Child & Family Assessment in Social Work Practice
Publication Year: 2011
This thoroughly revised and updated second edition of Child and Family Assessment in Social Work Practice is an essential guide for social work students and practitioners involved in the assessment of children and their families. Focusing on ‘core’ assessments and guiding the reader through the complexities of conducting assessments of need and risk, the book now includes within each chapter a range of specifically-tailored exercises and focus points which encourage readers both to reflect on what they have learnt and to understand how they can apply that learning to practice.
Placing a strong emphasis on good, evidence-based, assessment practice, Sally Holland has also, for this new edition, included original research evidence from a wide range of up-to-date research studies which are relevant to today's practice and ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
Part I: What Is Assessment?
- Chapter 2: Assessment in Child and Family Social Work
- Chapter 3: The Nature of Assessment: Law, Art and Science
- Chapter 4: Time and Change
Part II: People in Assessments
- Chapter 5: The Assessment Relationship
- Chapter 6: Children in Assessments
- Chapter 7: Assessing Parents
Part III: The Assessment Process
© Sally Holland 2011
This edition first published 2011
First edition published 2004
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
1 Oliver's Yard
55 City Road
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B 1/I 1 Mohan Cooperative Industrial Area
New Delhi 110 044
SAGE Publications Asia-Pacific Pte Ltd
33 Pekin Street #02-01
Far East Square
Library of Congress Control Number: 2010925926
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.
Typeset by C&M Digitals (P) Ltd, Chennai, India
Printed in [to be supplied]
Printed on paper from sustainable resources.
[Page v]This edition is dedicated to the memory of my father, David George Holland 1937–2006.[Page vi]
I would like to thank the social workers, children and families who took part in the Coastal Cities research and subsequent research studies cited in the book. My many colleagues in the School of Social Sciences in Cardiff University are notably kind, supportive and helpful. MA social work students have been honest and supportive testers of the exercises in this book. I am grateful to the School of Social Work in the University of Michigan. I wrote the second edition while spending time as a visiting scholar there in the summer of 2009. I wish also to thank Jonathan, Annie, Gareth and Dafydd and my wider family for love and support.
All names in case examples used in this book are pseudonyms and identifying features have been excluded or altered.
References[Page 207]2002) ‘Cultural competency in the field of child maltreatment’, in J.E.B.Myers, L.Berliner, J.Briere, C.T.Hendrix, C.Jenny, and T.A.Reid (eds), The APSAC Handbook on Child Maltreatment ((2nd edn). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 477–86.1994) The Hidden Victims: Children and Domestic Violence. London: NCH Action for Children.(1995) Timewatch: The Social Analysis of Time. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1978) Patterns of Attachment. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum Associates., , and (Aldgate, J., Jones, D., Rose, W. and Jeffery, C. (eds) (2006) The Developing World of the Child. London: Jessica Kingsley.1971) Essence of Decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis. Boston: Little, Brown.(1994) ‘Criteria for assessing interpretative validity in qualitative research’, in N.K.Denzin and Y.S.Lincoln (eds), Handbook of Qualitative Research. Newbury Park: Sage, pp. 485–99.and (1990) The Reflecting Team: Dialogues and Metadialogues. Kent: Borgmann Publishing.(2009) ‘Hearing the child’, Child & Family Social Work, 14(4): 391–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2008.00606.xand (2006) Fathers Matter: Research Findings on Fathers and Their Involvement with Social Care Services. London: Family Rights Group., , , and (1996) ‘Court-ordered assessment: impact of maternal noncompliance in child maltreatment cases’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 20(3): 185–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2895%2900146-8and (1992) ‘Permanency planning in a Norwegian context’, Adoption and Fostering, 16(2): 35–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030857599201600208(1999) Research-based Risk Assessment: Adding Equity to CPS Decision Making. Madison, WI: Children's Research Center., and (2008) ‘Risk, uncertainty and public protection: assessment of young people who offend’, British Journal of Social Work, 38(8): 1463–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcm054(2007) ‘The “risk gradient” in policy on children of drug and alcohol users: framing young people as risky’, Health, Risk & Society, 9(3): 311–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13698570701488837and (2001) ‘“I wanna tell you a story”: exploring the application of vignettes in qualitative research with children and young people’, International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 3(4): 307–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13645570050178594and (1978) ‘Parental disciplinary patterns and social competence in children’, Youth and Society, 9(3): 239–76.(2008) ‘Social work with violent men’, unpublished MSc dissertation, Cardiff University School of Social Sciences.([Page 208]1992) ‘From industrial society to the risk society: questions of survival, social structure and ecological enlightenment’, Theory, Culture & Society, 9: 99–123.(1989) ‘Lessons from child abuse: the determinants of parenting’, in D.Cicchetti and V.Carlson (eds), Child Maltreatment: Theory and Research on the Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse and Neglect. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 153–202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511665707.007and (1992) ‘The construction of medical disposals: medical sociology and medical problem solving in clinical practice’, Sociology, 14(2): 151–80.(2002) Infants, Children and Adolescents ((4th edn). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.2007) ‘Reuniting children with their families: reconsidering the evidence on timing, contact and outcomes’, British Journal of Social Work, 37(5): 807–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcl051(1995) Working Together in Child Protection. London: HMSO.and (1978a) ‘On the analysis of observational data: a discussion of the worth and uses of inductive techniques and respondent validation’, Sociology, 12(3): 545–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/003803857801200307(1978b) ‘On the routinised nature of work in people-processing agencies: the case of adeno-tonsillectomy assessments in ENT out-patients clinics’, in A.Davies (ed.), Relationships Between Doctors and Patients. Farnborough: Saxon House, pp. 29–47.(1997) ‘Addressing social problems through qualitative research’, in D.Silverman (ed.), Qualitative Research: Theory, Method and Practice. London, Sage, pp. 221–38.(2001) Focus Groups in Social Research. London: Sage., , and (2006) Evaluating the Common Assessment Framework and Lead Professional Guidance and Implementation in 2005–6, Research Report RR740. London: DfES., , , , and (2009) Understanding Serious Case Reviews and Their Impact: A Biennial Analysis of Serious Case Reviews 2005–7. London: DCSF., , , , , and (2010) ‘Performing “initial assessment”: identifying the latent conditions for error at the front-door of local authority children's services’, British Journal of Social Work, 40(2): 352–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcn162, , , , , , and (doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcn162.1979) The Ecology of Human Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(2000) ‘Beyond the rhetoric: a ‘working' version of child protection practice’, European Journal of Social Work, 3(1): 13–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/714052808(1992) ‘Constructing causal accounts in social work’, Sociology, 26(4): 635–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038592026004006and (1994) Deconstructing Developmental Psychology. London: Routledge.(1994) Children Speak: Children, Trauma and Social Work. Harlow: Longman.and (2009) ‘Baby P scandal leads to sharp rise in children being taken into care’, The Guardian, 9 May.(1992) Second Thoughts on the Theory and Practice of the Milan Approach to Family Therapy. London: Karnac., and (2009) ‘The voice of the child: the debate continues’, Family Law, 39(4): 299–301.(2001) ‘Risk assessment in child welfare: the art and science’, Children and Youth Services Review, 23(11): 811–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-7409%2801%2900162-1(2005) ‘Child and family support services for minority ethnic families: what can we learn from research?’, Child and Family Social Work, 10(2): 169–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2005.00367.xand ([Page 209]2001) ‘Grounded theory in ethnography’, in P.Atkinson, A.Coffey, S.Delamont, J.Lofland and L.Lofland, Handbook of Ethnography. London: Sage.and (2001) Listening to Young Children: The Mosaic Approach. London: NCB.and (1995) Parental Perspectives in Cases of Suspected Child Abuse. London: HMSO.and (2007) Child Protection, Domestic Violence and Parental Substance Misuse. London: Jessica Kingsley., , and (2004) Assessing Children's Needs and Circumstances: The Impact of the Assessment Framework. London: Jessica Kingsley.and (2008) The Integrated Children's System: Enhancing Social Work and Inter-Agency Practice. London: Jessica Kingsley., , , , , and (1998) Social Assessment Theory and Practice. Aldershot: Ashgate.(1993) ‘The worker-client relationship revisited’, Families in Society May: 291–8.(2005) ‘“I forgot the sky!”Children's stories in their drawings’, in V.Lewis, M.Kellett, C.Robinson, S.Fraser and S.Ding (eds), The Reality of Research with Children and Young People. London: Open University/Sage, pp. 5–26.(1996) Making Sense of Qualitative Data. London: Sage.and (1997) ‘The parenting of adolescents in Britain today’, Children and Society, 11(1): 44–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.1997.tb00005.x(1996) ‘Child maltreatment: testing the social isolation hypothesis’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 20: 241–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2895%2900143-3(1995) Masculinities. Cambridge: Polity.(1993) Child Abuse: Towards a Knowledge Base. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1999) ‘Neighborhoods and child maltreatment: a multi-level study’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 23: 1019–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2899%2900076-9, and (2002) The HOME Inventory: A Training Approach for the UK. Brighton: Pavilion Publishing.and (1991) ‘Case factor selection in physical child abuse investigations’, Journal of Social Service Research, 14(3–4): 107–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J079v14n03_06and (2007) When Is a Child Not a Child? Asylum, Age Disputes and the Process of Age Assessment. London: ILPA. Available at: http://www.ilpa.org.uk/publications/ILPA%20Age%20Dispute%20Report.pdf.(2007) Putting Analysis into Assessment. London: NCB.and (1999) ‘Beliefs in child care: social work consensus and lack of consensus on issues of parenting and decision-making’, Children and Society, 13: 179–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.1999.tb00123.x(2000) ‘Judgements about parenting: what do social workers think they are doing?’, Child Abuse Review, 9: 91–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-0852%28200003/04%299:2%3C91::AID-CAR594%3E3.0.CO;2-A(2002) Assessing and Promoting Resilience in Vulnerable Children. London: Jessica Kingsley.and (2007) ‘Analysing participation and social exclusion with children and young people: lessons from practice’, International Journal of Children's Rights, 15(1): 121–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/092755607X181702(2004) Constructing Meanings and Identities in Child Protection Practice. Melbourne: Tertiary Press.(DCSF (2007) Every Parent Matters. Available at: http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Nl1/Newsroom/DG_066880 (accessed 28/07/09).[Page 210]DCSF (2008) Children Looked After in England (Including Adoption and Care Leavers) Year Ending 31 March 2008. Available at: http://www.dcsf.gov.uk/rsgateway/DB/SFR/s000810/index.shtml (accessed 21/07/09).2007) ‘Good helping relationships in child welfare: learning from stories of success’, Child and Family Social Work, 12(1): 32–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2006.00438.xand (1970) The Research Act in Sociology. London: Butterworths.(1996) ‘Implementing child mistreatment risk assessment systems: lessons from theory’, Administration in Social Work, 20(2): 41–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J147v20n02_04(Department of Health (1988) Protecting Children: A Guide for Social Workers Undertaking a Comprehensive Assessment. London: HMSO.Department of Health (1995) Child Protection: Messages from Research. London: HMSO.Department of Health (2000a) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and Their Families. London: Department of Health.Department of Health (2000b) Assessing Children in Need and Their Families: Practice Guidance. London: The Stationery Office.Department of Health (2000c) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families: Guidance Notes and Glossary for Records. London: Department of Health.Department of Health (2000d) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families: The Family Pack of Questionnaires and Scales. London: Department of Health.Department of Health (2002) Health and Personal Social Service Statistics, http://www.doh.gov.uk/public/stats1.htm (accessed 1/7/2002).Department of Health and Social Security (1985) Social Work Decisions in Child Care. London: HMSO.Department of Health, Social Services and Public Safety (2008) UNOCINI Guidance: Understanding the Needs of Children in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Northern Ireland Government.1995) The Protection of Children (, and (2nd edn). Aldershot: Avebury.1992) ‘The myth of sexual symmetry in marital violence’, Social Problems, 39(1): 71–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3096914, , and (1998) ‘Child-rearing practices of two generations of Punjabi parents: development of personality and independence’, Children and Society, 12(1): 25–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.1998.tb00042.xand (1992) ‘Evaluating risk assessment implementation in child protection: issues for consideration’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 16: 637–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2892%2990102-W, and (1992) Risk and Blame: Essays in Cultural Theory. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203430866(2006) ‘Parental experience of child protection intervention: a qualitative study’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 30(1): 27–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2005.08.012(2000) ‘Social policy and social work in New Zealand’, European Journal of Social Work. 3(3): 283–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/714052831and (1996) ‘Bureaucracy or professionalism? The work tools of child protection services’, Scandinavian Journal of Social Welfare, 5: 165–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.1996.tb00138.x(1998) Keeping Children in Mind: A Model of Child Observation Practice. London: CCETSW., and (1994) ‘Risk assessment as a practice method in child protective services’, Child Welfare, 73(5): 451–73.and ([Page 211]Families Australia (2008) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander People: Families Australia Policy. Barton, ACT: Families Australia. Available at: http://www.familiesaustralia.org.au/publications/pubs/policies/faatsiseptember2008.pdf.1995) Child Protection Practice: Private Risks and Public Remedies. London: HMSO.and (2001) ‘Putting fathers on the child welfare agenda’, Child and Family Social Work, 6(2): 179–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2206.2001.00195.x(Featherstone, B., Hooper, C.A., Scourfield, J. and Taylor, J. (eds) (2010) Gender and Child Welfare. London: Wiley Blackwell. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/97804706847711997) ‘Familiar subjects? Domestic violence and child welfare’, Child and Family Social Work, 2: 147–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2206.1997.00057.xand (1997) ‘Protecting children in new times: child protection and the risk society’, Child and Family Social Work. 2: 221–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2206.1997.00064.x(1996) Significant Harm: Unravelling Child Protection Decisions and Substitute Care Careers of Children. Aldershot: Avebury.(2008) ‘The influence of an adoption experiment on social policy’, in D.Lindsey and A.Shlonsky (eds), Child Welfare Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 99–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304961.003.0005(1999) ‘Country notes: Russia’, European Journal of Social Work, 2(2): 209–24.(2000) ‘Parental substance misuse and child protection in a British sample’, Child Abuse Review, 9: 235–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-0852%28200007/08%299:4%3C235::AID-CAR626%3E3.0.CO;2-4(2008) ‘ Child risk and parental resistance: can motivational interviewing improve the practice of child and family social workers in working with parental alcohol misuse?’, British Journal of Social Work, 38: 1302–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcl394, , , and (2009) ‘Supporting the participation of disabled children and young people in decision-making’, Children & Society, 23(1): 3–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2007.00131.xand (1995) ‘Qualitative assessment: a methodological review’, Families in Society, 76(5): 281–95.and (2008) ‘Decision making in child welfare: constraints and potentials’, in D.Lindsey and A.Shlonsky (eds), Child Welfare Research: Advances for Practice and Policy. New York: Oxford University Press, pp. 175–93. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304961.003.0010(2000) ‘Risk assessment in context’, Children and Youth Services Review, 22(11–12): 813–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-7409%2800%2900123-7and (1967) Studies in Ethnomethodology. Englewoods Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(2003) ‘Swimming with dolphins: the new assessment framework, New Labour and new tools for social work with children and families’, British Journal of Social Work, 33: 441–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/33.4.441(1993) Current Controversies on Family Violence. Newbury Park: Sage.and (2010) ‘Parent discipline practices in an international sample: associations with child behaviors and moderation by perceived normativeness’, Child Development81(2): 487–502. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01409.x, , , , , and (2002) Parenting in Poor Environments. London: Jessica Kingsley.and (2003) The National Study of Parents, Children and Discipline in Great Britain, Key Findings. Available at: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/publications/Downloads/parentschildrenanddisciplinesummary_wdf48031.pdf (accessed 11/12/09)., , , and ([Page 212]2000) Fathers and Family Centres: Engaging Fathers in Preventative Services. York: York Publishing Services., and (2009) ‘The well-being of children and the question of attachment’, in L.M.Nybell, J.J.Shook and J.L.Finn (eds), Childhood, Youth and Social Work in Transformation: Implications for Policy and Practice. New York: Columbia University Press, pp. 145–68.and (1990) The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.(1988) ‘Decision-making in interdisciplinary treatment teams’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 12: 231–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2888%2990031-2(2008) ‘The Common Assessment Framework: does the reality match the rhetoric?’, Child and Family Social Work, 13(2): 177–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2007.00530.xand (1999) ‘Working with social networks: key resources in helping children at risk’, in M.Hill (ed.), Effective Ways of Working with Children and Their Families. London: Jessica Kingsley, pp. 70–91.(1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.(1988) Heroes of Their Own Lives. New York: Viking Penguin.(1963) ‘Multiple epiphyseal injuries in babies (“Battered Baby Syndrome”)’British Medical Journal, 11: 1558–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.5372.1558and (Guardian (2009) ‘Tories warn of social work recruitment crisis’, 3 February. Available at: http://www.guardian.co.uk/politics/2009/feb/03/social-workers-tories-child-protection (accessed 27/05/09).1997) ‘Silent and silenced voices: interactional construction of audience in social work talk’, in A.Jaworski (ed.), Silence: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 181–211., and (1982) ‘Approaching the problem’, in A.McGrew and M.Wilson (eds), Decision Making: Approaches and Analysis. Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 41–7.(1989a) ‘Child abuse inquiries and public policy’, in O.Stevenson (ed.), Child Abuse: Professional Practice and Public Policy. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 110–44.(1989b) ‘The gendered world of the social services department’, in C.Hallett (ed.), Women and Social Services Departments. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(1983) ‘Shaping phenomenal reality: dialectic and disjunction in the bureaucratic synthesis of child abuse in urban Newfoundland’, Social Analysis, 13: 3–36.(2004) ‘How marital conflict and violence affects children: theory, research and future directions’, in M.C.Calder, G.T.Harold and E.L.Howarth (eds), Children Living with Domestic Violence: Towards a Framework for Assessment and Intervention. Lyme Regis: Russell House Publishing, pp. 56–73.and (Haringey LSCB (2009) Serious Case Review, Baby Peter: Executive Summary. Available at: http://www.haringeylscb.org/executive_summary_peter_final.pdf (accessed 18/11/09).2004) ‘Parental substance misuse and child care social work: research in a city social work department in England’, Child Abuse Review, 13(1): 18–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.828(2009) ‘Retaining novices to become expert child protection practitioners: creating career pathways in direct practice’, British Journal of Social Work, 39(2): 299–317. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcm125, and (1994) Child Welfare: England 1872–1989. London: Routledge.(1997) ‘Research review: participatory research with children’, Child and Family Social Work, 2: 171–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2206.1997.00056.x([Page 213]1992) ‘Making judgements about parenting: the example of freeing for adoption’, British Journal of Social Work, 22: 373–89., , and (2006) Synthesis of Research on Disproportionality in Out-of-Home Care: An Update. Casey-CSSP Alliance for Race Equity on the Child Welfare System. Available at: http://www.racemattersconsortium.org/docs/BobHillPaper_FINAL.pdf (accessed 14/12/09).(HM Government (2006) Working Together to Safeguard Children. London: The Stationery Office.2002) ‘New sociology and old psychology’, in B.Goldson, M.Lavalette and J.McKechnie (eds), Children, Welfare and the State. London: Sage, pp. 29–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446221068(1999) ‘The comprehensive assessment in child protection social work’, PhD dissertation, Cardiff University.(2009a) ‘Listening to children in care: a review of methodological and theoretical approaches to understanding looked after children's perspectives’, Children and Society, 23(3): 226–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2008.00213.x(2009b) ‘Looked after children and the ethic of care’, British Journal of Social Work; electronic advanced access: doi: 10.1093/bjsw/bcp086.(2006) ‘“We had to be there to make sure it was what we wanted”: enabling children's participation in family decision-making through the Family Group Conference’, Childhood, 13(1): 91–111. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0907568206059975and (2007) The Development of an All-Wales Evaluation Tool for Family Group Conferences: Final Research Report. Cardiff: Cardiff University School of Social Sciences., and (‘Power, agency and participatory agendas: a critical exploration of young people's engagement in participative qualitative research’, Childhood, 2010 (3)., , and (in press)1964) Casework: A Psychosocial Therapy ((2nd edn). New York: Random House.Home Office (2008) Better Outcomes: Improving the Care of Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children. London: Home Office.2007) ‘The missing assessment domain: personal, professional and organizational factors influencing professional judgements when identifying and referring child neglect’, British Journal of Social Work, 37(8): 1285–303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcl029(Horwath, J. (ed.) (2009) The Child's World: The Comprehensive Guide to Assessing Children in Need (2nd edn). London: Jessica Kingsley.1992) ‘Child abuse and the bureaucratisation of social work’, Sociological Review, 40(3): 491–508. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1992.tb00399.x(1994) ‘Modernity, postmodernity and social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 24: 513–32.(1998) ‘Relationship-based thinking and practice in social work’, Journal of Social Work Practice, 12(1): 45–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02650539808415131(1999) Attachment Theory, Child Maltreatment and Family Support. Basingstoke: Macmillan., , and (1992) Child Abuse Errors: When Good Intentions Go Wrong. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(1999) ‘Avoidance and confrontation: social work practice in relation to domestic violence and child abuse’, Child and Family Social Work, 4: 77–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2206.1999.00106.x(2006) ‘Say it Your Own Way’: Including Children's Voices in Assessment: A Guide and Resources. London: Barnardo's.and ([Page 214]2000) ‘Ecological influences on parenting and child development’, British Journal of Social Work, 30: 703–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/30.6.703(2009) ‘The impact of economic factors on parents or caregivers and children’, in J.Horwath (ed.), The Child's World (and (2nd edn). London: Jessica Kingsley, pp. 368–81.2004) Constructing Childhood. Basingstoke: Palgrave.and (1992) ‘Serious child mistreatment in Massachusetts: the course of 206 children through the courts’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 16: 171–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2892%2990026-N, , , , and (2006) Family Assessment in Child Welfare Services: Instrument Comparisons. University of California at Berkeley: The Center for Social Services Research., , , , , , and (1993) ‘Decision making in child welfare: a critical review of the literature’, Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 10(3): 241–62. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00757822(1999) ‘The assessment of parenting in the child welfare practice’, Children and Youth Services Review, 21(7): 581–603.(1997) Current Issues in Comprehensive Assessment. London: NSPCC.(1996) ‘Permanency action through concurrent planning’, Adoption and Fostering, 20(2): 8–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030857599602000203(2009) Assessments of Parenting and Parenting Support Need: A Study of Four Professional Groups. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.and (2002) ‘Child maltreatment in the context of substance abuse’, in J.E.B.Myers, L.Berliner, J.Briere, C.T.Hendrix, C.Jenny and T.A.Reid (eds), The APSAC Handbook on Child Maltreatment ((2nd edn). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 105–17.1962) ‘The battered child syndrome’, Journal of the American Medical Association, 181: 17–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1962.03050270019004, , , and (2007) ‘Risk assessment and management: an overview’, in J.Lishman (ed.), Handbook for Practice Learning in Social Work and Social Care: Knowledge and Theory. London: Jessica Kingsley, pp. 153–66.(1995) How the Law Thinks About Children (and (2nd edn). Aldershot: Arena.2007) Social Work with Unaccompanied Asylum Seeking Children. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.(2003) ‘Neighborhood and community connectedness in child maltreatment research’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 27: 137–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2802%2900537-9(2000) ‘Mothering and child protection practice: rethinking risk assessment’, Child and Family Social Work, 5: 35–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2206.2000.00142.xand (2010) ‘The clock starts now: Feminism, mothering and attachment theory in child protection practice’, in B.Featherstone, C-A.Hooper, J.Scourfield and J.Taylor (eds), Gender and Child Welfare in Society. London: Wiley Blackwell, pp. 149–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9780470684771.ch6, , and (2004) ‘Living with an elephant: growing up with parental substance misuse’, Child and Family Social Work, 9(2): 129–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2004.00325.x(1998) ‘Radical social work’, in R.Adams, L.Dominelli, and M.Payne (eds), Social Work: Themes, Issues and Critical Debates. Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp. 207–17.(1992) ‘The time-consequences of social services’, Time and Society, 1(1): 65–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961463X92001001006and (2004) ‘Is the Third Way the best way?: Social work intervention with children and families’, Journal of Social Work, 4(3): 245–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1468017304047744and ([Page 215]1994) The Welfare of Children. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(2005) ‘Caregivers' readiness for change: predictive validity in a child welfare sample’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 29: 59–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.08.004and (Lloyd, E. (ed.) (1999) Parenting Matters: What Works in Parenting Education?Ilford: Barnardo's.London Borough of Brent (1985) A Child in Trust: The Report of the Panel of Inquiry into the Circumstances Surrounding the Death of Jasmine Beckford. London: London Borough of Brent.London Borough of Lambeth (1987) Whose Child? The Report of the Public Inquiry into the Death of Tyra Henry. London: London Borough of Lambeth.2009) Reforming Child Protection. Abingdon: Routledge., , and (1999) Empowering Practice? A Critical Appraisal of the Family Group Conference Approach. Bristol: The Policy Press.and (1995) ‘Children's rights and the Children Act 1989’, in B.Franklin, (ed.), The Handbook of Children's Rights. London: Routledge, pp. 40–55.and (1999) ‘Perceptions of risk’, in P.Parsloe (ed.), Risk Assessment in Social Care and Social Work. London: Jessica Kingsley, pp. 17–52.and (2008) ‘Engaging ethically with young children: principles and practices for consulting justly with care’, in G.Mac Naughton, P.Hughes and K.Smith (eds), Young Children as Active Citizens. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 31–43.and (2007) ‘Refugee children in Wales: coping in the face of adversity’, Children and Society, 21(4): 309–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2007.00102.x, , and (1991) ‘Re-assessing assessment in clinical social work practice’, Smith College Studies in Social Work, 62(1): 3–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00377319109516696(1993) ‘Intervening with male batterers: a study of social workers' perceptions of domestic violence’, Social Work and Social Sciences Review, 4(2): 119–47.and (1997) Under the Cover of Kindness. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia.(1998) ‘At the edge of the frame: beyond science and art in social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 28(2): 197–212. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjsw.a011323and (1997) The Stories We Live By: Personal Myths and the Making of the Self. New York: The Guildford Press.(1990) ‘Child protection language as professional ideology in social work’, Social Work and Social Sciences Review, 2(2): 122–45.and (1988) The Long Interview. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.(1995) ‘Risk assessment in child abuse prevention programs’, Social Work Research, 19(2): 77–87.(1997) ‘Children's experiences of domestic violence’, Child and Family Social Work, 2(1): 13–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2206.1997.00037.x(1993) Assessment in Social Work Practice. New York: Columbia University Press.(2006) ‘The framework for the assessment of children in need and their families: a basis for a “therapeutic” encounter?’, British Journal of Social Work, 36(6): 887–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bch321and (2002) Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People for Change (and (2nd edn). New York: Guildford Press.2002) ‘Training children's services workers in domestic violence assessment and intervention: research findings and implications for practice’, Children and Youth Services Review, 24(8): 561–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-7409%2802%2900212-8and ([Page 216]2009) Assessment in Social Work (and (3rd edn). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.2008) ‘The impact of child and family service reviews on knowledge management’, Child Welfare, 87(5): 125–43.(2006) Placements, Decisions and Reviews: A Children's Views Report. Available at: https://www.rights4me.org/reportView.cfm?id=3&startRow=1 (accessed 14/12/09).(2009) ‘Assessing parental motivation for change’, in J.Horwath (ed.), The Child's World ((2nd edn). London: Jessica Kingsley, pp. 305–25.1996) Rethinking Domestic Violence: The Social Work and Probation Response. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203410547(1997) ‘Domestic violence and social work: the challenge to change’, Critical Social Policy, 50: 53–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026101839701705003(2000) Children's Needs, Coping Strategies and Understanding of Woman Abuse, Research Report, ESRC 5–16 programme. University of Hull., , , and (Mullender, A. and Morley, R. (eds) (1994) Children Living with Domestic Violence. London: Whiting and Birch.1995) ‘The power of first impressions’, Practice, 7(3): 59–65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09503159508411629(1999) ‘Common errors of reasoning in child protection work’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 23(8): 745–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2899%2900053-8(2005) ‘Improving practice: child protection as a systems problem’, Children and Youth Services Review, 27: 375–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.11.006(2001) ‘Welfare and citizenship for children after separation and divorce: children's perspectives’, paper presented at the Young Voices conference, London, 26 September.(1986) ‘The evolution of circular questions: training family therapists’, Journal of Marital and Family Therapy, 12(2): 113–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1752-0606.1986.tb01629.x, and (New South Wales Government (2006) New South Wales Interagency Guidelines for Child Protection Interventions. Available at: http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/docswr/_assets/main/documents/interagency_guidelines/introduction.pdf (accessed 26/08/09).1997) ‘Physical punishment of children in two-parent families’, Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 2(2): 271–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359104597022007and (NSPCC (2001) Power Pack. London: NSPCC.NSPCC (2008) Poverty and Child Maltreatment. Child Protection Research Briefing. London: NSPCC. Available at: http://www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/research/Briefings/povertyPDF_wdf56896.pdf (accessed 22/07/09)Nuffield Foundation (2009) Time Trends in Parenting and Outcomes for Young People. London: Nuffield Foundation.Nybell, L.M., Shook, J.J. and Finn, J.L. (eds) (2009) Childhood, Youth and Social Work in Transformation: Implications for Policy and Practice. New York: Columbia University Press.OED (2002) Oxford English Dictionary Online. Available at: http://dictionary.oed.com/ (accessed 23/4/2002).2000) Listening to Children's Views: The Findings and Recommendations of Recent Research. York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation.(2009) Disproportionality in Child Welfare: Prevalence of Black and Ethnic Minority Children within ‘Looked After’ and ‘Children in Need’ Populations and on Child Protection Registers in England (No. DCSF-RR-124). London: DCSF., and (1989) ‘Decision-making at the gateway to care’, in O.Stevenson (ed.), Child Abuse: Professional Practice and Public Policy. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf, pp. 88–109.and ([Page 217]1994) ‘Social work and postmodernism’, Social Work and Social Sciences Review, 5(2): 113–23., and (1999) Adoption Now: Messages from Research. Chichester: Wiley.(1985) The Politics of Child Abuse. Basingstoke: Macmillan.(1991) Governing the Family: Child Care, Child Protection and the State. London: Macmillan.(1994) ‘The nature of social work under conditions of (post)modernity’, Social Work and Social Sciences Review, 5(2): 93–112.(1996) ‘Social work, risk and “the blaming system”’, in N.Parton (ed.), Social Theory, Social Change and Social Work. London: Routledge, pp. 98–114.(1998) ‘Risk, advanced liberalism and child welfare: the need to rediscover uncertainty and ambiguity’, British Journal of Social Work, 28(1): 5–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjsw.a011317(2000) Constructive Social Work. Basingstoke: Macmillan.and (1997) Child Protection, Risk and the Moral Order. Basingstoke: Macmillan., and (1996) What is Professional Social Work?Birmingham: Venture Press.(1998) ‘Social work theories and reflective practice’, in R.Adams, L.Dominelli and M.Payne, Social Work: Themes, Issues and Critical Debates. Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp. 117–37.(1999) ‘Social construction in social work and social action’, in A.Jokinen, K.Juhila and T.Poso (eds), Constructing Social Work Practices. Aldershot: Ashgate.(2008) ‘Informing child welfare: the promise and limits of empirical research’, in D.Lindsey, and A.Shlonsky (eds), Child Welfare Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 25–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195304961.003.0002(1957) Social Casework: A Problem-Solving Process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1988) ‘The worker-client relationship: a general systems perspective’, Social Casework, 69(10): 620–6.(1998) Social Work: The Social Organisation of an Invisible Trade ((2nd edn). Aldershot: Avebury.2006) ‘A common assessment for children in need? Mixed messages from a pilot study in Wales’, Child Care in Practice, 12(3): 199–217. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13575270600761685(2009) ‘A tale of two CAFs: the impact of the electronic Common Assessment Framework’, British Journal of Social Work, 39: 599–612. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcp020, , and (1981) Damaged Parents: An Anatomy of Child Neglect. Chicago: University of Chicago Press., , and (1994) ‘The problem of certainty: clinical social work in the postmodern era’, Social Work, 39(4): 396–403.(2006) ‘Investigation or initial assessment of child concerns? The impact of the refocusing initiative on social work practice’, British Journal of Social Work, 36(2): 267–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bch255(2008) ‘The Voice of the Child: Children's “Rights” in Family Proceedings’. Annual Lionel Cohen lecture, Israel, 4 May. Available at: http://www.judiciary.gov.uk/docs/speeches/pfd_voice_of_the_child_israel_040508.pdf (accessed 28/07/09).(1998) Children and Social Welfare in Europe. Buckingham: Open University Press.(2009) ‘Comparing possible “child-abuse-related-deaths” in England and Wales with the major developed countries 1974–2006: signs of progress?’British Journal of Social Work, Advance Access, published on 10 August 2009. doi:10.1093/bjsw/bcp089.and ([Page 218]2004) The Future of Childhood. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203323113(1994) Childhood Matters: Social Theory, Practice and Politics. Aldershot: Avebury., , and (1996) ‘Attachment reviewed through a cultural lens’, in D.Howe (ed.), Attachment and Loss in Child and Family Social Work. Aldershot: Ashgate, pp. 59–77.(2001) Disabled Children and the Law. London: Jessica Kingsley.and (1993) Beyond Blame: Child Abuse Tragedies Revisited. London: Routledge., and (1917) Social Diagnosis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.(1998) ‘Social work through the life course’, in R.Adams, L.Dominelli and M.Payne (eds), Social Work: Themes, Issues and Critical Debates. Basingstoke, Macmillan, pp. 78–88.(1995) ‘Rationales for practice decisions: variations in knowledge use by decision task and social work service’, Research on Social Work Practice, 5(4): 501–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104973159500500408, , and (2009) Child Welfare: The Challenges of Collaboration. New York: The Urban Institute.(1973) Children Who Wait. London: Association of British Adoption Agencies.and (2005) ‘Relationship based practice and reflective practice: holistic approaches to contemporary child care social work’, Child and Family Social Work, 10: 111–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2005.00359.x(2007) ‘Parent perspectives on intensive intervention for child maltreatment’, Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 24(2): 101–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10560-006-0068-3, and (1998) Having a Say! Disabled Children and Effective Partnership in Decision Making, London: Council for Disabled Children, NCB.(1991) ‘The myth of assessment’, Adoption and Fostering, 15(1): 20–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030857599101500106(2009) ‘Bristol's framework for success’, Community Care, 9 July.(2009) ‘Ambiguous loss of home: the experience of familial (im)permanence among young adults with foster care backgrounds’, Children and Youth Services Review, Advanced Access, doi:10.1016/j.childyouth.2009.05.008.(1999) ‘Kinship care in the public child welfare system: a systematic review of the research’, in R.L.Hegar and M.Scannapieco (eds), Kinship Foster Care: Policy, Practice and Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 141–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195109405.003.0009(SCIE (2009) SCIE Guide 30: Think Child, Think Parent, Think Family: A Guide to Parental Mental Health and Child Welfare. Available at: http://www.scie.org.uk/publications/guides/guide30/index.asp (accessed 19/12/09).1996) Child Protection: The Voice of the Child in Decision-making. London: Institute for Public Policy Research.and (1991) The Reflective Practitioner. Aldershot: Arena.(1989) ‘Meaning construction and social work practice’, Social Service Review, 63: 39–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/603677(1998) ‘A qualitative study of social work assessment in cases of alleged child abuse’, British Journal of Social Work, 28(1): 73–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjsw.a011319(Scottish Government (2008) A Guide to Getting it Right for Every Child. Edinburgh: The Scottish Government.2003) Gender and Child Protection. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.([Page 219]2008) ‘Social work in Wales since democratic devolution’, Australian Social Work, 61(1): 42–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03124070701818724, and (Secretary of State for Social Services (1974) Report of the Inquiry into the Care and Supervision Provided in Relation to Maria Colwell. London: HMSO.1996) What Works in Family Placement? Ilford: Barnardo's.and (1980) “Hypothesizing–circularity–neutrality: three guidelines for the conductor of the session,”Family Process, 19: 3–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1980.00003.x, , and (2000) ‘Caring in the Third Way: the relation between obligation, responsibility and care in Third Way discourse’, Critical Social Policy, 20(1): 5–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026101830002000102(1996) Evaluating in Practice. Aldershot: Arena.(1997) Be Your Own Evaluator. Wrexham: Prospects Publishing.(2009) ‘An exemplary scheme? An evaluation of the integrated children's system’, British Journal of Social Work, 39: 613–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcp040, , , , , , and (1999) Evaluation and Social Work Practice. London: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446218075and (1987) ‘The psychology of incompetence’, in L.Blom-Cooper, (ed.), After Beckford: Essays on Themes Connected with the Case of Jasmine Beckford. London: Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, pp. 17–31.(2001) ‘The validity of evidence-based practice in social work: a reply to Stephen Webb’, British Journal of Social Work, 31: 801–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/31.5.801(2009) A Textbook of Social Work. London: Routledge.and (1995) ‘Social work, social science and practice wisdom’, British Journal of Social Work, 25: 265–93.(1998) ‘Practice validity, reflexivity and knowledge for social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 28(5): 763–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjsw.a011390(2002) ‘Depressed mothers' experience of partnership in child and family care’, British Journal of Social Work, 32: 93–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/32.1.93(2001) ‘Comparative hypothesis assessment and quasi triangulation as process knowledge assessment strategies in social work practice’, British Journal of Social Work, 31: 863–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/31.6.863, , and (2005) ‘The next step: integrating actuarial risk assessment and clinical judgment into an evidence-based practice framework in CPS case management’, Children and Youth Services Review, 27: 409–27. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.11.007, and (2001) ‘Culture, stress and the parent-child relationship: a qualitative study of parents' perceptions of parenting’, Child: Care, Health and Development, 27(6): 469–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2214.2001.00229.x(2000) Doing Qualitative Research. London: Sage.(1997) ‘Assessing Asian families in Scotland: a discussion’, Adoption and Fostering, 21(3): 35–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030857599702100306(2009) ‘Every Child Matters outcomes: what do they mean for disabled children and young people?’Children and Society, 23: 265–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1099-0860.2008.00185.x, and (1993) Empowerment, Assessment, Care Management and the Skilled Worker. London: NISW., , and (2001) The Changing Experience of Childhood: Families and Divorce. Cambridge: Polity Press., and (1999) ‘Social work as rights talk: the eclipse and re-emergence of morality and values talk’, Paper presented at the BASW/University of Central Lancashire conference: ‘Social Work: Making a Difference’, Southport, March.([Page 220]1997) ‘Parton, Howe and postmodernity: a critical comment on mistaken identity’, British Journal of Social Work, 27: 275–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjsw.a011204and (2001) ‘Research into parenting: background’, paper on the JRF children and young people website. Available at: http://www.jrf.org.uk/funding/priorities/cypfc.asp (accessed 2/7/01).(Social Services Inspectorate (1986) Inspection of the Supervision of Social Workers in the Assessment and Monitoring of Cases of Child Abuse when Children, Subject to a Court Order, Have Been Returned Home. London: Department of Health and Social Security.2009) ‘Identifying families with multiple problems: perspectives of practitioners and managers in three nations’, British Journal of Social Work, 39(3): 418–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bcm151and (1992) Stories of Childhood: Shifting Agendas of Child Concern. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.and (2003) Child Protection and Mental Health Services: Interprofessional Responses to the Needs of Mothers. Bristol: The Policy Press., , , and (1999) ‘Assessing outcomes in child welfare’, in C.Lupton and P.Nixon (eds), Empowering Practice? A Critical Appraisal of the Family Group Conference Approach. Bristol: The Policy Press.(1989) Child Abuse: Professional Practice and Public Policy. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(1995) Manufacturing ‘Bad Mothers’: A Critical Perspective on Child Neglect. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.(2000) ‘The role of observation in the assessment of child neglect’, Child Abuse Review, 9: 337–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1099-0852%28200009/10%299:5%3C337::AID-CAR636%3E3.0.CO;2-Cand (2006) ‘Factorial surveys: using vignettes to study professional judgement’, British Journal of Social Work, 36(7): 1187–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bch345(2004) ‘Underpinning knowledge for child care practice: reconsidering child development theory’, Child and Family Social Work, 9: 225–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2206.2004.00330.x(2000) Practising Reflexivity in Health and Welfare. Buckingham: Open University Press.and (1995) Paternalism or Partnership? Family Involvement in the Child Protection Process. London: HMSO., and (2010) ‘Re-constructing children's identities: social work knowledge and practice in the assessment of children's identities’, unpublished PhD thesis, Cardiff University School of Social Sciences.(2009) ‘Representing children's identities in core assessments’, British Journal of Social Work, Advanced Access, Published online 21 December 2009, doi: 10.1093/bjsw/bcp154and (2000) Children, Family and the State: Decision-making and Child Participation. London: Macmillan. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/9781403919915(2007) ‘Towards a theory of children's participation’, International Journal of Children's Rights, 15(2): 199–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1163/092755607X206489(2002) Framework for the Assessment of Children in Need and their Families: Study of Implementation in Wales, Final Report. January 2002. University of Wales, Swansea and Royal Holloway, University of London.and (1999) Children and Decision Making: A Training and Resource Pack. Swansen: University of Wales Swansea, International Centre for Childhood Studies., , and ([Page 221]1999) Signs of Safety: A Safety and Solution Oriented Approach to Child Protection Casework. New York: WW Norton.and (2006) Working with Denied Child Abuse: The Resolutions Approach. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.and (2003) ‘Effective relationship-based practice: a theoretical exploration’, Journal of Social Work Practice, 17(2): 163–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/026505302000145699(2008) ‘Epidemiology of child maltreatment’, in D.Lindsey and A.Shlonsky (eds), Child Welfare Research. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 15–24.(2009) ‘Differentiating between substantiated, suspected, and unsubstantiated maltreatment in Canada’, Child Maltreatment, 14: 4–16., , and (US Department of Health and Human Services, Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (2007) Child Maltreatment 2005. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.2004) ‘Assessing attachment security with the attachment Q sort: meta-analytic evidence for the validity of the observer AQS’, Child Development, 75(4): 1188–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2004.00733.x, , and (2004) ‘Managing assessment: quality planning in assessment procedures of the Dutch Child Protection Board’, British Journal of Social Work, 34(4): 531–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bch064, and (1999) Risk and Resilience: Adults Who Were the Children of Problem Drinkers. Reading: Harwood.and (2002) ‘The assessment of drawings from children who have been maltreated: a systematic review’, Child Abuse Review, 11: 19–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.712and (2008) Child Protection Statistics: A UK Comparison. Edinburgh: The University of Edinburgh/NSPCC Centre for UK-wide Learning in Child Protection. Available at: http://www.clicp.ed.ac.uk/publications/briefings/briefing03.pdf (accessed 26/06/2009).(2009) ‘Beyond talking – children's participation in Norwegian care and protection cases’, European Journal of Social Work, 12(2): 55–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13691450802567465and (1990) ‘Risk assessment: the emperor's new clothes?’Child Welfare, LXIX (6): 483–511.and (1993) ‘Beyond developmentalism?’Theory and Psychology, 3(4): 451–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959354393034004(2003) ‘The relationship between parental substance abuse and child maltreatment: findings from the Ontario Health Supplement’, Child Abuse and Neglect, 27(12): 1409–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2003.07.002, and (2010) Children's services in the iron cage of performance management: street level bureaucracy and the spectre of Švejkism’, International Journal of Social Welfare, 19(3): 310–20http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2397.2009.00716.x, , , , and (1992) ‘Assessing child protection risk’, British Journal of Social Work, 22: 47–60.and (1992) Making a Case in Child Protection. Harlow, Essex: NSPCC/Longman.(2001) ‘Some considerations on the validity of evidence-based practice in social work’, British Journal of Social Work, 31: 57–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/31.1.57(1997) Feminist Practice and Poststructuralist Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.(Welsh Assembly Government (2004) Children and Young People: Rights to Action. Cardiff: Welsh Assembly Government.Welsh Assembly Government (2007) Fulfilled Lives: Supported Communities: Improving Social Services in Wales from 2008–2018. Cardiff: Welsh Assembly Government.[Page 222]1996) This Far and No Further: Towards Ending the Abuse of Disabled Children. Birmingham: Venture Press.and (2005) Assessment of Parenting Capacity: A Literature Review. Centre for Parenting & Research: NSW Department of Community Services, Australia. Available at: http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/docswr/_assets/main/documents/research_parenting_capacity.pdf (accessed 26/06/09).(1996) ‘Regulating mental health and motherhood in contemporary welfare services: anxious attachments or attachment anxiety?’, Critical Social Policy, 16: 67–94. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/026101839601604604(1997) ‘Beyond retroduction? Hermeneutics, reflexivity, and social work practice’, British Journal of Social Work, 27: 739–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.bjsw.a011263(1998a) ‘Interdiscursivity and child welfare: the ascent and durability of psycholegalism’, The Sociological Review, 46(2): 265–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.00119(1998b) ‘Time, temporality and child welfare’, Time and Society, 7(1): 55–74. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0961463X98007001003(2002) ‘Accomplishing the case in paediatrics and child health: medicine and morality in interprofessional talk’, Sociology of Health and Illness, 24(4): 409–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9566.00302(2006) ‘Putting programme into practice: the introduction of concurrent planning into mainstream adoption and fostering services’, British Journal of Social Work, 36: 41–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/bch250, and (1965) The Family and Individual Development. London: Tavistock.(2003) ‘The social work assessment of parenting: an exploration’, British Journal of Social Work, 33: 87–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bjsw/33.1.87(2008) ‘Neighborhood social capital, poor physical conditions, and school achievement’, Children and Schools, 30(3): 133–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cs/30.3.133, , , , , and (