Challenging Women: Gender, Culture and Organization
Publication Year: 1999
This book offers a radical reassessment of organizational forces for change and barriers encountered by the `challenging women' - senior women managers faced with the task of transforming their organizations. Much has been written about women at work, the `glass ceiling' and discriminatory employment practices. This study is seminal in the linkage it makes between gender, innovation and organizational transformation. The book highlights the implications of this for all types of organizations and women managers everywhere.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Management Innovation
- Chapter 2: Management Style, Gender and the Professions
- Chapter 3: Working at the Paradigm Shift: Personal Agency, Having a Mind for Change
- Chapter 4: Resistance to Women
- Chapter 5: Gender Cultures, Tactics and Strategies
- Chapter 6: Gender Narratives
- Chapter 7: British Public Sector Reforms
- Chapter 8: Innovative Women Are Challenging Women
- Chapter 9: Barriers to Transformation
- Chapter 10: Transformation: A Gendered Process: Post Command, Post Market and Post Postmodern
To Joe, Kate, Same and Eddy
© Su Maddock 1999
First published 1999
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without permission in writing from the Publishers.
SAGE Publications Ltd
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
32, M-Block Market
Greater Kailash – I
New Delhi 110 048
British Library Cataloguing in Publication data
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 0 7619 5150 4
ISBN 0 7619 5151 2 (pbk)
Library of Congress catalog card number 98–61179
Typeset by Mayhew Typesetting, Rhayader, Powys
Printed and bound in Great Britain by Athenaeum Press, Gateshead
This book is the result of ten years work with women managers working in local government and in local organisations. Many of the women interviewed in the early 1990s were inspirational at a time when it was difficult to introduce new ways of working into the mainstream. I wanted to give voice to those challenging and committed women who struggled to reorganize services when it was difficult and who often suffered for their integrity. Shifting male gender cultures is not an easy process – and is not about male and female differences but establishing more open and egalitarian relationships between women, and between men and women. It is a political process not a creed.
The women in this book contributed to a significant culture shift in British society even if many avoided the term feminist, a term misappropriated many years ago. Glynis Burgoyne, Rohima Khan, Julie and Cath Joyce, Maureen Ryan who worked in community projects were exceptional in their energy and commitment. I should also mention those women who straddled the interface between local council and the community, and who worked to change internal practices and ‘join-up’ services long before the current government's modernization programme. A few examples being Caroline Bond, Pat Cochrane, Annie Grice, Annie Faulder, Juliet Pierce, Lily Rushton, and Jude Stoddart.
We all shift ground and interests and I would probably not have managed to complete the process of writing were it not for Oi Parkin, Bronwen Holden and Simon Miller. I was also galvanized by the support of Graham Frost, Pat Gore, Marion Macalpine, Miranda Miller, Hilary Wainwright, Judith Weymont and Joyce Maddock.
At Sage Commissioning Editor Rosemary Nixon and Production Editor Vanessa Harwood have been extremely supportive, and without the administrative support of Lorna Tittle and Janet Pike I would have been lost.
Bibliography[Page 228]1978) ‘The talking platypus phenomenon: competency ratings as a function of sex and professional status’, Psychology of Women Quarterly, 2: 114–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pwqu.1977.2.issue-2, , and (1987) ‘Hierarchies, jobs and bodies: an outline for a theory of gendered organisations’. Paper to the American Sociological Association Annual General Meeting, Chicago, August.(1989) ‘The problem with patriarchy’, Sociology, 23(2): 235–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038589023002005(1992) ‘Gendering organisational theory’, in A.U.Mills and P.Tancred (eds) Gendering Analysis. London: Sage.(1997) Gender and Organisation Conference, Manchester, January.(Adler, N.J. and Izraeli, D.N. (eds) (1994) Women in Management Worldwide. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe Inc., pp. 141–156.1992) ‘Employee involvement programmes improve corporate performance’, Long Range Planning, 25 (5): 91–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0024-6301%2892%2990279-Bet al. (1985) ‘The effects of socialisation on women's management careers’, Management Bibliographies and Reviews, 11(3).(1987) ‘Male and female managers: an analysis of biographical and self-concept data’, Work and Stress, 1, July-September: 207–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02678378708258505(1989) ‘What motivates managers? an investigation by gender and sectors of employment’, Public Administration, 67: 95–108. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/padm.1989.67.issue-1(1984) The Career Development of British Managers. London: British Institute of Management.and (1979) Organisations and Environments. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1987) ‘Organisation transformation and trends in US employee relations’. Paper to the Aston/Umist Labour Processes Conference.(1991) ‘Managing fragmentation: democracy, accountability and the future of local government’, Local Government Studies, 17(6): 63–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03003939108433606(1991) ‘What a waste, women in the NHS’, Women in Management Review, 6 (5). http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000001802(1992a) ‘Gender and appraisal: findings from a national survey of managers in the British National Health Service’. Global Research Conference, Ottawa, Canada, October.(1992b) ‘Different gender-different rules: assessment of women in management’, in P.Barrar and C.L.Cooper (eds) Managing Organisations in 1992: Strategic Responses. London: Routledge.(1994) ‘Performance related pay’, Health Service Journal, 20 October.(1995) ‘Female and male constructs of leadership and empowerment’, Women in Management, 10 (2): 3–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09649429510146901(1988) Any Room at the Top?London: Policy Studies Institute.(1985) ‘A critical framework for organisations analysis’, Organisation Studies, 67 (2): 117–138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068500600202(1992) ‘Gender and organisation: towards a differentiated understanding’, Organisational Studies, 13–14: 73–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069201300107and ([Page 229]1992) Critical Management Studies, London: Sage.and (1988) ‘Women in management: unused resources in the Republic of Germany’, in N.Adler and D.Izraeli (eds) Women in Management Worldwide. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.and (1992) Transforming Leadership. Amherst Massachusetts Human Resources Development Programme.(1994) ‘You've got change in your pocket’, Nursing Management, 1, 3 June.(1996) ‘Working on the front-line: risk culture and nursing in the new NHS’, Sociological Review, 44 (3): 416–451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sore.1996.44.issue-3(1964) Integrating the Individual and the Organization. New York: John Wiley.(1978) Organisational Learning: A Theory of Action Perspective. Massachusetts: Addison Wesley.and (1987) ‘Are politics palatable to women managers? How can women make wise moves at work?’, Women in Management Review, 10 (3): 123–130.and (1996) ‘Is it dead or only sleeping?’, Independent on Sunday, 22 September.(1996) ‘Don't be fooled: multinationals do not rule the world’, Independent on Sunday, December.(1993) ‘Membership of the new style health authorities: continuity and change?’, Public Administration, 71, Autumn. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/padm.1993.71.issue-3and (1995) ‘Beleaguered professionals: doctors and institutional change in the NHS’, in H.Scarborough (ed.) The Management of Experience. London: Macmillan.and (1995) ‘Corporate governance in the public sector: some issues and evidence from the NHS’, Public Administration.and (1996) ‘Organisational transformations and top down changes: the case of the NHS’, British Journal of Management, 7 (1): 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjom.1996.7.issue-1, and (Audit Commission (1993) Taking Care, Health and Personal Services, Bulletin, No. I. London: HMSO.Audit Commission (1994) Taking Stock: Progress with Community Care. London: HMSO.Audit Commission (1996) Fundholding Facts: A Digest of Information About Practices within the Scheme During the First Five Years. London: HMSO.1990) Same Difference: Feminism and Sexual Difference. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.(1997) Open Macroeconomics and the Open Economy. London: Centre for Economic Performance.(1977) New Perspectives in Personal Construct Theory. London: Academic Press.(1985) Issues and Approaches in Personal Construct Theory. London: Academic Press.(1986) Inquiry Man: The Psychology of Personal Constructs. London: Croom Helm.and (1989) From Mental Patient to Person. London: Tavistock.and (1987) ‘The concept of difference’, Feminist Review, 26: 29–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/fr.1987.18(1991) The Politics of Truth: From Marx to Foucault. Cambridge: Polity.(1993) ‘The theory of the quasi-markets’, in J.Le Grand and W.Bartlett, Quasi Markets and Social Policy. London: Macmillan.and ([Page 230]1989) ‘Potential bias in leadership measures’, Education and Psychological Measurement, 49: 509–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/001316448904900302and (1993) Shatter the Glass Ceiling. Center for Leadership Studies: Binghamton University, Binghamton USA.and (1991) Modernity and Ambivalence. Cambridge: Polity.(1992) Risk Society Towards a New Modernity. London: Sage.(1986) Women's Ways of Knowing: The Development of Self, Voice and Mind. New York: Basic Books., , and (1998) Madonna and Child: Towards a New Politics of Motherhood. London: Cape.(1967) The Social Construction of Reality. Garden City, NY: Anchor.and (1966) The Games People Play. London: Deutsch.(1992) Merit Pay, Performance Appraisal and Attitudes to Women's Work. Sussex: Institute of Manpower Studies.and (1997) Cynicism and Postmodernity. London: Verso.(1989) Reclaiming Reality: A Critical Introduction to Contemporary Philosophy. London: Verso.(1961) ‘Group dynamics’ in Expression in Groups. London: Tavistock. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203359075(1955) Dynamics of Bureaucracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1962) Formal Organizations. San Francisco: Chandler.and (1991) ‘Work organisations in need of women’. Paper to the Ninth International Labour Processes Conference, Manchester.(1994) ‘Understanding professional culture in organizations’, Organisational Studies, 15 (2): 275–295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069401500205and (1995) Equalities and Organizational Design. Luton: LGMA.(1992) ‘Feminism, postmodernism and gender scepticism’ in L.Nicolson (ed.) Feminism and Postmodernism. London: Routledge.(1995) ‘Re-engineering public sector organisations: a case study of radical change in a British local authority’, International Review of Administrative Sciences, 61 (3): 355–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002085239506100304and (1970) ‘Interviewer bias once more revisited’, Journal of Marketing Research, 7: 249–253. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3150117and (1974) Labour and Monopoly Capital. New York: Monthly Review Press.(1987) ‘Identity’, in H.Beloff and A.L.Colman, Psychological Survey 1987, Leicester: British Psychological Society.(1978) ‘Interviewing’ in M.Brenner and P.Marsh (eds) The Social Context of Method. London: Croom Helm.(1989) ‘The relationship between sex role stereotyping and requisite management characteristics revisited’, Academy of Management Journal, 32. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256439, and (1989) ‘Sex and race in the labour market’, Feminist Review, 32, Summer: 49–68. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/fr.1989.19(1972) ‘Sex role stereotypes: a current appraisal’, Journal of Social Issues, 28: 59–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/josi.1972.28.issue-2et al (1975) ‘Sex stereotypes: a current appraisal’, in M.T. SchuchMednick, S.S.Tangri and L.W.Hoffman (eds) Women and Achievement: Social and Motivational Analyses. New York: Hemisphere Publishing., , , and (1992) Women Organising. London: Routledge.(1994) Managing Beyond Gender Report. London: The Office of Public Management.(1991) Equal Opportunities for Women in the NHS. London: NHS Management Executive.and ([Page 231]1993) ‘Can you hear the sound of breaking glass?’, Health Service Journal, 23 September, 26–27.and (1994) ‘Women in management’, Health Service Journal, 17 March.and (1984) ‘Accessibility: self-advocacy at an independent living center: a participatory approach’, PhD dissertation. Amherst: University of Massachusetts.(1984) ‘Leadership and corporate culture: harmony and democracy’, Personnel Review, 17 (2): 19–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/eb055496(1988) Quantity and Quality in Social Research. London: Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203410028(1994) ‘The empowering leader: change, job requirements and dimensions’. Paper given to Organisational Behaviour Congress, San Francisco.and (1978) Leadership. New York: Harper Row.(1961) The Management of Innovation. London: Tavistock.and (1979) Manufacturing Consent: Changes in the Labour Process Under Monopoly Capital. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1984) ‘Sex and organizational analysis’, Organization Studies, 5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068400500201(1996) Pandamonium. London: Sage.(1979) Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis: Elements of the Sociology of Corporate Life. London: Heinemann.and (Cabinet Office (1987) Working Patterns: A Study Document (The Mueller report). London: Management and Personnel Office.CAIPE Centre for the Advancement of Inter-Disciplinary Practices and Education Journal. Quarterly. London.1989) ‘Use of F word: feminist, theories and the social consequences of organisation research’, in F.Hoy (ed.) Academy of Management Proceedings. Washington, DC: Academy of Management, pp. 335–359.and (1991) ‘Voicing seduction to silence leadership’, Organisation, 12 (4): 567–602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069101200406and (1991) ‘Towards a woman friendly psychology of women: gender, power and organisation’. Paper to the Annual Occupational Psychology Conference, Cardiff.and (1993) ‘Being seen and not heard: barriers to women's equality in the workplace’, The Psychological Bulletin, The British Journal of Psychology, 6: 110–114.and (1990) The Castle Diaries 1964–76. London: Macmillan.(1998) Joint Approaches to Social Policy: Rationality and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press., , and (1995) Whose Reality Counts?London: ITP Publications.(1996) ‘Tangled webs? Managing local mixed economies of care’, Public Administration, 74: 67–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/padm.1996.74.issue-1and (1992) ‘Whatever happened to equal opportunities?’, The Journal, Newcastle.and (1973) Man and Organisation. London: Allen and Unwin.(1978) The Reproduction of Mothering. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1995) ‘Doing the right thing? Managerialism and the social welfare’. Paper presented to the ERC Professions in Late Modernity seminar series, Imperial College, 26 June.(1995) Managing Social Policy. London: Sage., and ([Page 232]1988) The Enabling Council. Luton: Local Government Training Board.and (1992) ‘Empowerment for the 1990s’, Local Government Study, 11(2): 18–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03003939208433622and (1981) ‘Organization and control’, Administrative Science Quarterly, 26: 545–562. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392339(1989) Power. London: Sage.(1986) Organisation, Class and Control. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.and (Clutterbuck, D. (ed.) (1985) New Patterns of Work. Aldershot: Gower.CMPS (1992–94) Equality Audits by Corporate, Management and Policy Service.1991) ‘The changing state of local government: restructuring for the 1990s’, Public Administration, 69(3): 281–302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/padm.1991.69.issue-3(1983) Brothers: Male Dominance and Technological Change. London: Pluto Press.(1985) Machinery of Dominance: Women, Men and Technical Knowhow. London: Pluto Press.(1987) Women, Trade Unions and Political Parties. London: Fabian Society Research Series No. 349.(1988) Women's Progress: A Research Report. Preston: Lancashire Polytechnic.(1989) ‘Equal opportunities: the long and short agendas’, Industrial Relations, 20 (3): 213–225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/irj.1989.20.issue-3(1991) ‘In the Way of Women’: Men's Resistance to Sex Equality in Organisations. London: Macmillan.(1992) The Key to the Gentleman's Club. London: Institute of Management.(1980) Research Methods in Education. London: Croom Helm.(1978) Escape Attempts: The Theory and Practice of Resistance in Everyday Life. Harmondsworth: Paladin.and (1991) Investigating Organisations: A Feminist Approach. Bristol: School of Advanced Urban Studies.(1994) ‘Naming men as men: implications for work’, Gender, Work and Organisation, 1 (1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gwao.1994.1.issue-1and (Community Care (1996) ‘Blowing the whistle’, 1–7 August.1982) High Pressure: The Working Life of Women Managers. London: Fontana.and (Cooper, C. and Davidson, M. (eds) (1984) Women in Management. Oxford: Heinemann.1996) A New Agenda for Health. London: PPR.and (1982) Equal Opportunities for Women in the Civil Service. London: HMSO.(1994) Women Transforming Leadership: A Study of Shared Leadership and Career Development. Palmerston North: Massey University, ERDC.(1992) ‘Crisis and opportunity in health service management’, in Loveridge and Starkey (eds), Continuity and Care in the NHS. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1988) High Flyer. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1989a) ‘Women in management: a suitable case for treatment?’, Feminist Review, 31, Spring. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/fr.1989.11(1989b) ‘The limits of change: local government and equal opportunities for women’, Public Administration, 67: 39–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/padm.1989.67.issue-1(1980) Towards Reform of a Program Evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.et al (1962) The Bureaucratic Phenomenon. London: Tavistock.(1993) ‘Dr Daly’, Independent on Sunday, 24 July.([Page 233]1992) ‘Self actualisation and organisational structures: implications for women in management research’. Paper presented to the Global Research Conference on Women in Management, 23 October, Ottawa, Canada.(1994) ‘Feminism, management and self-actualisation’, Gender, Work and Organisation, I, 127: 73.(1959) Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1959) Men who Manage. London: John Wiley.(1994–97) Personal communication.(1990) ‘The future of the European motor industry regions: new local authority responses to industrial restructuring’, Local Economy, 2: 129–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02690949008726037, and (1989) ‘Women in management – a personal research analogy’, working papers no. NC 89–23. The University of Western Ontario, National Centre for Management Research Development, Ontario.(1987) ‘Female managers in Britain: a comparative perspective’, Human Resource Managers, 26, Summer: 217–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.v26:2and (1992) Shattering the Glass Ceiling: The Woman Manager. London: Paul Chapman.and (1992) Gender, History and Management Style in Nursing: Towards a Theoretical Synthesis, in M.Savage and A.Witz (eds) Gender and Bureaucracy. Oxford: Blackwell.(1995) Gender and the Professional Predicament in Nursing. London: Routledge.(1986) Processes of Discrimination. A report of a study of women working in the NHS. London: HMSO.and (1994) ‘Costs and prices in the internal market: markets vs. the NHS management guidelines’, discussion paper no. 115. Centre for Health Economics, University of York.(1984) Corporate Cultures. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.and (1994) ‘Reinventing government from a feminist perspective: feminist theory, women's experience, and administrative reality’, for Fourth Women's Policy Research Conference, Washington DC.(1983) Out of the Crisis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.(1990) ‘Dilemmas of difference: feminism, modernity and post-modernity’ in L.Nicholson (ed.), Feminism and Postmodernism. London: Routledge.(1972) ‘Public and private opinions: social situations and multiple realities’, in S.Z.Nagi and R.G.Corwin (eds), The Social Contexts of Research. London: Wiley.(1994) ‘Segregation and supply: preferences and plans among “self-made” women’, Gender, Work and Organization, 1 (2): 94–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gwao.1994.1.issue-2(1934) Logic: The Theory of Critical Enquiry. New York: Minton, Balch.(DHSS (1987) Promoting Better Health – the Government's Programme for Improving Primary Health Care. London: HMSO.DHSS (1994) Medical Audit in the Hospital and Community Health Services. London: HMSO.1991) The New Institutionalisation in Organizational Analysis. Chicago: Chicago University Press.: and (1977) The Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrogance and Human Malaise. New York: Harper Row.(1957) The New Class. New York: Praeger.(DoH (1990) Community Act Reforms. London: HMSO.DoH (1993) Community Care, EL(93) 119/C1(93) 35. London.[Page 234]DoH (1997) The New NHS. London: HMSO.1992) The Power of the Open Company. London: Dorward, Smythe and Lambert (client owned).and (1982) The Cinderella Complex: Women's Inner Fear of Independence. New York: Fontana.(1955) The Problems of Management. New York: Harper Row.(1988) ‘The coming of the new organisation’, Harvard Business Review, 66 (1): 45–53.(1989) The New Realities. London: Mandarin.(1992) The Quality Movement: What Total Quality Management is Really all About!London: Kogan Page.(1993) ‘Entrepreneurial management in the public sector’, Work, Employment and Society, 7 (4): 643–648.(1995) ‘Policy disaster: explaining the UKs record’, Public Policy and Administration, 10(2): 52–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/095207679501000205(1934) The Division of Labour in Society. London: Macmillan.(1995) ‘Organisational learning: less than meets the eye’? Paper to British Academy of Management Conference, September.(1993) ‘Learning from women's leadership styles: female public managers’. Paper to ASP/CASU National Training Conference, San Francisco.(1983) The Hearts of Men: American Dreams and the Flight From Commitment. London: Pluto Press.(1997) ‘Proof of trickle pudding is not in the eating’, The Guardian, 15 September.(1996) ‘Why post-structuralism is a dead end for progressive thought’, Socialist Review, Autumn: 82–117.(1985) ‘Knowledge creation and knowledge use in the professional contexts’, Studies in Higher Education, 10 (2): 117–133. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03075078512331378549(1988) ‘Developing the knowledge base: a process perspective on professional education’ in RonaldBarnett (ed.) Learning to Effect. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(1958) ‘The nature of clinical evidence’ in DavidLearner (ed.) Evidence and Inference. Glencoe Free Press.(1964) Modern Organizations. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.(1965) The Wretched on the Earth. New York: Grove Press.(1987) Social Theory and Political Practice. London: Allen and Unwin.(1949) General and Industrial Management. London: Pitman.(1979) ‘Men and women: job versus gender moulds in the world of work’, Social Problems, 26 (5): 524–538. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1979.26.issue-5and (1984) The Feminist Case Against Bureaucracy. Phil Temple University Press.(1996) ‘Managing through networks: some issues and implications for the NHS’, British Academy of Management, special issue, 7, S81.S99 March.and (1996) ‘Transformation and its impact on the public sector’. Paper to Public Services Unit Conference, Warwick.and (1987) Farewell to Reason. London: Verso.(1996) A People's Tragedy. London: Pimlico.(1990) Public Sector Management. Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.(1972) The Archaeology of Knowledge. London: Tavistock Publications.(1979) Disciple and Punishment: The Birth of the Prison. New York: Vintage.(1984) The Foucault Reader. London: Penguin.([Page 235]1989) Staking a Claim: Feminism, Bureaucracy and the State. Cambridge: Polity., and (1989) Unruly Practices. Minneapolis: MN Press.(1990) ‘Postmodernism and gender relations in feminist theory’, in LindaNicholson (ed.) Feminism and Post Modernism. New York: Routledge.and (1978) ‘The tyranny of structurelessness’. Paper to the National Women's Conference in the UK, Oxford.(1992) Changing Lives: Corporate Women and Social Change. Massachusetts: University of Massachusetts Press.(1986) The Second Stage. New York: Summit Books.(1991) ‘The ways men and women lead: a discussion’, Harvard Business Review, January-February.(1995) Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity. London: Hamish Hamilton.(1997) The End of Order, Social Market Foundation. London.(1974) ‘Organisation design: an information process view’, Interfaces, 4: 28–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/inte.4.3.28(1982) ‘Designing the innovation organization’, Organisation Dynamics, 10: 5–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2882%2990033-X(Garrett, B. (ed.) (1987) The Learning Organization: The Successful Strategist Series. London: Harper Collins.1973) ‘Women's work’, Working Papers for a New Society, 1: 5–14.(1971) The Concept of Self. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.(1973) ‘Social psychology as history’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 26: 309–320. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034436(1996) ‘Gendered organisational cultures: narratives of women travellers in a male world’, Gender Organisation and Work, 3 (4): 187–197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gwao.1996.3.issue-4(1995) ‘The changing role of top managers: beyond the structures to processes’, Harvard Business Review, 86.and (1974) Positivism and Sociology. London: Macmillan.(1976) New Rules of Sociological Method. London: Macmillan.(1979) Central Problems in Social Theory. London: Macmillan.(1991) Modernity and Self-Identity. Oxford: Polity Press.(1995) A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism. Basingstoke: Macmillan.(1982) In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women's Development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1978) Theoretical Sensitivity. Mill Valley, CA: Sociology Press.(1967) The Discovery of Grounded Theory. Chicago: Aldine.and (1991) ‘Between a rock and a hard place: a woman's professional organisations in nursing and class, racial and ethnic inequalities’, Gender and Society, 5 (3): 351–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124391005003006and (1997) From Collaboration to Commissioning Developing Relationships between GP and Social Services Departments. Manchester: NPCRDC.et al. (1979) ‘Male and female: job versus gender in the sociology of work’, Social Problems, 26 (5): 524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/sp.1979.26.issue-5and (1995) ‘Managing care and the cure of discare’. Conference Paper.and (1959) Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.(1987) ‘Women's [Page 236]ways of knowing’ in B.Shaver and C.Hendrick (eds) Sex and Gender. Newbury Park: Sage., , and (1985) The Winning Steak. London: Guild.and (1991) Prisoners of Men's Dreams: Striking out for a New Feminine Future. Boston: Little Brown and Company.(1991) Equal Opportunities for Women in the National Health Service. London: Office of Public Management.and (1989) Public Management for New Times. London: Labour Coordinating Committee.and (1983) ‘The meaning of management and the management of meaning: a view from social anthropology’, in M.J.Earl (ed.) Perspectives on Management: A Multidisciplinary Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.and (1991) In debate: ‘Is it time to stop talking about gender differences?’ in ‘The ways men and women lead’, Harvard Business Review, January-February.(1983) ‘Men and women bosses: some gender issues in management education’, Management Education and Development, 1, 16: 2.(Le Grand, J. and Bartlett, W. (eds) (1993) Quasi-Markets and Social Policy. London: Macmillan.1992) ‘A feminist perspective on state bureaucracy’, in A.J.Mills and P.Tancred (eds), Gendering Organisational Analysis. London: Sage.and (1993) ‘Markets, management and the public service: the changing role of a culture’, in P.Taylor-Gooby and R.Lawson (eds), Markets and Managers: New Issues in the Delivery of Welfare. Buckingham: Open University Press.and (1995) ‘From public administration to public management: reassessing a revolution?’, Public Administration, 73, Spring: 75–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/padm.1995.73.issue-1and (1994) ‘Women managers: gendered cultural processes and organisational change’. A paper to Labour Processes Conference, Birmingham UK.and (1992) ‘Strategic and service management: the Kirklees experiment’, Local Government Studies, 18 (3): 2240–2248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03003939208433641(The Guardian (1956) ‘8th Name The Final Agenda’, Mori Poll.1989) ‘Sexuality in the workplace: key issues in social research and organisation practice’, in JeffHearn et al. (eds), The Sexuality of Organisation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1987) Women's Career Development. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.and (1979) ‘Differential responses of males and females to work situations which evoke sex-role stereotypes’, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 14: 23–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791%2879%2990047-2and (1992) ‘The Feminisation of public administration: today's reality and tomorrow's promise’, in Timney, Bailey and Mayer (eds), Public Management in an Interconnected World. New York: Greenwood Press.(1993) No Way up the Greasy Pole. London: Constable.(1997) Gender Careers and Organisations. London: Macmillan., and (1976) Beyond Culture. New York: Anchor Press.(1977) Organisations, Structures and Process ((2nd edition). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.1988) Women in Management. Kent: Ashridge Management College.(1991) A Balanced Workforce: Achieving Cultural Change for Women. Berkhamsted: Ashridge Management Centre.and ([Page 237]1997) Standby for Super-Nurse, Health Services Journal, 9 January: 17.(1976) Understanding Organisations. Middlesex: Penguin.(1978) Gods of Management. London: Pan Books.(1984) The Future of Work. Oxford: Blackwell.(1989) The Age of Unreason. London: Hutchinson.(1991) in personal communication.(1994) The Empty Raincoat: Making Sense of the Future. London: Hutchinson.(1990) The Report to the Hansard Society Commission on Women at the Top. London: HMSO.(1986) The Science Question in Feminism. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(Harding, S. and Hintikka, M.B. (eds) (1983) Discovering Reality: Feminist Perspectives on Epistemology, Metaphysics, Methodology and Philosophy of Science. London: D. Reidel Publishing Company.1977) Games Mother Never Taught You: Corporate Gamesmanship for Women. New York: Warner Books.(1978) ‘Accounts, actions and meaning – the practice of participatory psychology’, in M.Brenner, P.Marsh and M.Brenner (eds) The Social Context of Method. London: Croom Helm.(1972) The Explanation of Social Behaviour. Oxford: Blackwell.and (1987) Power and Powerlessness in Industry: An Analysis of the Social Relations of Production. London: Tavistock.(1992) ‘The politics of evidence based medicine in the UK’, Policy and Politics, 26 (1).(1979) ‘The unhappy marriage of Marxism and feminism: towards a more progressive union’, Capital and Class, 8: 1–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/030981687900800102(HAY Consultants (1994) ‘Differentiating management styles’ used in training materials for client use only. London.1994) Multiplicity and change in persons and organisations’, Journal of Organisational Change Management, 7 (6): 72–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09534819410072755(1992) ‘Changing men and changing management: a review of issues and activities’, Women in Management Review, 7 (1): 3–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09649429210007322(1983) ‘Gender and organisations: a selective review and critique of a neglected area’, Organization Studies, 4 (3): 219–242. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068300400302and (1987) ‘Sex at Work’: The Power and the Paradox of Organisation Sexuality. Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books.and (Hearn, J., Sheppard, D.L., Tancred-Sheriff, P. and Burrell, G. (eds) (1989) The Sexuality of Organization. London: Sage.1993) Paradigms in Progress: Life beyond Economics. London: Adamantine Press.(1992) ‘Women centred reality and rational legalism’, Administration and Society, 23: 455–467. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539979202300403(1996) Muddling Through: Power, Politics and the Quality of Government in Postwar Britain. London: Victor Gollanz.(1978) The Managerial Woman. London: Marion Boyars.and (1984) ‘Chef pa del tid – gar det? en interjuundersokning paper for FOA, FOA Report, May. Reported in Ressner, Hidden From Hierarchies.(1990) ‘Women into management: issues influencing the entry of women into management jobs’, IMS Report, 158, University of Sussex: Institute of Manpower Studies.and ([Page 238]1996) ‘Professional costs and invisible value in the community nursing market’, Journal of Interprofessional Care, 10 (1): 23–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13561829609082679and (1983) The Second Shift. New York: Avon.(1980) Cultures Consequences. London: Sage.(1994) Cultures and Organizations: The Successful Strategist Series. London: Harper Collins.(1990) Modernisation, Political Strategy and the Welfare State: An Organisational Perspective. Bristol: School of Advanced Urban Studies.(1991) ‘A new management with public sector’, Policy and Politics, 19 (4): 247–256.(1992) Partisans in an Uncertain World: The Psychoanalysis of Engagement. London: Free Association Books.(1994) The Future of Civic Forms of Organization. Demos Paper no. 4: London: Demos.(1997) Personal communication.(1997) Jenny Lee: A Life. Oxford: Oxford University Press.(1982) ‘Identity and gender difference in adult social relations’. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of London.(1984) ‘Gender differences and the production of subjectivity’, in J.Henriques, W.Hollway, C.Urwin, C.Venn and V.Walkerdine, Changing the Subject: Psychology, Social Relations and Subjectivity. London: Methuen.(1989) Subjectivity and Method in Psychology: Gender, Meaning and Science. London: Sage.(1991) Work, Psychology and Organisation. London: Sage.(1994) ‘Women managers in the Tanzanian Civil Service’, in N.J.Adler and D.N.Izraeli (eds) Competitive Frontiers: Women Managers and Global Economies. London: Blackwell.and (1984) The Reorganised Patriarchy: Some Sociological Characteristics. Stencil.(1985) Men. London: Century Publishing.(1991) ‘A public management for all seasons?’, Public Administration, 69: 3–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/padm.1991.69.issue-1(1987) Ain't I a Woman?London: Pluto.(1989) Talking Back: Thinking Feminist, Thinking Black. London: Sheba Feminist Publishing.(1995) ‘The development of multi-professional audit and clinical guidelines: their contribution to quality assurance and effectiveness in the NHS’, Journal of Inter-Professional Care, 9 (3).and (1991) ‘Beware the New Hierarchies: From Hierarchies to Partnership’. Proceedings IHSM Conference November.(1985) Chief Officer Profiles: Regional and District Nursing Officers, IMS Report No. 105. Brighton: Institute of Manpower Studies.(1994) The State We're In. Jonathan Cape: London.(1997) ‘New dimension’, Red Pepper, October: 26.(1992) Decisions Without Hierarchy: Feminist Interventions in Organisational Theory and Practice. New York: Routledge.(Institute of Personnel Management (1992) Performance Management in the UK: An Analysis of the Issues. London: IPM.1994) Public Sector Organisation. London: Pitman.(1991) Quality of Working Life and Total Quality Management. Occasional Paper 50, November, ACAS Work Research Unit.(1991) Postmodernism, or The Logic of Late Capitalism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.(1974) Between Myth and Morning. New York: William Morrow.([Page 239]1988) Improving Management in Government: The Next Steps (The Ibbs Report). London: HMSO., and (Jenson, J., Hagan, E. and Reddy, Ceallaigh (eds) (1988) Feminisation of the Labour Force: Paradoxes. Oxford: Polity Press.1986) ‘The theory and practice of equal opportunities policies: liberal and radical approaches’, Sociological Review, 34 (2), March. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-954X.1986.tb02704.xand (1993) Compassionate Authority: Democracy and the Representation of Women. London: Routledge.(1964) Organisational Stress: Studies in Role Conflict and Ambiguity. New York: Wiley.(1986) The Politics of Management. London: Gower.(1994) Managing the Mosaic: Diversity in Action. London: IPD.and (1977) Men and Women of the Corporation. New York: Basic Books.(1988) ‘When a 1000 flowers bloom: structural, social and conditions for innovation in organisations’, Research in Organisation Behaviour, 10.(1989) When Giants Learn to Dance: Mastering the Challenge of Strategy, Management and Careers in the 1990s. New York: Unwin.(1991) ‘Championing change’, Harvard Business Review, January–February: 119–130.(1995) ‘Thriving locally in a global economy’, Harvard Business Review, September-October: 151–163.(1992) ‘Conclusion: Making network research relevant to practice’, in N.Nohria and R.Eccles (eds) Networks and Organisations: Structures, Forms and Actions. Boston: Harvard Business School.and (1966) The Social Psychology of Organisations. New York: Wiley.and (1970) ‘Open systems theory’, in O.Grusky and G.A.Miller (eds) The Sociology of Organisations: the Limits of Social Control. New York: Random Books.and (1996) ‘The concept of specialist community nurse’, Journal of Advanced Nursing, C4: 42–52. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.1996.01676.x(1991) ‘The enterprise culture and the welfare state: restructuring the management of health and social services’, in G.Burrows (ed.) Deciphering Enterprise Culture. London: Routledge.(1955) The Theory of Personality: The Psychology of Personal Constructs. New York: Norton.(1995) ‘Innovation or bureaucracy?’, Creativity and Innovation Management, 4 (3): September. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/caim.1995.4.issue-3(1995) Introduction: The contract state and the future of public management, Public Administration, 74: 1–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9299.1996.tb00854.xand (1985) ‘Power and identity in theory and practice’, Sociological Review, 33 (1): 22–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sore.1985.33.issue-1and (1986) Gender and the Labour Process. Aldershot: Gower.and (1990) ‘Welcome to the women-friendly company’, Business Week, 6 August: 48–55.(1991) ‘Corporate Flight of Women Managers: Moving from Fiction to Fact’. Paper presented at the Western Academy of Management. Santa Barbara, California, USA. March.and (1988) The Leadership Factor. New York: Free Press.(1990) How Leadership Differs from Management. New York: Free Press.([Page 240]1995) ‘Leading change: why transformation efforts fail’, Harvard Business Review, March/April: 59–68.(1970) The Structure of Scientific Revolution ((2nd edition). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.1983) ‘Job attributes preferences and work commitment for men and women in the United States’, Personnel Psychology, 36: 315–329. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/peps.1983.36.issue-2, and (1985) What a Way to Run a Railroad: An Analysis of Radical Failure. London: Comedia.et al. (1996) ‘Reaching and changing frontline employees’, Harvard Business Review, May/June.and (1993) An Ethic of Care. New York: Routledge.(1977) Social Psychology: The Theory and Application of Symbolic Interactionism. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.and (1993) Developing Feminist Perspectives on the Study of Women's Trade Unionism. Women's Studies Conference (UK), Northampton, July.(1990) ‘Equal opportunities rhetoric or action?’Gender and Education, 2 (3): Autumn. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0954025900020307and (1989) ‘US and Britain differ in view of managers’, The Independent, 4 July.(1961) Collected Works Vol VIII. London: Lawrence and Wishart, 335–356.(1984) Personality and Ideology: Towards a Materialist Understanding of the Individual. London: Macmillan.(1994) ‘Formal opportunity, informal barriers, black women managers within local government’, Work, Employment and Society, 8 (2): 177–198.and (1995) ‘Homoeconomicus: Escaping the traps of managed competition’, European Journal of Public Health, 5 (3): 145–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurpub/5.3.145(1961) New Patterns of Management. New York: McGraw Hill.(1976) New Ways of Managing Conflict. New York: McGraw Hill.(1980) Street Level Bureaucracy: Dilemmas of the Individual in Public Services. New York: Russell Sage.(Local Government Chronicle (1993) ‘Survey of Women in Local Government’, Local Government Chronicle: London.Local Government Management Board (1997) Local Government Best Value Partnership. Luton: LGMB.Local Government Management Board (1993) Equal Opportunities in Local Government. Luton: LGMB.Local Government Operational Research Unit (1982) Women in Local Government: The Neglected Resource. London: LGORU.1985) Feminine Qualities of Leadership and How to Succeed in Business Without Being One of the Boys. New York: Time Books.(1996) ‘Economic discourse and the market: the case for community care’, Public Administration, 74, Autumn: 370–391. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/padm.1996.74.issue-3, and (1995) ‘Stress in the health service’, Health Service Journal, 18 May.(1995) Our Own Capabilities: Clinical Nurse Managers Thinking: A Strategic View. London: Kings Fund.and (1996) ‘Negotiating a “borderland”: nursing, gender and management’. Paper to Conference, Nottingham. http://firstname.lastname@example.org (1969) Issues in Participant Observation: A Textbook Reader. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.and (1978) The Gamesmen: The New Corporate Leaders. New York: Simon Schuster.([Page 241]1974) The Psychology of Sex Differences. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.and (1992) ‘A pattern for the future’. Paper to British Council Women's Conference, Managing Gender. Manchester.(1968) Leadership and Motivation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.(1998) ‘Women who dare to break the mould’, The Guardian, 21 January.(1996) ‘Breaking the functional mind-set in process organisation’, Harvard Business Review, September-October: 93–99.and (1992) ‘Partnership: issues of policy and negotiation’, Local Economy, 7 (3): 210–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02690949208726149(1997) ‘Social Exclusion’. Paper to IDPM Conference, Manchester.(1993a) ‘Women's frustration with, and influence on local government management in the UK’, Women in Management Review, 8 (1): 3–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09649429310024188(1993b) ‘Barriers to women are barriers to local government’, Local Government Studies, 19 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03003939308433685(1995) ‘Is macho management back?’, Health Service Journal, 105.(1995) ‘Rhetoric and reality: the business case for equality and why it continues to be resisted’, Women in Management Review, 10 (1): 14–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09649429510077449(1998) ‘Barriers to bureaucracy: beyond the market’, International Journal of Public Sector Management. Autumn.and (‘Community care, purchasing and management’.and (forthcoming)1993) ‘Gender cultures: women's choices and strategies at work’, Women in Management Review, 8 (2): 3–10. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09649429310028094and (1994) ‘Gender cultures: how they affect men and women at work’, in M.Davidson and R.Burke (eds), Women in Management: Current Research Issues. London: Paul Chapman.and (1994) Barriers to Women Hospital Doctors. Manchester: North West Regional Health Authority.and (1997) ‘Growth through global sustain ability: an interview with Monsanto's CEO, Robert Shapiro’, Harvard Business Review, January–February: 79–88.(1984) Women in Development: An Alternative Analysis. Amherst, MA: Center for International Education.(1987) Doing Feminist Research. Amherst, MA: Center for International Education.(1988) ‘Leadership qualities: Europe's CEOs are surveyed by Management Centre Europe’, European Management Journal, 6 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0263-2373%2898%2990003-2(1996) Harvard Business Review, September–October.and (Management and Personnel Office (1984) Equal Opportunities for Women in the Civil Service: Programme for Action. London: HMSO.1990) ‘Managing as a performing art’, British Journal of Management, I: 105–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjom.1990.1.issue-2(1984) Women Managers: Travellers in a Male World. Chichester: Wiley.(1986) ‘The experiences of women managers’, in S.Wilkinson (ed.) Feminist Social Psychology. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(1991a) ‘Senior women managers who leave employment’, Women in Management Review, 6 (3): 4–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09649429110003174(1991b) ‘Patterns of occupational awareness as coping strategies for women managers’, in S.E.Kahn and B.C.Long (eds) Coping and Working Women: An Integration. Montreal: McGill-Queen's University Press.([Page 242]1992) ‘Organisational cultures: attempting change often means more of the same’, Women in Organisation and Management3: 4–7.(1993) ‘Viewing organisational communication from a feminist perspective’, in S.A.Deetz (ed.), Communication Yearbook, 16. Newbury Park, CA: Sage, pp. 122–143.(1994a) ‘Why women leave senior management jobs: my research approach and some initial findings’, in M.Tantum (ed.), Women in Management: The Second Wave. London: Routledge.(1994b) ‘Working as a broad member: some of the issues for women’. Paper to the Women's Careers Research Forum, European Women's Management Development Network, Sundridge Park Management Centre, Kent.(1995) ‘The changing role of top managers’, Harvard Business Review, February–March: 86.(1970) Motivation and Personality ((2nd edition). New York: Harper and Row.1998) The Smart Organisation. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press.and (1964) ‘The interviewer and his environment’, Journal of Marketing Research, 1: 24–31. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3150374(1991) Managing Diversity: The Spirit of African Management. Berkhamstead: Ashridge Management College.(1957) Social Theory and Social Structure. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.(1995) ‘The new network firm: a spherical structure built on a human investment philosophy’, Organisational Dynamics, 23 (4): 4–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0090-2616%2895%2990013-6and (1986) ‘Women's history and the Sear's case’, Feminist Studies, 12 (2): 375–400. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3177974(1869) (reprinted 1929) On the Subjection of Women. London: Dent. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/12288-000(1997) ‘Human interest’, Health Services Journal, 2 October.(1976) Task and Organisation. London: Wiley.(1989) ‘Organising development and industrial democracy’, in RoyMcLennan (ed.) Managing Organizational Change. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1967) Systems of Organisation: Control of Task and Sentient Boundaries. London: Tavistock.and (1974) Towards a New Psychology of Women. Boston: Beacon Press.(1992) ‘Unravelling the mysteries of gender differences in intentions to leave the organisation’, Journal of Organisational Behaviour, 13: 465–478. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.v13:5and (1988) ‘Organization, gender and culture’, Organizational Studies, 9 (3): 351–369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068800900304(1989) ‘Gender, sexuality and organization theory’, in J.Hearn et al. The Sexuality of Organization. London: Sage.(1961) The Sociological Imagination. New York: Grove Press.(1983) Power in and around Organisations. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.(1979) Mintzberg on Management. New York: Macmillan.(1987) ‘Crafting strategy’, Harvard Business Review, July–August.(1982) Employee Turnover: Causes, Consequences and Control. Philippines: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company Inc.(1986) Brain Sex. London: Michael Joseph.and (1994) ‘Feminist production of knowledge’, Feminist Review, 47, Summer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/fr.1994.23(1962) The Conduct of the Corporation. Random House Vintage.([Page 243]1984) ‘Opportunities arising from paradigm diversity’, Administration and Society, 16: 306–327. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/009539978401600303(1986) The Images of Organization. London: Sage.(1992) ‘Organisational change and management discourse’. Modes of Organising Conference, University of Warwick.and (1986) ‘Marketable women’, Prospect, May: 16–17.(1993) ‘Glass ceiling or iron cage’. Women in Academia. Unpublished.(1990) ‘Women and minorities in management’, American Psychologist, 45: 200–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.45.2.200and (1971) ‘What black women think of women's lib’, New York Times, 22 August.(NEDO/RIBA (1990) Women Managers: The Untapped Resource. London: Kogan Page.1993) ‘Women, management and change’, Local Government Policy Making, 20 (2): 38–43.(NHS Executive (1994) ‘Developing NHS purchasing and GP fundholding: towards primary care led NH, EL (194) 79. Department of Health.NHS Executive, South Thames (1995) ‘Evaluation of Nurse Practitioners' pilot projects'.NHSME (1992) ‘Implementing caring for people, EL(92) 13.NHSME (1994) ‘NHS Women's Unit Report on women managers in the National Health Service’.NHSE Primary Care (1996) The Future. London: HMSO.Nicholson, L. (ed.) (1992) Feminism and Post-modernism. London: Routledge.1980) ‘Sex effects on evaluation’, Academy of Management Review, 5: 267–276.and (1992) ‘Is a network perspective a useful way of studying organisations?’, in N.Nohria and R.Eccles (eds) Networks and Organisations: Structures, Forms and Action. Boston: Harvard Business School.(Nohria, N. and Eccles, R. (eds) (1992) Networks and Organisations: Structures, Form and Action, Boston: Harvard Business School.1974) The Sociology of Housework. Oxford: Martin Robertson.(1983) ‘Interviewing women: a contradiction in terms’, in H.Roberts (ed.) Doing Feminist Research. London: Routledge.(Office of the Minister for the Civil Service (1988) Equal Opportunities for Women in the Civil Service: A Progress Report. Cabinet Office. London: HMSO.Office of Public Management (1994) Managing Beyond Gender. Report. London: Office of Public Management.1974) ‘Some attitudinal barriers to occupational aspirations in women’, Psychological Bulletin, 81: 809–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0037267(1992) ‘The antecents of the institutionalisation’, Organisation Studies, 63 (4): 563–558. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069201300403(1992) Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. New York: Addison Wesley.and (1980) ‘Markets, bureaucracies and clans’, Admin. Science Quarterly, 25: 129–141. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392231(1981) Theory Z, How American Business Can Meet the Japanese Challenge. Reading, MA: Addison Wesley.(1992) Women's Units at a Time of Change. Work and Gender Research Unit, Occasional Papers No. 5, University of Bradford.(1994) Personal communication.(1951) The Social System. New York: Free Press.(1988) The Sexual Contract. Policy Press: Oxford.(1991) The Learning Company. London: McGraw-Hill., and ([Page 244]1988) Thriving on Chaos. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.(1982) In Search of Excellence. New York: Harper and Row.and (1985) A Passion for Excellence. New York: Random House.and (1979) ‘Study of organisational cultures’, Admin. Science Quarterly, 24.(1990) ‘Corporate culture management’, in D.Wilson and R.RosenfeldManaging Organisations. London: McGraw-Hill.(1991) Managing Change for Competitive Success. Oxford: Blackwell.and (1993) Managing Change for Competitive Levels. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.and (1979) ‘The new feminism’, The Guardian, 20 January.(1998) ‘Been there, done that’, The Guardian, 20 Janaury.(Policy Studies Institute (1984) Black and White in Britain. London: PSI.1981) Girls, Wives, Factory Blues. London: Macmillan.(1988) The Flexible Firm: A Model in Search of Reality and a Policy in Search of Practice. Warwick Working Papers in Industrial Relations no. 19, Coventry.(1990) Managerialism and the Public Services: The Anglo American Experience. Oxford: Blackwell.(1984) Paradigm and Ideology in Educational Research. New York: Falmer Press.(1959) The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New York: Basic Books.(1989) ‘What is culture and can it be useful for organisational change agents?’, Leadership and Organisational Development Journal, 10 (3): 17–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000001136(1988) Women and Men in Management. Newbury Park, LA: Sage.(1991) ‘Neither markets nor hierarchy, network forms of organisation’, in G.Thompson et al. (eds) Markets, Hierarchies and Networks. London: Sage, pp. 265–276.(1995) Joint Commissioning. London: Kings Fund.(1983) Gender at Work. Sydney: George Allen and Unwin.(1988) Secretaries Talk: Sexuality, Power and Work. London: Verso.(1992) Women Managers in the NHS: A Celebration of Success. London: National Health Service Executive.and (1993) ‘Senior women managers: a process of change in the NHS’. Unpublished.and (1980) Strategies for Change: Logical Incrementalism. Homewood, IL: Irwin.(1986) ‘Rethinking gender research in communications’, Journal of Communication, 365: 11–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcom.1986.36.issue-4(1987) ‘Research is a personal process’, in D.Bond and V.Griffin (eds) Appreciating Adult Learning. London: Kogan Page.and (Reason, P. and Rowan, J. (eds) (1981) Human Inquiry: A Sourcebook and New Paradigm Research. New York: John Wiley.1988) ‘The problem of human agency in organisational analysis’, Organisation Studies, 9 (1): 33–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084068800900109(1997) ‘In praise of dualists and dualism: methodology agency and studies in organisation analysis’, Org. Studies, 18 (1): 21–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/017084069701800103(1994) ‘Reforming the organisation: why implementing role quality is easier said than done’, Academy of Management Review, 19 (3): 565–584., , and ([Page 245]1979) Hidden from Hierarchy: A Study of Women in Management. Aldershot: Gower.(1987) Hidden from Hierarchy: A Study of Women in Management. Aldershot: Gower.(1990) ‘Theoretical perspectives of sexual difference’, in D.Rhodes, Theoretical Perspectives on Sexual Difference. London: Wiley.(1965) Learning for Leadership. London: Tavistock Publications.(1983) ‘A structuralist account of political context’, Admin. Science Quarterly, 28: 414–437. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392250(1981) Doing Feminist Research. London: Routledge.(1939) Management and the Worker. Boston: Harvard University Press.and (Roffey Park Management Agenda (1998) Roffey Park College: UK.1993) Masculinity and the British Organisation: 1945 to the Present. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(1988) ‘You asked for it’, Journal of Management Studies.(1974) ‘The influence of sex role stereotypes on evaluation of male and female supervisors’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 57.and (1992) Post-modernism and the Social Sciences: Insights, Inroads and Intrusion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.(1990) ‘Ways women lead’, Harvard Business Review, November–December: 119–125.(1990) ‘Corporate flight of women managers: moving from fiction to fact’. Santa Barbara Paper to the Western Academy of Management, March.and (1992) From Equality to Diversity: A Business Case for Equal Opportunity. London: Pitman.and (1972) ‘Generalised expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement’, in J.B.Rotter et al. (eds), Applications of a Social Learning Theory of Personality. New York: Holt, Reinhart and Winston.(1973) Women's Consciousness, Man's World. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1980) ‘The trouble with patriarchy’, New Statesman, 1 February.(1990) ‘Working women's untold story’, Z Mag, 2 April.(1917) ‘The future of the women's movement’, in V.Gollanz (ed.), The Making of the Women. Oxford: G. Allen and Unwin.(1992) ‘Women's employment in the 1980s’. Paper to European Network for Women's Employment.and (1997) Publication in The Face: London.(1996) ‘Doctor-nurse relations: a review of the literature’, Social Services in Health, 2 (2): 93–106.(1949) The Concept of Mind. London: Hutchinson.(1997) ‘Downsizing and survivor syndrome: a study of human resource directors' views on survivors’. Paper to the 13th European Group on Organization Conference, organizational responses to radical environmental changes. Budapest, 3–5 July.and (1979) Work Organisations: Resistance and Control. New York: Longman.(1986) Working. London: Tavistock.(1991) ‘Making the best use of nursing skills: managers and clinicians in partnership’, Journal of Management in Medicine, 5: 54–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02689239110139916(1978) ‘Sex differences in job satisfaction: a reexamination’, Psychology, 31: 537–547.and (1986) A Savage Enquiry: Who Controls Childbirth. London: Virago.([Page 246]1989) Reluctant Managers: Their Work and Lifestyles. London: Unwin Hyman.and (1973) Professional Education. New York: McGraw Hill.(1985) Organisational Culture and Leadership: A Dynamic View. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1988) ‘Organisational socialisation and the profession of management’, Sloan Management Review, 53 (classic reprint from 1969).(1996) ‘The culture of management: the key to its learning;Sloan Management Review, Autumn.(1973) ‘One relationship between sex-role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 57 (2): 95–100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0037128(1975) ‘Relationships between sex-role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics among female managers’, Journal of Applied Psychology, 60: 340–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076637(1978) ‘Sex role stereotyping, ability and performance’, Personnel, 4 (31): 259–268. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/peps.1978.31.issue-2(1989) ‘Sex role stereotyping and requisite management characteristics’. Paper on current research to Women in Management conference, Ontario, Canada.(1993) ‘The work/family interface’, Women in Management Review, 8: 4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09649429310040432(1992) ‘Sex role stereotyping and requisite management characteristics: A cross cultural look’, Journal of Organisational Behaviour13: 439–447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/job.v13:5and (1989) ‘A model of managerial effectiveness’, Competence and Assessment, May.(1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action. New York: Basic Books.(1996) New Ways To Work Bulletin. November. London.(1947) ‘The creative impulse in economic history’, Journal of Economic History.(1967) The Phenomenology of the Social World. Evanston: North Western University Press.(1989) ‘Management women and the new facts of life’, Harvard Business Review.(1991) In debate: ‘Isn't it time we stopped talking about gender differences?’, Harvard Business Review, January–February.(1990) Slow Motion: Changing Masculinities, Changing Men. London: Virago.(1986) ‘Beyond the surrogate of motivation’, Organisation Studies, 7 (4).(1990) ‘Frontiers and new vistas’, Journal of Business Ethics, 9: 3–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00380324(1975) Helplessness. San Francisco: Freeman.(1957) Leadership in Administration. New York: Harper Row.(1961) ‘Critical decisions in organisation design’, in A.Etziono (ed.), Complex Organisations. New York: Holt Reinhart.(1990) The Fifth Discipline. London: Random House.(1994) The Fifth Disciple Handbook. London: Doubleday., , and (1994) Equality Driven Total Quality for The European Union, Equal Opportunities Unit DG-V. CENTRIM: Brighton.(1989) ‘Organisations, power and sexuality: the image and self-image of women managers’, in J.Hearn, D.Sheppard, P.Tancred-Sheriff and G.BurrellThe Sexuality of Organisation. London: Sage.(1989) Staying Alive: Women, Ecology and Development. London: Zed Books.([Page 247]1987) ‘The ideology of excellence: management and neo-Conservatism’, Studies in Political Economy, 24, Autumn.(1970) The Theory of Organisations. London: Heinemann.(1990) ‘Democracy is inevitable’, Harvard Business Review, September–October: 167–171.and (1983) ‘Concepts of culture and organisation analysis’, Admin. Science Quarterly, 28: 339–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392246(1997) ‘Capital crimes’, The Guardian.(1991) ‘Twice as good to go half as far: experiences and aspirations of women managers in local government’, Social and Community Planning.and (1980) Man Made Language. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1982) Women of Ideas: And What Men Have Done to Them. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1988) The Sociology of Health and Healing. London: Unwin Hyman. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203380048(1992) Regulating British Medicine. London: The General Medical Council.(1990) ‘The doctor-nurse game revisited’, New England Journal of Medicine, 322: 546–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199002223220810, and (1992) The Rebuilding of Public Accountability, in J.Stewart et al. (eds), Accountability to the Public. London: European Policy Forum.(1995) The Quango State: An Alternative Approach. London: Commission for Local Democracy., and (1988) ‘Management in the public domain’, Public Money and Management, 8 (2): 13–18.and (1995) Initiative and Interia in the NHS. London: Nuffield Provincial Hospital Trust.(1988) Equal Opportunities in Local Authorities: Developing Effective Strategies for the Implementation of Policies for Women. Equal Opportunities Commission. London: HMSO.(1987) Qualitative Research for Social Scientists. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511557842(1990) Basics in Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. London: Sage.and (1981) ‘Predicting voluntary and involuntary turnover’, Academy of Management Journal, 24 (1): 148–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/255830and (1997) Enemies of Hope: A Critique of Contemporary Pessimism. London: Macmillan.(1992) You Just Don't Understand. London: Virago.(1947) Scientific Management. New York: Harper and Row.(1972) ‘Prediction of individual job termination from measurements and biographical data’, Journal of Vocational Behaviour, 2: 123–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791%2872%2990043-7and (1993) ‘Developing an organisational strategy for equal opportunities’, Women in Management Review, 8: (2). http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09649429310028111(1984) Introduction to Qualitative Research Methods: The Search for Meanings. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons., and (1998) ‘It's staff who square the circle’, Independent on Sunday, 2 August.(1994) ‘What you need to know about: business process re-engineering’, Personnel Management, 26 (1): 28–31.(1992) Pay and Performance: The Employer Experience. IMS Report no. 281, Sussex: Institute of Manpower Studies.(1995) ‘All quiet on the workplay front’, Sociology, 29 (4): 615–633. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038595029004004and ([Page 248]1990) Work Organisations: A Critical Introduction. London: Macmillan.and (1973) ‘An analysis of clique formation and structures in organisations’, Admin. Science Quarterly, 18: 194–208. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2392063(1986) The Transformational Leader. Chichester: John Wiley.and (1984) ‘The leadership challenge: a call for the transformational leader’, Sloane Management Review, 26: 59–68.and (1993) ET Parker Lecture, Royal Society of the Arts, London, 27 March.(1977) The Limits of Masculinity. London: Tavistock.(1994) Reframing Human Resource Management: Power, Ethics and the Subject at Work. London: Sage.(1997) ‘Yes, the old option is dead – and it is women you should be thanking’, The Independent, 25 September.(1995) ‘Job satisfaction and nurse morale in NHS’, Nursing Times, 91 (26): 42–45.(1993) Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding Cultural Diversity in Business. London: Nicholas Brealey.(1983) ‘Mapping the field to create a dynamic perspective on organisation design and behaviour’, in A.H.Van De Ven and W.F.Joyce (eds) Perspectives on Organisation Design and Behaviour. New York: John Wiley.and (1984) ‘Occupational community: culture and control in organisations’, Research in Organisational Behaviour, 6.and (1982) ‘In search of an emancipatory social psychology’ in P.Stringer (ed.) Confronting Social Issues: Applications of Social Psychology, Vol 2. London: Academic Press.(1994) ‘Everyday process for avoiding equality in local government’. SCEPST A Conference, Bristol.(1996) ‘Equality and organisational design’. Bristol: LGMB/Department of the Environment.and (1987) ‘What exactly are the differences in male and female working styles?’, Women in Management Review, 3 (1).(1980) Sex Differences in Worker Quitting: A Review of Economics and Statistics, 62: 388–395.(1982) The Lucas Plan A New Trade Unionism in the Making. London: Allison and Busby.and (1983) Women in Control: Dilemmas of a Workers’ Co-operative. Milton Keynes: Open University Press.(1993) ‘The management of gender relations’. Paper from the Industrial Relations Unit, University of Warwick.(1986) Patriarchy at Work. Oxford: Polity.(1990) Theorizing Patriarchy. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.(1994) Medicine and Nursing: Professions in a Changing Health Service. London: Sage., , and (1995) Public Services and Market Mechanisms: Competition, Contracting and the New Public Sector Management. London: Macmillan.(1997) The New Feminism. New York: Little Brown.(1988) ‘Play the white man: the social construction of fairness and competition in equal opportunities policies’, Sociological Review, 36 (3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/sore.1988.36.issue-3and (1947) The Theory of Social and Economic Organisation. New York: Free Press.([Page 249]1985) ‘A woman's issue, the impact of local authority cuts’, Local Government Studies, March/April.(1986) Society and Identity: Towards a Sociological Psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511720215, and (1997) ‘Power, resources and science’, New Politics, Winter.(West Midlands County Council (1985) ‘Survey of women representatives in local government’. Unpublished report.1983) Critical Social Psychology. Boston: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1992) Leadership and the New Science. San Francisco: Barrett–Koehler Publishers.(1987) Feminist Practice and Postmodernist Theory. Oxford: Blackwell.(1983) ‘Comparison of self-efficacy and expectations on models of occupational preferences for college males and females’, Journal of Occupational Psychology, 56 (1): 21–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joop.1983.56.issue-1(1993) Women's Career Development: A Study of High flyers. London: Blackwell., and (1973) ‘Bureaucracy and modernisation in China: the Maoist critique’, American Sociological Review, April.(1994) No Turning Back: Generations and Genderquake. London: DEMOS.(1997) Culture Differences Between Medicine and Nursing: Implications for Primary Care. Manchester: NPCRDC., and (1993) ‘Strength is ignorance – slaving is freedom’, Journal of Management Quarterly, 30 (4): 515–552.(1995) ‘“The odd couple”: re-engineering processes: management union related new technology’, Work and Employment, 10 (2): 89–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ntwe.1995.10.issue-2(1982) ‘Collaboration between health and local authorities: why is it necessary?”, Social Policy and Administration, 16: 62.(1990) Community Care Planning: A Review of Past Experiences and Future Imperatives. London: Department of Health.(1994) Social Care in the Mixed Economy. Buckingham: Open University Press.(1994) ‘Community care future: inter-agency relationships: stability or continuing change?’, in Titterton (ed.) Caring for People in the Community: The New Welfare. London: Jessica Kingsley.(1995) Local Government and the NHS: The New Agenda. Luton: Local Government Management Board.(1992) ‘From providing to enabling: local authorities and the mixed economy of social care’, Public Admin., 70 (1): 25–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/padm.1992.70.issue-1, , and (1992) ‘The gender of organisations’, in A.Witz and M.Savage (eds) Gender and Bureaucracy. Oxford: Blackwell.and (1977) ‘Women in organizations’, in S.Clegg and D.Dunkerley (eds) Critical Issues in Organizations. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.(1792) (reprinted 1953) The Vindication of the Rights of Women. Harmondsworth: Penguin.(1991) ‘Towards a comprehensive theory of collaboration’, Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 27 (2): 139–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021886391272001and (Wood, Stephen (ed.) (1989) The Transformation of Work. London: Unwin Hyman.1996) Personal communication for ERSC study report on management innovation, NHS.(1996) ‘Reinventing local government? Some evidence reassessed’, Public Administration, 74: 347–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/padm.1996.74.issue-3([Page 250]