Child Health Psychology: A Biopsychosocial Perspective

Books

Julie M. Turner-Cobb

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Copyright

    Acknowledgements

    In memory of my wonderful mother, in love and appreciation of her generosity, kindness and sense of humour

    List of Figures

    List of Tables

    About the Author

    Julie Turner-Cobb is a health psychologist with an active research interest in psychoendocrinology and an established publication record in the area of child health psychology. She is a Chartered psychologist and an associate fellow of the British Psychological Society, a registered Practitioner psychologist with the Health and Care Professions Council and an associate editor for the British Journal of Health Psychology. Currently a senior lecturer in the Department of Psychology at the University of Bath, she is Director of Studies for the MSc in Health Psychology. She has published extensively in the areas of acute and chronic illness in children and in adults, with a particular focus on the family context and the role of social support and coping. She has been investigating the effects of psychosocial stress on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning for over 20 years, and has been involved in advancing the theory and measurement of cortisol testing in children. A major theme which carries through much of her work is the application of the common cold as a paradigm for the influence of psychosocial factors on acute illness in otherwise healthy children. She has made frequent contributions on radio, talking about her research, and has been a consultant for television documentaries requiring cortisol expertise. She lives in Bath and is a mother of two daughters.

    Acknowledgments

    This book has been waiting to escape for many years and is a culmination of a variety of research interests and a range of teaching experiences. Writing a textbook of this type is both an enormous endeavour and a thrilling journey of discovery. There are numerous brilliant people who have inspired and influenced the development of my ideas and research over the past 20 years or so, too many to mention, but thanks in particular are due to David Spiegel, to my research colleague David Jessop, and to the Westminster Stress Research Group.

    I do not care to admit how long it has taken to complete this text, but suffice it to say I am indebted to my colleagues at the University of Bath for their patience and confidence in its eventual completion. I am very grateful to the University and the Department of Psychology for affording me a period of sabbatical study to move ahead with my writing. I would particularly like to thank my health psychology colleagues Ed Keogh, Paula Smith and Karen Rodham for their wise words and advice on topics that I found myself branching into but which were not my original area of specialty. Thank you for letting me tread on your turf, so to speak: I enjoyed our discussions and look forward to engaging in some of the potential collaborative research that emerged.

    Special mention goes to Tim Gamble for his insightful and somehow always timely suggestions for fascinating nuggets of news and relevant websites. Thanks also to my clinical collaborator, Mike Osborn: talking with you has the effect of unleashing new ideas and ways of looking at health interventions. Much appreciated and by no means least is the assistance of my hard-working team of postgraduate students, including Fiona Begen, Tara Cheetham, Steve Dean, Lifang Neo and Carmen Skilton, for literature searches, compiling tables, proof reading and all-round, positive enthusiasm.

  • References

    Absolom K. Eiser C. Greco V. and Davies H. (2004) Health promotion for survivors of childhood cancer: A minimal intervention. Patient Education and Counseling, 55(3) 37984.
    Ajzen I. (1985) From intentions to actions: a theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckmann (eds), Action Control: From Cognition to Behavior. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. pp. 1139.
    Ajzen I. (1991) The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50: 179211.
    Akinbami L.J. Moorman J.E. Garbe P.L. and Sondik E.J. (2009) Status of childhood asthma in the United States, 1980–2007. Pediatrics, 123 Suppl. 3: S 13145.
    Al-Ansari A.A. Perry L.A. Smith D.S. and Landon J. (1982) Salivary cortisol determination: adaptation of a commercial serum cortisol kit. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 19: 1636.
    Alaszewski A. (2006) Using Diaries for Social Research. London: Sage.
    Alchin L.K. (2009) Nursery rhymes lyrics and origins (www.rhymes.org.uk; retrieved 12 February 2011).
    Alderson A. and Morrow V. (2004) Ethics, Social Research and Consulting with Children and Young People. Ilford, Essex: Barnardo's.
    Anderson N.B. Bennett Johnson, S., Belar, C.D., Breckler, S.J., Nordal, K.C., Ballard, D. and Kelley, K. (2010) Stress in America™: our health at risk. American Psychological Association (www.stressinamerica.org; retrieved 27 March, 2012).
    Andre M. Hedin K. Hakansson A. Molstad S. Rodhe N. and Petersson C. (2007) More physician consultations and antibiotic prescriptions in families with high concern about infectious illness: adequate response to infection-prone child or self-fulfilling prophecy? Family Practice, 24(4) 3027.
    Andrews K.R. Silk K.S. and Eneli I.U. (2010) Parents as health promoters: a theory of planned behavior perspective on the prevention of childhood obesity. Journal of Health Communication, 15(1) 95107.
    Antonucci T.C. (1985) Social support: theoretical advances, recent findings and pressing issues. In I.G. Sarason and B.R. Sarason (eds), Social Support: Theory, Research and Applications. Lancaster: Martinus Nijhoff. pp. 2137.
    Appleton A.A. Buka S.L. McCormick M.C. Koenen K.C. Loucks E.B. Gilman S.E. and Kubzansky L.D. (2011) Emotional functioning at age 7 years is associated with C-reactive protein in middle adulthood. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73(4) 295303.
    Armitage C.J. and Sprigg C.A. (2010) The roles of behavioral and implementation intentions in changing physical activity in young children with low socioeconomic status. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 32(3) 35976.
    Ashman S.B. Dawson G. Panagiotides H. Yamada E. and Wilkinson C.W. (2002) Stress hormone levels of children of depressed mothers. Development and Psychopathology, 14(2) 33349.
    Askelson N.M. Campo S. Lowe J.B. Dennis L.K. Smith S. and Andsager J. (2010) Factors related to physicians’ willingness to vaccinate girls against HPV: the importance of subjective norms and perceived behavioral control. Women and Health, 50(2) 14458.
    Aujoulat I. Simonelli F. and Deccache A. (2006) Health promotion needs of children and adolescents in hospitals: a review. Patient Education and Counseling, 61(1) 2332.
    Ayers S. Joseph S. McKenzie-McHarg K. Slade P. and Wijma K. (2008) Post-traumatic stress disorder following childbirth: current issues and recommendations for future research. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 29(4) 24050.
    Ball T.M. Holberg C.J. Aldous M.B. Martinez F.D. and Wright A.L. (2002) Influence of attendance at day care on the common cold from birth through 13 years of age. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 156(2) 1216.
    Banks P. Cogan N. Riddell S. Deeley S. Hill M. and Tisdall K. (2002) Does the covert nature of caring prohibit the development of effective services for young carers? British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, 30(3) 22946.
    Barakat L.P. Schwartz L.A. Simon K. and Radcliffe J. (2007) Negative thinking as a coping strategy mediator of pain and internalizing symptoms in adolescents with sickle cell disease. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30(3) 199208.
    Barrera M. Chassin L. and Rogosch F. (1993) Effects of social support and conflict on adolescent children of alcoholic and nonalcoholic fathers. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4) 60212.
    Becker M.H. (1974) The health belief model and personal health behaviour. Health Education Monographs, 2: 324508.
    Becker M.H. and Maiman L.A. (1975) Socio-behavioral determinants of compliance with health and medical care recommendations. Medical Care, 13: 1014.
    Becker S. (2000) Young carers. In M. Davies (ed.), The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Work. Oxford: Blackwell.p. 378.
    Becker S. (2007) Global perspectives on children's unpaid caregiving in the family: research and policy on ‘young carers’ in the UK, Australia, the USA and sub-Saharan Africa. Global Social Policy, 7(1) 2350.
    Becker S. Aldridge J. and Dearden C. (1998) Young Carers and their Families. Oxford: Blackwell Sciences.
    Belanger L.J. Plotnikoff R.C. Clark A. and Courneya K.S. (2011) Physical activity and health-related quality of life in young adult cancer survivors: a Canadian provincial survey. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 5(1) 4453.
    Bella G.P. Garcia M.C. and Spadari-Bratfisch R.C. (2011) Salivary cortisol, stress, and health in primary caregivers (mothers) of children with cerebral palsy. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(6) 83442.
    Biank N.M. and Werner-Lin A. (2011) Growing up with grief: revisiting the death of a parent over the life course. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 63(3) 27190.
    Bibace R. and Walsh M.E. (1980) Development of children's concepts of illness. Pediatrics, 66(6) 91217.
    Bibace R. Schmidt L.R. and Walsh M.E. (1994) Children's perceptions of illness. In G.N. Penny P. Bennett and M. Herbert (eds), Health Psychology: A Lifespan Perspective. London: Harwood. pp. 1330.
    Black D. (1976) What happens to bereaved children? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 69(11) 8424.
    Bogosian A. Moss-Morris R. and Hadwin J. (2010) Psychosocial adjustment in children and adolescents with a parent with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review. Clinical Rehabilitation, 24(9) 789801.
    Bolten M.I. Wurmser H. Buske-Kirschbaum A. Papousek M. Pirke K.M. and Hellhammer D. (2011) Cortisol levels in pregnancy as a psychobiological predictor for birth weight. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 14(1) 3341.
    Bosquet Enlow, M., Kullowatz, A., Staudenmayer, J., Spasojevic, J., Ritz, T. and Wright, R.J. (2009) Associations of maternal lifetime trauma and perinatal traumatic stress symptoms with infant cardiorespiratory reactivity to psychological challenge. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(6) 60714.
    Boszormenyi-Nagy I. and Spark G.M. (1973) Invisible Loyalties: Reciprocity in Intergenerational Family Therapy. New York: Harper & Row.
    Bovbjerg D.H. (2003) Conditioning, cancer, and immune regulation. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17 Suppl. 1: S 5861.
    Bovbjerg D.H. (2006) The continuing problem of post chemotherapy nausea and vomiting: contributions of classical conditioning. Autonomic Neuroscience, 129(1–2): 928.
    Bowlby J. (1969) Attachment and Loss, vol. 1: Attachment. London: The Hogarth Press and the Intstitute of Psychoanalysis.
    Boyce W.T. Adams S. Tschann J.M. Cohen F. Wara D. and Gunnar M.R. (1995) Adrenocortical and behavioral predictors of immune responses to starting school. Pediatric Research, 38(6) 100917.
    Boyce W.T. Chesney M. Alkon A. Tschann J.M. Adams S. Chesterman B. and Wara D. (1995) Psychobiologic reactivity to stress and childhood respiratory illnesses: results of two prospective studies. Psychosomatic Medicine, 57(5) 41122.
    Boyle C.A. Boulet S. Schieve L.A. Cohen R.A. Blumberg S.J. Yeargin-Allsopp M. and Kogan M.D. (2011) Trends in the prevalence of developmental disabilities in US children, 1997–2008. Pediatrics, 127(6) 103442.
    Bracchitta K.M. (2006) Factors influencing parental use of booster seats for their children. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 13(3) 27384.
    Brand S.R. Engel S.M. Canfield R.L. and Yehuda R. (2006) The effect of maternal PTSD following in utero trauma exposure on behavior and temperament in the 9-month-old infant. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1071: 4548.
    Braveman P. and Barclay C. (2009) Health disparities beginning in childhood: a life-course perspective. Pediatrics, 124 (Suppl. 3): S 16375.
    Bray J.H. (2010) The future of psychology practice and science. American Psychologist, 65(5) 35569.
    Brewer J.D. and Sparkes A.C. (2011) Young people living with parental bereavement: insights from an ethnographic study of a UK childhood bereavement service. Social Science and Medicine, 72(2) 28390.
    Brook C. and Marshall N. (2001) Essential Endocrinology,
    4th edn
    . Oxford: Blackwell Science.
    Brown D.F. and Moerenhout R.G. (1991) The pain experience and psychological adjustment to orthodontic treatment of preadolescents, adolescents, and adults. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 100(4) 34956.
    Brown J.A.C. (1972) Freud and the Post-Freudians. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin.
    Brown R.T. Wiener L. Kupst M.J. Brennan T. Behrman R. Compas B.E. and Zeltzer L. (2008) Single parents of children with chronic illness: an understudied phenomenon. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 33(4) 40821.
    Bruce J. Davis E.P. and Gunnar M.R. (2002) Individual differences in children's cortisol response to the beginning of a new school year. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27(6) 63550.
    Buchbinder D. Casillas J. Krull K.R. Goodman P. Leisenring W. Recklitis C. and Zeltzer L.K. (2011) Psychological outcomes of siblings of cancer survivors: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Psychooncology, 20(12) 125968.
    Buenaver L.F. Edwards R.R. and Haythornthwaite J.A. (2007) Pain-related catastrophizing and perceived social responses: inter-relationships in the context of chronic pain. Pain, 127(3) 23442.
    Bugental D.B. Martorell G.A. and Barraza V. (2003) The hormonal costs of subtle forms of infant maltreatment. Hormones and Behavior, 43(1) 23744.
    Buitelaar J.K. Huizink A.C. Mulder E.J. Robles de Medina, P.G. and Visser, G.H.A. (2003) Prenatal stress and cognitive development and temperament in infants. Neurobiology of Aging, 24 (Suppl. 1): S 5360.
    Buske-Kirschbaum A. (2009) Cortisol responses to stress in allergic children: interaction with the immune response. Neuroimmunomodulation, 16(5) 32532.
    Buske-Kirschbaum A. Jobst S. Wustmans A. Kirschbaum C. Rauh W. and Hellhammer D. (1997) Attenuated free cortisol response to psychosocial stress in children with atopic dermatitis. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59(4) 41926.
    Buske-Kirschbaum A. von Auer, K., Krieger, S., Weis, S., Rauh, W. and Hellhammer, D. (2003) Blunted cortisol responses to psychosocial stress in asthmatic children: a general feature of atopic disease? Psychosomatic Medicine, 65(5) 80610.
    Buss C. Davis E.P. Muftuler L.T. Head K. and Sandman C.A. (2010) High pregnancy anxiety during mid-gestation is associated with decreased gray matter density in 6–9-year-old children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(1) 14153.
    Butler A.H. and Astbury G. (2005) The caring child: an evaluative case study of the Cornwall Young Carers project. Children and Society, 19: 292303.
    Caes L. Vervoort T. Eccleston C. Vandenhende M. and Goubert L. (2011) Parental catastrophizing about child's pain and its relationship with activity restriction: the mediating role of parental distress. Pain, 152(1) 21222.
    Campbell L.K. Scaduto M. Van Slyke, D., Niarhos, F., Whitlock, J.A. and Compas, B.E. (2009) Executive function, coping, and behavior in survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34(3) 31727.
    Cannon W.B. (1929) Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage: An Account of Recent Researches into the Function of Emotional Excitement,
    2nd edn
    . New York: D. Appleton.
    Carpenter L.L. Shattuck T.T. Tyrka A.R. Geracioti T.D. and Price L.H. (2011) Effect of childhood physical abuse on cortisol stress response. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 214(1) 36775.
    Carrion V.G. Weems C.F. Ray R.D. Glaser B. Hessl D. and Reiss A.L. (2002) Diurnal salivary cortisol in pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 51(7) 57582.
    CDC (Center for Disease Control and Prevention) (2010) Report: Child Health. (www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/children.htm; retrieved 8 June 2012).
    Chase N.D. (1999) Burdened Children: Theory, Research and Treatment of Parentification. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Chryssanthopoulou C.C. Turner-Cobb J.M. Lucas A. and Jessop D. (2005) Childcare as a stabilizing influence on HPA axis functioning: a reevaluation of maternal occupational patterns and familial relations. Developmental Psychobiology, 47(4) 35468.
    Cicchetti D. (2010) Resilience under conditions of extreme stress: a multilevel perspective. World Psychiatry, 9(3) 14554.
    Cicchetti D. and Rogosch F.A. (2001) The impact of child maltreatment and psychopathology on neuroendocrine functioning. Development and Psychopathology, 13(4) 783804.
    Claar R.L. Baber K.F. Simons L.E. Logan D.E. and Walker L.S. (2008) Pain coping profiles in adolescents with chronic pain. Pain, 140(2) 36875.
    Clanton N.R. Klosky J.L. Li C. Jain N. Srivastava D.K. Mulrooney D. and Krull K.R. (2011) Fatigue, vitality, sleep, and neurocognitive functioning in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. Cancer (EPub: 13 April 2011).
    Clarke S.A. and Eiser C. (2007) Health behaviours in childhood cancer survivors: a systematic review. European Journal of Cancer, 43(9) 137384.
    Clarke S.A. Davies H. Jenney M. Glaser A. and Eiser C. (2005) Parental communication and children's behaviour following diagnosis of childhood leukaemia. Psychooncology, 14(4) 27481.
    Clarke S.A. Eiser C. and Skinner R. (2008) Health-related quality of life in survivors of BMT for paediatric malignancy: a systematic review of the literature. Bone Marrow Transplant, 42(2) 7382.
    Clarke S.A. Sheppard L. and Eiser C. (2008) Mothers’ explanations of communicating past health and future risks to survivors of childhood cancer. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 13(1) 15770.
    Class Q.A. Lichtenstein P. Langstrom N. and D'Onofrio B.M. (2011) Timing of prenatal maternal exposure to severe life events and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a population study of 2.6 million pregnancies. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73(3) 23441.
    Clay R.A. (2011) Stressed in America. Monitor on Psychology, 42: 603.
    Clinch J. and Eccleston C. (2009) Chronic musculoskeletal pain in children: assessment and management. Rheumatology (Oxford), 48(5) 46674.
    Clow A. Thorn L. Evans P. and Hucklebridge F. (2004) The awakening cortisol response: methodological issues and significance. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 7: 2937.
    Cobb J.M. and Steptoe A. (1996) Psychosocial stress and susceptibility to upper respiratory tract illness in an adult population sample. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58: 40412.
    Coddington R.D. (1972) The significance of life events as etiologic factors in the diseases of children. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 16: 20513.
    Coe C.L. and Lubach G.R. (2003) Critical periods of special health relevance for psychoneuroimmunology. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17(1) 312.
    Cohen L.L. Vowles K.E. and Eccleston C. (2010) The impact of adolescent chronic pain on functioning: disentangling the complex role of anxiety. Journal of Pain, 11(11) 103946.
    Cohen S. and Herbert T.B. (1996) Health psychology: psychological factors and physical disease from the perspective of human psychoneuroimmunology. Annual Review of Psychology, 47: 11342.
    Cohen S. and Williamson G. (1991) Stress and infectious disease in humans. Psychological Bulletin, 109: 524.
    Cohen S. Kamarck T. and Mermelstein R. (1983) A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4) 38596.
    Cohen S. Tyrrell D. and Smith A.P. (1991) Psychological stress and susceptibility to the common cold. New England Journal of Medicine, 325(9) 60612.
    Colville G. (2012) Paediatric intensive care. The Psychologist, 25(3) 2069.
    Comeaux S.J. and Jaser S.S. (2010) Autonomy and insulin in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes, 11(7) 498504.
    Compas B.E. (2006) Psychobiological processes of stress and coping: implications for resilience in children and adolescents – comments on the papers of Romeo and McEwen and Fisher et al. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1094: 22634.
    Compas B.E. Connor J. Osowiecki D. and Welch A. (1997) Effortful and involuntary responses to stress: implications for coping with chronic stress. In B.H. Gottlieb (ed.), Coping with Chronic Stress. New York: Plenum Press. pp. 10530.
    Compas B.E. Connor-Smith J.K. Saltzman H. Thomsen A.H. and Wadsworth M.E. (2001) Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence: problems, progress, and potential in theory and research. Psychological Bulletin, 127(1) 87127.
    Compas B.E. Jaser S.S. Dunn M.J. and Rodriguez E.M. (2012) Coping with chronic illness in childhood and adolescence. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8: 45580.
    Connor-Smith J.K. Compas B.E. Wadsworth M.E. Thomsen A.H. and Saltzman H. (2000) Responses to stress in adolescence: measurement of coping and involuntary stress responses. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(6) 97692.
    Coyne I. (2006) Children's experiences of hospitalization. Journal of Child Health Care, 10(4) 32636.
    Coyne I. (2007) Disruption of parent participation: nurses’ strategies to manage parents on children's wards. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 17: 31508.
    Crandall M. Kools S. Miaskowski C. and Savedra M. (2007) Adolescents’ pain experiences following acute blunt traumatic injury: struggle for internal control. Journal for Specialists in Pediatric Nursing, 12(4) 22437.
    Crandall M. Lammers C. Senders C. and Braun J.V. (2009) Children's tonsillectomy experiences: influencing factors. Journal of Child Health Care, 13(4) 30821.
    Creswell J.W. (2009) Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. London: Sage.
    Crom D.B. (2009) ‘I think you are pretty; I don't know why everyone can't see that’: reflections from a young adult brain tumor survivor camp. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27(19) 325961.
    Crom D.B. Lensing S.Y. Rai S.N. Snider M.A. Cash D.K. and Hudson M.M. (2007) Marriage, employment, and health insurance in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 1(3) 23745.
    Dahl R.E. (2004) Adolescent brain development: a period of vulnerabilities and opportunities. Keynote address. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021: 122.
    Dahl R.E. and Gunnar M.R. (2009) Heightened stress responsiveness and emotional reactivity during pubertal maturation: implications for psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 21(1) 16.
    D'Anna-Hernandez K.L. Ross R.G. Natvig C.L. and Laudenslager M.L. (2011) Hair cortisol levels as a retrospective marker of hypothalamic-pituitary axis activity throughout pregnancy: comparison to salivary cortisol. Physiology and Behavior, 104(2) 34853.
    Davies R. Davis B. and Sibert J. (2003) Parents’ stories of sensitive and insensitive care by paediatricians in the time leading up to and including diagnostic disclosure of a life-limiting condition in their child. Child: Care, Health and Development, 29(1) 7782.
    Davis E.P. Donzella B. Krueger W.K. and Gunnar M.R. (1999) The start of a new school year: individual differences in salivary cortisol response in relation to child temperament. Developmental Psychobiology, 35(3) 18896.
    Davis E.P. Glynn L.M. Schetter C.D. Hobel C. Chicz-Demet A. and Sandman C.A. (2007) Prenatal exposure to maternal depression and cortisol influences infant temperament. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 46(6) 73746.
    Davis E.P. and Granger D.A. (2009) Developmental differences in infant salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol responses to stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(6) 795804.
    Davis E.P. and Sandman C.A. (2010) The timing of prenatal exposure to maternal cortisol and psychosocial stress is associated with human infant cognitive development. Child Development, 81(1) 13148.
    Davis E.P. Glynn L.M. Waffarn F. and Sandman C.A. (2011) Prenatal maternal stress programs infant stress regulation. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 52(2) 11929.
    Dawkins R. (2006) The God Delusion. London: Bantam Press.
    De Vriendt, T., Moreno, L.A. and De Henauw, S. (2009) Chronic stress and obesity in adolescents: scientific evidence and methodological issues for epidemiological research. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 19(7) 51119.
    de Weerth, C. and Buitelaar, J.K. (2005) Physiological stress reactivity in human pregnancy: a review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29(2) 295312.
    de Weerth, C., van Hees, Y. and Buitelaar, J.K. (2003) Prenatal maternal cortisol levels and infant behavior during the first 5 months. Early Human Development, 74(2) 13951.
    Dearden C. and Becker S. (2004) Young Carers in the UK: The 2004 Report. London: Carers UK.
    Deinzer R. Kleineidam C. Stiller Winkler, R., Idel, H. and Bachg, D. (2000) Prolonged reduction of salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) after major academic exam. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 37(3) 21932.
    Descartes R. (1984) A Discourse on Method. London: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd.
    Detillion C.E. Craft T.K.S. Glasper E.R. Prendergast B.J. and DeVries A.C. (2004) Social facilitation of wound healing. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(8) 100411.
    Dettling A.C. Parker S.W. Lane S. Sebanc A. and Gunnar M.R. (2000) Quality of care and temperament determine changes in cortisol concentrations over the day for young children in childcare. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25(8) 81936.
    Devine K.A. Reed-Knight B. Loiselle K.A. Fenton N. and Blount R.L. (2010) Posttraumatic growth in young adults who experienced serious childhood illness: a mixed-methods approach. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 17(4) 3408.
    Dhabhar F.S. and McEwen B.S. (1997) Acute stress enhances while chronic stress suppresses cell-mediated immunity in vivo: a potential role for leukocyte trafficking. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 11(4) 286306.
    Dhabhar F.S. Saul A.N. Daugherty C. Holmes T.H. Bouley D.M. and Oberyszyn T.M. (2010) Short-term stress enhances cellular immunity and increases early resistance to squamous cell carcinoma. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24(1) 12737.
    Di Gioia, C., Bracceschi, R., Copioli, C., Piccolo, B., Ziliani, P., Pisani, F. and Bevilacqua, G. (2011) Care to relieve pain-stress in preterm newborns. Acta Bio Medica, 82(1) 205.
    Diamond A. Barnett W.S. Thomas J. and Munro S. (2007) Preschool program improves cognitive control. Science, 318(5855) 13878.
    Dickerson S.S. and Kemeny M.E. (2004) Acute stressors and cortisol responses: a theoretical integration and synthesis of laboratory research. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3) 35591.
    Dickerson S.S. Gruenewald T.L. and Kemeny M.E. (2009) Psychobiological responses to social self threat: functional or detrimental? Self and Identity, 8(2–3): 27085.
    DiClemente C.C. and Prochaska J.O. (1982) Self-change and therapy change of smoking behavior: a comparison of processes of change in cessation and maintenance. Addictive Behaviors, 7(2) 13342.
    Dobbs D. (2005) Fact or phrenology? Scientific American Mind, 16(1) 2431.
    Doug M. Adi Y. Williams J. Paul M. Kelly D. Petchey R. and Carter Y.H. (2011) Transition to adult services for children and young people with palliative care needs: a systematic review. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96(1) 7884.
    Dowling A.S. (2005) George Engel, M.D. (1913–1999). American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(11) 2039.
    Dowling E. Yabroff K.R. Mariotto A. McNeel T. Zeruto C. and Buckman D. (2010) Burden of illness in adult survivors of childhood cancers: findings from a population-based national sample. Cancer, 116(15) 371221.
    Dreger L.C. Kozyrskyj A.L. HayGlass K.T. Becker A.B. and MacNeil B.J. (2010) Lower cortisol levels in children with asthma exposed to recurrent maternal distress from birth. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 125(1) 11622.
    Dubé E. Bettinger J.A. Halperin B. Bradet R. Lavoie F. Sauvageau C. Gilca V. and Boulianne N. (2012) Determinants of parents’ decision to vaccinate their children against rotavirus: results of a longitudinal study. Health Education Research, 27(6) 106980.
    Dube S.R. Fairweather D. Pearson W.S. Felitti V.J. Anda R.F. and Croft J.B. (2009) Cumulative childhood stress and autoimmune diseases in adults. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(2) 24350.
    Dubow E.F. and Ullman D.G. (1989) Assessing social support in elementary school children: the survey of children's social support. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 18: 5264.
    Duff A.J. Gaskell S.L. Jacobs K. and Houghton J.M. (2012) Management of distressing procedures in children and young people: time to adhere to the guidelines. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 97(1) 14.
    Dufton L.M. Dunn M.J. Slosky L.S. and Compas B.E. (2011) Self-reported and laboratory-based responses to stress in children with recurrent pain and anxiety. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 36(1) 95105.
    Dunn M.J. Rodriguez E.M. Barnwell A.S. Grossenbacher J.C. Vannatta K. Gerhardt C.A. and Compas B.E. (2012) Posttraumatic stress symptoms in parents of children with cancer within six months of diagnosis. Health Psychology, 31(2) 17685.
    Earle E.A. Clarke S.A. Eiser C. and Sheppard L. (2006) ‘Building a new normality’: mothers’ experiences of caring for a child with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(2) 15560.
    Eccleston C. Jordan A. McCracken L.M. Sleed M. Connell H. and Clinch J. (2005) The Bath Adolescent Pain Questionnaire (BAPQ): development and preliminary psychometric evaluation of an instrument to assess the impact of chronic pain on adolescents. Pain, 118(1–2): 26370.
    Eccleston C. Jordan A.L. and Crombez G. (2006) The impact of chronic pain on adolescents: a review of previously used measures. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 31(7) 68497.
    Eccleston C. Palermo T.M. Williams A.C. Lewandowski A. and Morley S. (2009) Psychological therapies for the management of chronic and recurrent pain in children and adolescents. Cochrane Database Syst Rev(2): CD003968.
    Ehrenreich B. (2009) Smile or Die: How Positive Thinking Fooled America and the World. London: Granta.
    Eiser C. (1989) Coping with chronic childhood diseases: implications for counselling children and adolescents. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 2(3) 32336.
    Eiser C. (1990) Chronic Childhood Disease: An Introduction to Psychological Theory and Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Eiser C. (2004) Children with Cancer: The Quality of Life. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Eiser C. (2007) Beyond survival: quality of life and follow-up after childhood cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32(9) 114050.
    Eiser C. and Patterson D. (1983) Slugs and snails and puppy-dog tails: children's ideas about the inside of their bodies. Child: Care, Health and Development, 9(4) 23340.
    Eiser C. Patterson D. and Eiser J.R. (1983) Children's knowledge of health and illness: implications for health-education. Child: Care, Health and Development, 9(5) 28592.
    Eiser C. Hill J.J. and Blacklay A. (2000) Surviving cancer: what does it mean for you? An evaluation of a clinic based intervention for survivors of childhood cancer. Psychooncology, 9(3) 21420.
    Eiser C. Eiser J.R. and Greco V. (2004) Surviving childhood cancer: quality of life and parental regulatory focus. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(2) 12333.
    Eiser C. Absolom K. Greenfield D. Glaser A. Horne B. Waite H. and Davies H. (2006) Follow-up after childhood cancer: evaluation of a three-level model. European Journal of Cancer, 42(18) 318690.
    Elborn J.S. Shale D.J. and Britton J.R. (1991) Cystic fibrosis: current survival and population estimates to the year 2000. Thorax, 46(12) 8815.
    Elliott G.R. and Eisdorfer C. (eds) (1982) Stress and Human Health. New York: Springer-Verlag.
    Ellman L.M. Schetter C.D. Hobel C.J. Chicz-Demet A. Glynn L.M. and Sandman C.A. (2008) Timing of fetal exposure to stress hormones: effects on newborn physical and neuromuscular maturation. Developmental Psychobiology, 50(3) 23241.
    Engel G.L. (1977) The need for a new medical model: a challenge for biomedicine. Science, 196(4286) 12936.
    Engel G.L. Reichsman F.K. and Viederman M. (1979) Monica: a 25-year longitudinal study of the consequences of trauma in infancy. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 27(1) 10726.
    Entringer S. Buss C. Andersen J. Chicz-Demet A. and Wadhwa P.D. (2011) Ecological momentary assessment of maternal cortisol profiles over a multiple-day period predicts the length of human gestation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73(6) 46974.
    Evans P. Hucklebridge F. and Clow A. (2000) Mind, Immunity and Health. London: Free Association Books.
    Exton M.S. King M.G. and Husband A.J. (1999) Behavioral conditioning of immunity. In M. Schedlowski and U. Tewes (eds), Psychoneuroimmunology: An Interdisciplinary Introduction. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. pp. 44352.
    Exton M.S. von Auer, A.K., Buske-Kirschbaum, A., Stockhorst, U., Gobel, U. and Schedlowski, M. (2000) Pavlovian conditioning of immune function: animal investigation and the challenge of human application. Behavioural Brain Research, 110(1–2): 12941.
    Federenko I. Wust S. Hellhammer D.H. Dechoux R. Kumsta R. and Kirschbaum C. (2004) Free cortisol awakening responses are influenced by awakening time. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(2) 17484.
    Fink N.S. Urech C. Isabel F. Meyer A. Hoesli I. Bitzer J. and Alder J. (2011) Fetal response to abbreviated relaxation techniques: a randomized controlled study. Early Human Development, 87(2) 1217.
    Fishbein M. (1967) Attitude and the prediction of behavior. In M. Fishbein (ed.), Readings in Attitude Theory and Measurement. New York: Wiley. pp. 47792.
    Fishbein M. (1980) A theory of reasoned action: some applications and implications. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 27: 65116.
    Fishbein M. (2008) A reasoned action approach to health promotion. Medical Decision Making, 28(6) 83444.
    Flinn M.V. and England B.G. (1997) Social economics of childhood glucocorticoid stress response and health. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 102(1) 3353.
    Folkman S. (1997) Positive psychological states and coping with severe stress. Social Science and Medicine, 45(8) 120721.
    Forsner M. Jansson L. and S⊘rlie V. (2005a) Being ill as narrated by children aged 11–18 years. Journal of Child Health Care, 9(4) 31423.
    Forsner M. Jansson L. and S⊘rlie V. (2005b) The experience of being ill as narrated by hospitalized children aged 7–10 years with short-term illness. Journal of Child Health Care, 9(2) 15365.
    Fowler A. Stodberg T. Eriksson M. and Wickstrom R. (2010) Long-term outcomes of acute encephalitis in childhood. Pediatrics, 126(4) e 82835.
    Francis R.D. (2009) Ethics for Psychologists,
    2nd edn
    . Chichester: BPS Blackwell.
    Francis S.J. Walker R.F. Riad-Fahmy D. Hughes D. Murphy J.F. and Gray O.P. (1987) Assessment of adrenocortical activity in term newborn infants using salivary cortisol determinations. Journal of Pediatrics, 111(1) 12933.
    Frank J. (1995) Couldn't Care More: A Study of Young Carers and their Needs. London: The Children's Society.
    Frank J. and McLarnon J. (2008) Young Carers, Parents and their Families: Key Principles of Practice. London: The Children's Society.
    Frank J. Tatum C. and Tucker S. (1999) On Small Shoulders: Learning from the Experiences of Former Young Carers. London: The Children's Society.
    Friedrichsdorf S.J. and Kang T.I. (2007) The management of pain in children with life-limiting illnesses. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 54(5) 64572.
    Frobisher C. Winter D.L. Lancashire E.R. Reulen R.C. Taylor A.J. Eiser C. and Hawkins M.M. (2008) Extent of smoking and age at initiation of smoking among adult survivors of childhood cancer in Britain. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 100(15) 106881.
    Gaffney A. McGrath P.J. and Dick B. (2003) Measuring pain in children: developmental and instrument issues. In N.L. Schechter, C.B. Berde and M. Yaster (eds), Pain in Infants, Children and Adolescents. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 13041.
    Gallagher S. Phillips A.C. Drayson M.T. and Carroll D. (2009) Parental caregivers of children with developmental disabilities mount a poor antibody response to pneumococcal vaccination. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23(3) 33846.
    Gallagher S. Phillips A.C. Ferraro A.J. Drayson M.T. and Carroll D. (2008) Social support is positively associated with the immunoglobulin M response to vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharides. Biological Psychology, 78(2) 21115.
    Gaskell S. (2010) Evidence-based guidelines for the management of invasive and/or distressing procedures with children. Position paper. Leicester: British Psychological Society.
    Gatchel R.J. Peng Y.B. Peters M.L. Fuchs P.N. and Turk D.C. (2007) The biopsychosocial approach to chronic pain: scientific advances and future directions. Psychological Bulletin, 133(4) 581624.
    Gauntlett-Gilbert J. and Eccleston C. (2007) Disability in adolescents with chronic pain: patterns and predictors across different domains of functioning. Pain, 131(1–2): 13241.
    Gehring T.M. and Wyler I.L. (1986) Family-system-test (fast): a 3-dimensional approach to investigate family relationships. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 16(4) 23548.
    Gil K.M. Thompson R.J. Keith B.R. Totafaucette M. Noll S. and Kinney T.R. (1993) Sickle-cell disease pain in children and adolescents: change in pain frequency and coping strategies over time. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 18(5) 62137.
    Gil K.M. Phillips G. Edens J. Martin N.J. and Abrams M. (1994) Observation of pain behaviors during episodes of sickle cell disease pain. Clinical Journal of Pain, 10(2) 12832.
    Gil K.M. Carson J.W. Porter L.S. Ready J. Valrie C. Redding-Lallinger R. and Daeschner C. (2003) Daily stress and mood and their association with pain, health-care use, and school activity in adolescents with sickle cell disease. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 28(5) 36373.
    Gill T. (2007) No Fear: Growing Up in a Risk Averse Society. London: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation.
    Gillies M.L. Smith L.N. and Parry-Jones W.L. (2001) Postoperative pain: a comparison of adolescent inpatient and day patient experiences. International Journal of Nurssing Studies, 38(3) 329337.
    Glaser R. Pearson G.R. Bonneau R.H. Esterling B.A. Atkinson C. and Kiecolt-Glaser J.K. (1993) Stress and the memory T-cell response to the Epstein-Barr virus in healthy medical students. Health Psychology, 12(6) 43542.
    Glover J. (2009) Bouncing Back: How Can Resilience be Promoted in Vulnerable Children and Young People? Ilford, Essex: Barnardo's.
    Glover V. Bergman K. Sarkar P. and O'Connor T.G. (2009) Association between maternal and amniotic fluid cortisol is moderated by maternal anxiety. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(3) 4305.
    Goedhart G. Vrijkotte T.G. Roseboom T.J. van der Wal, M.F., Cuijpers, P. and Bonsel, G.J. (2010) Maternal cortisol and offspring birthweight: results from a large prospective cohort study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(5) 64452.
    Goldacre B. (2008) Bad Science. London: Fourth Estate.
    Gollwitzer P.M. and Oettingen G. (1998) The emergence and implementation of health goals. Psychology and Health, 13: 687715.
    Gore-Felton C. and Koopman C. (2008) Behavioral mediation of the relationship between psychosocial factors and HIV disease progression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(5) 56974.
    Grandgeorge M. and Hausberger M. (2011) Human– animal relationships: from daily life to animal-assisted therapies. Annali dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 47(4) 397408.
    Granger D.A. Kivlighan K.T. el-Sheikh M. Gordis E.B. and Stroud L.R. (2007) Salivary alpha-amylase in biobehavioral research: recent developments and applications. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1098: 12244.
    Green D.M. Cox C.L. Zhu L. Krull K.R. Srivastava D.K. Stovall M. and Robison L.L. (2012) Risk factors for obesity in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 30(3) 24655.
    Grodin M.A. and Glantz L.H. (1994) Children as Research Subjects: Science, Ethics and Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Groschl M. Rauh M. and Dorr H.G. (2003) Circadian rhythm of salivary cortisol, 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and progesterone in healthy children. Clinical Chemistry, 49(10) 168891.
    Guite J.W. Logan D.E. Sherry D.D. and Rose J.B. (2007) Adolescent self-perception: associations with chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional disability. Journal of Pain, 8(5) 37986.
    Gultekin G. and Baran G. (2007) A study of the self-concepts of 9–14-year-old children with acute and chronic diseases. Social Behavior and Personality, 35(3) 32938.
    Gunnar M.R. (1992) Reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system to stressors in normal infants and children. Pediatrics, 90(3 pt 2): 4917.
    Gunnar M.R. and Donzella B. (2002) Social regulation of the cortisol levels in early human development. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 27(1) 199220.
    Gunnar M.R. and Fisher P.A. (2006) Bringing basic research on early experience and stress neurobiology to bear on preventive interventions for neglected and maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology, 18(3) 65177.
    Gunnar M.R. and Quevedo K. (2007) The neurobiology of stress and development. Annual Review of Psychology, 58: 14573.
    Gunnar M.R. and Vazquez D.M. (2001) Low cortisol and a flattening of expected daytime rhythm: potential indices of risk in human development. Development and Psychopathology, 13(3) 51538.
    Gunnar M.R. Morison S.J. Chisholm K. and Schuder M. (2001) Salivary cortisol levels in children adopted from Romanian orphanages. Development and Psychopathology, 13(3) 61128.
    Gunnar M.R. Sebanc A.M. Tout K. Donzella B. van Dulmen, M.M. (2003) Peer rejection, temperament, and cortisol activity in preschoolers. Developmental Psychobiology, 43: 34658.
    Gunnar M.R. Frenn K. Wewerka S.S. and Van Ryzin, M.J. (2009) Moderate versus severe early life stress: associations with stress reactivity and regulation in 10–12-year-old children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(1) 6275.
    Gunnar M.R. Talge N.M. and Herrera A. (2009) Stressor paradigms in developmental studies: what does and does not work to produce mean increases in salivary cortisol. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(7) 95367.
    Gunnar M.R. Wewerka S. Frenn K. Long J.D. and Griggs C. (2009) Developmental changes in hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal activity over the transition to adolescence: normative changes and associations with puberty. Development and Psychopathology, 21(1) 6985.
    Gurney J.G. Krull K.R. Kadan-Lottick N. Nicholson H.S. Nathan P.C. Zebrack B. and Ness K.K. (2009) Social outcomes in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 27(14) 23905.
    Gutteling B.M. de Weerth, C. and Buitelaar, J.K. (2005) Prenatal stress and children's cortisol reaction to the first day of school. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(6) 5419.
    Gutteling B.M. de Weerth, C., Willemsen-Swinkels, S.H., Huizink, A.C., Mulder, E.J., Visser, G.H. and Buitelaar, J.K. (2005) The effects of prenatal stress on temperament and problem behavior of 27-month-old toddlers. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 14(1) 4151.
    Gutteling B.M. de Weerth, C., Zandbelt, N., Mulder, E.J., Visser, G.H. and Buitelaar, J.K. (2006) Does maternal prenatal stress adversely affect the child's learning and memory at age six? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34(6) 78998.
    Hagan M.J. Roubinov D.S. Gress-Smith J. Luecken L.J. Sandler I.N. and Wolchik S. (2011) Positive parenting during childhood moderates the impact of recent negative events on cortisol activity in parentally bereaved youth. Psychopharmacology (Berl), 214(1) 2318.
    Halligan S.L. Herbert J. Goodyer I.M. and Murray L. (2004) Exposure to postnatal depression predicts elevated cortisol in adolescent offspring. Biological Psychiatry, 55(4) 37681.
    Hamilton K. Thomson C.E. and White K.M. (2013) Promoting active lifestyles in young children: investigating mothers’ decisions about their child's physical activity and screen time behaviours. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 17(5) 96876.
    Hankin B.L. Badanes L.S. Abela J.R. and Watamura S.E. (2010) Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in dysphoric children and adolescents: cortisol reactivity to psychosocial stress from preschool through middle adolescence. Biological Psychiatry, 68(5) 48490.
    Harakeh Z. Scholte R.H.J. Vermulst A.A. de Vries, H. and Engels, R.C.M.E. (2004) Parental factors and adolescents’ smoking behavior: an extension of the theory of planned behavior. Preventive Medicine, 39(5) 95161.
    Harville E. Xiong X. and Buekens P. (2010) Disasters and perinatal health: a systematic review. Obstetrical and Gynecological Survey, 65(11) 71328.
    Hatchette J.E. McGrath P.J. Murray M. and Finley G.A. (2008) The role of peer communication in the socialization of adolescents’ pain experiences: a qualitative investigation. BMC Pediatrics, 8: 2.
    Haupt R. Spinetta J.J. Ban I. Barr R.D. Beck J.D. Byrne J. and Jankovic M. (2007) Long term survivors of childhood cancer: cure and care. The Erice statement. European Journal of Cancer, 43(12) 177880.
    Hechler T. Chalkiadis G.A. Hasan C. Kosfelder J. Meyerhoff U. Vocks S. and Zernikow B. (2009) Sex differences in pain intensity in adolescents suffering from cancer: differences in pain memories? Journal of Pain, 10(6) 58693.
    Hechler T. Vervoort T. Hamann M. Tietze A.L. Vocks S. Goubert L. and Zernikow B. (2011) Parental catastrophizing about their child's chronic pain: are mothers and fathers different? European Journal of Pain, 15(5) 515. e 1515.e9.
    Heim C. Ehlert U. and Hellhammer D.H. (2000) The potential role of hypocortisolism in the pathophysiology of stress-related bodily disorders. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 25(1) 135.
    Hepper P.G. (1996) Fetal memory: does it exist? What does it do? Acta Paediatrica Supplement, 416: 1620.
    Hepper P.G. (1997) Memory in utero? Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 39(5) 3436.
    Hermann C. Hohmeister J. Demirakca S. Zohsel K. and Flor H. (2006) Long-term alteration of pain sensitivity in school-aged children with early pain experiences. Pain, 125(3) 27885.
    Hermann C. Hohmeister J. Zohsel K. Ebinger F. and Flor H. (2007) The assessment of pain coping and pain-related cognitions in children and adolescents: current methods and further development. Journal of Pain, 8(10) 80213.
    Hermann C. Hohmeister J. Zohsel K. Tuttas M.L. and Flor H. (2008) The impact of chronic pain in children and adolescents: development and initial validation of a child and parent version of the Pain Experience Questionnaire. Pain, 135(3) 25161.
    Hess S.L. Johannsdottir I.M. Hamre H. Kiserud C.E. Loge J.H. and Fossa S.D. (2011) Adult survivors of childhood malignant lymphoma are not aware of their risk of late effects. Acta Oncologica, 50(5) 6539.
    Hewitt A.M. and Stephens C. (2007) Healthy eating among 10–13-year-old New Zealand children: understanding choice using the theory of planned behaviour and the role of parental influence. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 12(5) 52635.
    Hiemstra M. Otten R. van Schayck, O.C. and Engels, R.C. (2012) Smoking-specific communication and children's smoking onset: an extension of the theory of planned behaviour. Psychology and Health, 27(9) 110017.
    Hilgard J.R. and LeBaron S. (1982) Relief of anxiety and pain in children and adolescents with cancer: quantitative measures and clinical observations. International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, 30(4) 41742.
    Hill K. Higgins A. Dempster M. and McCarthy A. (2009) Fathers’ views and understanding of their roles in families with a child with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Journal of Health Psychology, 14(8) 126880.
    Himelstein B.P. (2006) Palliative care for infants, children, adolescents, and their families. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 9(1) 16381.
    Himelstein B.P. Hilden J.M. Boldt A.M. and Weissman D. (2004) Pediatric palliative care. New England Journal of Medicine, 350(17) 175262.
    Hobel C.J. Dunkel-Schetter C. Roesch S.C. Castro L.C. and Arora C.P. (1999) Maternal plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone associated with stress at 20 weeks’ gestation in pregnancies ending in preterm delivery. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 180(1 pt 3): S 25763.
    Hohmeister J. Demirakca S. Zohsel K. Flor H. and Hermann C. (2009) Responses to pain in school-aged children with experience in a neonatal intensive care unit: cognitive aspects and maternal influences. European Journal of Pain, 13(1) 94101.
    Holdcroft A. (2007) Gender bias in research: how does it affect evidence based medicine? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 100(1) 23.
    Holdcroft A. and Jaggar S. (eds) (2005) Core Topics in Pain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Holen S. Lervag A. Waaktaar T. and Ystgaard M. (2012) Exploring the associations between coping patterns for everyday stressors and mental health in young schoolchildren. Journal of School Psychology, 50(2) 16793.
    Holland J.E. (1998) Psycho-oncology. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hollins M. Stonerock G.L. Kisaalita N.R. Jones S. Orringer E. and Gil K.M. (2012) Detecting the emergence of chronic pain in sickle cell disease. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 43(6) 108293.
    Holmes T.H. and Rahe R.H. (1967) The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11: 21318.
    House J.S. Landis K.R. and Umberson D. (1988) Social relationships and health. Science, 241(4865) 5405.
    Houtzager B.A. Grootenhuis M.A. Caron H.N. and Last B.F. (2004) Quality of life and psychological adaptation in siblings of paediatric cancer patients, 2 years after diagnosis. Psychooncology, 13(8) 499511.
    Hoyle G. and Anderson A. (1974) 2010: Living in the Future. New York: Parents’ Magazine Press.
    Hudson M.M. Tyc V.L. Srivastava D.K. Gattuso J. Quargnenti A. Crom D.B. and Hinds P. (2002) Multi-component behavioral intervention to promote health protective behaviors in childhood cancer survivors: the protect study. Medical and Pediatric Oncology, 39(1) 21; discussion 2.
    Hughes J.M. and Callery P. (2004) Parents’ experiences of caring for their child following day case surgery: a diary study. Journal of Child Health Care, 8(1) 4758.
    Huguet A. Stinson J.N. and McGrath P.J. (2010) Measurement of self-reported pain intensity in children and adolescents. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68(4) 32936.
    Huizink A.C. Robles de Medina, P.G., Mulder, E.J., Visser, G.H. and Buitelaar, J.K. (2003) Stress during pregnancy is associated with developmental outcome in infancy. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44(6) 81018.
    Hunger S.P. Lu X. Devidas M. Camitta B.M. Gaynon P.S. Winick N.J. Reaman G.H. and Carroll W.L. (2012) Improved survival for children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia between 1990 and 2005: a report from the children's oncology group. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 30(14) 16639.
    Hunter A.L. Minnis H. and Wilson P. (2011) Altered stress responses in children exposed to early adversity: a systematic review of salivary cortisol studies. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 14(6) 61426.
    Hurley J.C. and Underwood M.K. (2002) Children's understanding of their research rights before and after debriefing: informed assent, confidentiality, and stopping participation. Child Development, 73(1) 13243.
    Ireland M.J. and Pakenham K.I. (2010a) The nature of youth care tasks in families experiencing chronic illness/disability: development of the Youth Activities of Caregiving Scale (YACS). Psychology and Health, 25(6) 71331.
    Ireland M.J. and Pakenham K.I. (2010b) Youth adjustment to parental illness or disability: the role of illness characteristics, caregiving, and attachment. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 15(6) 63245.
    Jackson C. Cheater F.M. and Reid I. (2008) A systematic review of decision support needs of parents making child health decisions. Health Expectations, 11(3) 23251.
    Jacobs R.K. Anderson V.A. Neale J.L. Shield L.K. and Kornberg A.J. (2004) Neuropsychological outcome after acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: impact of age at illness onset. Pediatric Neurology, 31(3) 1917.
    Jaggar S.I. (2005) Overview of pain pathways. In A. Holdcroft and S. Jaggar (eds), Core Topics in Pain. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 35.
    Jain N. Brouwers P. Okcu M.F. Cirino P.T. and Krull K.R. (2009) Sex-specific attention problems in long-term survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer, 115(18) 423845.
    James A.S. Tripp M.K. Parcel G.S. Sweeney A. and Gritz E.R. (2002) Psychosocial correlates of sun-protective practices of preschool staff toward their students. Health Education Research, 17(3) 30514.
    James W. (1884) What is emotion? Mind, 9: 188205.
    Jansen J. Beijers R. Riksen-Walraven M. and de Weerth, C. (2010) Cortisol reactivity in young infants. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(3) 32938.
    Janson C. Leisenring W. Cox C. Termuhlen A.M. Mertens A.C. Whitton J.A. and Kadan-Lottick N.S. (2009) Predictors of marriage and divorce in adult survivors of childhood cancers: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 18(10) 262635.
    Jemal A. Siegel R. Xu J. and Ward E. (2010) Cancer statistics, 2010. CA: Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 60(5) 277300.
    Jenkins S. and Wingate C. (1994) Who cares for young carers? British Medical Journal, 308(6931) 7334.
    Jerrett M.D. (1985) Children and their pain experience. Children's Health Care, 14(2) 839.
    Jessop D.S. and Turner-Cobb J.M. (2008) Measurement and meaning of salivary cortisol: a focus on health and disease in children. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 11(1) 114.
    Johannsdottir I.M. Hjermstad M.J. Moum T. Wesenberg F. Hjorth L. Schroder H. and Loge J.H. (2010) Social outcomes in young adult survivors of low incidence childhood cancers. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 4(2) 11018.
    Johannsdottir I.M. Hjermstad M.J. Moum T. Wesenberg F. Hjorth L. Schroder H. and Loge J.H. (2012) Increased prevalence of chronic fatigue among survivors of childhood cancers: a population-based study. Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 58(3) 41520.
    Johnson R.M. Runyan C.W. Coyne-Beasley T. Lewis M.A. and Bowling J.M. (2008) Storage of household firearms: an examination of the attitudes and beliefs of married women with children. Health Education Research, 23(4) 592602.
    Johnston C.C. Rennick J.E. Filion F. Campbell-Yeo M. Goulet C. Bell L. and Ranger M. (2012) Maternal touch and talk for invasive procedures in infants and toddlers in the pediatric intensive care unit. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 27(2) 14453.
    Johnston-Brookes C.H. Lewis M.A. Evans G.W. and Whalen C.K. (1998) Chronic stress and illness in children: the role of allostatic load. Psychosomatic Medicine, 60: 597603.
    Joseph S. Becker F. and Becker S. (2009) Manual for Measures of Caring Activities and Outcomes for Children and Young People. Nottingham: University of Nottingham.
    Joseph S. Becker S. Becker F. and Regel S. (2009) Assessment of caring and its effects in young people: development of the Multidimensional Assessment of Caring Activities Checklist (MACA-YC18) and the Positive and Negative Outcomes of Caring Questionnaire (PANOC-YC20) for young carers. Child: Care, Health and Development, 35(4) 51020.
    Kadan-Lottick N.S. Zeltzer L.K. Liu Q. Yasui Y. Ellenberg L. Gioia G. and Krull K.R. (2010) Neurocognitive functioning in adult survivors of childhood non-central nervous system cancers. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 102(12) 88193.
    Kajantie E. Dunkel L. Turpeinen U. Stenman U.H. Wood P.J. Nuutila M. and Andersson S. (2003) Placental 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 and fetal cortisol/cortisone shuttle in small preterm infants. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(1) 493500.
    Kalat J.W. (2001) Biological Psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Thomson Learning.
    Kalra S. Klein J. Karaskov T. Woodland C. Einarson A. and Koren G. (2005) Use of hair cortisol as a biomarker for chronic stress in pregnancy. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 77(2)P69.
    Kalra S. Einarson A. Karaskov T. Van Uum, S. and Koren, G. (2007) The relationship between stress and hair cortisol in healthy pregnant women. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 30(2) E103E107.
    Kaminski M.A. Pellino T. and Wish J. (2002) Play and pets: the physical and emotional impact of child-life and pet therapy on hospitalized children. Children's Health Care, 31(4) 32135.
    Kanner A.D. Coyne J.C. Schaefer C. and Lazarus R.S. (1981) Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: daily hassles and uplifts versus major life events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4: 139.
    Kanner A.D. Feldman S.S. Weinberger D.A. and Ford M. (1987) Uplifts, hassles, and adaptational outcomes in early adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 7: 37194.
    Khamis H.J. and Roche A.F. (1994) Predicting adult stature without using skeletal age: the Khamis– Roche method. Pediatrics, 94(4 pt 1): 5047.
    Khashan A.S. McNamee R. Abel K.M. Pedersen M.G. Webb R.T. Kenny L.C. and Baker P.N. (2008) Reduced infant birthweight consequent upon maternal exposure to severe life events. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70(6) 68894.
    Kiecolt-Glaser J.K. Glaser R. Gravenstein S. Malarkey W.B. and Sheridan J. (1996) Chronic stress alters the immune response to influenza virus vaccine in older adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 93(7) 30437.
    Kiecolt-Glaser J.K. Gouin J.P. Weng N.P. Malarkey W.B. Beversdorf D.Q. and Glaser R. (2011) Childhood adversity heightens the impact of later-life caregiving stress on telomere length and inflammation. Psychosomatic Medicine, 73(1) 1622.
    Kiecolt-Glaser J.K. Marucha P.T. Atkinson C. and Glaser R. (2001) Hypnosis as a modulator of cellular immune dysregulation during acute stress. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69(4) 67482.
    Kinahan K.E. Sharp L.K. Seidel K. Leisenring W. Didwania A. Lacouture M.E. Stovall M. Haryani A. Robison L.L. and Krull K.R. (2012) Scarring, disfigurement, and quality of life in long-term survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 30(20) 246674.
    King J.A. Mandansky D. King S. Fletcher K.E. and Brewer J. (2001) Early sexual abuse and low cortisol. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 55(1) 714.
    Kirchhoff A.C. Krull K.R. Ness K.K. Armstrong G.T. Park E.R. Stovall M. and Leisenring W. (2011) Physical, mental, and neurocognitive status and employment outcomes in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 20(9) 183849.
    Kirschbaum C. and Hellhammer D.H. (1994) Salivary cortisol in psychoneuroendocrine research: recent developments and applications. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 19(4) 31333.
    Kirschbaum C. Pirke K.M. and Hellhammer D.H. (1993) The ‘Trier Social Stress Test’: a tool for investigating psychobiological stress responses in a laboratory setting. Neuropsychobiology, 28(1–2): 7681.
    Kirschbaum C. Tietze A. Skoluda N. and Dettenborn L. (2009) Hair as a retrospective calendar of cortisol production: increased cortisol incorporation into hair in the third trimester of pregnancy. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 34(1) 327.
    Kirwin K.M. and Hamrin V. (2005) Decreasing the risk of complicated bereavement and future psychiatric disorders in children. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 18(2) 6278.
    Klinnert M.D. Nelson H.S. Price M.R. Adinoff A.D. Leung D.Y. and Mrazek D.A. (2001) Onset and persistence of childhood asthma: predictors from infancy. Pediatrics, 108(4) E69.
    Knack J.M. Jensen-Campbell L.A. and Baum A. (2011) Worse than sticks and stones? Bullying is associated with altered HPA axis functioning and poorer health. Brain and Cognition, 77(2) 18390.
    Knoll B. Lassmann B. and Temesgen Z. (2007) Current status of HIV infection: a review for non-HIV-treating physicians. International Journal of Dermatology, 46(12) 121928.
    Kohler L. and Rigby M. (2003) Indicators of children's development: considerations when constructing a set of national Child Health Indicators for the European Union. Child: Care, Health and Development, 29(6) 5518.
    Koopman H.M. Baars R.M. Chaplin J. and Zwinderman K.H. (2004) Illness through the eyes of the child: the development of children's understanding of the causes of illness. Patient Education and Counseling, 55(3) 36370.
    Koren G. Klein J. Karaskov T. Stevens B. and Yamada J. (2003) Hair cortisol: a potential biological marker of chronic stress in neonates. Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, 25(4) 516.
    Kramer M.S. Lydon J. Seguin L. Goulet L. Kahn S.R. McNamara H. Platt R.W. (2009) Stress pathways to spontaneous preterm birth: the role of stressors, psychological distress, and stress hormones. American Journal of Epidemiology, 169(11) 131926.
    Krull K.R. Annett R.D. Pan Z. Ness K.K. Nathan P.C. Srivastava D.K. and Hudson M.M. (2011) Neurocognitive functioning and health-related behaviours in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. European Journal of Cancer, 47(9) 13808.
    Kryski K.R. Smith H.J. Sheikh H.I. Singh S.M. and Hayden E.P. (2011) Assessing stress reactivity indexed via salivary cortisol in preschool-aged children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(8) 112736.
    Kudielka B.M. Buske-Kirschbaum A. Hellhammer D.H. and Kirschbaum C. (2004) HPA axis responses to laboratory psychosocial stress in healthy elderly adults, younger adults, and children: impact of age and gender. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(1) 8398.
    Kurt B.A. Nolan V.G. Ness K.K. Neglia J.P. Tersak J.M. Hudson M.M.Arora, M. (2012) Hospitalization rates among survivors of childhood cancer in the childhood cancer survivor study cohort. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, 59(1) 12632.
    Lackey N.R. and Gates M.F. (2001) Adults’ recollections of their experiences as young caregivers of family members with chronic physical illnesses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 34(3) 3208.
    Langer D.A. Chen E. and Luhmann J.D. (2005) Attributions and coping in children's pain experiences. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30(7) 61522.
    Layard R. and Dunn J. (2009) A Good Childhood: Searching for Values in a Competitive Age. London: Penguin.
    Lazarus R.S. and Folkman S. (1984) Stress, Appraisal and Coping. New York: Springer-Verlag.
    Leahey T.H. (2004) A History of Psychology: Main Currents in Psychological Thought,
    6th edn
    . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
    Lederer S.E. and Grodin M.A. (1994) Historical overview: pediatric experimentation. In M.A. Grodin and L.H. Glantz (eds), Children as Research Subjects: Science, Ethics and Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 325.
    Levinson B.M. (1962) The dog as a ‘co-therapist’. Mental Hygiene, 46: 5965.
    Lindsay B. (2003) A Two-year-old Goes to Hospital: A 50th anniversary reappraisal of the impact of James Robertson's film. Journal of Child Health Care, 7(1) 1726.
    Logan D.E. and Rose J.B. (2005) Is postoperative pain a self-fulfilling prophecy? Expectancy effects on postoperative pain and patient-controlled analgesia use among adolescent surgical patients. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30(2) 18796.
    Lorenz K.Z. (1937) The companion in the bird's world. Auk, 54: 24573.
    Louv R. (2010) Last Child in the Woods. New York: Workman.
    Lu Q. Krull K.R. Leisenring W. Owen J.E. Kawashima T. Tsao J.C. and Zeltzer L.K. (2011) Pain in long-term adult survivors of childhood cancers and their siblings: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Pain, 152(11) 261624.
    Lu Q. Tsao J.C. Myers C.D. Kim S.C. and Zeltzer L.K. (2007) Coping predictors of children's laboratory-induced pain tolerance, intensity, and unpleasantness. Journal of Pain, 8(9) 70817.
    Luecken L.J. Kraft A. Appelhans B.M. and Enders C. (2009) Emotional and cardiovascular sensitization to daily stress following childhood parental loss. Developmental Psychology, 45(1) 296302.
    Luecken L.J. Hagan M.J. Sandler I.N. Tein J.Y. Ayers T.S. and Wolchik S.A. (2010) Cortisol levels six-years after participation in the Family Bereavement Program. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(5) 7859.
    Lundberg U. Westermark O. and Rasch B. (1993) Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine activity in preschool children: comparison between day-care and home levels. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 34(4) 3718.
    Lupien S. King S. Meaney M.J. and McEwen B.S. (2000) Child's stress hormone levels correlate with mother's socioeconomic status and depressive state. Biological Psychiatry, 48: 97680.
    Lupien S. King S. Meaney M.J. and McEwen B.S. (2001) Can poverty get under your skin? Basal cortisol levels and cognitive function in children from low and high socioeconomic status. Development and Psychopathology, 13: 65376.
    Lupien S.J. McEwen B.S. Gunnar M.R. and Heim C. (2009) Effects of stress throughout the lifespan on the brain, behaviour and cognition. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 10(6) 43445.
    Lutgendorf S.K. and Costanzo E.S. (2003) Psychoneuroimmunology and health psychology: an integrative model. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 17(4) 22532.
    Lutgendorf S.K. DeGeest K. Sung C.Y. Arevalo J.M. Penedo F. Lucci J. I II Goodheart, M., Lubaroff, D., Farley, D.M., Sood, A.K. and Cole, S.W. (2009) Depression, social support, and beta-adrenergic transcription control in human ovarian cancer. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 23(2) 17683.
    Luthar S.S. Cicchetti D. and Becker B. (2000) The construct of resilience: a critical evaluation and guidelines for future work. Child Development, 71(3) 54362.
    Lynch A.M. Kashikar-Zuck S. Goldschneider K.R. and Jones B.A. (2007) Sex and age differences in coping styles among children with chronic pain. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 33(2) 20816.
    McAndrew S. Warne T. Fallon D. and Moran P. (2012) Young, gifted, and caring: a project narrative of young carers, their mental health, and getting them involved in education, research and practice. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 21(1) 1219.
    McCracken L.M. Gauntlett-Gilbert J. and Eccleston C. (2010) Acceptance of pain in adolescents with chronic pain: validation of an adapted assessment instrument and preliminary correlation analyses. European Journal of Pain, 14(3) 31620.
    McCubbin H.I. Laresen A. and Olson D.H. (1985) F-COPES: Family Crises Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales. In D.H. Olson H.I. McCubbin H. Barnes A. Larsen M. Muxen and M. Wilson (eds), Family Inventories: Inventories Used in a National Survey of Families across the Family Life Cycle. St Paul, MN: Family Social Science, University of Minnesota. pp. 1439.
    McDade T.W. Chyu L. Duncan G.J. Hoyt L.T. Doane L.D. and Adam E.K. (2011) Adolescents’ expectations for the future predict health behaviors in early adulthood. Social Science and Medicine, 73(3) 3918.
    McEwen B.S. (1998a) Protective and damaging effects of stress mediators. New England Journal of Medicine, 338(3) 1719.
    McEwen B.S. (1998b) Stress, adaptation, and disease: allostasis and allostatic load. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840: 3344.
    McEwen B.S. and Wingfield J.C. (2003) The concept of allostasis in biology and biomedicine. Hormones and Behavior, 43: 215.
    McGrath A. and Collicut McGrath, J. (2007) The Dawkins Delusion?: Atheist Fundamentalism and the Denial of the Divine. London: SPCK.
    McGrath P. and Chesler M. (2004) Fathers’ perspectives on the treatment for pediatric hematology: extending the findings. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 27(1) 3961.
    McGrath P.A. and Hillier L.M. (2003) Factors that modify children's pain. In N.L. Schechter C.B. Berde and M. Yaster (eds), Pain in Infants, Children, and Adolescents. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 8498.
    McGrath P. and Huff N. (2001) ‘What is it?’: findings on preschoolers’ responses to play with medical equipment. Child: Care, Health and Development, 27(5) 45162.
    McGrath P. and Rawson-Huff N. (2010) Corticosteroids during continuation therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the psycho-social impact. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 33(1) 519.
    McGrath P.A. Speechley K.N. Seifert C.E. Biehn J.T. Cairney A.E.L. Gorodzinsky F.P. and Morrissy J.R. (2000) A survey of children's acute, recurrent, and chronic pain: validation of the Pain Experience Interview. Pain, 87(1) 5973.
    McGrath P. Paton M.A. and Huff N. (2004) Beginning treatment for paediatric acute myeloid leukaemia: diagnosis and the early hospital experience. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Science, 18(4) 35867.
    McGrath P. Paton M.A. and Huff N. (2005) Beginning treatment for pediatric acute myeloid leukemia: the family connection. Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 28(2) 97114.
    Macpherson G. (ed.) (1999) Black's Medical Dictionary. London: A. & C. Black.
    Marin T.J. Chen E. Munch J.A. and Miller G.E. (2009) Double-exposure to acute stress and chronic family stress is associated with immune changes in children with asthma. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71: 37884.
    Markell A. and Markell M.A. (2008) The Children who Lived: Using Harry Potter and Other Fictional Characters to Help Grieving Children and Adolescents. New York: Routledge.
    Marsland A.L. Cohen S. Rabin B.S. and Manuck S.B. (2001) Associations between stress, trait negative affect, acute immune reactivity, and antibody response to hepatitis B injection in healthy young adults. Health Psychology, 20(1) 411.
    Martin A.L. McGrath P.A. Brown S.C. and Katz J. (2007) Anxiety sensitivity, fear of pain and pain-related disability in children and adolescents with chronic pain. Pain Research and Management, 12(4) 26772.
    Mastorakos G. and Ilias I. (2000) Maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pregnancy and the postpartum period: postpartum-related disorders. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 900: 95106.
    Mays D. Black J.D. Mosher R.B. Shad A.T. and Tercyak K.P. (2011) Improving short-term sun safety practices among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer: a randomized controlled efficacy trial. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 5(3) 24754.
    Meewisse M.L. Reitsma J.B. de Vries, G.J., Gersons, B.P. and Olff, M. (2007) Cortisol and post-traumatic stress disorder in adults: systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry 191: 38792.
    Melzack R. (1999a) From the gate to the neuromatrix. Pain, Suppl. 6: S 1216.
    Melzack R. (1999b) Pain: an overview. Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 43(9) 8804.
    Melzack R. (2001) Pain and the neuromatrix in the brain. Journal of Dental Education, 65(12) 137882.
    Melzack R. (2005) Evolution of the neuromatrix theory of pain. The Prithvi Raj Lecture: presented at the Third World Congress of the World Institute of Pain, Barcelona 2004. Pain Practice, 5(2) 8594.
    Melzack R. and Wall P.D. (1965) Pain mechanisms: a new theory. Science, 150(3699) 9719.
    Melzack R. and Wall P.D. (2008) The Challenge of Pain,
    2nd edn
    . London: Penguin.
    Merlot E. Couret D. and Otten W. (2008) Prenatal stress, fetal imprinting and immunity. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 22(1) 4251.
    Michaud K. Matheson K. Kelly O. and Anisman H. (2008) Impact of stressors in a natural context on release of cortisol in healthy adult humans: a meta-analysis. Stress, 11(3) 17797. doi: 10.1080/10253890701727874.
    Michel G. Greenfield D.M. Absolom K. Ross R.J. Davies H. and Eiser C. (2009) Follow-up care after childhood cancer: survivors’ expectations and preferences for care. European Journal of Cancer, 45(9) 161623.
    Michel G. Kuehni C.E. Rebholz C.E. Zimmermann K. Eiser C. Rueegg C.S. and von der Weid, N.X. (2011) Can health beliefs help in explaining attendance to follow-up care? The Swiss childhood cancer survivor study. Psychooncology, 20(10) 103443.
    Miller G.E. Chen E. and Zhou E.S. (2007) If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in humans. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1) 2545.
    Miller K.S. Vannatta K. Compas B.E. Vasey M. McGoron K.D. Salley C.G. and Gerhardt C.A. (2009) The role of coping and temperament in the adjustment of children with cancer. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34(10) 113543.
    Millstein S.G. and Irwin C.E. (1987) Concepts of health and illness: different constructs or variations on a theme. Health Psychology, 6(6) 51524.
    Mitchell M.J. Lemanek K. Palermo T.M. Crosby L.E. Nichols A. and Powers S.W. (2007) Parent perspectives on pain management, coping, and family functioning in pediatric sickle cell disease. Clinical Pediatrics (Philadelphia), 46(4) 31119.
    Mokkink L.B. van der Lee, J.H., Grootenhuis, M.A., Offringa, M. and Heymans, H.S. (2008) Defining chronic diseases and health conditions in childhood (0–18 years of age): national consensus in the Netherlands. European Journal of Pediatrics 167(12) 14417.
    Moore T. and McArthur M. (2007) We're all in it together: supporting young carers and their families in Australia. Health and Social Care in the Community, 15(6) 5618.
    Moore Ki, I.M., Hockenberry, M.J., Anhalt, C., McCarthy, K. and Kruss, K.R. (2012) Mathematics intervention for prevention of neurocognitive deficits in childhood leukemia. Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 59(2) 27884.
    Morgan I.G. Ohno-Matsui K. and Saw S.M. (2012) Myopia. Lancet, 379(9827) 173948.
    Morris T. Greer H.S. and White P. (1977) Psychological and social adjustment to mastectomy: a 2-year follow-up study. Cancer, 40: 23817.
    Morrison D.M. Mar C.M. Wells E.A. Rogers Gillmore, M., Hoppe, M.J., Wilsdon, A., Murowchick, E. and Archibald, M.E. (2002) The theory of reasoned action as a model of children's health behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32(11) 2 26695.
    Morrison V. and Bennett P. (2012) An Introduction to Health Psychology,
    3rd edn
    . Harlow, Essex: Pearson Education.
    Moskowitz D.S. and Young S.N. (2006) Ecological momentary assessment: what it is and why it is a method of the future in clinical psychopharmacology. Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience, 31(1) 1320.
    Moss H. Bose S. Wolters P. and Brouwers P. (1998) A preliminary study of factors associated with psychological adjustment and disease course in school-age children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 19(1) 1825.
    Moss S. (2012) Natural Childhood: A National Trust Report. London: Park Lane Press.
    Mulherin Engel, S., Berkowitz, G.S., Wolff, M.S. and Yehuda, R. (2005) Psychological trauma associated with the World Trade Center attacks and its effect on pregnancy outcome. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 19(5) 33441.
    Myant K.A. and Williams J.M. (2005) Children's concepts of health and illness: understanding of contagious illnesses, non-contagious illnesses and injuries. Journal of Health Psychology, 10(6) 80519.
    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child (2005) Excessive Stress Disrupts the Architecture of the Developing Brain, Working Paper no. 3 (www.developingchild.net).
    Ness K.K. Hudson M.M. Pui C.H. Green D.M. Krull K.R. Huang T.T. and Morris E.B. (2012) Neuromuscular impairments in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: associations with physical performance and chemotherapy doses. Cancer, 118(3) 82838.
    Newcomb M.D. and Bentler P.M. (1986) Loneliness and social support: a confirmatory hierarchical analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 12: 52035.
    Newport D.J. Heim C. Bonsall R. Miller A.H. and Nemeroff C.B. (2004) Pituitary-adrenal responses to standard and low-dose dexamethasone suppression tests in adult survivors of child abuse. Biological Psychiatry, 55(1) 1020.
    NHS (National Health Service) (2012) Choices on-line document (www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Sickle-cell-anaemia/Pages/Introduction.aspx; retrieved 5 July 2012).
    NHS Estates (2004) Hospital Accommodation for Children and Young People. London: The Stationery Office, Department of Health, UK.
    Nickerson R.S. (1992) Looking Ahead: Human Factors Challenges in a Changing World. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    Nicolson N.A. (2004) Childhood parental loss and cortisol levels in adult men. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(8) 101218.
    Nicolson N.A. Davis M.C. Kruszewski D. and Zautra A.J. (2010) Childhood maltreatment and diurnal cortisol patterns in women with chronic pain. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(5) 47180.
    Nicolson R.H. (ed.) (1986) Medical Research with Children: Ethics, Law and Practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Normandeau S. Kalnins I. Jutras S. and Hanigan D. (1998) A description of 5- to 12-year-old children's conception of health within the context of their daily life. Psychology and Health, 13(5) 88396.
    Novotney A. (2010) The recession's toll on children. Monitor on Psychology, 41: 436.
    O'Connor T.G. Ben-Shlomo Y. Heron J. Golding J. Adams D. and Glover V. (2005) Prenatal anxiety predicts individual differences in cortisol in pre-adolescent children. Biological Psychiatry, 58(3) 21117.
    O'Donnell K. O'Connor T.G. and Glover V. (2009) Prenatal stress and neurodevelopment of the child: focus on the HPA axis and role of the placenta. Developmental Neuroscience, 31(4) 28592.
    O'Farrell J. (2005) May Contain Nuts. New York: Doubleday.
    ONS (Office for National Statistics) (2012) Report: Childhood, Infant and Perinatal Mortality in England and Wales 2010 (www.ons.gov.uk/ons; retrieved 8 June 2012).
    Painter J.E. Sales J.M. Pazol K. Wingood G.M. Windle M. Orenstein W.A. and DiClemente R.J. (2010) Psychosocial correlates of intention to receive an influenza vaccination among rural adolescents. Health Education Research, 25(5) 85364.
    Pakenham K.I. and Cox S. (2012) The nature of caregiving in children of a parent with multiple sclerosis from multiple sources and the associations between caregiving activities and youth adjustment overtime. Psychology and Health, 27(3) 32446.
    Pakenham K.I. Chiu J. Bursnall S. and Cannon T. (2007) Relations between social support, appraisal and coping and both positive and negative outcomes in young carers. Journal of Health Psychology, 12(1) 89102.
    Palermo T.M. and Eccleston C. (2009) Parents of children and adolescents with chronic pain. Pain, 146(1–2): 1517.
    Palermo T.M. Eccleston C. Lewandowski A.S. Williams A.C. and Morley S. (2010) Randomized controlled trials of psychological therapies for management of chronic pain in children and adolescents: an updated meta-analytic review. Pain, 148(3) 38797.
    Palermo T.M. Wilson A.C. Peters M. Lewandowski A. and Somhegyi H. (2009) Randomized controlled trial of an Internet-delivered family cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention for children and adolescents with chronic pain. Pain, 146: 20513.
    Parke R.D. and Gauvain M. (2009) Child Psychology: A Contemporary Viewpoint,
    7th edn
    . New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Paul F. Jones M.C. Hendry C. and Adair P.M. (2007) The quality of written information for parents regarding the management of a febrile convulsion: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 16(12) 230822.
    Peltzer K. and Promtussananon S. (2003) Black South African children's understanding of health and illness: colds, chicken pox, broken arms and AIDS. Child: Care, Health and Development, 29(5) 38593.
    Pence L. Valrie C.R. Gil K.M. Redding-Lallinger R. and Daeschner C. (2007) Optimism predicting daily pain medication use in adolescents with sickle cell disease. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 33(3) 3029.
    Perquin C.W. Hazebroek-Kampschreur A.A. Hunfeld J.A. Bohnen A.M. van Suijlekom-Smit, L.W., Passchier, J. and van der Wouden, J.C. (2000) Pain in children and adolescents: a common experience. Pain, 87(1) 518.
    Phillips A.C. Burns V.E. Carroll D. Ring C. and Drayson M. (2005) The association between life events, social support, and antibody status following thymus-dependent and thymus-independent vaccinations in healthy young adults. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 19(4) 32533.
    Phillips A.C. Carroll D. Bums V.E. Ring C. Macleod J. and Drayson M. (2006) Bereavement and marriage are associated with antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly. Brain, Behavior and Immunity, 20(3) 27989.
    Piaget J. and Inhelder B. (1947) Diagnosis of mental operations and theory of the intelligence. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 51(3) 4016.
    Piira T. Hayes B. Goodenough B. and von Baeyer, C.L. (2006) Effects of attentional direction, age, and coping style on cold-pressor pain in children. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44(6) 83548.
    Poresky R.H. and Hendrix C. (1990) Differential effects of pet presence and pet-bonding on young children. Psychological Reports, 67(1) 514.
    Porter R. (ed.) (2001) Cambridge Illustrated History of Medicine. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
    Pruessner J.C. Wolf O.T. Hellhammer D.H. Buske-Kirschbaum A. von Auer, K., Jobst, S., Kaspers, F. and Kirschbaum, C. (1997) Free cortisol levels after awakening: a reliable biological marker for the assessment of adrenocortical activity. Life Sciences, 61(26) 253949.
    Pui C.H. and Evans W.E. (2006) Treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. New England Journal of Medicine, 354(2) 16678.
    Quas J.A. Yim I.S. Edelstein R.S. Cahill L. and Rush E.B. (2011) The role of cortisol reactivity in children's and adults’ memory of a prior stressful experience. Developmental Psychobiology, 53(2) 16674.
    Quesada A.A. Wiemers U.S. Schoofs D. and Wolf O.T. (2012) Psychosocial stress exposure impairs memory retrieval in children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(1) 12536.
    Quinn G.P. Huang I.C. Murphy D. Zidonik-Eddelton K. and Krull K.R. (2012) Missing content from health-related quality of life instruments: interviews with young adult survivors of childhood cancer. Quality of Life Research (EPub date: 31 January).
    Ranmal R. Prictor M. and Scott J. (2012) Interventions for Improving Communication with Children and Adolescents about their Cancer (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration, Wiley Online Library.
    Rask C.U. Olsen E.M. Elberling H. Christensen M.F. Ornbol E. Fink P. and Skovgaard A.M. (2009) Functional somatic symptoms and associated impairment in 5–7-year-old children: the Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000. European Journal of Epidemiology, 24(10) 62534.
    Reed-Knight B. McCormick M. Lewis J.D. and Blount R.L. (2012) Participation and attrition in a coping skills intervention for adolescent girls with inflammatory bowel disease. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 19(2) 18896.
    Reichsman F. Engel G.L. Harway V. and Escalona S. (1957) Monica, an infant with gastric fistula and depression: an interim report on her development to the age four years. Psychiatric Research Reports of the American Psychiatric Association, 8: 1227.
    Reid M. Landesman S. Treder R. and Jaccard J. (1989) ‘My family and friends’: six- to twelve-year-old children's perceptions of social support. Child Development, 60(4) 896910.
    Reiter P.L. Brewer N.T. Gottlieb S.L. McRee A.L. and Smith J.S. (2009) Parents’ health beliefs and HPV vaccination of their adolescent daughters. Social Science and Medicine, 69(3) 47580.
    Rempel G.R. Ravindran V. Rogers L.G. and Magill-Evans J. (2013) Parenting under pressure: a grounded theory of parenting young children with life-threatening congenital heart disease. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 69(3) 61930.
    Riad-Fahmy D. Read G.F. and Griffiths K. (1982) Steroids in saliva for assessing endocrine function. Endocrine Reviews, 3: 36795.
    Ribera J.M. and Oriol A. (2009) Acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults. Hematology/Oncology Clinics of North America, 23(5) 103342.
    Robertson J. (1958) Young Children in Hospital. London: Tavistock.
    Robinson K.E. Livesay K.L. Campbell L.K. Scaduto M. Cannistraci C.J. Anderson A.W. and Compas B.E. (2010) Working memory in survivors of childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia: functional neuroimaging analyses. Pediatric Blood and Cancer, 54(4) 58590.
    Robison L.L. Mertens A.C. Boice J.D. Breslow N.E. Donaldson S.S. Green D.M. and Zeltzer L.K. (2002) Study design and cohort characteristics of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: a multi-institutional collaborative project. Medical and Pediatric Oncology, 38(4) 22939.
    Rodriguez E.M. Dunn M.J. Zuckerman T. Vannatta K. Gerhardt C.A. and Compas B.E. (2012) Cancer-related sources of stress for children with cancer and their parents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 37(2) 18597.
    Rokach A. and Matalon R. (2007) ‘Tails’ – A fairy tale on furry tails: a 15-year theatre experience for hospitalized children created by health professionals. Paediatrics and Child Health, 12(4) 3014.
    Rokach A. and Parvini M. (2011) Experience of adults and children in hospitals. Early Child Development and Care, 181(5) 70715.
    Rolls L. and Payne S. (2003) Childhood bereavement services: a survey of UK provision. Palliative Medicine, 17(5) 42332.
    Ronicle J. and Kendall S. (2011) Improving support for young carers: family focused approaches. Department for Education, Research Report DFE-RR084, York Consulting LLP.
    Rosenstock I.M. (1974) The health belief model and preventive health behaviour. Health Education Monographs, 2: 35486.
    Rosmalen J.G.M. Oldehinkle A.J. Ormel J. de Winter, A.F., Buitelaar, J.K. and Verhulst, F.C. (2005) Determinants of salivary cortisol levels in 10–12 year old children: a population-based study of individual differences. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30: 48395.
    Rothenberger S.E. Resch F. Doszpod N. and Moehler E. (2011) Prenatal stress and infant affective reactivity at five months of age. Early Human Development, 87(2) 129136.
    Roth-Isigkeit A. Thyen U. Raspe H.H. Stoven H. and Schmucker P. (2004) Reports of pain among German children and adolescents: an epidemiological study. Acta Paediatrica, 93(2) 25863.
    Roth-Isigkeit A. Thyen U. Stoven H. Schwarzenberger J. and Schmucker P. (2005) Pain among children and adolescents: restrictions in daily living and triggering factors. Pediatrics, 115(2) e 15262.
    Roy A. Janal M.N. and Roy M. (2010) Childhood trauma and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(8) 8338.
    Rozenzweig M.R. Breedlove S.M. and Leiman A.L. (2002) Biological Psychology,
    3rd edn
    . Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.
    Rudolph K.D. Dennig M.D. and Weisz J.R. (1995) Determinants and consequences of children's coping in the medical setting: conceptualization, review, and critique. Psychological Bulletin, 118(3) 32857.
    Rushforth H. (1999) Practitioner review: communicating with hospitalised children: review and application of research pertaining to children's understanding of health and illness. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 40(5) 68391.
    Ryder C.S. (2007) Take your Pediatrician with You: Keeping your Child Healthy at Home and on the Road. Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Sallfors C. Fasth A. and Hallberg L.R. (2002) Oscillating between hope and despair: a qualitative study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 28(6) 495505.
    Sallfors C. Hallberg L.R. and Fasth A. (2003) Gender and age differences in pain, coping and health status among children with chronic arthritis. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 21(6) 78593.
    Samuelsson M. Thernlund G. and Ringstrom J. (1996) Using the five field map to describe the social network of children: a methodological study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 19(2) 32745.
    Sandler I.N. Ayers T.S. Wolchik S.A. Tein J.Y. Kwok O.M. Haine R.A. and Griffin W.A. (2003) The family bereavement program: efficacy evaluation of a theory-based prevention program for parentally bereaved children and adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(3) 587600.
    Sandman C.A. Wadhwa P.D. Chicz-DeMet A. Dunkel-Schetter C. and Porto M. (1997) Maternal stress, HPA activity, and fetal/infant outcome. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 814: 26675.
    Sandman C.A. Davis E.P. Buss C. and Glynn L.M. (2011) Exposure to prenatal psychobiological stress exerts programming influences on the mother and her fetus. Neuroendocrinology, 95(1) 821.
    Santiago L.B. Jorge S.M. and Moreira A.C. (1996) Longitudinal evaluation of the development of salivary cortisol circadian rhythm in infancy. Clinical Endocrinology, 44(2) 15761.
    Sapolsky R. (1994) Why Zebras Don't Get Ulcers: A Guide to Stress, Stress-related Diseases, and Coping. New York: W.H. Freeman.
    Sarafino E.P. (1998) Health Psychology: Biopsychosocial Interactions,
    3rd edn
    . New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Sarafino E.P. and Smith T.W. (2012) Health Psychology: Biopsychosocial Interactions,
    7th edn
    . New York: John Wiley & Sons.
    Sarkar P. Bergman K. Fisk N.M. O'Connor T.G. and Glover V. (2007) Amniotic fluid testosterone: relationship with cortisol and gestational age. Clinical Endocrinology, 67(5) 7437.
    Sauve B. Koren G. Walsh G. Tokmakejian S. and Van Uum, S.H.M. (2007) Measurement of cortisol in human hair as a biomarker of systemic exposure. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 30(5) E183E181.
    Schanberg L.E. Lefebvre J.C. Keefe F.J. Kredich D.W. and Gil K.M. (1997) Pain coping and the pain experience in children with juvenile chronic arthritis. Pain, 73(2) 1819.
    Schechter N.L. Berde C.B. and Yaster M. (2003) Pain in infants, children and adolescents: an overview. In N.L. Schechter, C.B. Berde and M. Yaster (eds), Pain in Infants, Children and Adolescents. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 216.
    Schedlowski M. and Pacheco-Lopez G. (2010) The learned immune response: Pavlov and beyond. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 24(2) 17685.
    Schedlowski M. and Tewes U. (eds) (1999) Psychoneuroimmunology: An Interdisciplinary Introduction. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum.
    Schreier A. and Evans G.W. (2003) Adrenal cortical response of young children to modern and ancient stressors. Current Anthropology, 44(2) 3069.
    Schulte I.E. and Petermann F. (2011) Somatoform disorders: 30 years of debate about criteria! What about children and adolescents? Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 70(3) 21828.
    Schulz M.S. and Masek B.J. (1996) Medical crisis intervention with children and adolescents with chronic pain. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 27(2) 1219.
    Sclare I. (1997) Child Psychology Portfolio. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.
    Seiffge-Krenke I. (1995) Stress, Coping, and Relationships in Adolescence. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Selye H. (1956) The Stress of Life. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Selye H. (1974) Stress without Distress. Philadelphia: Lipincott.
    Selye H. (1976a) Stress in Health and Disease. Boston: Butterworths.
    Selye H. (1976b) The Stress of Life,
    rev. edn
    . New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Sephton S.E. Sapolsky R.M. Kraemer H. and Spiegel D. (2000) Diurnal cortisol rhythm as a predictor of breast cancer survival. Journal of the National Cancer Institute., 92(12) 9941000.
    Shepherd E. Woodgate R.L. and Sawatzky J.A. (2010) Pain in children with central nervous system cancer: a review of the literature. Oncology Nursing Forum, 37(4) E 31830.
    Sheppard L. Eiser C. and Kingston J. (2005) Mothers’ perceptions of children's quality of life following early diagnosis and treatment for retinoblastoma (Rb). Child: Care, Health and Development, 31(2) 13742.
    Sherman B.F. Bonanno G.A. Wiener L.S. and Battles H.B. (2000) When children tell their friends they have AIDS: possible consequences for psychological well-being and disease progression. Psychosomatic Medicine, 62(2) 23847.
    Shirakawa T. Enomoto T. Shimazu S. and Hopkin J.M. (1997) The inverse association between tuberculin responses and atopic disorder. Science, 275(5296) 779.
    Shirtcliff E.A. Coe C.L. and Pollak S.D. (2009) Early childhood stress is associated with elevated antibody levels to herpes simplex virus type 1. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(8) 29637.
    Shonkoff J.P. Boyce W.T. and McEwen B.S. (2009) Neuroscience, molecular biology, and the childhood roots of health disparities: building a new framework for health promotion and disease prevention. Journal of the American Medical Association, 301(21) 22529.
    Sieberg C.B. Huguet A. von Baeyer, C.L. and Seshia, S. (2012) Psychological interventions for headache in children and adolescents. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 39(1) 2634.
    Sigelman C.K. and Rider E.A. (2009) Life-Span Human Development,
    6th edn
    . Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
    Signorello L.B. Mulvihill J.J. Green D.M. Munro H.M. Stovall M. Weathers R.E.Boice, J.D., Jr. (2012) Congenital anomalies in the children of cancer survivors: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 30(3) 23945.
    Simons L.E. Sieberg C.B. Carpino E. Logan D. and Berde C. (2011) The Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FOPQ): assessment of pain-related fear among children and adolescents with chronic pain. Journal of Pain, 12(6) 67786.
    Slopen N. Lewis T.T. Gruenewald T.L. Mujahid M.S. Ryff C.D. Albert M.A. and Williams D.R. (2010) Early life adversity and inflammation in African Americans and whites in the midlife in the United States survey. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(7) 694701.
    Small F. Alderdice F. McCusker C. Stevenson M. and Stewart M. (2005) A prospective cohort study comparing hospital admission for gastro-enteritis with home management. Child: Care, Health and Development, 31(5) 55562.
    Sourkes B.M. (1995) Armfuls of Time: The Psychological Experience of the Child with a Life-threatening Illness. London: Routledge.
    Spiegel D. (1999) Healing words: emotional expression and disease outcome. Journal of the American Medical Association, 281(14) 13289.
    Spirito A. Stark L.J. and Williams C. (1988) Development of a brief coping checklist for use with pediatric patients. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 13: 55574.
    Spitzer C. Bouchain M. Winkler L.Y. Wingenfeld K. Gold S.M. Grabe H.J. and Heesen C. (2012) Childhood trauma in multiple sclerosis: a case-control study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 74(3) 31218.
    Stanulla M. and Schrauder A. (2009) Bridging the gap between the north and the south of the world: the case of treatment response in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hematologica, 94(6) 74852.
    Steadman L. and Quine L. (2004) Encouraging young males to perform testicular self-examination: a simple, but effective, implementation intentions intervention. British Journal of Health Psychology, 9(4) 47987.
    Steele R.G. Anderson B. Rindel B. Dreyer M.L. Perrin K. Christensen R. Tyc V. and Flynn P.M. (2001) Adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive children: examination of the role of caregiver health beliefs. AIDS Care, 13(5) 61729.
    Sterling P. and Eyer J. (1988) Allostasis: a new paradigm to explain arousal pathology. In S. Fisher and J. Reason (eds), Handbook of Life Stress, Cognition and Health. New York: Wiley. pp. 62949.
    Stockhorst U. Spennes-Saleh S. Körholz D. Göbel U. Schneider M.E. Steingrüber H.-J. and Klosterhalfen S. (2000) Anticipatory symptoms and anticipatory immune responses in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: features of a classically conditioned response? Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 14(3) 198218.
    Stokes J.A. (2004) Then, Now and Always. Supporting Children through Grief: A Guide for Practitioners. Cheltenham: Portfolio/Winston's Wish.
    Streisand R. Braniecki S. Tercyak K.P. and Kazak A.E. (2001) Childhood illness-related parenting stress: the pediatric inventory for parents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 26(3) 15562.
    Stroebe M.S. (2008) Handbook of Bereavement Research and Practice: Advances in Theory and Intervention. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Stroud L.R. Foster E. Papandonatos G.D. Handwerger K. Granger D.A. Kivlighan K.T. and Niaura R. (2009) Stress response and the adolescent transition: performance versus peer rejection stressors. Developmental Psychopathology, 21(1) 4768.
    Stuber M.L. Meeske K.A. Krull K.R. Leisenring W. Stratton K. Kazak A.E. and Zeltzer L.K. (2010) Prevalence and predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood cancer. Pediatrics, 125(5) e 112434.
    Sturgess W. (2001) Young children's perception of their relationships with family members: links with family care setting, friendships, and adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25(6) 5219.
    Sullivan M.J. Thorn B. Haythornthwaite J.A. Keefe F. Martin M. Bradley L.A. and Lefebvre J.C. (2001) Theoretical perspectives on the relation between catastrophizing and pain. Clinical Journal of Pain, 17(1) 5264.
    Sumpter R. Brunklaus A. McWilliam R. and Dorris L. (2011) Health-related quality-of-life and behavioural outcome in survivors of childhood meningitis. Brain Injury, 25(13–14): 128895.
    Sumter S.R. Bokhorst C.L. Miers A.C. Van Pelt, J. and Westenberg, P.M. (2010) Age and puberty differences in stress responses during a public speaking task: do adolescents grow more sensitive to social evaluation? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(10) 151016.
    Susman E.J. Dockray S. Granger D.A. Blades K.T. Randazzo W. Heaton J.A. and Dorn L.D. (2010) Cortisol and alpha amylase reactivity and timing of puberty: vulnerabilities for antisocial behaviour in young adolescents. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(4) 55769.
    Sutton S. (2008) How does the health action process approach (HAPA) bridge the intention-behavior gap? An examination of the model's causal structure. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 57(1) 6674.
    Swanson V. Power K.G. Crombie I.K. Irvine L. Kiezebrink K. Wrieden W. and Slane P.W. (2011) Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: a cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the theory of planned behaviour. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity 8: 65.
    Sweet E. (2010) ‘If your shoes are raggedy you get talked about’: symbolic and material dimensions of adolescent social status and health. Social Science and Medicine, 70: 202935.
    Syse A. Aas G.B. and Loge J.H. (2012) Children and young adults with parents with cancer: a population-based study. Clinical Epidemiology, 4: 4152.
    Tallis R. (2011) Aping Mankind: Neuromania, Darwinitis and the Misrepresentation of Humanity. Durham: Acumen.
    Tan C.E. Li H.J. Zhang X.G. Zhang H. Han P.Y. An Q. and Wang M.Q. (2009) The impact of the Wenchuan earthquake on birth outcomes. PLoS One, 4(12) e8200.
    Tarullo A.R. and Gunnar M.R. (2006) Child maltreatment and the developing HPA axis. Hormones and Behavior, 50(4) 6329.
    Taylor N. Absolom K. Snowden J. and Eiser C. (2012) Need for psychological follow-up among young adult survivors of childhood cancer. European Journal of Cancer Care, 21(1) 528.
    Taylor S.E. Cousino Klein, L., Lewis, B.P., Gruenwald, T.L., Gurung, R.A.R. and Updegraff, J.A. (2000) Biobehavioral responses to stress in females: tend-and-befriend, not flight-or-fight. Psychological Review, 107(3) 41129.
    Tegethoff M. Greene N. Olsen J. Meyer A.H. and Meinlschmidt G. (2010) Maternal psychosocial adversity during pregnancy is associated with length of gestation and offspring size at birth: evidence from a population-based cohort study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 72(4) 41926.
    Tetlock P.E. (1994) The psychology of futurology and the future of psychology. Psychological Science, 5(1) 17.
    Thastum M. and Herlin T. (2011) Pain-specific beliefs and pain experience in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a longitudinal study. Journal of Rheumatology, 38(1) 15560.
    Thastum M. Herlin T. and Zachariae R. (2005) Relationship of pain-coping strategies and pain-specific beliefs to pain experience in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 53(2) 17884.
    Thompson R.J. Jr., Gil, K.M., Gustafson, K.E., George, L.K., Keith, B.R., Spock, A. and Kinney, T.R. (1994) Stability and change in the psychological adjustment of mothers of children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis and sickle cell disease. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 19(2) 17188.
    Thomsen A.H. Compas B.E. Colletti R.B. Stanger C. Boyer M.C. and Konik B.S. (2002) Parent reports of coping and stress responses in children with recurrent abdominal pain. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27(3) 21526.
    Tinson J. (2009) Conducting Research with Children and Adolescents: Design, Methods and Empirical Cases. Oxford: Goodfellow.
    Tonkin L. (1996) Growing around grief: another way of looking at grief and recovery. Bereavement Care, 15(1) 10 (published online 2009; www.tandfonline.com).
    Torpy J.M. Campbell A. and Glass R.M. (2010) JAMA patient page: chronic diseases of children. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(7) 682.
    Tovey H. (2007) Playing Outdoors: Places and Spaces, Risks and Challenge. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.
    Tracy E.M. and Abell N. (1994) Social network map: some further refinements on administration. Social Work Research, 18(1) 5660.
    Tracy E.M. and Whittaker J.K. (1990) The social network map: assessing social support in clinical practice. Families in Society: The Journal of Contemporary Human Services, 71: 46170.
    Trajanovska M. Manias E. Cranswick N. and Johnston L. (2010) Parental management of childhood complaints: over-the-counter medicine use and advice-seeking behaviours. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 19(13–14): 206575.
    Tucci F. and Arico M. (2008) Treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hematologica, 93(8) 11248.
    Turner-Cobb J.M. and Steptoe A. (1998) Psychosocial influences on upper respiratory infectious illness in children. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 45(4) 31930.
    Turner-Cobb J.M. Steptoe A. Perry L. and Axford J. (1998) Adjustment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and their children. Journal of Rheumatology, 25(3) 56571.
    Turner-Cobb J.M. Rixon L. and Jessop D.S. (2008) A prospective study of diurnal cortisol responses to the social experience of school transition in four-year-old children: anticipation, exposure, and adaptation. Developmental Psychobiology, 50(4) 37789.
    Turner-Cobb J.M. Osborn M. da Silva, L., Keogh, E. and Jessop, D.S. (2010) Sex differences in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in patients with chronic pain syndrome. Stress: The International Journal on the Biology of Stress, 13(4) 293301.
    Turner-Cobb J.M. Rixon L. and Jessop D.S. (2011) Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and upper respiratory tract infection in young children transitioning to primary school. Psychopharmacology, 214(1) 30917.
    Turner-Cobb J.M. Smith P.C. Ramchandani P. Begen F. Osborn M. Jessop D.S. and Padkin A. (2013) Psychobiological impact of the ICU experience in relatives of patients: a mixed methods assessment of stress, emotional response, coping and support. Manuscript submitted for publication.
    Tyrrell D. (1970) Hunting common cold viruses by some new methods. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 121(5) 56171.
    Tyrrell D. and Fielder M. (2002) Cold Wars: The Fight against the Common Cold. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
    Upton P. and Eiser C. (2006) School experiences after treatment for a brain tumour. Child: Care, Health and Development, 32(1) 917.
    Urizar G.G. Jr, and Muñoz, R.F. (2011) Impact of a prenatal cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention on salivary cortisol levels in low-income mothers and their infants. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36(10) 148094.
    Urizar G.G. Jr, Milazzo, M., Le, H.N., Delucchi, K., Sotelo, R. and Munoz, R.F. (2004) Impact of stress reduction instructions on stress and cortisol levels during pregnancy. Biological Psychology, 67(3) 27582.
    Valentine A. Buchanan H. and Knibb R. (2010) A preliminary investigation of 4 to 11-year-old children's knowledge and understanding of stress. Patient Education and Counseling, 79(2) 2557.
    Van Cleave, J., Gortmaker, S.L. and Perrin, J.M. (2010) Dynamics of obesity and chronic health conditions among children and youth. Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(7) 62330.
    Van Cleve, L., Bossert, E.A., Beecroft, P., Adlard, K., Alvarez, O. and Savedra, M.C. (2004) The pain experience of children with leukaemia during the first years after diagnosis. Nursing Research, 53(1) 110.
    Van den Bergh, B.R. (2005) Antenatal maternal anxiety and stress and the neurobehavioural development of the fetus and child: links and possible mechanisms. A review. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 29: 23758.
    Van den Bergh, B.R., Van Calster, B., Smits, T., Van Huffel, S. and Lagae, L. (2008) Antenatal maternal anxiety is related to HPA-axis dysregulation and self-reported depressive symptoms in adolescence: a prospective study on the fetal origins of depressed mood. Neuropsychopharmacology, 33(3) 53645.
    van der Lee, J.H., Mokkink, L.B., Grootenhuis, M.A., Heymans, H.S. and Offringa, M. (2007) Definitions and measurement of chronic health conditions in childhood: a systematic review. Journal of the American Medical Association, 297(24) 274151.
    van Dijk, A., McGrath, P.A., Pickett, W. and VanDenKerkhof, E.G. (2006) Pain prevalence in nine- to 13-year-old schoolchildren. Pain Research and Management, 11(4) 23440.
    Van Meurs, P., Howard, K.E., Versloot, J., Veerkamp, J.S. and Freeman, R. (2005) Child coping strategies, dental anxiety and dental treatment: the influence of age, gender and childhood caries prevalence. European Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 6(4) 1738.
    Varni J.W. Rapoff M.A. Waldron S.A. Gragg R.A. Bernstein B.H. and Lindsley C.B. (1996) Effects of perceived stress on pediatric chronic pain. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 19(6) 51528.
    Varni J.W. Walco G.A. and Katz E.R. (1989) Assessment and management of chronic and recurrent pain in children with chronic diseases. Pediatrician, 16(1–2): 5663.
    Vedhara K. and Irwin M. (eds) (2005) Human Psychoneuroimmunology. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Vedhara K. Cox N.K. Wilcock G.K. Perks P. Hunt M. Anderson S. Lightman S.L. and Shanks S.M. (1999) Chronic stress in elderly carers of dementia patients and antibody response to influenza vaccination. Lancet, 353(9153) 62731.
    Vedhara K. Miles J. Crown A. McCarthy A. Shanks N. Davies D. and Ben-Shlomo Y. (2007) Relationship of early childhood illness with adult cortisol in the Barry Caerphilly Growth (BCG) cohort. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 32(8–10): 86573.
    Vegni E. Fiori L. Riva E. Giovannini M. and Moja E.A. (2010) How individuals with phenylketonuria experience their illness: an age-related qualitative study. Child: Care, Health and Development, 36(4) 53948.
    Velleman S. Stallard P. and Richardson T. (2010) A review and meta-analysis of computerized cognitive behaviour therapy for the treatment of pain in children and adolescents. Child: Care, Health and Development, 36(4) 46572.
    Ventura T. Gomes M.C. and Carreira T. (2012) Cortisol and anxiety response to a relaxing intervention on pregnant women awaiting amniocentesis. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37(1) 14856.
    Vermeer H.J. van Ijzendoorn, M.H., Groeneveld, M.G. and Granger, D.A. (2012) Downregulation of the immune system in low-quality child care: the case of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) in toddlers. Physiology and Behavior, 105(2) 1617.
    Versloot J. Veerkamp J.S.J. Hoogstraten J. and Martens L.C. (2004) Children's coping with pain during dental care. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 32(6) 45661.
    Vervoort T. Craig K.D. Goubert L. Dehoorne J. Joos R. Matthys D. and Crombez G. (2008) Expressive dimensions of pain catastrophizing: a comparative analysis of school children and children with clinical pain. Pain, 134(1–2): 5968.
    Vervoort T. Goubert L. Eccleston C. Vandenhende M. Claeys O. Clarke J. and Crombez G. (2009) Expressive dimensions of pain catastrophizing: an observational study in adolescents with chronic pain. Pain 146(1) 1706.
    Vetter T.R. (2012) Pediatric chronic pain. In R.J. Moore (ed.), Handbook of Pain and Palliative Care. New York: Springer-Verlag. pp. 13968.
    Viau R. Arsenault-Lapierre G. Fecteau S. Champagne N. Walker C.D. and Lupien S. (2010) Effect of service dogs on salivary cortisol secretion in autistic children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(8) 118793.
    Vowles K.E. Cohen L.L. McCracken L.M. and Eccleston C. (2010) Disentangling the complex relations among caregiver and adolescent responses to adolescent chronic pain. Pain, 151(3) 6806.
    Wadhwa P.D. Dunkel-Schetter C. Chicz-DeMet A. Porto M. and Sandman C.A. (1996) Prenatal psychosocial factors and the neuroendocrine axis in human pregnancy. Psychosomatic Medicine, 58(5) 43246.
    Wakefield A.J. Murch S.H. Anthony A. Linnell J. Casson D.M. Malik M. Berelowitz M. Dhillon A.P. Thomson M.A. Harvey P. Valentine A. Davies S.E. and Walker-Smith J.A. (1998) Ileal-lymphoid-nodular hyperplasia, non-specific colitis, and pervasive developmental disorder in children. Lancet, 351(9103) 63741.
    Wallace D.P. Sim L.A. Harrison T.E. Bruce B.K. and Harbeck-Weber C. (2012) Covert video monitoring in the assessment of medically unexplained symptoms in children. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 37(3) 32937.
    Wallace W.H. Blacklay A. Eiser C. Davies H. Hawkins M. Levitt G.A. and Jenney M.E. (2001) Developing strategies for long term follow up of survivors of childhood cancer. British Medical Journal, 323(7307) 2714.
    Walsh M.E. and Bibace R. (1991) Children's conceptions of AIDS: a developmental analysis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 16(3) 27385.
    Watamura S.E. Donzella B. Alwin J. and Gunnar M.R. (2003) Morning-to-afternoon increases in cortisol concentrations for infants and toddlers at child care: age differences and behavioral correlates. Child Development, 74(4) 100620.
    Watamura S.E. Donzella B. Kertes D.A. and Gunnar M.R. (2004) Developmental changes in baseline cortisol activity in early childhood: relations with napping and effortful control. Developmental Psychobiology, 45(3) 12533.
    Wegman H.L. and Stetler C. (2009) A meta-analytic review of the effects of childhood abuse on medical outcomes in adulthood. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(8) 80512.
    Weisz J.R. McCabe M.A. and Dennig M.D. (1994) Primary and secondary control among children undergoing medical procedures: adjustment as a function of coping style. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62(2) 32432.
    Weithorn L.A. and Scherer D.G. (1994) Children's involvement in research participation decisions: psychological considerations. In M.A. Grodinand and L.H. Glantz (eds), Children as Research Subjects: Science, Ethics and Law. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 13379.
    Wells D. (2011) The value of pets for human health. The Psychologist, 24(3) 1726.
    Werner H. (1948) Comparative Psychology of Mental Development. New York: Harper and Row.
    White K.M. Hyde M.K. O'Connor E.L. Naumann L. and Hawkes A.L. (2010) Testing a belief-based intervention encouraging sun-safety among adolescents in a high risk area. Preventive Medicine, 51(3–4): 3258.
    WHO (1948) Constitution of the World Health Organization. Source: WHO Basic Documents,
    45th edn
    , Supplement, October 2006, page 1. http://www.who.int/governance/eb/who_constitution_en.pdf. The Constitution was adopted by the International Health Conference held in New York from 19 June to 22 July 1946, signed on 22 July 1946 by the representatives of 61 States (Off. Rec. Wld Hlth Org., 2 100), and entered into force on 7 April 1948.
    WHO/UNAIDS (2011) World AIDS Day report 2011 (www.who.int/hiv/data/en/; retrieved 2 September 2012).
    Widmaier E.P. Raff H. and Strang K.T. (2010) Vander's Human Physiology: The Mechansims of Body Function,
    12th edn
    . New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
    Wiebe D.J. Berg C.A. Korbel C. Palmer D.L. Beveridge R.M. Upchurch R. and Donaldson D.L. (2005) Children's appraisals of maternal involvement in coping with diabetes: enhancing our understanding of adherence, metabolic control, and quality of life across adolescence. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30(2) 16778.
    Wilder R.L. (1998) Hormones, pregnancy and autoimmune diseases. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 840: 4550.
    Wills T.A. Vaccaro D. and McNamara G. (1992) The role of life events, family support, and competence in adolescent substance use: a test of vulnerability and protective factors. American Journal of Community Psychology, 20(3) 34974.
    Wolchik S.A. Coxe S. Tein J.Y. Sandler I.N. and Ayers T.S. (2008) Six-year longitudinal predictors of posttraumatic growth in parentally bereaved adolescents and young adults. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying, 58(2) 10728.
    Wolchik S.A. Ruehlman L.S. Braver S.L. and Sandler I.N. (1989) Social support of children of divorce: direct and stress buffering effects. American Journal of Community Psychology, 17(4) 485501.
    Wolf J.M. Miller G.E. and Chen E. (2008) Parent psychological states predict changes in inflammatory markers in children with asthma and healthy children. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 22(4): 43341.
    Wollgarten-Hadamek I. Hohmeister J. Demirakca S. Zohsel K. Flor H. and Hermann C. (2009) Do burn injuries during infancy affect pain and sensory sensitivity in later childhood? Pain, 141(1–2): 16572.
    Wong W.Y. Donfield S.M. Rains E. FitzGerald G. Pearson S.K. and Gomperts E.D. (2004) Frequency and causes of hospitalization in HIV-negative children and adolescents with haemophilia A or B and its effect on academic achievement. Haemophilia, 10(1) 2733.
    Woodgate R. and Kristjanson L.J. (1996) ‘Getting better from my hurts’: toward a model of the young child's pain experience. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 11(4) 23342.
    Woolston J.L. Gianfredi S. Gertner J.M. Paugus J.A. and Mason J.W. (1983) Salivary cortisol: a non-traumatic sampling technique for assaying cortisol dynamics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 22(5) 4746.
    Wust S. Entringer S. Federenko I.S. Schlotz W. and Hellhammer D.H. (2005) Birth weight is associated with salivary cortisol responses to psychosocial stress in adult life. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 30(6) 5918.
    Xiong X. Harville E.W. Mattison D.R. Elkind-Hirsch K. Pridjian G. and Buekens P. (2008) Exposure to Hurricane Katrina, post-traumatic stress disorder and birth outcomes. American Journal of the Medical Sciences, 336(2) 11115.
    Yamada J. Stevens B. de Silva, N., Klein, J. and Koren, G. (2003) Hair cortisol as a biologic marker of chronic stress in neonates: a pilot study. Pediatric Research, 53(4) 454a.
    Yamada J. Stevens B. de Silva, N., Gibbins, S., Beyene, J., Taddio, A., Newman, C. and Koren, G. (2007) Hair cortisol as a potential biologic marker of chronic stress in hospitalized neonates. Neonatology, 92(1) 429.
    Yehuda R. Kahana B. Binder-Brynes K. and Southwick S.M. (1995) Low urinary cortisol excretion in Holocaust survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(7) 9826.
    Yehuda R. Bierer L.M. Schmeidler J. Aferiat D.H. Breslau I. and Dolan S. (2000) Low cortisol and risk for PTSD in adult offspring of Holocaust survivors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(8) 12529.
    Yehuda R. Halligan S.L. and Grossman R. (2001) Childhood trauma and risk for PTSD: relationship to intergenerational effects of trauma, parental PTSD, and cortisol excretion. Development and Psychopathology, 13(3) 73353.
    Yehuda R. Engel S.M. Brand S.R. Seckl J. Marcus S.M. and Berkowitz G.S. (2005) Transgenerational effects of posttraumatic stress disorder in babies of mothers exposed to the World Trade Center attacks during pregnancy. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 90(7) 411518.
    Yehuda R. Bell A. Bierer L.M. and Schmeidler J. (2008) Maternal, not paternal, PTSD is related to increased risk for PTSD in offspring of Holocaust survivors. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 42(13) 110411.
    Yim I.S. Quas J.A. Cahill L. and Hayakawa C.M. (2010) Children's and adults’ salivary cortisol responses to an identical psychosocial laboratory stressor. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35(2) 2418.
    Zebrack B.J. Stuber M.L. Meeske K.A. Phipps S. Krull K.R. Liu Q. and Zeltzer L.K. (2012) Perceived positive impact of cancer among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Psychooncology, 21(6) 6309.
    Zernikow B. Wager J. Hechler T. Hasan C. Rohr U. Dobe M.Blankenburg, M. (2012) Characteristics of highly impaired children with severe chronic pain: a 5-year retrospective study on 2249 pediatric pain patients. BMC Pediatrics, 12(1) 54.
    Ziadni M.S. Patterson C.A. Pulgaron E.R. Robinson M.R. and Barakat L.P. (2011) Health-related quality of life and adaptive behaviors of adolescents with sickle cell disease: stress processing moderators. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 18(4) 33544.
    Zimet G.D. Dahlen N.W. Zimet S.G. and Farley G.K. (1988) Multidimensional scale of perceived social support. Journal of Personality Assessment, 52(1) 3041.
    Zimmermann L.K. and Stansbury K. (2004) The influence of emotion regulation, level of shyness, and habituation on the neuroendocrine response of three-year-old children. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29(8) 97382.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website