at Erasmus University, where he also received his doctorate degree. He was a Fellow at the University of Vermont. His research interests involve child psychiatric epidemiology and the assessment and diagnosis of child psychopathology. He has written a number of books and articles in the Dutch language and has published articles in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Israel Journal of Psychiatry, Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, and Psychological Medicine.

    Hans M. Koot is a Research Psychologist in the Department of Child Psychiatry, Sophia Children's Hospital/Erasmus University Rotterdam, the Netherlands. He received his master's degree in psychology from the University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands. Previous research in the Department of Developmental Psychology, University of Nijmegen, concerned socioemotional development in infancy. His current fields of research are the longitudinal study of children's behavioral/emotional problems in referred and nonreferred epidemiological samples and the development of standardized measures for assessing psychopathology in children and adolescents. He has written or cowritten a number of books and articles in the Dutch language and has published articles in the Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica.

    Notes


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