Challenges of Living: A Multidimensional Working Model for Social Workers

Books

Elizabeth D. Hutchison, Holly C. Matto, Marcia P. Harrigan, Leanne W. Charlesworth & Pamela A. Viggiani

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Dedication

    In memory of Bill Reid, our model of lifelong learning.

    To our students, whose questions and insights facilitate our reflective practice as educators.

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Acknowledgments

    Like any writing project, the ideas in this book have been incubating for a number of years. Over those years, we have been informed by each others’ work on various other projects and by our conversations with each other. Our ideas have also been shaped by the work and contributions of many others who are far too numerous to begin to call out. For the senior author, the seeds of this book were planted during collaborative curriculum planning with colleagues at Virginia Commonwealth University and enriched, particularly, by her several years of cherished collaboration with Stephen Gilson, who is now on the faculty at the University of Maine. We are grateful to Stephen for his contributions to our understanding of biological contributions to human behavior and his keen sense of social justice. Marcia Harrigan expresses her gratitude to Drs. Kia Bentley, Janice Berry-Edwards, Rosemary Farmer, and Joe Walsh for the gracious sharing of their own scholarship and for their suggestions that helped to shape her ideas.

    We are grateful to Dean Frank Baskind at Virginia Commonwealth University and Professor Virginia David, Chair of the Department of Social Work at Nazareth College, for supporting us in all of our endeavors. The senior author is grateful to Dean Baskind and her colleagues at Virginia Commonwealth University for the opportunity to be on research leave in the final weeks of completing the book. We all owe a debt of gratitude to the library staffs at Virginia Commonwealth University and Nazareth College, recognizing that their advancements in making materials electronically accessible lightened our load and gave us more snippets of time to connect with our families.

    We are lucky to be working again with the folks at Sage. Art Pomponio was a cheerleader in the early stages of bringing our incubating ideas into written form, and Kassie Graves has been a very competent, focused, yet gentle shepherd through the last stages of turning a once unwieldy manuscript into a book. At a key point, Jerry Westby greased the wheels. Veronica Novak was a constant throughout the long months and diligently did her part to keep the project moving. When the drafting and redrafting finally came to an end, Sarah Quesenberry worked the magic of turning words into a book. We were pleased to have Barbara Coster's competent copyediting assistance once again. There are many others at Sage who work behind the scenes doing crucial tasks that are invisible to authors. We sense your presence and appreciate all that you do.

    We are also grateful for the support and encouragement of students, family, and colleagues. They enrich our lives and provide us with protective webs of connectedness. Chuck, thank you for waiting patiently weekend after weekend for Marcia to be (really) finished with her chapters. Chuck and Hutch, thank you for your good humor while assisting us with the various computer glitches.

    Finally, we are grateful to the following reviewers who read an earlier draft of the book and provided helpful feedback:

    • Parris Baker, Gannon University
    • Sandra Chesborough, St. Cloud State University
    • Ann Dannerbeck, University of Missouri
    • Dorie J. Gilbert, University of Texas at Austin
    • Richard A. Longoria, University of Texas at Austin
    • Samuel MacMaster, University of Tennessee
    • Kimberly A. Mann, Chicago State University
    Elizabeth D.HutchisonHolly C.MattoMarcia P.HarriganLeanne W.CharlesworthPamela A.Vigianni
  • Glossary

    • Absolute poverty: A term used to describe poverty in economic terms. Measures of absolute poverty utilize formulas that take into account monetary assets only. It is not affected by changing norms and needs within a society. An example of this approach is Molly Orshansky's economy food plan.
    • Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): A syndrome that occurs when the HIV infection has severely damaged the immune system, making the person vulnerable to becoming very ill or dying from a wide range of diseases or infections that others can fight off.
    • Adipocytes: Cells within the body that store fat.
    • Adiponectin: A protein produced by fat cells that blocks production of blood glucose in the liver and increases muscle activity to make energy.
    • Adolescent-limited group of violent offenders: A large group of people who engage in aggressive and violent behavior only during adolescence.
    • Afrocentric perspective: A cultural perspective with principles that embrace a collectivist worldview and spiritual base. The Afrocentric perspective suggests that violation of these fundamental principles (e.g., spiritual alienation and social isolation) may help to explain a community's substance abuse behavior.
    • Amygdala: A brain structure that is responsible for assigning “emotional value” to an event. The amygdala is the filter that responds to threatening stimuli and puts the body on high alert if danger is assessed, charging the body with action. The amygdala, in some cases, may become overstimulated by innocuous stimuli that mimic an original traumatic event but yet which are not a current threat.
    • Antecedent factors: In research on risk and protection, those risk or protective factors that came before the troublesome situation.
    • Antiretroviral therapy (ART): Treatment with drugs that inhibit the ability of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to multiply in the body.
    • Barebacking: The deliberate practice of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI), thought to play a role in the high rates of HIV among men who have sex with men.
    • Bariatric surgery: Surgery on the stomach and/or intestines to help the person with extreme obesity lose weight.
    • Best practices: Programs or activities considered exceptional models for others to follow. At the organizational or individual level, best practices typically have a solid body of experience or empirical support indicating that when implemented as intended, the approach reliably leads to a desired result.
    • Biosocial approach (community violence): A theoretical approach that suggests that violent behavior occurs when biological vulnerability interacts with social vulnerability.
    • Bipolar depression: A mood disorder that includes major depression interspersed with periods of mania or hyperactivity or agitation.
    • Body mass index (BMI): An index of a person's weight in relation to height with established cutoff points to designate normal, overweight, obese, and morbidly obese states.
    • Child and Family Services Reviews: Reviews of state child and family service programs to examine compliance and support overall system improvement in the areas of safety, permanency, and family and child well-being. Mandated by the 1994 Amendments to the Social Security Act (and outlined in the 2000 Federal Register), the process and products are administered by the Children's Bureau, which is part of the Administration for Children and Families within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    • Child fatality review boards: Locally administered boards that focus on systematic examination of all child deaths within a designated geographic area. They typically focus upon a systematic approach to understanding and documenting the causes and circumstances of each child death in the region. Additional goals often include enhanced cross-agency communication and development of policies and programs to improve child health and safety in order to prevent child fatalities.
    • Cholecystokinin: Hormone that signals that the meal is over and triggers the release of digestive enzymes from the gall bladder and pancreas.
    • Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT): A psychotherapeutic approach with known effectiveness for treating major depression; focuses on negative perceptions of the self, negative thoughts about the environment, and negative view of the future.
    • Cognitive damage: Significantly diminished capacity for judgment and reasoning due to impaired brain functioning. Among children, such damage detrimentally impacts the otherwise naturally expanding intellectual capacity to perceive, evaluate, understand, and communicate information.
    • Cognitive-neurobehavioral model of alcoholism: A model that suggests alcoholism may lead to heightened reactivity of the limbic system, which impairs the regulatory functioning of the prefrontal cortical structures that, ultimately, leads to problems in behavioral control.
    • Collective efficacy: The capacity of residents of a neighborhood to achieve social control over the environment and to engage in collective action for the common good; involves a working trust, a shared belief in the neighborhood's ability for action, and a shared willingness to intervene to gain social control.
    • Collectivist: Typically used to describe certain aspects of a culture's basic values and beliefs; refers to an emphasis on social connections, in particular the importance of prioritizing group rather than individual goals and needs and an emphasis on relationships among family and community members.
    • Colonialism: The practice of dominant and powerful nations to go beyond their boundaries utilizing military force to occupy and claim less dominant and powerful nations and to impose their culture, laws, and language upon the occupied nation through the use of settlers. The purpose of colonization is for the more powerful nation to gain control over the markets, resources, and labor within the colonized nation
    • Community violence (CV): Violence between unrelated individuals who may or may not know each other; takes place outside the home of the perpetrator.
    • Comorbidity: Substance use disorder that occurs simultaneously with another mental health condition (e.g., substance dependence and posttraumatic stress disorder).
    • Conditioning theories: Based on stimulus-response chains; suggest that drug-related behaviors are linked to specific cues that may trigger a physiological reaction that heightens craving response and ultimately drives the drug use behavior.
    • Coping: Efforts made by individuals, families, or other social systems to master the demands of stress, including the thoughts, feelings, and actions that constitute those efforts.
    • Cortisol: A steroid hormone that is secreted by the adrenal cortex as part of the body's response to stress; can become disturbed by chronic stress, possibly leading to depression.
    • Craving: An intense urge to drink or take drugs, often intensified in the presence of stimuli (i.e., triggers) that are associated with substance use.
    • Cue reactivity: Physiological and psychological reactions that are directly related to drug/alcohol cues (e.g., sights, sounds, smells, visual images related to substance use).
    • Cultural relativism: The position that beliefs or behaviors in a particular culture should not be judged by the standards of another culture.
    • Culture of honor: A concept used to explain violent behavior in some cultural groups; proposes that Scotch Irish immigrants brought a culture that prescribed violence as the appropriate reaction to disrespect and insult, the appropriate defense of manhood and reputation, to the southern region of the United States.
    • Culture of poverty: A term coined by Oscar Lewis to legitimize the unique culture and way of life of those who are impoverished. The term was popularized by the Moynihan report (Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan's 1965 report on the black impoverished family). It has changed from its original meaning to one that looks at impoverished people as having cultural deficits.
    • Declarative memory: Memory that is accessible to verbal recall and is a cognitively conscious awareness. Declarative or “explicit” memories typically involve the hippocampus and are characterized by recalling of facts and a temporal ordering of events.
    • Defense mechanisms: Unconscious, automatic thought processes that enable a person to minimize perceived psychological threats or keep them out of awareness entirely.
    • Developmental domains: Areas of growth and development; the typical major domains examined when assessing a child's developmental progress are physical/motor, emotional/psychological, social, and cognitive.
    • Developmentally appropriate parenting: Parenting that reflects understanding of and responsiveness to the child's developmental stage-related needs and abilities in each developmental domain.
    • Differential association theory: A theory that focuses on the important role of deviant peers in modeling and reinforcing aggression and violence, particularly during adolescence.
    • Diffusion of innovation model: A model of HIV prevention, in which attention is paid to how to diffuse a health behavior innovation, such as condom use or clean needle use, throughout a social network.
    • Disease concept: The “medical model” of addiction that explains substance use disorders and drug addiction as a brain disease.
    • Disorders of extreme stress (DES): Disruption in affect regulation, attention, self-perception, interpersonal relationships, and meaning schemas that occur in people who have experienced chronic and intense traumatic events.
    • Dissociation: An unconscious psychological detachment from an event, situation, person, and so on, often operating as a primitive defensive response to a traumatic event. This symptom is often found in people who have PTSD and have undergone chronic traumatic exposure.
    • Dissociative disorder: A type of mental state characterized by a sudden, temporary change in the normal functions of consciousness, identity, and memory.
    • Distal environment: The environment beyond the family.
    • Dopamine: A neurotransmitter that plays a part in mood, cognition, and motor activity.
    • Double depression: The presence of dysthymia on which major depression is superimposed.
    • Dysthymic disorder: A mood disorder that is less severe than major depression and may be more chronic.
    • Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC): A tax program that provides the working poor with a tax credit or return at the end of the fiscal year. The credit/refund varies depending on income and family size.
    • Ecological model (Swinburn and Egger): The simultaneous consideration of three major influencing factors: biological (genes, hormones, age, gender, ethnicity, and drugs), behavioral (sedentary lifestyle and overconsumption of food), and environmental (physical, economic, political, and sociocultural).
    • Economy food plan: The least expensive way to buy an adequate amount of nutritionally sound food for a family; the basis of poverty measure used in the United States; poverty is calculated as 3 times the economy food plan.
    • Electroconvulsive therapy: Administration of a mild electrical current to the brain to treat a major depressive disorder that is unresponsive to other interventions.
    • Emotional intelligence: Ability to process information about emotions accurately and effectively and consequently to regulate emotions in an optimal manner.
    • Empirical research: A careful, purposeful, and systematic observation of events with the intent to note and record them in terms of attributes, to look for patterns in those events, and to make our methods and observations public.
    • Epidemiology: The study of the distribution of disease and health in a population; can identify causal factors of diseases, social problems, and troubling situations as well as identify the different patterns of occurrence across age, gender, socioeconomic status, cultural groups, geographic regions, and so on.
    • Expectancy theory: A psychological theory that proposes that individuals behave in ways because they expect their behavior will yield a certain result.
    • Externalizing symptoms: Responses to stressors that involve behaviors directed at the external world, such as aggression and delinquency.
    • Extreme poverty: A measure developed by the World Bank to count the number of poor worldwide. Extreme poverty refers to people who do not have regular access to food, shelter, clothing, health care, or education. The World Bank defines the extreme poor as having U.S. $1 per day per person or less in purchasing power. The measure for extreme poverty has been widely adopted by international agencies, including the United Nations.
    • Family preservation programs: Efforts to provide knowledge, resources, and other supports to help families stay intact. Government-sponsored family preservation programs are often crisis-oriented, home-based, intensive, and time-limited, with a focus on preventing imminent foster care placement or abandonment.
    • Family support programs: Community-based preventive services, including but not limited to child care and parenting support, designed to reduce stress and help families care for their children before crises occur.
    • Feminization of poverty: A term that refers to the trend starting in the 1970s of a disproportionate number of females (and their children) experiencing poverty as a result of gendered roles and discrimination within society.
    • Fetal origin hypothesis: The proposition that persons who experienced chronic malnutrition prior to a period of adequate nutrition are at greater risk of gaining weight as children.
    • Food insecurity: “The limited or uncertain ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways” (Townsend, Peerson, Love, Achterberg, & Murphy, 2001, p. 1739).
    • Gastric bypass: A surgical procedure to treat obesity that creates a pouch from the upper stomach that allows ingestation of only two to four tablespoons of food and is connected to the lower portion of the small intestine. The remaining portion of the stomach as well as up to 16 inches of the small intestine do not receive food but are reattached to the large intestine for drainage.
    • Ghrelin: A hunger hormone that stimulates appetite by signaling the hypothalamus in the brain that it is time to eat.
    • Globesity: The rising prevalence and incidence of obesity worldwide.
    • Habitus: Individual choices made within the confines of a societal structure defined by Pierre Bourdieu as a “set of dispositions developed through a personal history of self-reinforcing experiences of one's social location.”
    • Health belief model (HBM): A model for understanding health-related behaviors; proposes that people will engage in health-related behaviors if they believe that a negative health condition can be avoided, expect that taking a recommended action will avoid a negative health condition, and believe that they can successfully engage in the recommended health behavior.
    • Heritability: Contribution that heredity makes to an observed behavior.
    • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): A combination of several antiretroviral drugs given together to slow the progression of the HIV infection.
    • Hippocampus: The brain structure that helps to contextualize memory in time and place and is involved in the conscious recall of facts and events associated with memory. The hippocampus serves to facilitate linguistic evaluation of experience. Some studies have found hippocampal impairment in people with PTSD.
    • Human capital theory: Individual skills, abilities, knowledge, and health that aid an individual in gaining wealth.
    • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV): A special kind of virus, called a retrovirus, that stores its genetic information in RNA rather than DNA form but has the ability to replicate by converting to DNA form; the virus attacks the immune system and causes AIDS.
    • Hypervigilance: A state of intense preoccupation with surrounding stimuli and a heightened alertness to one's environment, such that focal attention to other aspects of one's surroundings is limited. This is a common symptom of people who have PTSD.
    • Implantable gastric stimulation (IGS): Also called gastric pacing to treat obesity, it is a minimally invasive surgical implantation of a battery-operated pacemaker-like device that stimulates the stomach to simulate fullness.
    • Incidence: The rate of new occurrences of a troubling situation within a given time period.
    • Individual or contact racism: Discrimination based on race expressed on the individual level that results in unequal treatment and social segregation.
    • Individualistic: Typically used to classify certain aspects of a culture's basic values and beliefs; refers to an emphasis on the importance of independence and attainment of individual goals, personal initiative, and achievement.
    • Information-processing theory: A sensory theory of cognition that sees information flowing from the external world through the senses to the nervous systems, where it is coded.
    • Institutional racism: Racism carried out and perpetuated by sociocultural institutions (e.g., schools, banks, governmental agencies) that serves to exclude people of color from equal access and opportunity, serving to maintain and or worsen their societal disadvantage.
    • Internalizing symptoms: Responses to stressors that involve internal symptoms such as withdrawal, somatic complaints, anxiety, or depression.
    • Interpersonal intelligence: Understanding other people.
    • Interpersonal neurobiology: An approach to understanding trauma that focuses on the relationship between brain structure development and functioning and interpersonal relationships.
    • Interpersonal therapy (IPT): A psychotherapeutic approach with known effectiveness for treating major depression; focuses on the relationship between depression and interpersonal relations.
    • Intrapersonal intelligence: Having an understanding of yourself.
    • Leptin: A naturally occurring protein produced by fat cells that signals the brain (hypothalamus) that there is sufficient fat in the body and therefore appetite decreases.
    • Life-course-persistent group of violent offenders: A small group of people who continually engage in a high level of aggressive and violent behavior across the life course and across social contexts.
    • Macro-level general strain theory (MST): A theory used to explain the differential levels of community violence in different neighborhoods. The major thesis is that the aggregate level of strain within a neighborhood affects the level of violence in the neighborhood.
    • Macrophages: Immune system cells that are found in fat tissue that provide a link between obesity and inflammation that underlie certain cancers and heart disease.
    • Major depressive disorder (MDD): Also termed unipolar depression, a mood or brain disorder characterized by persistent feelings of sadness or emptiness that must meet additional criteria established by the American Psychiatric Association.
    • Masked depression: Attributing the behaviors, thoughts, and mood of major depression to developmental characteristics of children and others.
    • Men on the down low (DL): Men who have unprotected sex with both men and women.
    • Metabolic syndrome: A combination of both obesity and coronary factors that place a person at higher risk of major health consequences that are life threatening.
    • Metacognition: Thinking about one's own thinking.
    • Minor physical anomalies (MPAs): Very minor structural deviations found in many areas of the body. Common examples are asymmetrical ears, curved fifth fingers, wide-set eyes, and large gap between the first and second toes. They indicate disruption in fetal development and are thought to be observable indicators of central nervous system dysfunction.
    • Moderate poverty: A measure developed by the World Bank to measure the number of poor worldwide. Moderate poverty refers to people who are just barely able to meet their basic needs of food, shelter, and clothing. The World Bank defines the moderately poor as having between U.S. $1 and $2 a day per person of purchasing power. The measure for moderate poverty has been widely adopted by international agencies, including the United Nations.
    • Neocolonialism: The practice of dominant and powerful nations to go beyond their boundaries utilizing international financial institutions such as the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to exert influence over impoverished nations by imposing their culture, laws, and language upon the occupied nation through the use of financial incentives (loans) and disincentives. The purpose of neocolonialism is for the more powerful nation to gain control of the markets, resources, and labor within the less powerful nation.
    • Neuroimaging tools: Methods and techniques used to obtain images of the structure and functions of the nervous system, include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and proton spectroscopy.
    • Neurotransmission: The process of transporting nerve signals from brain cell to brain cell.
    • Neurotransmitters: Chemicals that transport signals between nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscles.
    • Nondeclarative memory: Memory that is not accessible to verbal recall and is not in cognitively conscious awareness. Nondeclarative or “implicit” memories exist in sensory format, such as visual images or bodily sensations.
    • Norepinephrine: A neurotransmitter that is secreted by the adrenal glad that helps to regulate mood as well as impacting learning and memory.
    • Obesity: The point at which an adult's BMI is > 30.0, and/or WC > 40 inches for men, 35 inches for women, and/or WHR is > 1.0; and for children, weight falls in the > 97 percentile.
    • Obesogenic environment: Factors external to a person who is obese that create or foster obesity, such as lack of a variety of foods, prohibitive food costs, easier access to high-fat and salted foods, lack of safety to engage in outdoor activities, and other ecological contributing factors.
    • Orbitofrontal cortex: A brain structure that is responsible for linking the limbic system (emotional material) to the prefrontal cortex (cognitive capacities) and helps a person to self-regulate. This structure has been found to be influenced by interpersonal relationships and attachment processes.
    • Pandemic: An epidemic that is spread over an especially wide area.
    • Paradigm: A scientific discipline's general orientation or way of seeing its subject matter.
    • Perinatal complications: Complications of pregnancy and childbirth such as pregnancy complications, low birth weight, and delivery complications.
    • Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): An anxiety disorder resulting from exposure to a life-threatening traumatic event characterized by reexperiencing symptomotology, intrusion of trauma-related stimuli, a numbing or restriction in affect, and hypervigilance.
    • Prefrontal cortex: The part of the frontal lobe of the brain responsible for motivation, attention, and sequencing of actions.
    • Prevalence: A rate of the number of existing cases (of a troubling situation) at a particular point in time divided by the total population studied.
    • Primary prevention: Efforts that are universal in scope and target the general population; applied to child abuse and neglect, such efforts can be thought of as attempting to prevent maltreatment from ever occurring.
    • Protective factors: Resources that decrease the probability of developing and maintaining problem conditions.
    • Proximal environment: The family environment.
    • Psychobiological attachment theory (PAT): Theory that proposes that the infant's nervous system requires attachment to a dependable and nurturing caregiver to develop normal regulatory systems and that disruptions in early attachment lead to disruptions in neurobiological regulatory systems.
    • Relapse prevention model: A substance abuse treatment model that helps clients to identify and successfully manage high-risk situations related to substance use, in order to prevent relapse.
    • Relative poverty: A term used to describe poverty in economic terms. Measures of relative poverty utilize formulas that include changing norms and needs within a society and are responsive to these changes.
    • Religion: A systematic set of beliefs, practices, and traditions observed within a particular social institution over time.
    • Residual social welfare programs: Social welfare programs that target citizens most in need of resources.
    • Resilience: Healthy development in the face of risk factors.
    • Resistin: A hormone produced by fat cells that is thought to regulate insulin and energy storage.
    • Restorative justice: An approach to public criminal justice policy that treats crimes as wrongs against individuals and communities, rather than against society, and emphasizes making amends to wronged parties.
    • Retributive justice: An approach to public criminal justice policy that focuses on paying one's “debt to society” matching the severity of the punishment to the seriousness of the offense; the type of justice on which criminal justice policy is based in the United States.
    • Risk factors: Events or situations that increase the probability (likelihood) of developing and maintaining problem conditions.
    • Safety net or social safety net: A set of governmental policies intended to prevent citizens from experiencing severe poverty. The social safety net often includes but is not limited to governmental health, income support, jobs, and educational programs.
    • Satiety: The inhibition of food consumption at the end of a meal and before the next meal.
    • Secondary prevention: Programs that target individuals or families identified as at heightened risk of maltreatment; this type of prevention work focuses on early identification in an attempt to limit the extent or severity of the maltreatment.
    • Self-efficacy: Personal beliefs in the ability to accomplish a goal; in the area of substance abuse, one's personal beliefs in being able to effectively resist using drugs.
    • Self-efficacy model of safer sex behavior: Model proposed by Albert Bandura; proposes that safer sex behaviors are not simply a result of knowledge or skills but of a process of integrating knowledge, expectancies, emotional states, social influences, and past experiences to develop a judgment about one's ability to master the challenges of sexual decision making and negotiating sexual relationships.
    • Self-regulation: The capacity to self-soothe and manage emotions under extreme stress conditions or high-risk situations.
    • Serotonin: A neurotransmitter that is a derivative of an amino acid that helps to regulate mood as well as motor activity, anxiety, and thought processes.
    • Sex trafficking: Movement of persons—typically girls and women—across borders for the purposes of sexually exploiting those persons. Diversity in form and definition exists; may include the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purposes of any type of sexual exploitation.
    • Social capital: A network of relationships between people and various institutions that serves to financially advantage or disadvantage individuals.
    • Social exclusion: The political, economic, social, and cultural marginalization of a group of people based on a group characteristic such as class, race, or gender.
    • Social learning theory (community violence): A theoretical approach to community violence that suggests that some children develop a pattern of cognition that supports social aggression.
    • Social location: Where a person fits in a system of social identities such as race, ethnicity, gender, social class, sexual orientation/sexual preference, religion, ability/disability, and age.
    • Social network approach (to HIV transmission): An approach that is interested in how HIV is transmitted through sexual and drug networks and how to change the pattern of sexual and drug behavior in HIV high-risk networks.
    • Social welfare programs: Governmental policies and programs intended to care for citizens’ needs. Policies and programs can range from health care to education. Nations structure their social welfare programs differently, based upon history, culture, and political will. Some nations favor universal social welfare programs, while others favor means-tested programs.
    • Socially constructed: An approach focusing upon how people socio culturally learn and label the meaning of self, others, and all phenomena; linked to the social constructionist theoretical perspective.
    • Somatization: Psychological material that becomes expressed as physical problems or symptomotology. This is a common symptom in people who have experienced extreme stress and/or have PTSD.
    • Spirituality: A personal search for meaning, purpose, connection, and morality.
    • Stomach banding: A surgical procedure typically done laparoscopically that places a band around the upper portion of the stomach, creating a small pouch that is then connected to the lower intestine.
    • Stress vulnerability model: A model that proposes that stress impacts the body's physiological response system (e.g., produces changes in stress hormones and brain structure function), which leads to drug craving. This model suggests that stress operates along a similar neural trajectory as direct exposure to the drug itself, and therefore stress in isolation from the drug can produce drug-like cravings and subsequent behavioral response to use.
    • Structural racism: Institutional policies that appear to be race neutral but which, in effect, work to maintain the status quo because of the inequalities created by historical institutional racism.
    • Substance abuse: Impairment in major life areas such as work, interpersonal relationships, educational, recreational, financial, health, and so on related to continued substance use and an inability to quit despite experiencing adverse consequences.
    • Substance dependence: Impairment in major life areas such as work, interpersonal relationships, educational, recreational, financial, health, and so on related to continued substance use and an inability to quit despite experiencing adverse consequences. Substance dependence is also marked by tolerance and withdrawal.
    • Syndemic: A set of linked health problems that interact synergistically
    • Telescoping: The phenomenon that women develop more physical symptoms and problems from substance use, and in a shorter period of time, as compared to men.
    • Tertiary prevention: Programs that target families in which a problem like child maltreatment has already occurred or is occurring. This type of prevention generally focuses on stopping the maltreatment, facilitating recovery from its effects, and developing supports and strengths to prevent its return.
    • Theory: A system of concepts and hypotheses designed to explain and predict phenomena.
    • Theory of reasoned action: A theory of health-related behaviors that assumes that humans are usually rational, use information in a systematic way to solve problems, and consider the implications of their behavior before taking action; focuses on intentions rather than beliefs and attitudes.
    • Tolerance: A body's need for higher dosages of the drug to achieve the same effects, in a person who is substance dependent.
    • Traditional masculinity ideologies: A theory that suggests that traditional beliefs about appropriate masculine behavior can put men and their sexual partners at risk for sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV. These traditional beliefs are thought to encourage men to be sexually assertive, always ready to have sex, view sex primarily as pleasurable and recreational, perceive penetration as the goal of sex, control all aspects of sexual activity, and have multiple sex partners.
    • Transtheoretical model (TTM): A readiness to change model that explains movement toward behavioral change as progressing through various stages, to include precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and relapse.
    • Triple reuptake inhibitors (TRIs): A class of pharmacological agents currently under development that target serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine for the treatment of major depression.
    • Twelve-step program: A self-help program with wide membership that is based on sponsorship and a careful following of the guiding 12-step principles that undergird the program.
    • Type I trauma: Trauma that is characterized by one event.
    • Type II trauma: Trauma that is characterized by more than one event, such as ongoing or continuous child sexual abuse.
    • Unipolar depression:Seemajor depressive disorder.
    • Universal social welfare programs: Social welfare programs that benefit all citizens regardless of income, age, gender, race, and so on. Examples include universal health care, universal child care, and universal free education.
    • Variable expressivity: Differences in the way a gene manifests itself in one person in comparison to another person who has the same gene.
    • Vertical transmission: Transmission of HIV from an HIV-infected mother to a fetus or infant.
    • Waist circumference (WC): The measure of a person's waist in either centimeters or inches.
    • Waist-to-hip ratio (WHR): The measure of the waist in relation to the measure of the hip circumference as a risk indicator of overweight or obesity when it is > 1.0.
    • Withdrawal: The body's physical reaction to stopping use of a drug when a person has become drug dependent.

    References

    Abadie, A. (2004). Poverty, political freedom, and the roots of terrorism (Working Paper No. 10859). Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://dx.doi.org/10.3386/w10859
    Abe, J., Zane, N., & Chun, K. (1994). Differential responses to trauma: Migration-related discriminants of posttraumatic stress disorder among Southeast Asian refugees. Journal of Community Psychology, 22, 121–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1520-6629%28199404%2922:2%3C121::AID-JCOP2290220208%3E3.0.CO;2-D
    Abel, E. (1998). Sexual risk behaviors in ship- and shore-based Navy women. Military Medicine, 163, 250–256.
    Abel, E., Adams, E., & Stevenson, R. (1994). Self-esteem, problem solving, and sexual risk behavior among women with and without chlamydia. Clinical Nursing Research, 3, 353–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/105477389400300406
    Abel, E., & Chambers, K. (2004). Factors that influence vulnerability to STDs and HIV/AIDS among Hispanic women. Health Care for Women International, 25, 761–780. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07399330490475601
    Abel, E., Hilton, P., & Miller, I. (1996). Sexual risk behavior among urban women of childbearing age: Implications for clinical practice. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 8, 115–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-7599.1996.tb00641.x
    Abel, E., Tak, S., & Gortner, E. (2003). Reliability and validity of motivation for sexual health. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 25(5), 548–560. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193945903252423
    Abrams, R. (1994). The treatment that will not die: Electroconvulsive therapy. Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 17(3), 525–30.
    Abrams, R. C., & Alexopoulos, G. S. (1994). Assessment of depression in dementia. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders, 8(Suppl. 1), S227-S229.
    Abreu, J., Goodyear, R., Campos, A., & Newcomb, M. (2000). Ethnic belonging and traditional masculinity ideology among African Americans, European Americans, and Latinos. Psychology of Men and Masculinity, 1(2), 75–86. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1524-9220.1.2.75
    Abromovitz, M. (1996). Regulating the lives of women: Social welfare policy from colonial times to the present. Boston: South End Press.
    Adams, K. B., Sanders, S., & Auth, E. A. (2004). Loneliness and depression in independent living retirement communities: Risk and resilience factors. Aging and Mental Health, 8(6), 475–485. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13607860410001725054
    Aderinto, A. A. (2000). Social correlates and coping measures of street-children: A comparative study of street and non-street children in south-western Nigeria. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(9), 1199–1213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2800%2900172-1
    Adler, N. (2001). A consideration of multiple pathways from socioeconomic status to health. In J.Auerbach & B.Krimgold (Eds.), Income, socioeconomic status, and health: Exploring the relationships (pp. 56–66). Washington, DC: National Health Policy, Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy.
    Africa News Service. (2002, December 23). Communities coping with HIV and AIDS. Retrieved October 27, 2006, from http://archives.hst.org.za/af-aids/msg00674.html
    Agathonos-Georgopoulou, H. (1992). Cross-cultural perspectives in child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse Review, 1, 80–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/car.2380010204
    Agnew, R. (1992). Foundation for a general strain theory of crime and delinquency. Criminology, 30, 47–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1992.tb01093.x
    Agnew, R. (1999). A general strain theory of community differences in crime rates. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 36, 123–155. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427899036002001
    Ai, A. L., Peterson, C., & Huang, B. (2003). The effect of religious-spiritual coping on positive attitudes of adult Muslim refugees from Kosovo and Bosnia. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 13, 29–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327582IJPR1301_04
    Ainsworth, M., Beegle, K., & Koda, G. (2005). The impact of adult mortality and parental deaths on primary schooling in north-western Tanzania. Journal of Development Studies, 41(3), 412–440. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0022038042000313318
    Aldwin, C. (2000). Stress, coping, and development: An integrative perspective. New York: Guilford Press.
    Alexopoulos, G. S., Meyers, B.S., Young, R. C., Campbell, S., Silbersweig, D., & Charlson, M. (1997). “Vascular depression” hypothesis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54(10), 915–922. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830220033006
    Allain, J., Anokwa, M., Casbard, A., Owusu-Ofori, S., & Dennis-Antwi, J. (2004). Sociology and behaviour of West African blood donors: The impact of religion on human immunodeficiency virus infection. Vox Sanguinis, 87(4), 233–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1423-0410.2004.00578.x
    Alperin, D., & Richie, N. (1989). Community-based AIDS service organizations: Challenges and educational preparations. Health & Social Work, 14(3), 165–173.
    Alter, C., & Egan, M. (1997). Logic modeling: A tool for teaching practice evaluation. Journal of Social Work Education, 33(1), 103–118.
    Amaro, H. (1995). Love, sex, and power: Considering women's realities in HIV prevention. American Psychologist, 50(6), 437–447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.6.437
    Amaya-Jackson, L., Reynolds, V., Murray, M. C., McCarthy, G., Nelson, A., Cherney, M. S., et al. (2003). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for pediatric posttraumatic stress disorder: Protocol and application in school and community settings. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 10(3), 204–213. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1077-7229%2803%2980032-9
    American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, text revision (
    4th ed.
    ). Washington, DC: Author.
    Anand, A., & Shekhar, A. (2003). Brain imaging studies in mood and anxiety disorders: Special emphasis on the amygdala. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 985, 370–388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.2003.tb07095.x
    Anderson, M., Kaufman, J., Simon, T., Barrios, L., Paulozzi, L., Ryan, G., et al. (2001). School-associated violent deaths in the United States, 1994–1999. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286, 2695–2702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.286.21.2695
    Anderson, R. (2000). Healthy People 2010: Steps in the right direction. The Physician and Sports Medicine, 28(10), 7–8.
    Anderson, R. (2002). Deaths: Leading causes for 2000. Monthly Vital Statistics Report (Vol. 50, no. 16), 1–85. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
    Anderson, T. (2004, November 24) Restorative justice places power in victims’ hands. Wisconsin Law Journal, p. NA.
    Applegate, J., & Shapiro, J. (2005). Neurobiology for clinical social work. New York: Norton.
    Argyris, C., & Schön, D. (1974). Theory in practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Aronowitz, S. (2003). Global capital and its opponents. In S.Aronowitz & H.Gautney (Eds.), Implicating empire: Globalization & resistance in the 21st century world order (pp. 179–195). New York: Basic Books.
    Arseneault, L., Tremblay, R., Boulerice, B., Séguin, J., & Saucier, J. (2000). Minor physical anomalies and family adversity as risk factors for violent delinquency in adolescence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 917–923. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.6.917
    Arterburn, D. E., Crane, P. K., & Sullivan, S. D. (2004). The coming epidemic of obesity in elderly Americans. American Geriatric Society, 52(11), 1907–1912. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-5415.2004.52517.x
    Ashby, L. (1997). Endangered children: Dependency, neglect, and abuse in American history. New York: Twayne.
    Aspy, C., Oman, R., Vesely, S., McLeroy, K., Rodine, S., & Marshall, L. (2004). Adolescent violence: The protective effects of youth assets. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82(3), 268–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6678.2004.tb00310.x
    Associated Press. (2006, March 2). Surgeon general: Obesity epidemic will dwarf terrorism threat. Retrieved June 14, 2006, from http://www.livescience.com/humanbiology/ap_06302_obesity.htm
    Atzen, I., & Fishbein, M. (1977). Attitude-behavior relations: A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 888–918. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.84.5.888
    Auerbach, D., Darrow, W., Jaffe, H., & Curran, J. (1984). Cluster of cases of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Patients linked by sexual contact. American Journal of Medicine, 76, 487–492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343%2884%2990668-5
    Auerbach, J., & Krimgold, B. (2001). Improving health: It doesn't take a revolution. In J.Auerbach & B.Krimgold (Eds.), Income, socioeconomic status, and health: Exploring the relationships (pp. 1–11). Washington, DC: National Policy Association, Academy for Health Services Research and Health Policy.
    Auslander, W., McMillen, J., Elze, D., Thompson, R., Jonson-Reid, M., & Stiffman, A. (2002). Mental health problems and sexual abuse among adolescents in foster care: Relationships to HIV risk behaviors and intentions. AIDS and Behavior, 6(4), 351–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021152813774
    Avants, S., Marcotte, D., Arnold, R., & Margolin, A. (2003). Spiritual beliefs, world assumptions, and HIV risk behavior among heroin and cocaine users. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17(2), 159–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.17.2.159
    Avants, S., Warburton, L. A., & Margolin, A. (2000). The influence of coping and depression on abstinence from illicit drug use in methadone-maintained patients. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 26(3), 399–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/ADA-100100252
    AVERT. (2005). Funding the fight against HIV/AIDS. Retrieved on June 29, 2005, from http://www.avert.org/aidsmoney.htm
    Ayala, G. X., Elder, J. P., Campbell, N. R., Slymen, D. J., Roy, N., Engelberg, M., et al. (2004). Correlates of body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio among Mexican women in the United States: Implications for intervention development. Women's Health Issues, 14(5), 155–164.
    Bagley, C., Conklin, D., Isherwood, R., Pechiulis, D., & Watson, L. (1989). Attitudes of nurses toward obesity and obese patients. Perception and Motor Skills, 68, 954. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pms.1989.68.3.954
    Bailey, F. (2003). Honor, class, and white southern violence: A historical perspective. In D.Hawkins (Ed.), Violent crime: Assessing race and ethnic differences (pp. 331–353). New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499456.020
    Baker, R. (1992). Psychological consequences for tortured refugees seeking asylum and refugee status in Europe. In M.Basoglu (Ed.), Torture and its consequences (pp. 82–105). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Baker, T. B., Piper, M. E., McCarthy, D. E., Majeskie, M. R., & Fiore, M. C. (2004). Addiction motivation reformulated: An affective processing model of negative reinforcement. Psychological Review, 111(1), 33–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.111.1.33
    Bandura, A. (1977). Social learning theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Bandura, A. (1990). Perceived self-efficacy in the exercise of control over AIDS infection. Evaluation and Program Planning13, 9–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0149-7189%2890%2990004-G
    Bane, M. J., & Ellwood, D. T. (1994). Welfare realities: From rhetoric to reform. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Banfield, E. C. (1990). Unheavenly city revisited. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
    Barefoot, J., Heitmann, B., Helms, M., Williams, R., Surwit, R., & Siegler, I. (1998). Symptoms of depression and changes in body weight from adolescence to mid-life. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 22, 688–694. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0800647
    Barker, D. J. (2004). Fetal origins of obesity. In G. A.Bray & C.Bouchard (Eds.), Handbook of obesity: Etiology and pathophysiology (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 109–133). New York: Marcel Dekker.
    Barnett, O. W., Miller-Perrin, C. L., & Perrin, R. D. (1997). Family violence across the lifespan: An introduction. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Barney, L., Griffiths, K., Jorm, A., & Christensen, H. (2006). Stigma about depression and its impact on help-seeking intentions. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 40(1), 51–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/j.1440-1614.2006.01741.x
    Bartholow, B., Doll, L., Joy, D., Douglas, J., Bolan, G., Harrison, J., et al. (1994). Emotional, behavioral, and HIV risks associated with sexual abuse among adult homosexual and bisexual men. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18(9), 747–761. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2894%2900042-5
    Bartley, M., Blane, D., & Montgomery, S. (1997). Health and the life course: Why safety nets matter. British Medical Journal, 314(7088), 1194–1196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7088.1194
    Bastian, L. A., West, N. A., Corcoran, C., & Munger, R. G. (2005). Number of children and the risk of obesity in older women. Preventive Medicine, 40(1), 99–104. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.05.007
    Basu, R., Brar, J. S., Chengappa, K. N., John, V., Parapally, H., Gersyhon, S., et al. (2004). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in patients with schizoaffective disorder-bipolar subtype. Bipolar Disorders, 6(4), 314–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-5618.2004.00126.x
    Batavia, A. I., & Beulaurier, R. L. (2001). The financial vulnerability of people with disabilities: Assessing poverty risks. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 28(1), 139–162.
    Baum, C., & Ford, W. (2004). The wage effects of obesity: A longitudinal study. Health Economics, 13(9), 885–899. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hec.881
    Bauman, L., Silver, E., & Stein, R. (2006). Cumulative social disadvantage and child health. Pediatrics, 117(4), 1321–1328. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-1647
    Bays, H. E. (2004). Current and investigational antiobesity agents and obesity therapeutic treatment targets. Obesity Research, 12(8), 1197–1211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2004.151
    Beals, J., Manson, S. M., Keane, E., & Dick, R. W. (1995). Factorial structure of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale among American Indian college students. Psychological Assessment, 3, 623–627. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.3.4.623
    Beauvais, F., & Oetting, E. R. (1999). Drug use, resilience, and the myth of the golden child. In M. D.Glantz & J. L.Johnson (Eds.), Resilience and development (pp. 101–107). New York: Plenum.
    Beck, A. (1967). Depression: Clinical, experimental and theoretical aspects. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
    Beck, A. (1976). Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.
    Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the Beck Depression Inventory (
    2nd ed.
    ). San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.
    Beck, J. (1995). Cognitive therapy: Basics and beyond. New York: Guilford Press.
    Becker, G. (1994). Human capital: A theoretical and empirical analysis, with special reference to education (
    3rd ed.
    ). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Becker, M. (1974). The health belief model and sick role behavior. Health Education Monographs, 2, 409–419.
    Becker, M., & Joseph, J. (1988). AIDS and behavioral change to avoid risk: A review. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 384–410. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.78.4.394
    Beckett, K., & Sasson, T. (2000). The politics of injustice: Crime and punishment in America. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Begun, A. (1993). Human behavior and the social environment: The vulnerability, risk, and resilience model. Journal of Social Work Education, 29(1), 26–35.
    Behl, L. E., Crouch, J. L., May, P. F., Valente, A. L., & Conyngham, H.A. (2001). Ethnicity in child maltreatment research: A content analysis. Child Maltreatment, 6, 143–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559501006002006
    Belgrave, F. Z., Chase-Vaughn, G., Gray, F., Addison, J. D., & Cherry, V. R. (2000). The effectiveness of a culture and gender specific intervention for increasing resiliency among African-American preadolescent females. Journal of Black Psychology, 26, 133–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095798400026002001
    Bell, D. (1953). Crime as an American way of life. Antioch Review, 13, 131–154. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/4609623
    Bell, L. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M.Adams, L.Bell, & P.Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 1–15). New York: Routledge.
    Bell, P. A. (2005). Reanalysis and perspective in the heat-aggression debate. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89(1), 71–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.89.1.71
    Bellamy, C. (2004). The state of the world's children 2005. New York: UNICEF.
    Belle, D., & Doucet, J. (2003). Poverty, inequality, and discrimination as sources of depression among U.S. women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 27, 101–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-6402.00090
    Belsky, J. (1980). Child maltreatment: An ecological integration. American Psychologist, 35, 320–335. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.35.4.320
    Belsky, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting: A process model. Child Development, 55(1), 83–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1129836
    Bendick, M., Jr., Jackson, C., & Reinoso, V. (1994). Measuring employment discrimination through controlled experiments. Review of Black Political Economy, 23, 25–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02895739
    Bennett, M. E. (2002). Interrelationship of substance abuse and mental health problems. In W. R.Miller & C. M.Weisner (Eds.), Changing substance abuse through health and social systems (pp. 113–141). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0669-0_9
    Bennett, M. E., McCrady, B. S., Johnson, V., & Pandina, R. J. (1999). Problem drinking from young adulthood to adulthood: Patterns, predictors and outcomes. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60, 605–614.
    Benotsch, E., Kalichman, S., & Cage, M. (2002). Men who have met sex partners via the internet: Prevalence, predictors, and implications for HIV prevention. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31(2), 177–183. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1014739203657
    Bensley, L., Van Eenwyk, J., & Simmons, K. (2000). Self-reported childhood sexual and physical abuse and adult HIV-risk behaviors and heavy drinking. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 18(2), 151–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2899%2900084-7
    Bentley, K. J. (Ed.). (2002). Social work practice in mental health: Contemporary roles, tasks, and techniques. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Bentley, K. J. (2005). Women, mental health, and the psychiatric enterprise: A review. Health & Social Work, 30(1), 56–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/30.1.56
    Bentley, K. J., & Collins, K. S. (2006). Psychopharmacological treatment for child and adolescent mental disorders. In C.Franklin, M. B.Harris, & P.Allen-Mears (Eds.), School social work and mental health worker's training and resource manual (pp. 15–30). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Bentley, K. J., & Walsh, J. (2006). The social worker and psychotropic medication: Toward effective collaboration with mental health clients, families, and providers (
    3rd ed.
    ). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Bentley, K. J., Walsh, J., & Farmer, R. L. (2005). Referring clients for psychiatric medication: Best practices for social workers. Best Practices in Mental Health, 1(1), 59–71.
    Benton, D. (2004). Role of parents in the determination of the food preferences of children and the development of obesity. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 28(7), 858–869. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0802532
    Berlin, S., & Marsh, J. (1993). Informing practice decisions. New York: Macmillan.
    Bernstein, J., Bernstein, E., Tassiopoulos, K., Heeran, T., Levenson, S., & Hingson, R. (2005). Brief motivational intervention at a clinic visit reduces cocaine and heroin use. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 77, 49–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2004.07.006
    Berry-Edwards, J., & Richards, A. (2002). Relational teaching: A view of relational teaching in social work education. Journal of Teaching in Social Work, 22(1/2), 33–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J067v22n01_04
    Billingsley, A., & Giovannoni, J. M. (1972). Children of the storm: Black children and American child welfare. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
    Biorck, G. (1977). The essence of the clinician's art. Acta Medica Scandinavica, 201(3), 145–147.
    Birch, L. L., & Fisher, J. O. (1998). Development of eating behaviors among children and adolescents. Pediatrics, 101(3), 539–549.
    Birch, L. L., Johnson, S. L., & Fisher, J. A. (1995). Children's eating: The development of food acceptance patterns. Young Children, 50, 71–73.
    Bird, S., Bogart, L., & Delahanty, D. (2004). Health-related correlates of perceived discrimination in HIV care. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 18(1), 19–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/108729104322740884
    Birmaher, B., Brent, D. A., & Benson, R. S. (1998). Summary of the practice parameters for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(11), 1234–1238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199811000-00029
    Birnbaum, H. G., Leong, S. A., & Greenberg, P. E., (2003). The economics of women and depression: An employer's perspective. Journal of Affective Disorders, 74(1), 15–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0327%2802%2900427-5
    Bishaw, A., & Iceland, J. (2003, May). Poverty: 1999 (Census Brief No. C2KBR-19). Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.
    Blazer, D. G. (2001). Spirituality, aging, and depression. In J. A.Thorson (Ed.), Perspectives on spiritual well-being and aging (pp. 161–169). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.
    Bloom, M., Fischer, J., & Orme, J. (1999). Evaluating practice: Guidelines for the accountable professional (
    3rd ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Blundell, J. E., & Stubbs, J. (2004). Diet composition and the control of food intake In humans. In G. A.Bray & C.Bouchard (Eds.), Handbook of obesity: Etiology and pathophysiology (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 427–460). New York: Marcel Dekker.
    Boardman, J., & Robert, S. (2000). Neighborhood socioeconomic status and perceptions of self-efficacySociological Perspectives, 43(1), 117–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1389785
    Bogart, L., & Thorburn, S. (2005). Are HIV/AIDS conspiracy beliefs a barrier to HIV prevention among African Americans?Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 38(2), 213–218. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00126334-200502010-00014
    Bogen, D. L., Hanusa, B. H., & Whitaker, R. C. (2004). The effect of breast-feeding with and without formula use on the risk of obesity at 4 years of age. Obesity Research, 12(9), 1527–1535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2004.190
    Bolen, R. M., & Lamb, L. J. (2004). Ambivalence of nonoffending guardians after child sexual abuse disclosure. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19(2), 185–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260503260324
    Bolland, J., Lian, B., & Formichella, C. (2005). The origins of hopelessness among inner-city African-American adolescents. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36(3/4), 293–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10464-005-8627-x
    Boney-McCoy, S., & Finklehor, D. (1995). Psychosocial sequelae of violent victimization in a national youth sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63(5), 726–736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.63.5.726
    Bor, R. (1997). Vancouver summaries: Disclosure. AIDS Care, 9, 49–52.
    Boston, G. A. (2004). The hypothalamic path to obesity. Pediatric Endocrinology Metabolism, 17(4), 1289–1295.
    Bosworth, J. B., Park, K., McQuoid, D. R., Hays, J., & Steffens, D. C. (2003). The impact of religious practice and religious coping on geriatric depression. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 18(10), 905–914. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.945
    Bouchard, C., Perusse, L., Rice, T., & Rao, D. C. (2004). Genetics of human obesity. In G. A.Bray & C.Bouchard (Eds.), Handbook of obesity: Etiology and pathophysiology (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 157–200). New York: Marcel Dekker.
    Bowleg, L. (2004). Love, sex, and masculinity in sociocultural context: HIV concerns and condom use among African American men in heterosexual relationships. Men and Masculinities, 7(2), 166–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1097184X03257523
    Bowleg, L., Belgrave, F., & Reisen, C. (2000). Gender roles, power strategies, and precautionary sexual self-efficacy: Implications for black and Latina women's HIV/AIDS protective behaviors. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 42(7/8), 613–635. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007099422902
    Braam, A., Beekman, A., Deeg, D., Smit, J. H., & Van Tilburg, W. (1998). Religiosity as a protective or prognostic factor of depression in later life: Results from a community survey in the Netherlands. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 96, 199–205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1997.tb10152.x
    Brach, J. S., VanSwearingen, J. M., FitzGerald, S. J., Storti, K. L., & Kriska, A. M. (2004). The relationship among physical activity, obesity, and physical function in community-dwelling older women. Preventive Medicine, 39(1), 74–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.02.044
    Bracher, M. (2000). Adolescent violence and identity vulnerability. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society, 5(2), 189–212.
    Bradshaw, Y., Healey, J., & Smith, R. (2001). Sociology for a new century. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Bray, G. A. (2004). Classification and evaluation of the overweight patient. In G. A.Bray & C.Bouchard (Eds.), Handbook of obesity: Clinical applications (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 1–32). New York: Marcel Dekker.
    Bray, G. A., & Bouchard, C. (2004a). Handbook of obesity: Clinical applications (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Marcel Dekker.
    Bray, G. A., & Bouchard, C. (2004b). Handbook of obesity: Etiology and pathophysiology (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Marcel Dekker.
    Bray, J. H., Adams, G. A., Getz, J. G., & McQueen, A. (2003). Individuation, peers and adolescent alcohol use: A latent growth analysis. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 553–564. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.3.553
    Bremmer, M., Hoogendijk, W., Deeg, D., Schoevers, R., Schalk, B., & Beckman, A. (2006). Depression in older age is a risk factor for first ischemic cardiac events. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14(6), 523–530. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.JGP.0000216172.31735.d5
    Bremner, J. D. (2005). Does stress damage the brain?New York: Norton.
    Bremner, J. D., Southwick, S. M., Johnson, D. R., Yehuda, R., & Charney, D. S. (1993). Childhood physical abuse and combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150(2), 235–239.
    Brennan, P., Mednick, S., & Raine, A. (1997). Biosocial interactions and violence: A focus on perinatal factors. In A.Raine, P.Brennan, D.Farrington, & S.Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 163–174). New York: Plenum.
    Brenner, M., & HomonoffE. (2004). Zen and clinical social work: A spiritual approach to practice. Families in Society, 85(2), 261–269.
    Breslau, N., Kessler, R. C., Chilcoat, H. D., Schultz, L. R., Davis, G. C., & Andreski, P. (1998). Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder in the community. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 626–632. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.55.7.626
    Brewer, D. D., Catalano, R. F., Haggerty, K., Gainey, R. R., & Fleming, C. G. (1998). A meta-analysis of predictors of continued drug use during and after treatment for opiate addiction. Addiction, 93(1), 73–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1360-0443.1998.931738.x
    Brewin, C. R. (2001). A cognitive neuroscience account of posttraumatic stress disorder and its treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 373–393. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7967%2800%2900087-5
    Brewin, C. R. (2003). Posttraumatic stress disorder. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Valentine, J. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder in trauma-exposedadults. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 748–766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.5.748
    Brewin, C. R., Dagleish, T., & Joseph, S. (1996). A dual representation theory of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Review, 103(4), 670–686. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.103.4.670
    Bride, B., & Real, E. (2003). Project Assist: A modified therapeutic community for homeless women living with HIV/AIDS and chemical dependency. Health & Social Work, 28(2), 166–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/28.2.166
    Brien, T., Thombs, D., Mahoney, C., & Wallnau, L. (1994). Dimensions of self-efficacy among three distinct groups of condom users. Journal of American College Health, 42, 167–174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.1994.9939665
    Briggs, C., & Cutright, P. (1994). Structural and cultural determinants of child homicide: A cross-national analysis. Violence and Victims, 9, 3–16.
    Brocato, J., & Wagner, E. F. (2003). Harm reduction: A social work practice model and social justice agenda. Health & Social Work, 28(2), 117–125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/28.2.117
    Brockbank, A., McGill, I., & Beech, N. (2002). Reflective learning in practice. Burlington, VT: Gower.
    Brodsky, A. E. (1999). “Making it”: The components and process of resilience among urban, African-American, single mothers. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 69(2), 148–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0080417
    Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513–531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513
    Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Brooks, R., Martin, J., Ortiz, D., & Veniegas, R. (2004). Perceived barriers to employment among persons living with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Care, 16(6), 756–766. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540120412331269594
    Brown, B., & Bzostek, S. (2003, August). Violence in the lives of children. CrossCurrents. Retrieved November 23, 2004, from http://www.childtrendsdatabank.org
    Brown, D. (2006, May 31). Progress on AIDS is focus of assembly. The Washington Post, p. A10.
    Brown, L., Lourie, K., Zlotnick, C., & Cohn, J. (2000). Impact of sexual abuse on the HIV-risk-related behavior of adolescents in intensive psychiatric treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(9), 1413–1415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.9.1413
    Brown, R. (1991). No duty to retreat: Violence and values in American history and society. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Brown, S., Nesse, R. M., House, J. S., & Utz, R. L. (2004). Religion and emotional compensation: Results from a prospective study of widowhood. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(9), 1165–1174. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0146167204263752
    Brunner, E. (1997). Stress and the biology of inequality. British Medical Journal, 314(7092), 1472–1476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.314.7092.1472
    Bryne, N., Regan, C., & Livingston, G. (2006). Adherence to treatment in mood disorders. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 19(1), 44–49. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.yco.0000191501.54034.7c
    Buchwald, D., Manson, S. M., Brenneman, D. L., Dinges, N. G., Keane, E. M., Beals, J., et al. (1995). Screening for depression among newly arrived Vietnamese refugees in primary care settings. Western Journal of Medicine, 12(4), 341–345.
    Buchwald, H., & Williams, S. E. (2004). Bariatric surgery worldwide 2003. Obesity Surgery, 14(9), 1157–1164. http://dx.doi.org/10.1381/0960892042387057
    Bugental, D. B., & Happaney, K. (2004). Predicting infant maltreatment in low-income families: The interactive effects of maternal attributions and child status at birth. Developmental Psychology, 40, 234–243. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.40.2.234
    Burge, D., & Hammen, C. (1991). Maternal communication: Predictors of outcomes at follow-up in a sample of children at high and low risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(2), 174–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.100.2.174
    Burgess, A. W., Hartman, C. R., & Baker, T. (1995). Memory presentations of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing, 33, 9–16.
    Burke, B. L., Arkowitz, H., & Menchola, M. (2003). The efficacy of motivational interviewing: A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 843–861. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.5.843
    Burke, L. (2003). The impact of maternal depression on familial relationships. International Review of Psychiatry, 15(3), 243–255. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0954026031000136866
    Butler, K. (1996). The biology of fear. Family Therapy Networker, 20, 39–45.
    Butterfield, F. (1995). All God's children, the Bosket family and the American tradition of violence. New York: Knopf.
    Cachelin, F. M., Rebeck, R. M., Chung, G. H., & Pelayo, E. (2002). Does ethnicity influence body-size preference? A comparison of body image and body size. Obesity Research, 10(3), 158–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2002.25
    Cai, G., Cole, S. A., Bastarrachea-Sosa, R. A., Maccluer, J. W., Blangero, J., & Comuzzie, A. G. (2004). Quantitative trait locus determining dietary macronutrient intakes is located on human chromosome 2p22. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(5), 1410–1414.
    Callicott, J. H., & Weinberger, D. R. (1999). Functional braIn imagining: Future prospects for clinical practice. In S.Weissman & M.Sabshin (Eds.), Psychiatry in the new millennium (pp. 119–139). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.
    Cameron, A. (1996). Comparing amnesic and nonamnesic survivors of childhood sexual abuse: A longitudinal study. In K.Pezdek & W. P.Bank (Eds.), The recovered memory/false memory debate (pp. 41–68). New York: Academic Press.
    Campbell, C., & Schwarz, D. (1996). Prevalence and impact of exposure to interpersonal violence among suburban and urban middle school students. Pediatrics, 98(3), 396–402.
    Campion, J., Milagro, F., & Martinez, J. (2004). Genetic manipulation in nutrition, metabolism, and obesity research. Nutrition Reviews, 62(8), 321–330.
    Carlson, V., Cicchetti, D., Barnett, D., & Braunwald, K. (1989). Disorganized/disoriented attachment relationships in maltreated infants. Developmental Psychology, 25(4), 525–531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.25.4.525
    Carpenter, K. M., Hasin, D. S., Allison, D. B., & Faith, M. S. (2000). Relationships between obesity and DSM-IV major depressive disorder, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts: Results from a general population study. American Journal of Public Health, 90(2), 251–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.90.2.251
    Carrel, A. L., & Bernhardt, D. T. (2004). Exercise prescription for the prevention of obesity in adolescents. Current Sports Medical Report, 3(6), 330–336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00400429
    Carroll, K. M. (1996). Relapse prevention as a psychosocial treatment: A review of controlled clinical trials. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 4, 46–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1064-1297.4.1.46
    Caspi, A., McClay, J., Moffitt, T., Mill, J., Martin, J., Craig, I., et al. (2002). Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. Science, 297(5582), 851–854. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1072290
    Caspi, A., Moffitt, T., Kim-Cohen, J., Morgan, J., Rutter, M., Taylor, A., et al. (2004). Maternal expressed emotion predicts children's antisocial behavior problems: Using monozygotic-twin differences to identify environmental effects on behavioral development. Developmental Psychology, 40(2), 149–161. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.40.2.149
    Catalano, R., & Hawkins, J. (1996). The social development model: A theory of antisocial behavior. In J.Hawkins (Ed.), Delinquency and crime: Current theories (pp. 149–197). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1982a, July 16). Update on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among patients with hemophilia A. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 31, 644.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (1982b, December 10). Possible transfusion-associated acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): California. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 31, 652.
    Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1998). Addiction counseling competencies: The knowledge, skills, and attitudes of professional practice (Technical Assistance Publication 21, DHHS Pub. No. SMA 98-3171). Rockville, MD: Author.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2003a). HIV/AIDS surveillance report, 15. Atlanta, GA: Author.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2003b). Prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents: United States (1999–2000). Retrieved April 20, 2005, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/overweight99.htm
    Center for Science in the Public Interest. (2004). School vending machines “dispensing junk.” Retrieved June 16, 2005, from http://www.cspinet.org/new/200405111.html
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004a). Assault/homicide. Retrieved December 20, 2004, from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/fastats/homicide.htm
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004b). Basic statistics. Retrieved March 15, 2005, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats.htm
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004c). High-risk sexual behavior by HIV positive men who have sex with men: 16 sites, United States, 2000–2002. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(38), 891–894.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004d). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, 2003 (Vol. 15). Atlanta, GA: Author.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004e). Youth risk behavior surveillance: United States, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(SS02), 1–96.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005a). HIV/AIDS among African Americans. Retrieved January 26, 2005, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/facts/afam.htm
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005b). HIV/AIDS among women. Retrieved January 26, 2005, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/facts/women.htm
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005c). HIV/AIDS update. Retrieved February 20, 2005, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/stats.htm
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005d). Young people at risk: HIV/AIDS among America's youth. Retrieved January 26, 2005, from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/pubs/facts/afam.htm
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006a). Cases of HIV infection and AIDS in the United States, 2004. HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report (Vol. 16). Atlanta, GA: Author.
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006b). Overweight and obesity: Contributing factors. Retrieved July 25, 2006, from http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/obesity/contributing_factors.htm
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2006c). Youth violence: Fact sheet. Retrieved June 4, 2006, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/yvfacts.htm
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. (2005). Child maltreatment: Fact sheet. Atlanta, GA: Author. Retrieved May 2, 2005, from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/factsheets/cmfacts.htm
    Central Intelligence Agency. (2006). The world factbook: Dominican Republic. Retrieved June 9, 2006, from http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/dr.html
    Cervantes, R. C., Salgado de Snyder, V. N., & Padilla, A. M. (1989). Posttraumatic stress in immigrants from Central America and Mexico. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 40, 615–619.
    Chadwick Center for Children and Families. (2004). Closing the quality chasm in child abuse treatment: Identifying and disseminating best practices. San Diego, CA: Author.
    Chaffin, M., Wherry, J. N., & Dykman, R. (1997). School age children's coping with sexual abuse: Abuse stresses and symptoms associated with four coping strategies. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21(2), 227–240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2896%2900148-2
    Chagnon, Y. C., Rankinen, T., Snyder, E. E., Weisnagel, S. J., Perusse, L., & Bouchard, C. (2003). The human obesity gene map: The 2002 update. Obesity Research, 1, 313–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2003.47
    Chambon, A. S., McGrath, S., Shapiro, B. Z., Abai, M., Dremetsikas, T., & Dudriak, S. (2001). From interpersonal links to webs of relations: Creating befriending relationships with survivors of torture and war. Journal of Social Work Research, 2, 157–171.
    Chandawarkar, R. Y. (2006). Body contouring following massive weight loss resulting from bariatric surgery. Advances in Psychosomatic Medicine, 2, 61–72. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000090964
    Chapel, T. (2004). Constructing and using logic models In program evaluation. In A.Roberts & K.Yeager (Eds.), Evidence-based practice manual (pp. 636–647). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Charlesworth, L. W. (1997). Welfare reform: A case study analysis of closed cases and initial community outcomes. Doctoral dissertation, Virginia Commonwealth University.
    Chassin, L., & Barrera, M. (1993). Substance use escalation and substance use restraint among adolescent children of alcoholics. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 7, 3–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.7.1.3
    Chassin, L., Pitts, S. C., DeLucia, C., & Todd, M. (1999). A longitudinal study of children of alcoholics: Predicting young adult substance use disorders, anxiety, and depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 106–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.108.1.106
    Chen, J. L., & Kennedy, C. (2005). Factors associated with obesity in Chinese-American children. Pediatric Nursing, 31(2), 110–115.
    Chen, Y. M., Ho, S. C., Lam, S. S., & Chan, S. S. (2006). Validity of body mass index and waist circumference in the classification of obesity as compared to percent body fat in Chinese middle-aged women. International Journal of Obesity, 30(6), 918–925. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0803220
    Chilcoat, H. D., & Breslau, N. (1998). Posttraumatic stress disorder and drug disorders: Testing causal pathways. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55(10), 913–917. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.55.10.913
    Children Data Bank. (n.d.). Poverty rates for households with children (poverty line defined as 50 percent of the median equivalent disposable household income) of the world (countrywide). Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.childrendatabank.org/international/childpoverty/childpoverty1.html
    Children's Defense Fund. (2005). Defining poverty and why it matters to children. Retrieved August 10, 2006, from http://www.childrensdefense.org
    Children's Safety Network Economics & Data Analysis Resource Center. (2000). State costs of violence perpetrated by youth. Retrieved June 5, 2005, from http://www.edarc.org/pubs/tables/youth-viol.htm
    Childress, A. R., Mozley, P. D., McElgin, W., Fitzgerald, J., Reivich, M., & O'Brien, C. P. (1999). Limbic activation during cue-induced cocaine craving. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 11–18.
    Christiaensen, L., & Subbarao, K. (2005). Towards an understanding of household vulnerability in rural Kenya. Journal of African Economies, 14(4), 520–528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jae/eji008
    Christopher, K., England, P., McLanahan, S., Ross, K., & Smeeding, T. (2000, January). Gender inequality in poverty in affluent nations: The role of single motherhood and the state. Retrieved July 7, 2005, from http://www.olin.wustl.edu/macarthur/working%20papers/wp-genderinequality.pdf
    Christopher, K., England, P., Ross, K., Smeeding, T., & McLanahan, S. (2000). Women's poverty relative to men's in affluent nations: Single motherhood and the state. Retrieved May 20, 2005, from http://www.jcpr.org/org/research_summaries/v011_num1/html
    Cicchetti, D., & Carlson, V. (Eds.). (1989). Child maltreatment: Theory and research on the causes and consequences of child abuse and neglect. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511665707
    Cicchetti, D., & Rogosch, F. A. (1997). The role of self-organization in the promotion of resilience in maltreated children. Development and Psychopathology, 9, 799–817. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579497001442
    Cicchetti, D., Toth, S., & Lynch, M. (1995). Bowlby's dream comes full circle: The application of attachment theory to risk and psychopathology. In T.Ollendick & R.Prinz (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 17, pp. 1–75). New York: Plenum.
    Claes, S. (2004). Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in psychiatry: From stress to psychopathology. Annals of Medicine, 36(1), 50–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890310017044
    Clarke, A. (1993). Social rearing effects on HPA axis activity over early development and in response to stress in young rhesus monkeys. Developmental Psychobiology, 26, 433–447. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dev.420260802
    Clearinghouse on International Developments in Child, Youth and Family Policies at Columbia University. (n.d.). Family allowance. Retrieved May 20, 2005, from http://www.childpolicyintl.org
    Cloninger, C., Svrakic, D., & Svrakic, N. (1997). A multidimensional psychobio logical model of violence. In A.Raine, P.Brennan, D.Farrington, & S.Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 39–54). New York: Plenum.
    Cloward, R., & Ohlin, L. (1960). Delinquency and opportunity. New York: Free Press.
    Cnaan, R. (1997). Recognizing the role of religious congregations and denominations In social service provision. In M.Reisch & E.Gambrill (Eds.), Social work in the 21st century (pp. 271–284). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Cochran, S. D., Keenan, C., Schober, C., & Mays, V. M. (2000). Estimates of alcohol use and clinical treatment needs among homosexually active men and women in the U.S. population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(6), 1062–1071. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.6.1062
    Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310–357. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.98.2.310
    Coleman, S., Kaplan, J., & Downing, R. (1986). Life cycle and loss: The spiritual vacuum of heroin addiction. Family Process, 25, 5–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.1986.00005.x
    Coles, R. (1990). The spiritual life of children. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Collins, R. L., & McNair, L. D. (2002). Minority women and alcohol use. Alcohol Research & Health, 26(4), 251–258.
    Comas-Diaz, L., & Greene, B. (Eds.). (1995). Women of color: Integrating ethnic and gender identities in psychotherapy. New York: Guilford Press.
    Conger, R. (2004, October 13). Family and peer factors: Child factors. Paper presented at the Preventing Violence State of the Science Conference, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
    Conte, H., Plutchnik, R., Picard, S., Galanter, M., & Jacoby, J. (1991). Sex differences in personality traits and coping styles of hospitalized alcoholics. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 52, 26–32.
    Cook, C. C. H. (2004). Addiction and spirituality. Addiction, 99, 539–551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00715.x
    Cooper, M. (2000). The heartland's raw deal: How meatpacking is creating a new immigrant underclass. In M.Adams, W. J.Blumenfeld, R.Castaneda, H. W.Hackman, M. L.Peters, & X.Zuniga (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice: An anthology on racism, anti-Semitism, sexism, heterosexism, ableism, and classism (pp. 99–104). New York: Routledge.
    Corcoran, K., & Fisher, J. (2000). Measures for clinical practice: A sourcebook (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Free Press.
    Corcoran, M., Danziger, S., & Tolman, R. (2004). Long term employment of African-American and white welfare recipients and the role of persistent health and mental health problems. Women & Health, 39(4), 21–40. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J013v39n04_02
    Costa, F. M., Jessor, R., & Turbin, M. S. (1999). Transition into adolescent problem drinking: The role of psychosocial risk and protective factors. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60, 480–490.
    Cotter, A., & O'Sullivan, M. (2004). Update on managing HIV in pregnancy: It's imperative to identify more HIV-infected women earlier in pregnancy through HIV testing and to reduce mother-to-child transmission of the virus that causes AIDS. Contemporary OB/GYN, 49(11), 57–66.
    Courtney, M., Needell, B., & Wulczyn, F. (2004). Unintended consequences of the push for accountability: The case of national child welfare performance standards. Children & Youth Services Review, 26(12), 1141–1154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.05.005
    Courtney, M., & Skyles, A. (2003). Racial disproportionality in the child welfare system. Children & Youth Services Review, 25(5/6), 355–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0190-7409%2803%2900025-2
    Covington, J. (2003). The violent black male: Conceptions of race in criminological theories. In D.Hawkins (Ed.), Violent crime: Assessing race and ethnic differences (pp. 254–279). New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499456.016
    Cox, C. (1982). An interaction model of client health behavior: Theoretical prescription for research. Advances in Nursing Science, 5, 41–56.
    Craddock, N., & Forty, L. (2006). Genetics of affective (mood) disorders. European Journal of Human Genetics, 14, 660–668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201549
    Crittenden, A. (2001). The price of motherhood: Why the most important job in the world is still the least valued. New York: Metropolitan Books.
    Cross, T., & Miller, A. B. (2006). Ethnicity in child maltreatment research: A replication of Behl et al.'s content analysis. Child Maltreatment, 11(1), 16–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559505278272
    Cruess, D., Antoni, M., Schneiderman, N., Ironson, G., McCabe, P., Fernandez, J., et al. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral stress management increases free testosterone and decreases psychological distress in HIV-seropositive men. Health Psychology, 19(1), 12–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.19.1.12
    Cruess, S., Antoni, M., Kilbourn, K., Ironson, G., Klimas, N., Fletcher, M., et al. (2000). Optimism, distress, and immunologic status in HIV infected gay men following Hurricane Andrew. International Journal of Behavior Medicine, 7, 160–182. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15327558IJBM0702_5
    Cunningham, R., Stiffman, A., Dore, P., & Earls, F. (1994). The association of physical and sexual abuse with HIV risk behaviors in adolescence and young adulthood: Implications for public health. Child Abuse and Neglect, 18(3), 233–245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0145-2134%2894%2990108-2
    Curtis, W. J., & Nelson, C. A. (2003). Toward building a better brain: Neurobehavioral outcomes, mechanisms, and processes of environmental enrichment. In S. S.Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability (pp. 463–488). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615788.021
    Cusack, K., Falsetti, S., & De Arellano, M. (2002). Gender considerations in the psychometric assessment of PTSD. In R.Kimerling, P.Ouimette, & J.Wolfe (Eds.), Gender & PTSD (pp. 150–176). New York: Guilford Press.
    Cutrona, C., Russell, D., Brown, P., Clark, L., Hessling, R., & Gardner, K. (2005). Neighborhood context, personality, and stressful life events as predictors of depression among African American women. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 114(1), 3–15. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.114.1.3
    Dalgard, O., Dowrick, C., Lehtinen, V., Vazquez-Barquero, J., Casey, P., Wilkinson, G., et al. (2006). Negative life events, social support and gender difference in depression: A multinational community survey with data from the ODIN study. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 41(6), 444–451. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-006-0051-5
    Dalmida, S. G. (2006). Spirituality, mental health, physical health, and health-related quality of life among women with HIV/AIDS: Integrating spirituality into mental health care. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 27, 185–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01612840500436958
    Dancy, B., & Berbaum, M. (2005). Condom use predictors for low-income African American women. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 27(1), 28–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0193945904268342
    Daro, D., & Donnelly, A. C. (2002). Child abuse prevention: Accomplishments and challenges. In J. E. B.Myers, L.Berliner, J.Briere, C. T.Hendrix, T. A.Reid, & C. A.Jenny (Eds.), The APSAC Handbook on Child Maltreatment (pp. 431–448). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    D'Augelli, A. R., Grossman, A. H., Salter, N. P., Vasey, J. J., Starks, M. T., & Sinclair, K. O. (2005). Predicting the suicide attempts of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youth. Suicide and Life Threatening Behavior, 35(6), 646–660. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/suli.2005.35.6.646
    Davis, D. R., & DiNitto, D. M. (1996). Gender differences in social and psychological problems of substance abusers: A comparison to nonsubstance abusers. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 28(2), 135–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.1996.10524386
    Davis, J. L. (2004). Five ways pets can improve your health. Retrieved May 18, 2005, from http://my.webmd.com/content/Article/81/97060.htm?printing=true2005
    De Lange, N., Greyling, L., & Leslie, G. (2005). What do we know about the perception educators have of HIV/AIDS and its impact on the holistic development of adolescent learners?International Journal of Adolescence & Youth, 12(1/2), 29–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2005.9747942
    DelBello, M. P., & Strakowski, S. M. (2003). Understanding the problem of co-occurring mood and substance use disorders. In J. J.Westermeyer, R. D.Weiss, & D. M.Ziedonis (Eds.), Integrated treatment for mood and substance use disorders (pp. 17–41). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Demmer, C. (2004). Treatment adherence among clients in AIDS service organizations. Journal of HIV/AIDS & Social Services, 2(3), 33–47. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J187v02n03_04
    Dempsey, M., Overstreet, S., & Moely, B. (2000). “Approach” and “avoidance” coping and PTSD symptoms in inner-city youth. Current Psychology, 19, 28–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12144-000-1002-z
    Depression Guideline Panel. (1993). Retrieved June 16, 2006, from http://www.allaboutdepression.com/res_08.html
    Derezotes, D. (2000). Evaluation of yoga and meditation trainings with adolescent sex offenders. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 17(2), 97–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1007506206353
    Devlin, M. J., Yanovski, S. Z., & Wilson, G. T. (2000). Obesity: What mental health professionals need to know. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157(6), 854–866. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.157.6.854
    DeVries, M.W. (1996). Trauma In cultural perspective. In B.A.Van der Kolk, A. C.McFarlane, & L.Weisaeth (Eds.), Traumatic stress (pp. 398–413). New York: Guilford Press.
    Deykin, E. Y., & Buka, S. L. (1997). Prevalence and risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder among chemically dependent adolescents. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 752–757.
    Dhiman, R. K., Duseja, A., & Chawla, Y. (2005). Asians need different criteria for defining overweight and obesity. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165(19), 2169–2175.
    Diamond, G. S., Reis, B. F., Diamond, G. M., Sinqueland, L., & Isaacs, L. (2002). Attachment-based family therapy for depressed adolescents: A treatment development study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41(10), 1190–1197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200210000-00008
    Diamond, J. (1999). Guns, germs, and steel: The fates of human societies. London: W. W. Norton.
    Diaz, R. (1998). Latino gay men and HIV: Culture, sexuality and risk behavior. New York: Routledge.
    DiClemente, C. C. (2003). Addiction and change. New York: Guilford Press.
    DiClemente, R. (1991). Predictors of HIV-preventive sexual behavior in a high-risk adolescent population: The influence of perceived peer norms and sexual communication on incarcerated adolescents’ consistent use of condoms. Journal of Adolescent Health, 12, 70–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0197-0070%2891%2990052-N
    Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee. (2006). 2005 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee report. Retrieved June 16, 2006, from http://www.health.gove/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/report/
    Dietz, W. H. (1995). Does hunger cause obesity?Pediatrics, 95, 766–767.
    DiIorio, C., Parsons, M., Lehr, S., Adame, D., & Carlone, J. (1992). Measurement of safe sexual behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Nursing Research, 41, 203–208.
    DiLorenzo, P., Johnson, R., & Bussey, M. (2001). The role of spirituality in the recovery process. Child Welfare, 80(2), 257–273.
    Dinan, B., McCall, G., & Gibson, D. (2004). Community violence and PTSD in selected South African townships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19(6), 727–742. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260504263869
    Ding, L., Landon, B., Wilson, I., Wong, M., Shapiro, M., & Cleary, P. (2005). Predictors and consequences of negative physician attitudes toward HIV-infected injection drug users. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165(6), 618–623. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.165.6.618
    DiNitto, D. M. (2003). Social welfare: Politics and public policy (
    5th ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Dirkzwager, A. J. E., Bramsen, I., & Van der Ploeg, H. M. (2005). Factors associated with posttraumatic stress among peacekeeping soldiers. Anxiety, Stress, and Coping, 18, 37–51. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10615800412336418
    Dixon, J. B., Dixon, M. E., & O'Brien, P. E. (2003). Depression in association with severe obesity. Archives of Internal Medicine, 163(17), 2058–2065. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.163.17.2058
    Doi, Y., Roberts, R., Takeuchi, K., & Suzuki, S. (2001). Multiethnic comparison of adolescent major depression based on the DSM-IV criteria in a U.S.-Japan study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(11), 1308–1315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200111000-00011
    Dollar, D. (2000). Governance and social justice in Caribbean states. Washington, DC: Development Research Group, The World Bank.
    Donnellan, B., Ge, X., & Wenk, E. (2000). Cognitive abilities in adolescent-limited and life-course-persistent criminal offenders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 396–402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.109.3.396
    Dougherty, M., James, W. H., Love, C. T., & Miller, W R. (2002). Substance abuse among displaced and indigenous peoples. In W R.Miller & C. M.Weisner (Eds.), Changing substance abuse through health and social systems (pp. 225–239). New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0669-0_17
    Drake, B., & Zuravin, S. (1998). Bias in child maltreatment reporting: Revisiting the myth of classlessness. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68(2), 295–304. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0080338
    Driscoll, A., Sugland, B., Manlove, J., & Papillo, A. (2005). Community opportunity, perceptions of opportunity, and the odds of an adolescent birth. Youth & Society, 37(1), 33–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X04267493
    Dubini, A., Mannheimer, R., & Pancheri, P. (2001). Depression in the community: Results of the first Italian survey. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16(1), 49–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004850-200101000-00006
    Dubowitz, H., & DePanfilis, D. (2000). Handbook for child protection practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452205489
    Dubrow, N., & Garbarino, J. (1989). Living in a war zone: Mothers and young children in a public housing development. Journal of Child Welfare, 68, 3–20.
    Dujon, D., & Withorn, A. (Eds.). (1996). For crying out loud: Women's poverty in the United States. Boston: South End Press.
    Dulmus, C., Ely, G., & Wodarski, J. (2003). Children's psychological response to parental victimization: How do girls and boys differ?Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 7(3/4), 23–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J137v07n03_03
    Dunkle, K., Jewkes, R., Brown, H., Gray, G., McIntryre, J., & Harlow, S. (2004). Transactional sex among women in Soweto, South Africa: Prevalence, risk factors and association with HIV infection. Social Science & Medicine, 59(8), 1581–1592. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2004.02.003
    DuRant, R. H., Getts, A., Cadenhead, C., Emans, S. J., & Woods, E. R. (1995). Exposure to violence and victimization and depression, hopelessness and purpose in life among adolescents living in and around public housing. Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 16(4), 233–237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004703-199508000-00004
    Dybicz, P. (2004). An inquiry into practice wisdom. Families in Society, 85(2), 197–203.
    Ebbeling, C. S., Pawlak, D. B., & Ludwig, D. S. (2002). Childhood obesity: Public health crisis, common sense cure. The Lancet, 360, 473–482. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2802%2909678-2
    Edin, K., & Lein, L. (1997). Making ends meet: How single mothers survive welfare and low-wage work. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Edleson, J. L., Daro, D., & Pinderhughes, H. (2004). Finding a common agenda for preventing child maltreatment, youth violence, and domestic violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19(3), 279–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260503261150
    Edwards, V. J., Holden, G. W., & Felitti, V. J. (2003). Relationship between multiple forms of childhood maltreatment and adult mental health in community respondents: Results from the adverse childhood experiences study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1453–1460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.8.1453
    Egeland, B. (1997). Mediators of the effects of child maltreatment on developmental adaptation In adolescence. In D.Cicchetti & S.Toth (Eds.), Rochester symposium on developmental psychopathology: Vol. 8. The effects of trauma on the developmental process (pp. 403–434). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.
    Ehlers, A., Clark, D. M., Hackmann, A., McManus, F., & Fennell, M. (2005). Cognitive therapy for PTSD: Development and evaluation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 43, 413–431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2004.03.006
    Ehrenreich, B. (2001). Nickel and dimed: On (not) getting by in America. New York: Owl Books.
    Ehrenreich, B., & Hochschild, A. R. (2002). Global woman: Nannies, maids, and sex workers in the new economy. New York: Metropolitan Books.
    Eikelis, N., & Esler, M. (2005). The neurobiology of human obesity. Experimental Physiology, 90(5), 673–682. http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2005.031385
    Elder, G., Jr. (1974). Children of the Great Depression. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Eliadis, E. E. (2006). The role of social work in the childhood obesity epidemic. Social Work, 51 (1), 86–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/51.1.86
    Elias, M. (2004, January 22). Antidepressants and suicide. USA Today, p. 7D.
    Elkins, W. L., Cohen, D. A., Koralewicz, L. M., & Taylor, S. N. (2004). After school activities, overweight, and obesity among inner city youth. Journal of Adolescence, 27(2), 181–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2003.10.010
    Ellen, J. (2003). The next generation of HIV prevention for adolescent females in the United States: Linking behavioral and epidemiologic sciences to reduce incidence of HIV. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 80(4), ii40-iii49.
    Ellickson, P., Saner, H., & McGuigan, K. (1997). Profiles of violent youth: Substance use and other concurrent problems. American Journal of Public Health, 87(6), 985–991. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.87.6.985
    Elliott, D. (2004, October 14). Commonalities among safe and effective interventions. Paper presented at the Preventing Violence State of the Science Conference, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
    Emlet, C. A., & Poindexter, C. C. (2004). Unserved, unseen, and unheard: Integrating programs for HIV-infected and HIV-affected older adults. Health & Social Work, 29(2), 86–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/29.2.86
    Engstrom, D. W., & Okamura, A. (2004). A plague of our time: Torture, human rights, and social work. Families in Society, 85(3), 291–301.
    Ericson, N. (2001). Substance abuse: The nation's number one health problem. Princeton, NJ: Robert Wood Johnson Foundation.
    Eriksson, J. (2005). The fetal origins hypothesis—10 years on. British Medical Journal, 330, 1096–1097. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1096
    Ernst, C., Olson, A., Pinel, J., Lam, R., & Christie, B. (2006). Antidepressant effects of exercise: Evidence for an adult-neurogenesis hypothesis?Journal of Psychiatry and Neuroscience, 31(2), 84–92.
    Ernst, J. S., Meyer, M., & DePanflis, D. (2004). Housing characteristics and adequacy of the physical care of children: An exploratory analysis. Child Welfare, 83(5), 437–452.
    European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction. (2003). National prevalence estimates of problem drug use in the European Union, 1995–2000: Final Report CT.00.RTX.23. Lisbon, Spain: Author.
    Everson, G., Kelsberg, G., & Nashelsky, J. (2003). How effective is gastric bypass for weight loss?Journal of Family Practice, 53(11), 914–918.
    Fabri, M. (2001). Reconstructing safety: Adjustments to the therapeutic frame in the treatment of survivors of political torture. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32, 452–457. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.32.5.452
    Fabricatore, A. N., Crerand, C. E., Wadden, T. A., Sarwer, D. B., & Krasucki, J. L. (2006). How do mental health professionals evaluate candidates for bariatric surgery? Survey results. Obesity Surgery, 16(5), 567–573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1381/096089206776944986
    Fabricatore, A. N., Wadden, T. A., Sarwer, D. B., Crerand, C. E., Kuehnel, R. H., Lipschutz, P. E., et al. (2006). Self-reported eating behaviors of extremely obese persons seeking bariatric surgery: A factor analytic approach. Obesity, 14(2), 83S-89S. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2006.287
    Faith, M., Matz, P., & Jorge, M. (2002). Obesity-depression associations in the population. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53(4), 935–942. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3999%2802%2900308-2
    Falicov, C. (2003). Immigrant family processes. In F.Walsh (Ed.), Normal family processes: Growing diversity and complexity (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 280–300). New York: Guilford Press.
    Faller, K. C. (1999). Maltreatment in early childhood: Tools for research-based intervention. New York: Haworth Maltreatment & Trauma Press.
    Fallot, R. D., & Heckman, J. P. (2005). Religious/spiritual coping among women trauma survivors with mental health and substance use disorders. Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 32(2), 215–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02287268
    Farrington, D. (1987). Implications of biological findings for criminological research. In S.Mednick, T.Moffitt, & A.Stack (Eds.), The causes of crime: New biological approaches (pp. 42–64). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511753282.005
    Farrington, D. (1989). Early predictors of adolescent aggression and adult violence. Violence and Victims, 4, 79–100.
    Farrington, D. (1997). The relationship between low resting heart rate and violence. In A.Raine, P.Brennan, D.Farrington, & S.Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 89–105). New York: Plenum.
    Farwell, N., & Cole, J. B. (2002). Community as a context of healing. International Journal of Mental Health, 30(4), 19–41.
    Fass, P. S., & Mason, M. A. (Eds.). (2000). Childhood in America. New York: New York University Press.
    Fava, M. (2000). Weight gain and antidepressants. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61 (Suppl. 11), 37–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.v61n1109
    Fawzi, W., Msamanga, G., Spiegelman, D., Wei, R., Kapiga, S., Villamor, E., et al. (2004). A randomized trial of multivitamin supplements and HIV disease progression and mortality. New England Journal of Medicine, 351(1), 23–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa040541
    FDA seeks warning for depression drugs. (2004, March 22). Richmond Times Dispatch, p. A1.
    Feagin, J. R. (2000). Racist America: Roots, current realities and future reparations. New York: Routledge.
    Fears, D. (2005, February 7). U.S. HIV cases soaring among Black women. The Washington Post, p. A01.
    Federal Interagency Forum on Child and Family Statistics. (2003). America's children: Key national indicators of well-being 2003. Retrieved April 20, 2005, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubs/childstats/report2003.pdf
    Feldman, M. (2003). The challenges of working with perinatally infected adolescents: Clinical and concrete possibilities. In R.Willinger & A.Rice (Eds.), A history of AIDS social work in hospitals: A daring response to an epidemic (pp. 277–286). New York: Haworth Press.
    Felitti, V J., Anda, R. F., NordenbergD., WilliamsonD. F., Spitz, A. M., Edwards, V., et al. (1998). Relationship of childhood abuse and household dysfunction to many of the leading causes of death in adults: The Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 14, 245–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0749-3797%2898%2900017-8
    Fergusson, D., Horwood, L., & Beautrais, A. L. (1999). Is sexual orientation related to mental health problems and suicidality in young people?Archives of General Psychiatry, 56(10), 876–880. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.56.10.876
    Fergusson, D., Horwood, L., & Lynskey, M. (1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 1365–1374. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199610000-00024
    Fergusson, D., Horwood, L., & Nagin, D. (2000). Offending trajectories in a New Zealand birth cohort. Criminology, 38(2), 525–551. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2000.tb00898.x
    Fernandez, J. R., Redden, D. T., Pietrobelli, A., & Allison, D. B. (2004). Waist circumference percentiles in nationally representative samples of African-American, European-American, and Mexican-American children and adolescents. Journal of Pediatrics, 145(4), 439–444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2004.06.044
    Ferraro, V. (2003). Globalizing weakness: Is global poverty a threat to the interests of states? Retrieved May 27, 2005, from http://wwwwilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=news.ietm&news_id=34999
    Ferris, C., & DeVries, G. (1997). Ethological models for examining the neurobiology of aggressive and affiliative behaviors. In D.Stoff, J.Breiling, & J.Maser (Eds.), Handbook for antisocial behavior (pp. 255–268). New York: Wiley.
    Field, T., Hernandez-Reif, M., Diego, M., Schanberg, S., & Kuhn, C. (2005). Cortisol decreases and serotonin and dopamine increase following massage therapy. International Journal of Neuroscience, 115(10), 1397–1413. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00207450590956459
    Field, T., & Winterfeld, A. P. (2000/2003). Tough problems, tough choices: Guidelines for needs-based service planning in child welfare. Englewood, CO: Casey Family Programs & Annie E. Casey Foundation.
    Fields, S. (2004). The fat of the land: Do agricultural subsidies foster poor health?Environmental Health Perspective, 112(14), A820-A823.
    Finkelhor, D. (1984). Child sexual abuse: New theory and research. New York: Free Press.
    Finkelhor, D. (1994). Current information on the scope and nature of child sexual abuse. The Future of Children, 4(2), 31–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1602522
    Finkelstein, E. A., RuhmC. J., & Kosa, K. M. (2004). Economic causes and consequences of obesity. Annual Review of Public Health, 26(3), 239–257.
    First, J., & Cardenas, J. (1986). A minority view on testing. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice, 5, 6–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-3992.1986.tb00463.x
    Fishbein, D., Hyde, C., Coe, B., & Paschall, M. J. (2004). Neurocognitive and physiological prerequisites for prevention of adolescent drug abuse. Journal of Primary Prevention, 24(4), 471–495. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JOPP.0000024802.72523.b9
    Fisher, G. M. (1997, Winter). The development and history of the U.S. poverty thresholds: A brief overview. Newsletter of the Government Statistics Section and the Social Statistics Section of the American Statistical Association, pp. 6–7.
    Fisher, J., & Fisher, W. (1992). Changing AIDS-risk behaviour. Psychological Bulletin, 111(3), 455–474. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.111.3.455
    Fitchett, G., Rybarczyk, B. D., DeMarco, G. A., & Nicholas, J. J. (1999). The role of religion in medical rehabilitation outcomes: A longitudinal study. Rehabilitation Psychology, 44(4), 333–353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0090-5550.44.4.333
    Fitzpatrick, K. M. (1993). Exposure to violence and presence of depression among low income, African-American youth. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61(3), 528–531. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.61.3.528
    Fitzpatrick, K. M., & Boldizar, J. P. (1993). The prevalence and consequences of exposure to violence among African-American youth. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 32(2), 424–430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199303000-00026
    Flegal, K. M., Troiano, R. P., Pamuk, E. R., Kuczmarski, R. J., & Campbell, S. M. (1995). The influence of smoking cessation on the prevalence of overweight in the United States. New England Journal of Medicine, 333, 1165–1170. http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJM199511023331801
    Fleishman, J., Sherbourne, C., Cleary, P., Wu, A., Crystal, S., & Hays, R. (2003). Patterns of coping among persons with HIV infection: Configurations, correlates, and change. American Journal of Community Psychology, 32(1/2), 187–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025667512009
    Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., & Friedman, M. J. (Eds.). (2000). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. New York: Guilford Press.
    Foa, E. B., & Kozak, M. J. (1986). Emotional processing of fear: Exposure to corrective information. Psychological Bulletin, 99, 20–35. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.99.1.20
    Foa, E. B., Molnar, C., & Cashman, L. (1995). Change in rape narratives during exposure therapy for PTSD. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8(4), 675–690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jts.2490080409
    Follette, V M., Polusny, M. M., & Milbeck, K. (1994). Mental health and law enforcement professionals: Trauma history, psychological symptoms, and impact providing services to child sexual abuse survivors. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 25, 275–282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.25.3.275
    Food and Drug Administration. (2006). Questions and answers about trans fat nutrition labeling. Retrieved June 16, 2006, from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/qatrans2.html
    Ford, D. E., & Kamerow, D B. (1989). Epidemiologic study of sleep disturbance and psychiatric disorders: An opportunity for prevention. Journal of the American Medical Association, 262(11), 1479–1484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1989.03430110069030
    Forehand, R., & Jones, D. J. (2003). Neighborhood violence and coparent conflict: Interactive influence on child psychosocial adjustment. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31(6), 591–604. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026206122470
    Fortune, A., & Reid, W. (1999). Research in social work (
    3rd ed.
    ). New York: Columbia University Press.
    Foster, J. D., Kuperminc, G. P., & Price, A. W. (2004). Gender differences in posttraumatic stress and related symptoms among inner-city minority youth exposed to community violence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33(1), 59–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1027386430859
    Fram, M. S. (2004). Research for progressive change: Bourdieu and social work. Social Service Review, 78(4), 553–576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/424544
    Francis, D. D., & Meaney, M. J. (2002). Maternal care and the development of stress responses. In J. T.Cacioppo, G. G.Berntson, R.Adolphs, C. S.Carter, R. J.Davidson, M. K.McClintock, et al. (Eds.), Foundations in social neuro-science (pp. 763–773). Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
    Frank, J. W., Moore, R. S., & Ames, G. M. (2000). Historical and cultural roots of drinking problems among American Indians. American Journal of Public Health, 90(3), 344–351. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.90.3.344
    Frank, L., Andresen, M. A., & Schmid, T. L. (2004). Obesity relationships with community design, physical activity, and time spent in cars. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(2), 87–96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2004.04.011
    Franklin, C., & Jordan, C. (2003). An integrative skills assessment approach. In C.Jordan & C.Franklin (Eds.), Clinical assessment for social workers: Quantitative and qualitative methods (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 1–52). Chicago: Lyceum.
    Fraser, M. (2004). The ecology of childhood: A multisystems perspective. In M.Fraser (Ed.), Risk and resilience in childhood: An ecological perspective (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 1–12). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers Press.
    Fraser, M., & Galinsky, M. (2004). Risk and resilience in childhood: Toward an evidence-based model of practice. In M.Fraser (Ed.), Risk and resilience in childhood: An ecological perspective (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 385–402). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers Press.
    Frasure-Smith, N., Lesperance, F., & Talajic, M. (1995). Depression and 18-month prognosis after myocardial infarction. Circulation, 91, 999–1005. http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/01.CIR.91.4.999
    Freisthier, B., Merritt, D. H., & Lascala, E. A. (2006). Understanding the ecology of child maltreatment: A review of the literature and directions for future research. Child Maltreatment, 11(3), 263–280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1077559506289524
    Friedman, M. J., Charney, D. S., & Deutch, A. Y. (1995). Neurobiological and clinical consequences of stress: From normal adaptation to PTSD. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven.
    Friedman, P. (2003, April). An update on the earned income and child tax credits. Resources for Welfare Decisions, 7(6). Retrieved June 30, 2005, from http://www.financeproject.org/Publications/anupdateoneitcRN.htm
    Fritz, C. (2005). Executive summary: Older women and poverty: A demographic profile. Washington, DC: Population Resource Center.
    Frongillo, E. A. (2003). Understanding obesity and program participation in the context of poverty and food insecurity. Journal of Nutrition, 133(7), 2117–2118.
    Fujiura, G. T., & Yamaki, K. (2000). Trends in demography of childhood poverty and disabilityExceptional Children, 66, 187–199.
    Functional Family Therapy. (2003). Functional family therapy provides positive family strengthening resources to youth at risk and in need. Retrieved January 10, 2005, from http://www.fftinc.com/whatis.php
    Galambos, C. M. (2004). The changing face of AIDS. Health & Social Work, 29(2), 83–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/29.2.83
    Galea, S., Ahern, J., Rudenstine, S., Wallace, Z., & Vlahov, D. (2005). Urban built environment and depression: A multilevel analysis. Journal of Epidemiological Community Health, 59(10), 822–827. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jech.2005.033084
    Gallegos, S. M. (1998). Providing services to HIV-positive women. In D. M.Aronstein & B. J.Thompson (Eds.), HIV and social work: A practitioner's guide (pp. 431–443). New York: Haworth Press.
    Gambrill, E. (1990). Critical thinking in clinical practice: Improving the accuracy of judgments and decisions about clients. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Gambrill, E. (2003a). Ethics, science, and the helping professions: A conversation with Robyn Dawes. Journal of Social Work Education, 39(1), 27–41.
    Gambrill, E. (2003b). From the editor: Evidence-based practice: Sea change or the emperor's new clothes?Journal of Social Work Education, 39(1), 3–23.
    Gambrill, E. (2004). Contributions of critical thinking and evidence-based practice to the fulfillment of the ethical obligations of the professionals. In H. D.Briggs & T. L.Rzepnicki (Eds.), Using evidence in social work practice (pp. 3–19). Chicago: Lyceum.
    Gambrill, E. D. (2005). Decision making in child welfare: Errors and their context. Children & Youth Services Review, 27(4), 347–352. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.12.005
    Gans, H.J. (1995). The war against the poor: The underclass and antipoverty policy. New York: Basic Books.
    Garbarino, J. (1999). Lost boys: Why our sons turn violent and how we can save them. New York: Free Press.
    Garbarino, J., & Crouter, A. (1978). Defining the community context for parent-child relations: The correlates of child maltreatment. Child Development, 49, 604–616. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1128227
    Garbarino, J., Dubrow, N., Kostelny, K., & Pardo, C. (1992). Children in anger. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Gardner, H. (1993). Multiple intelligences: The theory in practice. New York: Basic Books.
    Gardner, H. (1999). Intelligence reframed: Multiple intelligences for the 21st century. New York: Basic Books.
    Gardner, L., Frank, D., & Amankwaa, L. (1998). A comparison of sexual behavior and self-esteem in young adult females with positive and negative tests for sexually transmitted diseases. American Black Nurses Foundation Journal, 9(4), 89–94.
    Garrison, C. Z., Addy, A., Jackson, K. L., McKeown, R., & Waller, J. L. (1991). The CES-D as a screen for depression and other psychiatric disorders in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 636–641. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199107000-00017
    Gartner, R. (1990). The victims of homicide: A temporal and cross-national comparison. American Sociological Review, 55, 92–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2095705
    Gatz, M. (2003). Aging women and depression. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 34(1), 3–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.34.1.3
    Gelles, R. (1997). The book of David: How preserving families can cost children's lives. New York: Basic Books.
    George, L., Larson, D., Koenig, H., & McCullough, M. (2000). Spirituality and health: What we know, what we need to know. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 102–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2000.19.1.102
    Gershoff, E. T. (2003). Low income and the development of America's kindergartners: Living at the edge (Research Brief No. 4). New York: Columbia University, National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved June 2, 2005, from http://www.nccp.org/media/lat03d-text.pdf
    Gfroerer, J., & De La Rosa, M. (1993). Protective and risk factors associated with drug use among Hispanic youth. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 12, 87–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J069v12n02_07
    Giaconia, R. M., Reinherz, H. Z., Silverman, A. B., Pakiz, B., Frost, A. K., & Cohen, E. (1995). Traumas and posttraumatic stress disorder in a community population of older adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1369–1379. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199510000-00023
    Giancola, P. R., & Moss, H. B. (1998). Executive cognitive functioning in alcohol use disorders. Recent Developments in Alcoholism, 14, 227–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/0-306-47148-5_10
    Gibbs, L., & Gambrill, E. (1999). Critical thinking for social workers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Gibbs, L. E. (2003). Evidence-based practice for the helping professions: A practical guide with integrated multimedia. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomson Learning.
    Gibson, C., & Tibbetts, S. (2000). A biosocial interaction in predicting early onset of offending. Psychological Reports, 86, 509–518. http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/pr0.2000.86.2.509
    Gil, A. G., Wagner, E. F., & Tubman, J. G. (2004). Associations between early-adolescent substance use and subsequent young-adult substance use disorders and psychiatric disorders among a multiethnic male sample in South Florida. American Journal of Public Health, 94(9), 1603–1609. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.94.9.1603
    Gil, D. (1970). Violence against children: Physical child abuse in the United States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Gil, S., Caspi, Y., Ben-Ari, I. Z., Koren, D., & Klein, E. (2005). Does memory of a traumatic event increase the risk for posttraumatic stress disorder in patients with traumatic brain injury? A prospective study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(5), 963–969. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.5.963
    Gilbert, M. C. (2003). Childhood depression: A risk factor perspective. In M. E.Fraser (Eds.), Risk and resilience in childhood (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 315–346). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers Press.
    Gilens, M. (1999). Why Americans hate welfare. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Gingsberg, L., Nackerud, L., & Larrison, C. R. (2004). Human biology for social workers: Development, ecology, genetics, and health. Boston: Pearson.
    Ginzburg, K., Solomon, Z., Dekel, R., & Neria, Y. (2003). Battlefield functioning and chronic PTSD: Associations with perceived self efficacy and causal attribution. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(3), 463–476. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869%2802%2900066-1
    Glaser, D. (2002). Emotional abuse and neglect (psychological maltreatment): A conceptual framework. Child Abuse & Neglect, 26(6/7), 697–714. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2802%2900342-3
    Gluckman, P., Cutfield, W., Hofman, P., & Hanson, M. (2005). The fetal, neonatal, and infant environments: The long-term consequences for disease risk. Early Human Development, 81(1), 51–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2004.10.003
    Gluckman, P., & Hanson, M. (2004). Living with the past: Evolution, development, and patterns of disease. Science, 305(17), 1733–1736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1095292
    Gluckman, P., Hanson, M., Morton, S., & Pinal, C. (2005). Life-long echoes: A critical analysis of the developmental origins of adult disease model. Biology of the Neonate, 87(2), 127–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000082311
    Goicoechea-Balbona, A. (1998). Children with HIV/AIDS and their families: A successful social work intervention based on the culturally specific health care model. Health & Social Work, 23(1), 61–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/23.1.61
    Golan, M., & Crow, S. (2004). Parents are key players in the prevention and treatment of weight-related problems. Nutrition Reviews, 62(1), 39–50. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-4887.2004.tb00005.x
    Goldapple, K., Segal, Z., & Garson, C. (2004). Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61 (1), 34–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.61.1.34
    Goldman, H., Rye, P., & Sirovatka, P. (Eds.). (1999). Mental health: A report of the surgeon general. Retrieved June 17, 2006, from http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/mentalhealth/home.html
    Goldman, J., & Harlow, L. (1993). Self-perception variables that mediate AIDS-preventive behavior in college students. Health Psychology, 12(6), 489–498. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.12.6.489
    Goldman, M. S., Brown, S. A., Christiansen, B. A., & Smith, G. T. (1991). Alcoholism and memory: Broadening the scope of alcohol expectancy research. Psychological Bulletin, 110, 137–146. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.110.1.137
    Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam.
    Gonzales, E., Kulkarni, H., Bolivar, H., Mangano, A., Sanchez, R., & Catano, G. (2005). The influence of CCL3L1 gene-containing segmental duplications on HIV-1/AIDS susceptibility. Science, 307(5714), 1422–1424. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1110009
    Goode, J., & Maskovsky, J. (2001). The new poverty studies: The ethnography of power, politics, and impoverished people in the United States. New York: New York University Press.
    GoodhandJ. (2001, May). Violent conflict, poverty, and chronic poverty. (Working Paper No. 6). Manchester, England: Chronic Poverty Research Centre.
    Goodman, E., & Whitaker, R. C. (2002). A prospective study of the role of depression in the development and persistence of adolescent obesity. Pediatrics, 110(3), 497–504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.110.3.497
    Goodson-Lawes, J. (1994). Ethnicity and poverty as research variables: Family studies with Mexican and Vietnamese newcomers. In E.Sherman & W.Reid (Eds.), Qualitative research in social work (pp. 22–31). New York: Columbia University Press.
    Goodwin, D.W. (1988). Is alcoholism hereditary? (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Ballantine.
    Gorbach, P., Sopheab, H., Phalla, T., Leng, H., Mills, S., Bennett, A., et al. (2000). Sexual bridging by Cambodian men: Potential importance for general population spread of STD and HIV epidemics. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 27(6), 320–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00007435-200007000-00004
    Gordon-Larsen, P., Adair, L. S., & Popkin, B. M. (2003). The relationship of ethnicity, socioeconomic factors, and overweight in U.S. adolescents. Obesity Research, 11(1), 121–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2003.20
    Gorman, J. (2006). Gender differences in depression and response to psychotropic medication. Gender Medicine, 3(2), 93–109. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1550-8579%2806%2980199-3
    Gorman-Smith, D., & Tolan, P. (1998). The role of exposure to community violence and developmental problems among inner-city youth. Development and Psychopathology, 10, 101–166. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579498001539
    Gorman-Smith, D., & Tolan, P. (2003). Positive adaptation among youth exposed to community violence. In S.Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp. 392–413). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615788.018
    Gottman, J., & Katz, L. (1989). Effects of marital discord on young children's peer interaction and health. Developmental Psychology, 25, 373–381. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.25.3.373
    Gottschalk, P., & Danziger, S. (1993). Family structure, family size, and family income. In S.Danziger & P.Gottschalk (Eds.), Uneven tides (pp. 167–193). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Gowing, L., Farrell, M., Bornemann, R., & Ali, R. (2004). Substitution treatment of injecting opiod users for prevention of HIV infection. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 4. Retrieved February 9, 2005, from http://www.cochrane.org/cochrane/revabstr/AB004145.htm
    Graff, H. (1995). Conflicting paths: Growing up in America. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Grayson, C. E. (2004a). Depression in children. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://my.webMD.com/content/article/45/1663_51230htm?z
    Grayson, C. E. (2004b). Depression in elderly. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://my.webMD.com/content/article/45/1663_51234htm?z
    Grayson, C. E. (2004c). Depression in men. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://my.webMD.com/content/article/45/1663_51232htm?z
    Grayson, C. E. (2004d). Depression in teens. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://my.webMD.com/content/article/45/1663_51231htm?z
    Grayson, C. E. (2004e). Depression in women. Retrieved May 10, 2005, from http://my.webMD.com/content/article/45/1663_51233htm?z
    Greenberg, K. (1996). Honor and slavery. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Greenberg, P. E., Kessler, R. C., Birnbaum, H. G., Leong, S. A., Lowe, S. W., Berlund, P. A., et al. (2003). The economic burden of depression in the United States: How did it change between 1990 and 2000?Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64(12), 1465–1475. http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.v64n1211
    Greenblatt, J. (1998). Adolescent self-reported behaviors and their association with marijuana use. Retrieved June 16, 2006, from http://oas.samhsa.gov/NHSDA/Treatan?treana17.htm
    Greenfield, S. F. (2003). The assessment of mood and substance use disorders. In J. J.Westermeyer, R. D.Weiss, & D. M.Ziedonis (Eds.), Integrated treatment for mood and substance use disorders (pp. 42–67). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
    Greenwald, B. S., Kramer-Ginsberg, E., Bogerts, B., Ashtari, M. N., Aupperle, P., Wu, H., et al. (1997). Qualitative magnetic resonance imaging findings in geriatric depression. Possible link between later-onset depression and Alzheimer's disease?Psychological Medicine, 27(2), 421–431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291796004576
    Greenwood, E. (1976). Attributes of a profession. In N.Gilbert & H.Specht (Eds.), The emergence of social welfare and social work (pp. 302–318). Itasca, IL: Peacock. [Reprinted from Social Work (1957) 2(3), 45–55]
    Grinstein-Weiss, M., Zhan, M., & Sherraden, M. (2006). Saving performance in individual development accounts: Does marital status matter?Journal of Marriage and Family, 68(1), 192–204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2006.00241.x
    Guerra, N., Huesmann, R., & Spindler, A. (2003). Community violence exposure, social cognition, and aggression among urban elementary school children. Child Development, 74(5), 561–576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00623
    Gulliford, M. C., Mahabir, D., & Rocke, B. (2003). Food insecurity, food choices, and body mass index in adults. International Journal of Epidemiology, 32(4), 516–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ije/dyg100
    Gunay-Aygun, M., Cassidy, S. B., & Nicholls, R. D. (1997). Prader-Willi and other syndromes associated with obesity and mental retardation. Behavior Genetics, 27(4), 307–324. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025683829856
    Gura, T. (2003). Obesity drug pipeline not so fat. Science, 299, 849–852. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.299.5608.849
    Gustafson, T B., & Sarwer, D. B. (2004). Childhood sexual abuse and obesity. Obesity Review, 5(3), 129–135. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2004.00145.x
    Gustafsson, M., Persson, L.-O., & Amilon, A. (2002). A qualitative study of coping in the early stage of acute traumatic hand injury. Journal of Clinical Nursing11, 594–602. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2702.2002.00657.x
    Guthrie, B. J., Rotheram, M. J., & Genero, N. (2001). A guide to understanding female adolescents’ substance abuse: Gender and ethnic considerations for prevention and treatment policy (DHHS Pub. No. SMA 00-3309). Washington, DC: Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration.
    Haarasilta, L., Marttunen, M., Kaprio, J., & Aro, H. (2001). The 12-month prevalence and characteristics of major depressive episode in a representative nationwide sample of adolescents and young adults. Psychological Medicine, 31, 1169–1179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291701004573
    Hackney, C. H., & Sanders, G. S. (2003). Religiosity and mental health: A meta-analysis of recent studies. Journal of the Scientific Study of Religion, 42(1), 43–55. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-5906.t01-1-00160
    Haight, W L. (1998). “Gathering the spirit” at First Baptist church: Spirituality as a protective factor in the lives of African American children. Social Work, 43, 213–221. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/43.3.213
    Halfon, N., & Newacheck, P. W. (1993). Childhood asthma and poverty: Differential impacts and utilization of health services. Pediatrics, 91(1), 56–61.
    Hall McEntee, G., Appleby, J., Dowd, J., Grant, J., Hole, S., & Silva, P. (2003). At the heart of teaching: A guide to reflective practice. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Hamburger, M., Moore, J., Koenig, L., Vlahov, D., Schoenbaum, E., Schuman, P., et al. (2004). Persistence of inconsistent condom use: Relation to abuse history and HIV serostatus. AIDS and Behavior, 8(3), 333–344. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:AIBE.0000044080.04397.97
    Hamilton, M. (1967). Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 6, 278–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8260.1967.tb00530.x
    Hammack, P. (2003). Toward a unified theory of depression among urban African American youth: Integrating socioecologic, cognitive, family stress, and biopsychosocial perspectives. Journal of Black Psychology, 29(2), 187–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095798403029002004
    Hammack, P., Robinson, W., Crawford, I., & Li, S. (2004). Poverty and depressed mood among urban African-American adolescents: A family stress perspective. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 13(3), 309–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:JCFS.0000022037.59369.90
    Hammen, C., & Rudolph, K. D. (2003). Childhood mood disorders. In E. J.Mash & R. A.Barkley (Eds.), Child psychopathology (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 233–278). New York: Guilford Press.
    Han, C., Li, X., Luo, H., Zhao, X., & Li, X. (2004). Clinical study on electro-acupuncture treatment for 30 cases of mental depression. Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 24(3), 172–176.
    Hansen, W. B., & Graham, J. W. (1991). Preventing alcohol, marijuana and cigarette use among adolescents: Peer pressure resistance training versus establishing conservative norms. Preventive Medicine, 20, 414–430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0091-7435%2891%2990039-7
    Harder, J. (2005). Research implications for the prevention of child abuse and neglect. Families in Society, 86(4), 491–501.
    Hariri, A., Drabant, E., Munoz, K., Kolachana, B., Mattay, V., Egan, M., et al. (2005). A susceptibility gene for affective disorders and the response of the human amygdala. Archive of General Psychiatry, 62, 146–152. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.2.146
    Harlow, L., Newcomb, M., & Bentler, P. (1986). Depression, self-erogation, substance use, and suicide ideation: Lack of purpose in life as a mediational factor. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 5–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679%28198601%2942:1%3C5::AID-JCLP2270420102%3E3.0.CO;2-9
    Harris, A., Cronkite, R., & Moos, R. (2006). Physical activity, exercise coping, and depression in a 10-year cohort study of depressed patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 93(1–3), 79–85. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2006.02.013
    Harris, J. (1999). Review and methodological considerations in research on testosterone and aggression. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 4, 273–291. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1359-1789%2897%2900060-8
    Haugaard, J. J. (2000). The challenge of defining child sexual abuse. American Psychologist, 55(9), 1036–1039. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.55.9.1036
    Haugaard, J. J., Reppucci, N. D., & Feerick, M. M. (1997). Children's coping with maltreatment. In S. A.Wolchick & I. N.Sandler (Eds.), Handbook of children's coping: Linking theory and intervention (pp. 73–100). New York: Plenum.
    Havanon, N., Bennett, A., & Knodel, J. (1993). Sexual networking in provincial Thailand. Studies in Family Planning, 24(1), 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2939210
    Hawkins, D., Laub, J., & Lauritsen, J. (1998). Race, ethnicity, and serious juvenile offending. In R.Loeber & D.Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 30–46). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243740
    Hawkins, J., Catalano, R. F., & Miller, J. Y. (1992). Risk and protective factors for alcohol and other drug problems in adolescence and early adulthood: Implications for substance abuse prevention. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 64–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.64
    Hawkins, J., Herrenkohl, T., Farrington, D., Brewer, D., Catalano, R., & Harachi, T. (1998). A review of predictors of youth violence. In R.Loeber & D.Farrington (Eds.), Serious & violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 106–146). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243740
    Haynes, K. S., & Mickelson, J. S. (2005). Affecting change: Social workers in the political arena (
    6th ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Hays, R., Magee, R., & Chauncey, S. (1994). Identifying helpful and unhelpful behaviors in loved ones: The PWAs perspective. AIDS Care, 6, 379–392. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540129408258652
    Hays, R., McKusick, I., Pollack, I., Hillard, R., Hoff, C., & Coates, T. (1993). Disclosing HIV seropositivity to significant others. AIDS, 7, 425–431. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199303000-00019
    Hays, S. (2003). Flat broke with children: Women in the age of welfare reform. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Healthlink Worldwide. (2003). Poverty and health. Retrieved July 7, 2005, from http://www.healthlink.org.uk/PDFs/poverty-health-nl.pdf
    Heckman, T., Kalichman, S., Roffman, R., Sikkema, K., Heckman, B., Somlai, A., et al. (1999). A telephone-delivered coping improvement intervention for persons living with HIV/AIDS in rural areas. Social Work With Groups, 21(4), 49–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J009v21n04_05
    Heflin, C., Siefert, K., & Williams, D. (2005). Food insufficiency and women's mental health: Findings from a 3-year panel of welfare recipients. Social Science & Medicine, 61(9), 1971–1982. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.04.014
    Heinrichs, M., Wagner, D., Schoch, W., Soravia, L., Hellhammer, D., & Ehlert, U. (2005). Predicting posttraumatic stress symptoms from pretraumatic risk factors: A 2-year prospective follow-up study in firefighters. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(12), 2276–2286. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.12.2276
    Henry, B., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T., & Silva, P. (1997). Temperamental and familial predictors of criminal conviction. In A.Raine, P.Brennan, D.Farrington, & S.Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 305–307). New York: Plenum.
    Heponiemi, T., Elovainio, M., Kivimaki, M., Pulkki, L., Puttonen, S., & Keltikangas-Jarvinen, L. (2006). The longitudinal effects of social support and hostility on depressive tendencies. Social Science and Medicine, 63(5), 1374–1382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.03.036
    Hermann, K., & Betz, N. (2004). Path models of the relationships of instrumentality and expressiveness to social self-efficacy, shyness, and depressive symptoms. Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, 51(1–2), 55–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:SERS.0000032309.71973.14
    Hermann, R. C., Ettner, S., Dorwart, R. A., Langman-Dorwart, N., & Kleinman, S. (1999). Diagnoses of patients treated with ECT: A comparison of evidence-based standards with reported use. Psychiatric Services, 50, 1059–1065.
    Hernandez, B., Gortmaker, S. I., Colditz, G. A., Peterson, K. E., Laird, M. S., & Para-Cabrera, S. (1999). Association of obesity with physical activity, television programs and other forms of video viewing among children in Mexico City. International Journal of Obesity, 23, 845–854. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ijo.0800962
    Herrenkohl, T., Hill, K., Chung, I., Guo, J., Abbott, R., & Hawkins, D. (2003). Protective factors against serious violent behavior in adolescence: A prospective study of aggressive children. Social Work Research, 27(3), 179–191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/swr/27.3.179
    Herrnstein, R., & Murray, C. (1996). The bell curve: Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: Simon & Schuster.
    Hesselbrock, M. N., Hesselbrock, V. M., & Epstein, E. E. (1999). Theories of etiology of alcohol and other drug use disorders. In B. S.McCrady & E. E.Epstein (Eds.), Addictions: A comprehensive guidebook (pp. 50–74). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hesselbrock, V. M. (1995). The genetic epidemiology of alcoholism. In H.Begleiter & B.Kissin (Eds.), Alcohol and alcoholism: The genetics of alcoholism (pp. 17–39). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hettema, J., An, S., Neale, M., Bkuszar, J., van den Oord, E., Kendler, K., et al. (2006). Association between glutamic acid decarboxylase genes and anxiety disorders, major depression, and neuroticism. Molecular Psychiatry, 11(8), 752–762. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001845
    Hill, A. (2005). Patterns of non-offending parental involvement in therapy with sexually abused children: A review of the literature. Social Work, 5(3), 339–358. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1468017305058939
    Hill, H., Hawkins, S., Raposa, M., & Carr, P. (1995). Relationship between multiple exposure to violence and coping strategies among African American mothers. Violence and Victims, 10, 55–71.
    Hillson, J. M. C., & Kuiper, N. A. (1994). A stress and coping model of child maltreatment. Clinical Psychology Review, 14(4), 261–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2894%2990025-6
    Himes, J. H., Obarzanek, E., Baranowski, T., Wilson, D. M., Rochon, J., & McClanahan, B. S. (2004). Early sexual maturation, body composition, and obesity in African-American girls. Obesity Research (Suppl.), 64S–72S. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2004.270
    Himmelstein, D. U., Warren, E., Thorne, D., & Woolhander, S. (2005). MarketWatch: Illness and injury as contributors to bankruptcy. Health Affairs Web exclusive, February 2, 2005. Retrieved June 28, 2005, from http://content.healthaffairs.org/cgi/content/abstract/hlthaff.w5.63v1
    Hines, A. M., Lemon, K., & Wyatt, P. (2004). Factors related to the disproportionate involvement of children of color in the child welfare system: A review and emerging themes. Children & Youth Services Review, 26(6), 507–527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.01.007
    Hinrichsen, G. A., & Clougherty, K. F. (2006). Interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed older adults. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11429-000
    Hinton, W L., Chen, Y C., Du, N., Tran, C. G., Lu, F. G., Miranda, J., et al. (1993). DSM-III-R disorders in Vietnamese refugees. Prevalence and correlates. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disorders, 181(2), 113–122. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199302000-00007
    Hinton, W L., Tiet, Q., Tran, C. G., & Chesney, M. (1997). Predictors of depression among refugees from Vietnam: A longitudinal study of new arrivals. Nervous and Mental Disorders, 185(1), 39–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199701000-00007
    Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Ho, M., Rasheed, J., & Rasheed, M. (2004). Family therapy with ethnic minorities (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452204567
    Hodge, D R. (2005a). Spiritual ecograms: A new assessment instrument for identifying clients’ spiritual strengths in space and across time. Families in Society, 86(2), 287–296.
    Hodge, D. R. (2005b). Spiritual life maps: A client-centered pictorial instrument for spiritual assessment, planning, and intervention. Social Work, 50, 77–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/50.1.77
    Hodgins, S., Kratzer, L., & McNeil, T. (2001). Obstetric complications, parenting, and risk of criminal behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 746–752. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.58.8.746
    Hodgkinson, V., Weitzman, M., Kirsch, A., Noga, S., & Gorski, H. (1993). From belief to commitment. Washington, DC: Independent Sector.
    Holahan, C., Moos, R., Holahan, C., Cronkite, R., & Randall, P. (2003). Drinking and alcohol use and abuse in unipolar depression: A 10-year model. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112(1), 159–165. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.112.1.159
    Holroyd, S., & Duryee, J. J. (1997). Differences in geriatric psychiatric outpatients with early versus late onset depression. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 2(11), 1100–1106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291099-1166%28199711%2912:11%3C1100::AID-GPS691%3E3.0.CO;2-5
    Holzer, H. (1994). Black employment problems: New evidence, old questions. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 13(4), 699–722. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3325494
    Holzer, H., & Wissoker, D. (2001, October). How can we encourage job retention and advancement for welfare recipients? (Number A-49). In series, New federalism: Issues and options for states. Washington, DC: Urban Institute. Retrieved June 9, 2006, from http://wwwurban.org/url.cfm?ID=310360
    Hornik, R. (1991). Alternative models of behavior change. In J.Wasserheit, S.Aral, K.Holmes, & P.Hitchcock (Eds.), Research issues in human behavior and sexually transmitted diseases in the AIDS era (pp. 201–218). Washington, DC: American Society for Microbiology.
    Horowitz, K., Weine, S., & Jekel, J. (1995). PTSD symptoms in urban adolescent girls: Compounded community trauma. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 1353–1361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199510000-00021
    Hough, E., Brumitt, G., Templin, T., Saltz, E., & Mood, D. (2003). A model of mother-child coping and adjustment to HIV. Social Science & Medicine, 56, 643–655. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2802%2900061-8
    Hourani, L. L., & Yuan, H. (1999). The mental health status of women in the Navy and Marine Corps: Preliminary findings from the perceptions of wellness and readiness assessment. Military Medicine, 164, 174–181.
    Hovens, J. G., Cantwell, D P., & Kiriakos, R. (1994). Psychiatric comorbidity in hospitalized adolescent substance abusers. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 33(4), 476–483. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199405000-00005
    Hsieh, S. D., & Muto, T. (2006). Metabolic syndrome in Japanese men and women with special reference to the anthropometric criteria for the assessment of obesity: Proposal to use the waist-to-height ratio. Preventive Medicine, 42(2), 135–139. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2005.08.007
    Huesmann, L. (1997). Observational learning of violent behavior: Social and biosocial processes. In A.Raine, P.Brennan, D.Farrington, & S.Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 69–88). New York: Plenum.
    Huesmann, L. (1998). The role of social information processing and cognitive schema In the acquisition and maintenance of habitual aggressive behavior. In R.Geen & E.Donnerstein (Eds.), Human aggression: Theories, research, and implications for policy (pp. 73–109). New York: Academic Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-012278805-5/50005-5
    Huesmann, L., & Guerra, N. (1997). Normative beliefs about aggression and aggressive behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(2), 408–419. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.72.2.408
    Hughes, A. C. (1999). HIV prevention, women and the kitchen sink model. In M.Shernoff (Ed.), AIDS and mental health practice: Clinical and policy issues (pp. 55–65). Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press
    Hunter, A., & Davis, J. (1992). Constructing gender: An exploration of Afro-American men's conceptualization of manhood. Gender and Society, 6(3), 464–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124392006003007
    Hunter, C., & Lewis-Coles, M. E. (2005). Coping with racism: A spirit-based psychological perspective. In J. L.Chin (Ed.), The psychology of prejudice and discrimination: Racism in America (Vol. 1, pp. 207–222). Westport, CT: Praeger.
    Hutchison, E. (2003a). Aspects of human behavior: Person, environment, time. In E.Hutchison (Ed.), Dimensions of human behavior: Person and environment (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 11–43). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Hutchison, E. (2003b). Dimensions of human behavior: The changing life course (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Hutchison, E. (2003c). Dimensions of human behavior: Person and environment (
    2nd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Hutchison, E. (2003d). The physical environment. In E.Hutchison (Ed.), Dimensions of human behavior: Person and environment (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 285–316). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Hutchison, E., & Charlesworth, L. (2000). Securing the welfare of children: Policies past, present, and future. Families in Society, 81(6), 576–585.
    Hutchison, E., & Waldbillig, A. (2003). Social institutions and social structure. In E.Hutchison (Ed.), Dimensions of human behavior: Person and environment (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 356–403). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Hypericum Depression Trial Study Group. (2002). Effect of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) in major depressive disorder: A randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(14), 1807–1814. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.287.14.1807
    Iceland, J. (2003). Poverty in America. Institute for Research on Poverty. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Ijzerman, R., Boomsma, D., & Stehouwer, C. (2005). Intrauterine environmental and genetic influences on the association between birthweight and cardiovascular risk factors: Studies in twins as a means of testing the fetal origins hypothesis. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 19(Suppl. 1), 10–14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3016.2005.00614.x
    Institute for Research on Poverty. (2005). Who was poor in 2004? Retrieved June 12, 2006, from http://www.irp.wisc.edu/faq3.htm
    Irei, A. V., Takahashi, K., Le, D. S., Ha, P. T., Hung, N. T., Kunii, D., et al. (2005). Obesity is associated with increased risk of allergy in Vietnamese adolescents. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 9(4), 571–577. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602120
    Ironson, G., Solomon, G., Balbin, E., O'Cleirigh, C., George, A., Kumar, M., et al. (2002). The Ironson-Woods Spirituality-Religiousness Index is associated with long survival, health behaviors, less distress, and low cortisol in people with HIV/AIDS. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24, 34–48. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15324796ABM2401_05
    Irwin, K. (2004). The violence of adolescent life: Experiencing and managing everyday threats. Youth & Society, 35(4), 452–479. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X03260759
    Jaccard, J., Dodge, T., & Dittus, P. (2002). Parent-adolescent communication about sex and birth control: A conceptual framework. In S.Feldman & D. A.Rosenthal (Eds.), Talking sexuality: Parent-adolescent communication. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Jago, R., Baranowski, T., Yoo, S., Culen, K. L. W., Zakeri, I., Watson, K., et al. (2004). Relationship between physical activity and diet among African-American girls. Obesity Research, 12(9), 55S-63S. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2004.269
    Janet, P. (2000). Healthy people 2010: Helping patients change. Hippocrates, 14(1), 25–30.
    Janko, S. (1994). Vulnerable children, vulnerable families: The social construction of child abuse. New York: Teachers College Press.
    Jenkins, E. (2002). Black women and community violence: Trauma, grief, and coping. Women & Therapy, 25(3/4), 29–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v25n03_03
    Jenkins, E., & Bell, C. (1994). Violence exposure, psychological distress, and high risk behaviors among inner-city high school students. In S.Friedman (Ed.), Anxiety disorders in African-Americans (pp. 76–88). New York: Springer.
    Jenkins, K. R. (2004). Obesity's effects on the onset of functional impairment among older adults. The Gerontologist, 44(2), 206–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/44.2.206
    Jessor, R., Donovan, J. E., & Costa, F. M. (1991). Beyond adolescence: Problem behavior and young adult development. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Jewell, J., & Stark, K. (2003). Comparing the family environments of adolescents with conduct disorder or depression. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 12, 77–89. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021310226400
    Jha, R. (2006). Vulnerability and natural disasters in Fiji, Papua New Guinea, Vanuatu and the Kyrgyz Republic (Economics RSPAS, Departmental Working Papers). Canberra: Australian National University
    Johnson, B. D. (1980). Toward a theory of drug subcultures. In D. J.Letteri, M.Sayers, & H. W.Pearson (Eds.), Theories on drug abuse: Selected contemporary perspectives (NIDA Research Monograph No. 30, pp. 110–119, DHHS Publication No. ADM 80-967). Washington, DC: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
    Johnston, D., Stall, R., & Smith, K. (1995). Reliance by gay men and intravenous drug users on friends and family for AIDS-related care. AIDS Care, 7, 307–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540129550126533
    Johnson, J., Cohen, P., Smailes, E., Kasen, S., & Brook, J. (2002). Television viewing and aggressive behavior during adolescence and adulthood. Science, 295(5564), 2468–2471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1062929
    Johnson, K., Bryant, D. D., Collins, D. A., Noe, T. D., Strader, T N., & Berbaum, M. (1998). Preventing and reducing alcohol and other drug use among high-risk youths by increasing family resilience. Social Work, 43(4), 297–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/43.4.297
    Johnson, L., & Harlow, L. (1996). Childhood sexual abuse linked with adult substance use, victimization, and AIDS-risk. AIDS Education and Prevention, 8, 44–57.
    Johnston, L. D., O'Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2004). Monitoring the future national results on adolescent drug use: Overview of key findings, 2003 (NIH Pub. No. 04-5506). Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse.
    Johnson, S., & Birch, L. (1994). Parents’ and children's adiposity and eating style. Pediatrics, 94, 653–661.
    Joint Center for Poverty Research. (2001). Poverty information. Populations in poverty. How many households headed by women are in poverty. Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.jcpr.org/faq/faq_populations2.html
    Jones, D. P. H. (1997). Editorial: Social support and coping strategies as mediators of the effects of child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21(2), 207–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2896%2900146-9
    Jones, J., & Handcock, M. (2003). An assessment of the preferential attachment as a mechanism for human sexual network formation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 270, 1123–1128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2003.2369
    Jones Harden, B., & Nzinga-Johnson, S. (2000). Young, wounded, and black: The maltreatment of African American children In the early years. In R.Hampton & T.Gullotta (Eds.), Interpersonal violence in the African American community. Netherlands: Springer.
    Jordan, C., & Franklin, C. (2003). Clinical assessment for social workers: Quantitative and qualitative methods (
    2nd ed.
    ). Chicago: Lyceum.
    Kadushin, G. (2000). Family secrets: Disclosure of HIV status among gay men with HIV/AIDS to the family of origin. Social Work in Health Care, 30(3), 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J010v30n03_01
    Kaiser, L. L., Melgar-Quinonez, H. R., Lamp, C. L., Johns, M. C., Sutherlin, J. M., & Harwood, J. O. (2002). Food security and nutritional outcomes of preschool-age Mexican-American children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 102, 924–929. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223%2802%2990210-5
    Kaiser, L. L., Townsend, M. S., Melgar-Quinonez, H. R., Fujii, M. L., & Crawford, P. B. (2004). Choice of instrument influences relations between food insecurity and obesity in Latino women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 80(5), 1372–1378.
    Kalichman, S., Benotsch, E., Weinhardt, L., Austin, J., Luke, W., & Cherry, C. (2003). Health-related internet use, coping, social support, and health indicators in people living with HIV/AIDS: Preliminary results from a community survey. Health Psychology, 22(1), 111–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.22.1.111
    Kalichman, S., & Simbayi, L. (2004). Sexual assault history and risks for sexually transmitted infections among women in an African township in Cape Town, South Africa. AIDS Care, 16(6), 681–690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540120410331269530
    Kamali, A., Seeley, A., Nunn, J., Kengeya-Kayondo, J., Ruberantwari, A., & Mulder, W. (1996). The orphan problem: Experience of a sub-Saharan African rural population in the AIDS epidemic. AIDS Care, 8(5), 509–516. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540129650125470
    Kambouropoulos, N., & Staiger, P. K. (2004). Reactivity to alcohol-related cues: Relationship among cue type, motivational processes, and personality. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(3), 275–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.18.3.275
    Kandel, E., & Mednick, S. (1991). Perinatal complications predict violent offending. Criminology, 29, 519–529. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1991.tb01077.x
    Kandel, E., Mednick, S., Kirkegaard-Sorenson, L., Hutchings, B., Knop, J., Rosenberg, R., et al. (1988). IQ as protective factor for subjects at high-risk for antisocial behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 224–226. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.2.224
    Kandel, E. R. (1998). A new intellectual framework for psychiatry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 457–469.
    Kang, S., Deren, S., & Goldstein, M. (2002). Relationships between childhood abuse and neglect experience and HIV risk behaviors among methadone treatment drop-outs. Child Abuse & Neglect, 26, 1275–1289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2802%2900412-X
    Kaplan, H., & Sadock, B. (1998). Synopsis of psychiatry (
    8th ed.
    ). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
    Kaplan, H., & Sadock, B. (2002). Synopsis of psychiatry (
    9th ed.
    ). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
    Kaplan, L. E., Tomaszewski, E., & Gorin, S. (2004). Current trends and the future of HIV/AIDS services: A social work perspective. Health & Social Work, 29 (2), 153–160. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/29.2.153
    Kaplan, M.S., Huguet, N., Newsom, J. T., & McFarland, B. H. (2004). The association between length of residence and obesity among Hispanic immigrants. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 27(4), 323–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2004.07.005
    Karoly, L. A. (2002). Investing in the future: Reducing poverty through human capital investments. In S. H.Danzinger & R. H.Haveman (Eds.), Understanding Poverty (314–358). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Karson, M. (2001). Patterns of child abuse: How dysfunctional transactions are replicated in individuals, families, and the child welfare system. Binghamton, NY: Halworth Maltreatment and Trauma Press.
    Kaslow, N., Thompson, M., Okun, A., Price, A., Young, S., Bender, M., et al. (2002). Risk and protective factors for suicidal behavior in abused African American women. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70(2), 311–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.2.311
    Katz, L., Kling, J., & Liebman, J. (2001). Moving to opportunity in Boston: Early results of a randomized mobility experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(2), 607–654. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/00335530151144113
    Kaufman, M. (2006, July 13). FDA clears once-a-day AIDS drug. The Washington Post, p. A01.
    Kellam, S., & Van Horn, Y. (1997). Life course development, community epidemiology, and prevention trials: A scientific structure for prevention research. American Journal of Community Psychology, 25(2), 177–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024610211625
    Kelly, J., Amirkhanian, Y., McAuliffe, T., Dyatlov, R., Granskaya, J., Borodkina, O., et al. (2001). HIV risk behavior and risk-related characteristics of young Russian men who exchange sex for money or valuables from other men. AIDS Education and Prevention, 13(2), 175–188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/aeap.13.2.175.19734
    Kendall, A., Olson, C. M., & Frongillo, E. A. (1996). Relationship of hunger and food insecurity to food availability and consumption. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 96, 1019–1024. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223%2896%2900271-4
    Kendler, K. S., Gardner, C. O., & Prescott, C. A. (2002). Toward a comprehensive developmental model for major depression in women. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1133–1145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.7.1133
    Kendler, K. S., Gardner, C. O., & Prescott, C. A. (2006). Toward a comprehensive developmental model for major depression in men. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 115–124. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.1.115
    Kendler, K. S., Gatz, M., Gardner, C. O., & Pedersen, N. L. (2006). A Swedish national twin study of lifetime major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 109–114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.1.109
    Kendler, K. S., Heath, A. C., Neale, M. C., Kessler, R. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1992). A population-based twin study of alcoholism in women. Journal of the American Medical Association, 268, 1877–1882. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03490140085040
    Kendler, K. S., Liu, X. Q., Gardner, C. O., McCullough, M. E., Larson, D., & Prescott, C. A. (2003). Dimensions of religiosity and their relationship to lifetime psychiatric and substance use disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160(3), 496–503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.160.3.496
    Kendler, K. S., Myers, M. S., & Prescott, C. A. (2005). Sex differences in the relationship between social support and risk for major depression: A longitudinal study of opposite-sex twin pairs. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(2), 250–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.162.2.250
    Kendler, K. S., Neale, M. C., Heath, A. C., Kessler, R. C., & Eaves, L. J. (1994). A twin-family study of alcoholism in women. American Journal of Psychology, 151(5), 707–715.
    Kennedy, M., Spingarn, R., Stanton, A., & Rotheram-Borus, M. (2000). A continuum of care model for adolescents living with HIV: Larkin Street Youth Center. Drugs & Society, 16(1–2), 87–106. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J023v16n01_06
    Kesner, R., Gilbert, P., & Barua, L. (2002). The role of the hippocampus in memory for the temporal order of a sequence of odors. Behavioral Neuroscience, 166(2), 286–290. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7044.116.2.286
    Kessler, G. (2006, May 19). Prostitution clause in AIDS policy ruled illegal. The Washington Post, p. A16.
    Kessler, R. C. (2000). Psychiatric epidemiology: Elected recent advances and future directions. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 78(4), 464–474.
    Kessler, R. C., Crum, R. M., Warner, L. A., Nelson, C. B., Schulenberg, J., & Anthony, J. C. (1997). Lifetime co-occurrence of DSM-III-R alcohol abuse and dependence and other psychiatric disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 313–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830160031005
    Kessler, R. C., Sonnega, A., Bromet, E., Hughes, M., & Nelson, C. B. (1995). Posttraumatic stress disorder in the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 1048–1060. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1995.03950240066012
    Kessler, R. C., Soukup, J., Davis, R. B., Foster, D F., Wilkey, S. A., VanRompay, M. I., et al. (2001). The use of complementary and alternative therapies to treat anxiety and depression in the United States. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(2), 289–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.2.289
    Kessler, R. C., & Zhao, S. (1999). Past-year use of outpatient services for psychiatric problems in the National Comorbidity Survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(1), 115–123.
    Kilpatrick, D. G., Acierno, R., Saunders, B., Resnick, H. S., Best, C. L., & Schnurr, P. P. (2000). Risk factors for adolescent substance abuse and dependence: Data from a national sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 19–30. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.1.19
    Kilpatrick, D. G., Edmunds, C. N., & Seymour, A. K. (1992). Rape in America: A report to the nation. Arlington, VA: National Victim Center and Charleston, SC: Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center.
    Kim, E., Hwang, J. Y., Woo, E. K., Kim, S. S., Jo, S. A., & Jo, I. (2005). Body mass index cutoffs for underweight, overweight, and obesity in South Korean schoolgirls. Obesity Research, 13(9), 1510–1514. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2005.183
    Kim, K. H., & Sobal, J. (2004). Religion, social support, fat intake and physical activityPublic Health Nutrition, 7(6), 773–781. http://dx.doi.org/10.1079/PHN2004601
    Kim, T. (2004). Youth gangs. Unpublished paper. Southern California Center of Excellence on Youth Violence Prevention, University of California, Riverside.
    Kimberly, J., & Serovich, J. (1999). The role of family and friend social support in reducing risk behaviors among HIV-positive gay men. AIDS Education and Prevention, 11, 465–475.
    Kindlon, D., Tremblay, R., Mezzacappa, E., Earls, F., Laurent, D., & Schaal, B. (1995). Longitudinal patterns of heart rate and fighting behavior in 9- through 12-year-old boys. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 34, 371–377. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199503000-00023
    King, K. M., & Chassin, L. (2004). Mediating and moderated effects of adolescent behavioral undercontrol and parenting in the prediction of drug use disorders in emerging adulthood. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(3), 239–249. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.18.3.239
    Kinzie, J. D. (2001). Cross-cultural treatment of PTSD. In J. P.Wilson, M. J.Friedman, & J. D.Lindy (Eds.), Treating psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 255–277). New York: Guilford Press.
    Kipke, M. (2004). Preventing violence and related health-risking social behaviors in adolescents: An evidence assessment report. Paper presented at the Preventing Violence State of the Science Conference, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
    Kirby, P., & Paradise, L. (1992). Reflective practice and effectiveness of teachers. Psychological Reports, 70, 1057–1058.
    Kirk, S., & Reid, W. (2002). Science and social work: A critical appraisal. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Klerman, G., Weissman, M., Rounsaville, B., & Chevron, E. (1984). Interpersonal psychotherapy of depression. New York: Basic Books.
    Kliewer, W. (1991). Coping in middle childhood: Relations to competence, Type A behavior, monitoring, blunting, and locus of control. Developmental Psychology, 27, 689–697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0012-1649.27.4.689
    Kliewer, W., Lepore, S. J., Oskin, D., & Johnson, P. D. (1998). The role of social and cognitive processes in children's adjustment to community violence. Journal of Clinical & Consulting Psychology, 66, 199–209. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.66.1.199
    Klotter, J. (2006, February–March). Gastric pacing. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients, 39, 271–272.
    Kmita, G., Baranska, M., & Niemiec, T. (2002). Psychosocial intervention in the process of empowering families with children living with HIV/AIDS: A descriptive study. AIDS Care, 14(2), 279–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540120120076959
    Knodel, J., & Wassana, I. (2004). The economic consequences for parents of losing an adult child to AIDS: Evidence from Thailand. Social Science & Medicine, 59(5), 987–1001. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2003.11.042
    Koenen, K. C., Stellman, J. M., Stellman, S. D., & Sommer, J. F. (2003). Risk factors for course of posttraumatic stress disorder among Vietnam veterans: A 14-year follow-up of American Legionnaires. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71(6), 980–986. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.6.980
    Koenig, H. G. (1998). Handbook of religion and mental health. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Koenig, H. G., George, L. K., & Peterson, B. L. (1998). Religiosity and remission of depression in medically ill older patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 536–542.
    Koenig, H. G., Larson, D. B., & Larson, S. S. (2001). Religion and coping with serious medical illness. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 35(3), 352–359. http://dx.doi.org/10.1345/aph.10215
    Koenig, H. G., McCullough, M. E., & Larson, D. B. (2001). Handbook of religion and health. New York: Oxford University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195118667.001.0001
    Koenig, H. G., Pargament, K. I., & Nielsen, J. (1998). Religious coping and health status in medically ill hospitalized older adults. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 186, 513–521. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00005053-199809000-00001
    Kohn, R., Dohrenwend, B., & Mirotznik, J. (1998). Epidemiological findings on selected psychiatric disorders in the general population. In B.Dohrenwend (Ed.), Adversity, stress and psychopathology (pp. 235–284). New York: Oxford University Press.
    Kohn, R., Levav, I., Donaire, I., Machuca, M., & Tamashiro, R. (2005). Psychological and psychopathological reactions in Honduras following Hurricane Mitch: Implications for service planning. Pan American Journal of Public Health, 18(4), 287–295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1020-49892005000900009
    Kondrat, M. (1999). Who is the “self” in self-aware: Professional self-awareness from a critical theory perspective. Social Service Review, 73(4), 451–477. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/514441
    Koop, C., & Lundberg, G. (1992). Violence in America: A public health emergency. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267, 3075–3076. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03480220093036
    KorbinJ. E. (Ed.). (1981). Child abuse & neglect: Cross-cultural perspectives. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Korbin, J. E. (1997). Culture and child maltreatment. In M. E.Helfer, R. S.Kempe, & R. D.Krugman (Eds.), The battered child (5th ed., pp. 29–48). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Korbin, J. E. (2002). Culture and child maltreatment: Cultural competence and beyond. Child Abuse & Neglect, 26, 637–644. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2802%2900338-1
    Korbin, J. E., Coulton, C. J., & Lindstrom-Ufuti, H. (2000). Neighborhood views on the definition and etiology of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(12), 1509–1527. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2800%2900206-4
    Kovacs, M. (1983). The Children's Depression Inventory: A self-rated depression scale for school-aged youngsters. Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh.
    Kovacs, P. J., & Mutepa, R. (2001, May). An exploratory study of women who are long-term survivors of HIV/AIDS. Paper presented at the National Conference on Social Work and HIV/AIDS, Philadelphia, PA.
    Kozol, J. (1988). Savage inequalities: Children in America's schools. New York: HarperPerennial.
    Kozol, J. (1995). Amazing grace: The lives of children and the conscience of a nation. New York: HarperPerennial.
    KozolJ. (2000). Ordinary resurrections: Children in the years of hope. New York: Crown.
    Kozol, J. (2005). The shame of the nation: The restoration of apartheid schooling in America. New York: Random House.
    Kraemer, G. (1992). A psychobiological theory of attachment. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 15(3), 493–511. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00069752
    Kraemer, G. (1997). Social attachment, braIn function, aggression and violence. In A.Raine, P.Brennan, D.Farrington, & S.Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 207–229). New York: Plenum.
    Kraus, D., Smith, G. T., & Ratner, H. H. (1994). Modifying alcohol-related expectancies in grade-school children. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 55, 535–542.
    Krieger, N., Chen, J., Waterman, P., Rehkopf, D., & Subramanian, S. (2005). Painting a truer picture of U.S. socioeconomic and racial/ethnic health inequalities: The public health disparities geocoding project. American Journal of Public Health, 95(2), 312–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2003.032482
    Kripke, D., Tuunainen, A., & Endo, T. (2006). Letter to the editor: Benefits of light treatment for depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(1), 162b–163. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.1.162-b
    Krishnan, K. R., Hays, J. C., Tupler, L. A., George, L. K., & Blazer, D. G., (1995). Clinical and phenomenological comparisons of later-onset and early-onset depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152(5), 785–788.
    Krohn, A. (2000). The anatomy of adolescent violence. Journal for the Psychoanalysis of Culture & Society, 5(2), 212–216.
    Krohn, M., & Thornberry, T. (2002). Common themes, future directions. In T.Thornberry & M.Krohn (Eds.), Taking stock of delinquency: An overview of findings from contemporary longitudinal studies. New York: Plenum.
    Kroner, D., & Mills, J. (1998). The structure of antisocial attitudes among violent and sexual offenders. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 42(3), 246–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X9804200306
    Krug, E., Dahlberg, L., Mercy, J., Zwi, A., & Lozano, R. (2002). World report on violence and health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
    Kubik, M. Y., Lytle, L. A., Birnbaum, A. S., Murray, D. M., & Perry, C. L. (2003). Prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms in young adolescents. American Journal of Health Behavior, 27(5), 546–553. http://dx.doi.org/10.5993/AJHB.27.5.6
    Kuh, D., & Ben-Shlomo, Y. (Eds.). (1997). A life course approach to chronic disease epidemiology. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Kumanyika, S. K., & Charleston, J. B. (1992). Lose weight and win: A church-based weight loss program for blood pressure control among black women. Patient Education and Counseling, 19(1), 19–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0738-3991%2892%2990099-5
    Kuo, F. E., & Taylor, A. F. (2004). A potential natural treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Evidence from a national study. American Journal of Public Health, 94(9), 1580–1586. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.94.9.1580
    Kuo, F. E., & Taylor, A. F. (2005). Kuo and Faber Taylor respond. American Journal of Public Health, 95(3), 371–372. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2004.056507
    Kuther, T., & Wallace, S. (2003). Community violence and sociomoral development: An African American cultural perspective. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 73(2), 177–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0002-9432.73.2.177
    Kwon, P., & Laurenceau, J. (2002). A longitudinal study of the hopelessness theory of depression: Testing the diathesis-stress model within a differential reactivity and exposure framework. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 58(10), 305–321. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.10043
    Laester, R. (1997). The labor force participation of young black men: A qualitative examination. Social Service Review, 71(2), 72–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/604231
    Lahey, B. (2004, October 13). Child factors. Paper presented at the Preventing Violence State of the Science Conference, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.
    Lam, R., Levitt, A., Levitan, R., Enns, M., Morehouse, R., Michalak, E., et al. (2006). The CAN-SAD study: A randomized controlled trial of the effectiveness of light therapy and fluoxetine in patients with winter seasonal affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163(5), 805–812. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.163.5.805
    Lancaster, C. (2003). Should global poverty be considered a U.S. national security issue? Poverty, terrorism and national security: A commentary. Retrieved July 7, 2005, from http://www.wilsoncenter.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=news.item&news_id=34999
    Landau, G., & York, A. (2004). Keeping and disclosing a secret among people with HIV in Israel. Health & Social Work, 29(2), 116–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/29.2.116
    Langley, A., & Jones, R. (2005). Coping efforts and efficacy, acculturation, and post-traumatic symptomatology in adolescents following wildfire. Fire Technology, 41(2), 125–143. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10694-005-6387-7
    Larimer, M. E., Palmer, R. S., & Marlatt, G. A. (1999). Relapse prevention: An overview of Marlatt's cognitive-behavioral model. Alcohol Research & Health, 23(2), 151–160.
    Larson, D. B., & Larson, S. S. (2003). Spirituality's potential relevance to physical and emotional health: A brief review of quantitative research. Journal of Psychology & Theology, 31(1), 37–51.
    Larson, D. B., Larson, S. S., & Koenig, H. K. (2001). The patient's spiritual/religious dimension: A forgotten factor in mental health. Directions in Psychiatry, 21, 307–334.
    Latkin, C. A., & Curry, A. D. (2003). Stressful neighborhoods and depression: A prospective study of the impact of neighborhood disorder. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44(1), 34–44. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1519814
    Latzman, R., & Swisher, R. (2005). The interactive relationship among adolescent violence, street violence, and depression. Journal of Community Psychology, 33(3), 355–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcop.20051
    Law, M., & Dunn, W. (1993). Perspectives on understanding and changing the environments of children with disabilities. Physical and Occupational Therapy in Pediatrics, 13(3), 1–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/J006v13n03_01
    Layzer, J. I., Goodson, B. D., Bernstein, L., & Price, C. (2001). National evaluation of family support programs: Final Report Volume A: The Meta-Analysis. Cambridge, MA: Abt Associates.
    Lazarus, R. S. (1993). Coping theory and research: Past, present, and future. Psychosomatic Medicine, 55, 234–247.
    Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1985). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York: Springer.
    Le, B. P. (n.d.). Asian gangs: A bibliography. Retrieved March 24, 2006, from http://www.communitypolicing.org/publications/iag/asian_gangs/index.htm
    Leahy, R. L. (1996). Cognitive therapy: Basic practice and applications. New York: Guilford Press.
    Leahy, R. L. (2004). Contemporary cognitive therapy: Theory, research, and practice. New York: Guilford Press.
    Lebowitz, B. D., Pearson, J. L., Schneider, L. S., Reynolds, C. F., Alexopoulos, G. S., Bruce, M. I., et al. (1997). Diagnosis and treatment of depression in late life: Consensus statement update. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(14), 1186–1190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1997.03550140078045
    Leerubier, Y., Clerc, G., Didi, R., & Kieser, M. (2002). Efficacy of St. John's wort extract WS5570 in major depression: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1361–1366. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.8.1361
    Leigh, J., Bowen, S., & Marlatt, G. A. (2005). Spirituality, mindfulness and substance abuse. Addictive Behaviors, 30(7), 1335–1341. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2005.01.010
    Lengerman, P. M., & Niebrugge-Brantley, J. (2000). Contemporary feminist theory. In G.Ritzer (Ed.), Modern sociological theory (pp. 307–355). New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Lerman, R. (2005, May). Are low-income households accumulating assets and avoiding unhealthy debt? A review of recent evidence. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
    Lerner, D., Adler, D., Chang, H., Lapitsky, L., Hood, M., Perissinotto, C., et al. (2004). Unemployment, job retention, and productivity loss among employees with depression. Psychiatric Service, 55(12), 1371–1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.55.12.1371
    Leschied, A. W., Chiodo, D., Whitehead, P.C., Hurley, D., & Marshall, L. (2003). The empirical basis of risk assessment in child welfare: The accuracy of risk assessment and clinical judgment. Child Welfare, 82(5), 527–540.
    Leserman, J., Pettito, J., Perkins, D., Folds, J., Golden, R., & Evans, D. (1997). Severe stress, depressive symptoms, and changes in lymphocyte subsets in human immunodeficiency virus-infected men. Archive of General Psychiatry, 54, 279–285. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830150105015
    Leskela, U., Rytsala, H., Komulainen, E., Melartin, T., Lokero, P., Lestela-Mielonen, P., et al. (2006). The influence of adversity and perceived social support on the outcome of major depressive disorder in subjects with different levels of depressive symptoms. Psychological Medicine, 36(6), 779–788. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291706007276
    Levant, R., & Majors, R. (1997). Masculinity ideology among African American and European American college women and men. Journal of Gender, Culture, and Health, 2, 33–43.
    Levant, R., Majors, R., & Kelly, M. (1998). Masculinity ideology among young African American and European American women and men in different regions of the United States. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 4(3), 227–236.
    Leventhal, J. M. (2003). The field of child maltreatment enters its fifth decade. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27, 1–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2802%2900516-1
    Levin, E., Wilkerson, A., Jones, J., Christopher, N., & Briggs, S. (1996). Prenatal nicotine effects on memory in rats: Pharmacological and behavioral challenges. Developmental Brain Research, 97, 207–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-3806%2896%2900144-7
    Levinson, D. F. (2005). The genetics of depression: A review. Biological Psychiatry, 60(2), 84–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.08.024
    Lewinsohn, P. M., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Rhodes, P. (1994). Adolescent psychopathology: Psychosocial risk factors for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103(2), 302–315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.103.2.302
    Lewis, C., & Brown, S. (2002). Coping strategies of female adolescents with HIV/AIDS. American Black Nurse's Foundation Journal, 13(4), 72–77.
    Lewis, D., Shanok, S., & Balla, D. (1979). Perinatal difficulties, head and face trauma, and child abuse in the medical histories of seriously delinquent children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 419–423.
    Lewis, O. (1968). The culture of poverty. In D.Moynihan (Ed.), On understanding poverty. New York: Basic Books.
    Life Skills Training. (2002). Program description. Retrieved January 10, 2005, from http://www.lifeskillstraining.com/program.cfm
    Lillie-Blanton, M., Anthony, J. C., & Schuster, C. R. (1993). Probing the meaning of racial/ethnic group comparisons in crack cocaine smoking. Journal of the American Medical Association, 269(8), 993–997. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1993.03500080041029
    Linares, L., Heeren, T., Bronfman, E., Zuckerman, B., Augustyn, M., & Tronick, E. (2001). A mediational model for the impact of exposure to community violence on early child behavior problems. Child Development, 72, 639–652. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00302
    Lind, C. (2004). Developing and supporting a continuum of child welfare services. Welfare Information Network Issue Note, 8(6). Washington, DC: Finance Project. Retrieved May 23, 2005, from http://www.financeproject.org/Publications/developingandsupportingIN.pdf
    Lindberg, C. (2000). Knowledge, self-efficacy, coping, and condom use among urban women. Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care, 11(5), 80–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1055-3290%2806%2960387-7
    Lindeman, S., Hämäläinen, J., Isometsä, E., Kaprio, J., Poikolainen, K., Heikkinen, M., et al. (2000). The 12-month prevalence and risk factors for major depressive episode in Finland. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102(3), 178–184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-0447.2000.102003178.x
    Lindsey, D. (2004). The welfare of children (
    2nd ed.
    ). New York: Oxford.
    Lindy, J. D., & Wilson, J. P. (2001). An allostatic approach to the psychodynamic understanding of PTSD. In J. P.Wilson, M. J.Friedman, & J. D.Lindy (Eds.), Treating psychological trauma and PTSD (pp. 125–138). New York: Guilford Press.
    Linsk, N. L., & Bonk, N. (2000). Adherence to treatment as social work challenges. In V. J.Lynch (Ed.), HIV/AIDS at year 2000: A sourcebook for social workers (pp. 211–227). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Lipset, S. (1991). American exceptionalism reaffirmed. In B. E.Shafter (Ed.), Is America different? A new look at American exceptionalism (pp. 1–45). Oxford, England: Clarendon Press.
    Lipsey, M., & Derzon, J. (1998). Predictors of violent or serious delinquency In adolescence and young adulthood: A synthesis of longitudinal research. In R.Loeber & D.Farrington (Eds.), Serious and violent juvenile offenders: Risk factors and successful interventions (pp. 86–105). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243740
    Litt, M. D., Kadden, R. M., Cooney, N. L., & Kabela, E. (2003). Coping skills and treatment outcomes in cognitive-behavioral and interactional group therapy for alcoholism. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 118–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.71.1.118
    Longo, M., Jain, V., Vedernikovy, Y., Bukowski, R., Garfield, R., Hankins, G., et al. (2005). Fetal origins of adult vascular dysfunction in mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase. American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, 288(5), R1114-R1121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpregu.00367.2004
    Loprest, P., & Maag, E. (2001, January). Barriers to and supports for work among adults with disabilities: Results from the NHIS-D. Washington, DC: Urban Institute.
    Lorant, V., Deliege, D., Eaton, W., Robert, A., Philippot, P., & Ansseau, M. (2003). Socioeconomic inequalities in depression: A meta-analysis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 157, 98–112. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwf182
    Loue, S. (2003). Diversity issues in substance abuse treatment and research. New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/b100616
    Loury, G. C. (2002). Politics, race, and poverty research. In S. H.Danzinger & R. H.Haveman (Eds.), Understanding poverty (pp. 447–453). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Lovett, B. B. (2004). Child sexual abuse disclosure: Maternal response and other variables impacting the victim. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21(4), 355–371. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:CASW.0000035221.78729.d6
    Luckenbill, D., & Doyle, D. (1989). Structural position and violence. Criminology, 27, 419–436. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.1989.tb01040.x
    Ludwig, D., & Gortmaker, S. (2004). Programming obesity in childhood. Lancet, 364(9430), 226–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2804%2916688-9
    Ludwig, J., Hirschfield, P., & Duncan, G. (2001). Urban poverty and juvenile crime: Evidence from a randomized mobility experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 116(2), 665–679. http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/00335530151144122
    Lum, D. (2003a). Culturally competent practice: A framework for understanding diverse groups and justice issues (
    2nd ed.
    ). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Lum, D. (2003b). Social work practice and people of color. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Lustig, D., & Strauser, D. (2004). Editorial. Poverty and disability. Journal of Rehabilitation, 70(3). Retrieved May, 24, 2005, from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0825/is_3_70/ai_n6237484
    Luthar, S. (2003). Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615788
    Luthar, S., & Zelazo, L. (2003). Research on resilience: An integrative review. In S.Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp. 510–549). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615788.023
    LutterJ. M. (1993). Obstacles to exercise for larger women. Obesity and Health, 8(1), 12–13.
    Luxembourg Income Study. (2000). LIS quick reference guide. Syracuse, NY: Maxwell School of Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse University.
    Luxembourg Income Study. (2004). Relative poverty rates for the total population, children and the elderly. Retrieved June 16, 2004, from http://www.lisproject.org/keyfigures/povertytable.htm
    Lynam, D., Wikstrom, P., Caspi, A., Moffitt, T., Loeber, R., & Novak, S. (2000). The interaction between impulsivity and neighborhood context on offending: The effects of impulsivity are stronger in poorer neighborhoods. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(4), 563–574. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.109.4.563
    Lynch, M., & Cicchetti, D. (2002). Links between community violence and the family system: Evidence from children's feelings of relatedness and perceptions of parent behavior. Family Process, 41(3), 519–532. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1545-5300.2002.41314.x
    MacDonald, R., Shildrick, T., Webster, C., & Simpson, D. (2005). Growing up in poor neighbourhoods: The significance of class and place in the extended transitions of “socially excluded” young adults. Sociology, 39(5), 873–891. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0038038505058370
    Macintyre, K., Rutenberg, N., Brown, L., & Karim, A. (2004). Understanding perceptions of HIV risk among adolescents in KwaZulu-Natal. AIDS and Behavior, 8(3), 237–250. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:AIBE.0000044072.71361.b3
    Maguire, K., & Pastore, A. (1999). Sourcebook of criminal justice statistics, 1998 (U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Bureau of Justice Statistics, NCJ 176356). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    Mahoney, A., Pargament, K. I., Tarakeshwar, N., & Swank, A. B. (2001). Religion in the home in the 1980s and 1990s: A meta-analytic review and conceptual analysis of links between religion, marriage, and parenting. Journal of Family Psychology, 15(4), 559–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.15.4.559
    Maiman, L., & Becker, M. (1974). The health belief model: Origins and correlates in psychological theory. Health Education Monographs, 2, 336–353.
    Manber, R., Allen, J., & Morris, M. (2002). Alternative treatments for depression: Empirical support and relevance towomen. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 63(7), 628–640. http://dx.doi.org/10.4088/JCP.v63n0716
    Manber, R., Schnyer, R., Allen, J., Rush, A., & Blasey, C. (2004). Acupuncture: A promising treatment for depression during pregnancy. Journal of Affective Disorders, 83(1), 89–95. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2004.05.009
    Mancini, M., & Halpern, A. (2006). Pharmacological treatment of obesity. Arquivos Brasileiros de Endocrinologia & Metabologia, 50(2), 377–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0004-27302006000200024
    Mansour, D. (2004). Implications of the growing obesity epidemic on contraception and reproductive health. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care, 30(4), 209–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1783/0000000042177027
    Manuck, S., Bleil, M., Petersen, K., Flory, J., Mann, J., Ferrell, R., et al. (2005). The socio-economic status of communities predicts variation in brain serotonergic responsivityPsychological Medicine, 35(4), 519–528. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291704003757
    March, J., Amaya-Jackson, L., Terry, R., & Costanzo, P. (1997). Posttraumatic symptomatology in children and adolescents after an industrial fire. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(8), 1080–1088. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199708000-00015
    Marcoux, A. (1997). The feminization of poverty: Facts, hypotheses, and the art of advocacy. SD (sustainable development) dimensions. Retrieved May 20, 2005, from http://www.fao.org/WAICENT/FAOINFO/SUSTDEV/Wpdirect/Wpan0015.htm
    Marcus, C. (2004). Pharmacological treatment of childhood obesity. Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 9, 211–218http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000078295
    Margitics, R. (2005). Role of protective factors in the development of depression. Psychiatry Hungary, 20(3), 224–237.
    Marlatt, G. A. (1985). Relapse prevention: Theoretical rationale and overview of the model. In G. A.Marlatt & J. R.Gordon (Eds.), Relapse prevention (pp. 250–280). New York: Guilford Press.
    Marlatt, G. A., & Gordon, J. R. (Eds.). (1985). Relapse prevention: Maintenance strategies in the treatment of addictive behaviors. New York: Guilford Press.
    Marlatt, G. A., Wikiewitz, K., Dillworth, T M., Bowen, S. W., Parks, G. A., MacPherson, L. M., et al. (2004). Vipassana meditation as a treatment for alcohol and drug use disorders. In S. C.Hayes, V M.Follette, & M. M.Linehan (Eds.), Mindfulness and acceptance: Expanding the cognitive-behavioral tradition (pp. 267–287). New York: Guilford Press.
    Marshall, I. (2002). The criminological enterprise in Europe and the United States: A contextual exploration. In S.Cote (Ed.), Criminological theories: Bridging the past to the future (pp. 14–22). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Martin, S., Sigda, K., & Kupersmidt, J. (1998). Family and neighborhood violence: Predictors of depressive symptomatology among incarcerated youth. Prison Journal, 78(4), 423–432. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0032885598078004005
    Martinez, P., & Richters, J. (1993). The NIMH Community Violence Project: II. Children's distress symptoms associated with violence exposure. In D.Reiss, J.Richters, M.Radky-Yarrow, & D.Scharff (Eds.), Children and violence (pp. 22–35). New York: Guilford Press.
    Martyn, K., & Hutchinson, S. (2001). Low-income African American adolescents who avoid pregnancy: Tough girls who rewrite negative scripts. Qualitative Health Research, 11(2), 238–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104973201129119073
    Marx, K., & Engels, F. (1848/1982). The communist manifesto. New York: International Publishers. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118011690.ch23
    Mason, M. (2005). Overweight people suppress their hunger hormone. Discover, 26(1), 38.
    Masten, A., & Garmezy, N. (1985). Risk, vulnerability and protective factors In developmental psychopathology In B.Lahey & A.Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 1–52). New York: Plenum.
    Masten, A., & Powell, J. (2003). A resilience framework for research, policy, and practice. In S.Luthar (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
    Masten, A. S. (2004). Regulatory processes, risk, and resilience in adolescent development. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1021, 310–319. http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1308.036
    Masters, R., Hone, B., & Doshi, A. (1998). Environmental pollution, neurotoxicity, and criminal violence. In J.Rose (Ed.), Environmental toxicology: Current developments (pp. 13–48). New York: Gordon & Breach.
    Matto, H. C. (2004). Applying an ecological framework to understanding drug addiction and recovery. Journal of Social Work Practice in the Addictions, 4(3), 5–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J160v04n03_02
    Matto, H. C. (2005a). A bio-behavioral model of addiction treatment: Applying dual representation theory to craving management and relapse prevention. Substance Use & Misuse, 40(4), 529–541. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/JA-200030707
    Matto, H. C. (2005b). An integrated sensory-linguistic approach for drug addiction: A synthesis of the literature and new directions for treatment research. Stress, Trauma, and Crisis: An International Journal, 8, 79–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15434610590956877
    Matto, H. C., Berry-Edwards, J., Hutchison, E., Bryant, S., & Waldbillig, A. (2006). An exploratory study of multiple intelligences and social work education. Journal of Social Work Education, 42(2), 405–416. http://dx.doi.org/10.5175/JSWE.2006.200400495
    Matto, H. C., Miller, K., & Spera, C. (2005). Ecological Assessment of Substance-abuse Experiences (EASE): Findings from a new instrument development pilot study. Addictive Behaviors, 30(7), 1281–1289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.12.012
    Mayo Clinic Staff. (2005). Electroconvulsive therapy: Dramatic relief for severe mental illness. Retrieved June 4, 2005, from http://wwwmayoclinic.com/invoke.cfm?id=MH00022
    Mazur, A., & Booth, A. (1999). The biosociology of testosterone in men. In D.Franks & S.Smith (Eds.), Mind, brain, and society: Toward a neurosociology of emotion (Vol. 5, pp. 311–338). Stamford, CT: JAI.
    Mbori-Ngacha, D., Nduati, R., John, G., Reilly, M., Richardson, B., Mwatha, A., et al. (2001). Morbidity and mortality in breastfed and formula-fed infants of HIV-1-infected women: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(19), 2413–2420. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.286.19.2413
    McAvoyM. (1999). The profession of ignorance: With constant reference to Socrates. Lanham, NY: University Press of America.
    McBee, L., Westreich, L., & Likourezos, A. (2004). A psychoeducational relaxation group for pain and stress management in the nursing home. Journal of Social Work in Long Term Care, 3(1), 15–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J181v03n01_03
    McBurnett, K., Lahey, B., Rathouz, R., & Loeber, R. (2000). Low salivary cortisol and persistent aggression in boys referred for disruptive behavior. Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 38–43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.57.1.38
    McCann, I. L., & Pearlman, L. A. (1990). Psychological trauma and the adult survivor: Theory, therapy, and transformation. New York: Brunner/Mazel.
    McCord, J., & Ensminger, M. (2003). Racial discrimination and violence: A longitudinal perspective. In D.Hawkins (Ed.), Violent crime: Assessing race & ethnic differences (pp. 319–330). New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511499456.019
    McEnany, G., & Lee, K. (2005). Effects of light therapy on sleep, mood, and temperature in women with nonseasonal major depression. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 26(7), 781–794. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01612840591008410
    McGue, M. (1994). Genes, environment, and the etiology of alcoholism. In R.Zucker, G.Boyd, & J.Howard (Eds.), The development of alcohol problems: Exploring the biopsychosocial matrix of risk (NIAAA Research Monograph No. 26, pp. 1–40). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
    McKay, J. R. (1999). Studies of factors in relapse to alcohol, drug and nicotine use: A critical review of methodologies and findings. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 60, 566–576.
    McMillan-Price, J., & Brand-Miller, J. (2004). Dietary approaches to overweight and obesity. Clinical Dermatology, 22(4), 310–314. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clindermatol.2004.01.003
    McNair, L., Carter, J., & Williams, M. (1998). Self-esteem, gender and alcohol use: Relationships with HIV risk perception and behaviors in college students. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 24, 29–36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00926239808414666
    McQueen, A., Getz, J. G., & Bray, J. H. (2003). Acculturation, substance use, and deviant behavior: Examining separation and family conflict as mediators. Child Development, 74(6), 1737–1754. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-8624.2003.00635.x
    McWhiney, G. (1988). Cracker culture: Celtic ways in the Old South. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.
    Mendel, R. (2000). Less hype, more help: Reducing juvenile crime, what works—and what doesn't. Washington, DC: American Youth Policy Forum.
    Merton, R. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review, 3, 672–682. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2084686
    Messner, S., & Rosenfeld, R. (1997). Political restraint of the market and levels of criminal homicide: A cross-national application of institutional-anomie theory. Social Forces, 75, 1393–1416.
    Meyer, C. (1993). Assessment in social work practice. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Meyers, R. J., Miller, W. R., Hill, D. E., & Tonigan, J. S. (1999). Community reinforcement and family training: Engaging unmotivated drug users in treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse, 10, 291–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0899-3289%2899%2900003-6
    Meyers, R. J., Miller, W. R., Smith, J. E., & Tonigan, J. S. (2002). A randomized trial of two methods for engaging treatment-refusing drug users through concerned significant others. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70, 1182–1185. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.70.5.1182
    Mezirow, J. (1998). On critical reflection. Adult Education Quarterly, 48, 185–198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/074171369804800305
    Miller, B. A., & Downs, W. R. (1993). The impact of family violence on the use of alcohol by women. Alcohol Health and Research World, 17(2), 137–143.
    Miller, J. (1996). Search and destroy: African-American males in the criminal justice system. New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511621574
    Miller, J. (2002). Social workers as diagnosticians. In K.Bentley (Ed.), Social work practice in mental health: Contemporary roles, tasks & techniques (pp. 43–72). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Miller, L., Warner, V., Wickramaratne, P., & Weissman, M. (1997). Religiosity & depression: Ten-year follow-up of depressed mothers and offspring. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 36, 1416–1425. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199710000-00024
    Miller, L., Wasserman, G., Neugebauer, R., Gorman-Smith, D., & Kamboukos, D. (1999). Witnessed community violence and antisocial behavior in high-risk, urban boys. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 28(1), 2–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp2801_1
    Miller, M., Serner, M., & Wagner, M. (2005). Sexual diversity among black men who have sex with men in an inner-city communityJournal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 82(1), 26–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jurban/jti021
    Miller, W R., Meyers, R. J., & Tonigan, J. S. (1999). Engaging the unmotivated in treatment for alcohol problems: A comparison of three strategies for intervention through family members. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 688–697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.67.5.688
    Miller, W R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change. New York: Guilford Press.
    Miller, W R., & Weisner, C. M. (2002). Changing substance abuse through health and social systems. New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4615-0669-0
    Milner, J. S. (1993). Social information processing and physical child abuse. Clinical Psychology Review, 13, 275–294. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0272-7358%2893%2990024-G
    Minino, A. M., Arias, E., Kochanek, K. D., Murphy, S. L., & Smith, B. L. (2002). Deaths: Final data for 2000. National Vital Statistics Reports, 50(15). Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
    Mink, G. (1998). Welfare's end. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Mirza, N. M., Kadow, K., Palmer, M., Solano, H., Rosche, C., & Yanovski, J. A. (2004). Prevalence of overweight among inner city Hispanic-American children and adolescents. Obesity Research, 12(8), 1298–1310. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2004.164
    Mish, F. (Ed.). (1998). Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (
    10th ed.
    ). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
    Mishel, L., Bernstein, J., & Allegretto, S. (2005). The state of working America. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Mitchell, C. G., & Linsk, N. L. (2004). A multidimensional conceptual framework for understanding HIV/AIDS as a chronic long-term illness. Social Work, 49(3), 469–477. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/sw/49.3.469
    Mizuno, T., Shu, I. W., Makimura, H., & Mobbs, C. (2004). Obesity over the life course. Science of Aging Knowledge Environment, 24, 4.
    Moffitt, T. (1990). The neuropsychology of juvenile delinquency. In M.Tonry & N.Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: A review of research (Vol. 12). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Moffitt, T. (1993). “Life-course-persistent” and “adolescence-limited” antisocial behavior: A developmental taxonomy. Psychological Review, 100, 674–701. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.4.674
    Moffitt, T., Caspi, A., Fawcett, P., Brammer, G., Raleigh, M., Yuwiler, A., et al. (1997). Whole blood serotonIn and family background related to male violence. In A.Raine, P.Brennan, D.Farrington, & S.Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 231–249). New York: Plenum.
    Moffitt, T., Caspi, A., Harrington, H., & Milne, B. (2002). Males on the life-course persistent and adolescence-limited antisocial pathways: Follow-up at age 26. Developmental Psychopathology, 14, 179–206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0954579402001104
    Mohr, W., Fantuzzo, J., & Abdul-Kabir, S. (2001). Safeguarding themselves and their children: Mothers share their strategies. Journal of Family Violence, 16, 75–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1026580526895
    Mokhiber, R. (2003, May). Trafficking in children. Multinational Monitor, 24(5), 4.
    Molassiotis, A., & Maneesakorn, S. (2004). Quality of life, coping and psychological status of Thai people living with AIDS. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 9(3), 350–361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13548500410001721918
    Molitor, F., Ruiz, J., Klausner, J., & McFarland, W. (2000). History of forced sex in association with drug use and sexual HIV risk behaviors, infection with STDS, and diagnostic medical care results from the Young Women Survey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15(3), 262–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626000015003003
    Monroe, A. (2001). Psychological issues and HIV: Dealing with the uncertainty of changing treatment strategies: Community forum summary: Robert H. Remien and Michael Shernoff, Speakers. Retrieved June 12, 2005, from http://www.thebody.com/cria/forums/psychology
    Montgomery, J., MokotoffE., Gentry, A., & Blair, J. (2003). The extent of bisexual behaviour in HIV-infected men and implications for transmission to their female sex partners. AIDS Care, 15(6), 829–837. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540120310001618676
    Montgomery, S., Hyde, J., De Rosa, C., Rohrbach, L., Ennett, S., Harvey, S., et al. (2002). Gender differences in HIV risk behaviors among young injectors and their social network members. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 28(3), 453–475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/ADA-120006736
    Montgomery, S. A., & Asberg, M. (1979). A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382–389. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.134.4.382
    Moore, V., & Davies, M. (2005). Diet during pregnancy, neonatal outcomes and later health. Reproductive Fertility Development, 17(3), 341–348. http://dx.doi.org/10.1071/RD04094
    Morgan, C. A., Wang, S., Southwick, S. M., Rasmusson, A. M., Hazlett, G., Hauger, R. L., et al. (2000). Plasma neuropeptide-Y concentrations in humans exposed to military survival training. Biological Psychiatry, 47, 902–909. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223%2899%2900239-5
    Morris, M., & Kretzschmar, M. (1997). Concurrent partnerships and the spread of HIV. AIDS, 11(5), 641–648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00002030-199705000-00012
    Morrow, J. R., Krzewinski-Malone, J. A., Jackson, A. W., Bungum, T. J., & FitzGerald, S. J. (2004). American adults’ knowledge of exercise recommendations. Research Quarterly Exercise Sports, 75(3), 231–237.
    Morse, E., Morse, P., Klebba, K., Stock, M., Forehand, R., & Panayotova, E. (2000). The use of religion among HIV-infected African American women. Journal of Religion and Health, 39(3), 261–276. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010314724910
    Moscicki, E. K. (1999). Epidemiology of suicide. In D.Jacobs, (Ed.), The Harvard Medical School guide to suicide assessment and intervention (pp. 40–71). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Moscicki, E. K. (2001). Epidemiology of completed and attempted suicide: Toward a framework for prevention. Clinical Neuroscience Research, 1, 310–323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1566-2772%2801%2900032-9
    Moss, H., Vanyukov, M., Yao, J., & Kiriflova, G. (1999). Salivary cortisol responses in prepubertal boys: The effects of parental substance abuse and associations with drug use behavior during adolescence. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 1293–1299. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223%2898%2900216-9
    Mowbray, C., Schwartz, S., & Bybee, D. (2000). Mothers with a mental illness: Stressors and resources for parenting and living. Families in Society, 81(2), 118–129.
    Moynihan, D. P. (1965). The negro family: The case for national action. Washington, DC: Office of Planning and Research, U.S. Department of Labor.
    Mui, A. C., Kang, S. Y., Chen, L. M., & Domanski, M. D. (2004). Reliability of the Geriatric Depression Scale for use among elderly Asian immigrants in the USA. International Psychogeriatrics, 16(3), 253–271.
    Mullahy, J., & Wolfe, B. L. (2002). Health policies for the non-elderly poor. In S. H.Danzinger & R. H.Haveman (Eds.). Understanding poverty (pp. 278–313). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Mullings, J., Marquart, J., & Brewer, V. (2000). Assessing the relationship between child sexual abuse and marginal living conditions on HIV/AIDS-related risk behavior among women prisoners. Child Abuse & Neglect, 24(5), 677–688. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2800%2900127-7
    Multisystemic Therapy. (2004). Treatment model. Retrieved January 10, 2005, from http://www.mstservices.com/text/treatment.html
    Murray, C., & Lopez, A. (Eds.). (1996). The global burden of disease and injury series: A comprehensive assessment of mortality and disability from diseases, injuries, and risk factors in 1990 and projected to 2020. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Myers, M., & Brown, S. (1990a). Coping and appraisal in potential relapse situations among adolescent substance abusers following treatment. Journal of Adolescent Chemical Dependency, 1, 95–115. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J272v01n01_07
    Myers, M., & Brown, S. (1990b). Coping responses and relapse among adolescent substance abusers. Journal of Substance Abuse, 2, 177–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0899-3289%2805%2980054-9
    Nafees, A. (2005). The vertical transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Molecular and biological properties of the virus. Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, 42(1), 1–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408360490512520
    Najavits, L. M., Weiss, R. D., & Liese, B. S. (1996). Group cognitive-behavioral therapy for women with PTSD and substance use disorder. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 13, 13–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0740-5472%2895%2902025-X
    Najavits, L. M., Weiss, R. D., Shaw, S. R., & Muenz, L. R. (1998). “Seeking Safety:” Outcome of a new cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder and substance dependence. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11(3), 437–456. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1024496427434
    Narayan, D. (2005). Conceptual framework and methodological challenges. In D.Narayan (Ed.), Measuring empowerment: Cross-disciplinary perspectives (pp. 3–38). Washington, DC: World Bank.
    Nasar, S., & Mitchell, K. (1999, May 23). Booming job market draws young black men into fold. The New York Times, pp. A1, A21.
    Nash, J., & Randolph, K. (2004). Methods in the analysis of risk and protective factors: Lessons from epidemiology. In M.Fraser (Ed.), Risk and resilience in childhood: An ecological perspective (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 67–87). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers.
    National Association of Social Workers. (1999). Code of ethics (
    Rev. ed.
    ). Washington, DC: Author.
    National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. (2004). What principles characterize a syndemic orientation? Retrieved February 26, 2005, from http://www.cdc.gov/syndemics/overview-principles.htm
    National Clearinghouse on Child Abuse & Neglect Information. (2005). Definitions of child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved April 27, 2005, from http://nccanch.acf.hhs.gov/general/legal/statutes/define.cfm
    National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. (2002). General information about disabilities: Disabilities that qualify infants, toddlers, children, and youth for services under IDEA. Retrieved May 23, 2005, from http://www.nichy.org/pubs/genresc/gr3.htm
    National Institutes of Health. (1998). Clinical guidelines on the identification, evaluation, and treatment of overweight and obesity in adults (NIH Publication No. 98-4083). Bethesda, MD: Author.
    National Institutes of Health. (2002). Depression and HIV/AIDS (NIH Publication No. 02-5005). Bethesda, MD: Author.
    National Institutes of Health. (2004, October 13–15). Preventing violence and related health-risking social behaviors in adolescents: An NIH state-ofthe-science conference. Bethesda, MD: Author.
    National Institute of Mental Health. (1999). Depression research at the National Institute of Mental Health. (NIH Publication No. 00-4501). Bethesda, MD: Author.
    National Institute of Mental Health. (2005). Depression in children and adolescents. Retrieved April 16, 2005, from http://nimh.nih.gov/HealthInformation/depchildmenu.cfm
    National Library of Medicine. (2005). Health information. Retrieved July 2, 2005, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/
    National Research Council. (1993). Understanding child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Nduati, R., John, G., Mbori-Ngacha, D., Richardson, B., Overbaugh, J., Mwatha, A., et al. (2000). Effect of breastfeeding and formula feeding on transmission of HIV-1: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Medical Association, 283(9), 1167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.283.9.1167
    Neaigus, A., Friedman, S., Curtis, R., Des Jarlais, D., Furst, R., Jose, B., et al. (1994). The relevance of drug injectors’ social and risk networks for understanding and preventing HIV infection. Social Science and Medicine, 38(1), 67–78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2894%2990301-8
    Nelson, C., Rosenfeld, B., Breitbart, W., & Galietta, M. (2002). Spirituality, religion, and depression in the terminally ill. Psychosomatics, 43(3), 213–220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.psy.43.3.213
    Nemoto, T., Operario, D., Takenaka, M., Iwamoto, M., & Le, M. (2003). HIV risk among Asian women working at massage parlors in San Francisco. AIDS Education and Prevention, 15(3), 245–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/aeap.15.4.245.23829
    Nestle, M., & Guttmacher, S. (1992). Hunger in the United States: Rationale, methods, and policy implications of state hunger surveys. Journal of Nutrition Education, 24, 18S-22S. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3182%2812%2980132-4
    Neuberger, N., Fremstad, S., & Parrott, S. (2003, February 12). $16,000 per family? Administration's claim that its budget increases welfare-to-work funding is incorrect. Retrieved May 23, 2005, from http://www.cbpp.org/2-12-03tanf.htm
    Neumark-Sztainer, D., Story, M., & Harris, T. (1999). Beliefs and attitudes about obesity among teachers and school health care providers working with adolescents. Journal of Nutrition Education, 31, 3–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3182%2899%2970378-X
    Newman, K. S. (1999). No shame in my game: The working poor in the inner city. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Niaura, R. (2000). Cognitive social learning and related perspectives on drug craving. Addiction, 95, 155–163.
    Nieves, R., Carballo, D., & Dolezal, C. (2000). Domestic abuse and HIV-risk behavior in Latin American men who have sex with men in New York City. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 11(1), 77–90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J041v11n01_04
    Njie, A. B. H. (2001). Poverty and ill health: The Ugandan national response. Development, 44(1), 93–98. http://dx.doi.org/10.1057/palgrave.development.1110221
    Noar, S., & Morokoff, P. (2002). The relationship between masculinity ideology, condom attitudes, and condom use stage of change: A structural equation modeling approach. International Journal of Men's Health, 1(1), 43–58. http://dx.doi.org/10.3149/jmh.0101.43
    Noell, J., Rohde, P., Seeley, J., & Ochs, L. (2001). Childhood sexual abuse, adolescent sexual coercion and sexually transmitted infection acquisition among homeless female adolescents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 25, 137–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2800%2900223-4
    Noonan, K., Reichman, N., & Corman, H. (2005). New fathers’ labor supply: Does child health matter?Social Science Quarterly, 86(Suppl.), 1399–1417. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0038-4941.2005.00352.x
    North American Association for the Study of Obesity. (2006). Obesity statistics. Retrieved June 14, 2006, from http://www.naaso.org/statistics/obesity_trends.asp
    Nurius, P. (1995). Critical thinking: A meta-skill for integrating practice and information technology training. Computers in Human Services, 12(1/2), 109–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J407v12n01_11
    O'Donnell, D., Schwab-Stone, M., & Muyeed, A. (2002). Multidimensional resilience in urban children exposed to community violence. Child Development, 73(4), 1265–1282. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00471
    O'Donnell, M. P. (2004, May 24–26). Plenary: Creating workplace environments to combat obesity. Obesity and the Built Environment Conference, National Institute of Environmental Health Services, Washington, DC.
    O'Leary, A., Goodhart, F., Jemmott, L., & Boccher-Lattimore, D. (1992). Predictors of safer sex on the college campus: A social cognitive theory analysis. Journal of American College Health, 40, 254–263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07448481.1992.9936290
    O'Rand, A. (1996). The precious and the precocious: Understanding cumulative disadvantage and cumulative advantage over the life course. The Gerontologist, 36(2), 230–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/geront/36.2.230
    Oakley, A., Fullerton, D., Holland, J., Arnold, S., France-Dawson, M., Kelley, P., et al. (1995). Sexual health education interventions for young people: A methodological review. British Medical Journal, 310(6973), 158–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.310.6973.158
    Oesterle, S., Hill, K. G., Hawkins, J. D., Guo, J., Catalano, R. F., & Abbott, R. D. (2004). Adolescent heavy episodic drinking trajectories and health in young adulthood. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 65, 204–212.
    Oldehinkel, A., Wittchen, J., & Schuster, P. (1999). Prevalence, 20-month incidence and outcome of unipolar depressive disorders in a community sample of adolescents. Psychological Medicine, 29, 655–668. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291799008454
    Olds, D. (1997). The prenatal/early infancy project: Fifteen years later. In G. W.Albee & T. P.Gullotta (Eds.), Primary prevention works. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452243801
    Olds, D. (2003). Reducing program attrition in home visiting: What do we need to know?Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(4), 359–361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2803%2900022-X
    Oliver, L., & Shapiro, T. M. (2000). A sociology of wealth and racial inequality. In M.Adams, W J.Blumenfeld, R.Castaneda, H. W.Hackman, M. L.Peters, & X.Zuniga (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice: An anthology on racism, anti-Semitism, sexism, heterosexism, ableism, and classism (pp. 402–406). New York: Routledge.
    Olsen, L., Mortensen, E., & Bech, P. (2004). Prevalence of major depression and stress indicators in the Danish general population. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 109(2), 96–103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.0001-690X.2003.00231.x
    Olson, C. M. (1999). Nutrition and health outcomes associated with food insecurity and hunger. Journal of Nutrition, 129(2S Suppl.), 521S-524S.
    Olweus, D., Limber, S., & Mihalic, S. (1998). Bullying prevention program. Boulder: University of Colorado, Center for the Study and Prevention of Violence, Blueprints for Violence Prevention.
    Onyike, C. U., Crum, R. M., Lee, H. B., Lyketsos, C. G., & Eaton, W. W. (2003). Is obesity associated with major depression? Results from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination survey. American Journal of Epidemiology, 158, 1139–1147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwg275
    Ortiz, I. (n.d.). Backgrounder: Poverty reduction. Initiative for policy dialogue. Retrieved October 4, 2006, from http://www2.gsb.columbia.edu/ipd/j_poverty_bk.html
    Ortiz, J., & Raine, A. (2004). Heart rate level and antisocial behavior in children and adolescents: A meta analysis. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 43(2), 154–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200402000-00010
    Ory, M. G., Zablotsky, D. L., & Crystal, S. (1998). HIV/AIDS and aging: Identifying a prevention research and care agenda. Research on Aging, 20(6), 637–653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027598206001
    Oslin, D. W., Strein, J., Katz, I. R., Edell, W. S., & TenHave, T. (2000). Change in disability follows inpatient treatment for late life depression. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 48(4), 357–362.
    Osofsky, J. (1995). The effects of exposure to violence on young children. American Psychologist, 50(9), 782–788. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.9.782
    Osofsky, J., Wewers, S., Hann, D., & Fick, A. (1993). Chronic community violence: What is happening to our children?Psychiatry, 56, 36–45.
    Ostman, J., Britton, M., & Jonsson, E. (Eds.). (2004). Treating and preventing obesity: An evidence based review. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/3527602496
    Ouellet, L., Huo, D., & Bailey, S. (2004). HIV risk practices among needle exchange users and nonusers in Chicago. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 37(1), 1187–1196. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.qai.0000120802.43677.ea
    Overeaters Anonymous. (2006). 12-step recovery program from compulsive overeating. Retrieved June 16, 2006, from http://www.oa.org/index.htm
    Overstreet, S. (2000). Exposure to community violence: Defining the problem and understanding the consequences. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9(1), 7–25. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1009403530517
    Ozer, E., Best, S., Lipsey, T., & Weiss, D. (2003). Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and symptoms in adults: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 129, 52–73. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.129.1.52
    Palmer, C. J. (2003). Body mass index, self-esteem, and suicide risk in clinically depressed African American and white American females. Journal of Black Psychology, 29(4), 408–428. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0095798403256890
    Pangestu, M., & Sachs, J. (2004, February). Interim report of Task Force 1 on poverty and economic development. New York: United Nations.
    Parappully, J., Rosenbaum, R., van den Daele, L., & Nzewi, E. (2002). Thriving after trauma: The experience of parents of murdered children. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 42(1), 33–70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167802421003
    Pargament, K. (1997). The psychology of religion and coping: Theory, research, practice. New York: Guilford Press.
    Pargament, K. I., Smith, B. W., Koenig, H. G., & Perez, L. (1998). Patterns of positive and negative religious coping with major life stressors. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 37(4), 710–724. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/1388152
    Parikh, M., Laker, S., Weiner, M., Hajiseyedjavadi, O., & Ren, C. (2006). Objective comparison of complications resulting from laparoscopic bariatric procedures. Journal of American College of Surgeons, 202(2), 252–261. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2005.10.003
    Parker, R., & Aggleton, P. (2003). HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination: A conceptual framework and implications for action. Social Science & Medicine, 57(1), 13–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536%2802%2900304-0
    Parson, E. R. (1994). Post-traumatic ethnotherapy (P-TET): Processes In assessment and intervention in aspects of global psychic trauma. In M. B.Williams & J. F.Sommer (Eds.), Handbook of post-traumatic therapy (pp. 221–239). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    Parson, E. R. (1997). Post-traumatic child therapy (P-TCT): Assessment and treatment factors in clinic work with inner-city children exposed to catastrophic community violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 12, 172–194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626097012002002
    Passehl, B., McCarroll, C., Buechner, J., Gearring, C., Smith, A. E., & Trowbridge, F. (2004). Preventing childhood obesity: Establishing healthy lifestyle habits in the preschool years. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 18(6), 315–319.
    Pate, R. R., Pfeiffer, K. A., Trost, S. G., Ziegler, P., & Dowda, M. (2004). Physical activity among children attending preschools. Pediatrics, 114(5), 1258–1263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2003-1088-L
    Patel, V., & Kleinman, A. (2003). Overt and common mental disorders in developing countries. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81(8), 609–615.
    Patterson, C. M., & Newman, J. P. (1993). Reflectivity and learning from aversive events: Toward a psychological mechanism for syndromes of disinhibition. Psychological Review, 100, 716–736. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.100.4.716
    Patterson, T., Shaw, W., Semple, S., Cherner, M., McCutchan, J., Atkinson, J., et al. (1996). Relationship of psychosocial factors to HIV disease progression. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 18, 30–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02903937
    Pavon, B. (2004). AIDS slashes life expectancy in 23 African countries. UN Chronicle Online Edition. Retrieved May 29, 2005, from http://www.un.org/Pubs/chronicle/2004/issue3/0304p54.asp
    Paxton, S., Gonzales, G., Uppakaew, K., Abraham, K., Okta, S., Green, C., et al. (2005). AIDS-related discrimination in Asia. AIDS Care, 17(4), 413–524. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540120412331299807
    Payne, M. (2005). Modern social work theory (
    3rd ed.
    ). Chicago: Lyceum Books.
    Pearce, M., Jones, S., Schwab-Stone, M., & Ruchkin, V. (2003). The protective effects of religiousness and parent involvement on the development of conduct problems among youth exposed to violence. Child Development, 74(6), 1682–1696. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1467-8624.2003.00631.x
    Pearce, M. J., Little, T D., & Perez, J. E. (2003). Religiousness and depressive symptoms among adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32(2), 267–276.
    Pearlman, L. A., & Saakvitne, K. W. (1995). Trauma and the therapist: Countertransference and vicarious traumatization in psychotherapy with incest survivors. New York: Norton.
    Pecora, P., Whittaker, J., Maluccio, A., & Barth, R. P. (2000). The child welfare challenge: Policy, practice, and research. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
    Peek, M. K., & Coward, R. T. (2000). Antecedents of disability for older adults with multiple chronic health conditions. Research on Aging, 22(4), 422–444. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0164027500224005
    Penninx, B., Guralnik, J., Pahor, M., Ferrucci, L., Cerhan, J., Wallace, R., et al. (1998). Chronically depressed mood and cancer risk in older persons. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 90(24), 1888–1893. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/90.24.1888
    Penninx, B., Leveille, S., Ferrucci, L., van Eijk, J., & Guralnik, J. (1999). Exploring the effect of depression on physical disability: Longitudinal evidence from the established populations for epidemiologic studies of the elderly. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 1346–1352. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.89.9.1346
    Perlis, M., Smith, L., Lyness, J., Matteson, S., Pegeon, W., Jungquist, C., et al. (2006). Insomnia as a risk factor for onset of depression in the elderly. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 4(2), 104–113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15402010bsm0402_3
    Perlman, H. (1957). Social casework: A problem-solving process. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Perrin, E. C., & Sack, S. (1998). Health and development of gay and lesbian youths: Implications for HIV/AIDS. AIDS Patient Care STDA, 12(4), 303–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/apc.1998.12.303
    Perrin, S., Smith, P., & Yule, W. (2000). Practitioner review: The assessment and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 41(3), 277–289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00612
    Perry, B. (1997). Incubated in terror: Neurodevelopmental factors in the “cycle of violence.” In J.Osofsky (Ed.), Children in a violent society (pp. 124–149). New York: Guilford Press.
    Perry, B. G. (1998). The relationship between faith and well-being. Journal of Religion and Health, 37(2), 125–126. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1022978831589
    Peterson, D. (1995). The reflective educator. American Psychologist, 50(12), 975–983. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.12.975
    Peterson, J., Coates, T., Catania, J., Middleton, L., Hilliard, B., & Hearst, N. (1992). High-risk sexual behavior and condom use among gay and bisexual African-American men. American Journal of Public Health, 82, 1490–1494. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.82.11.1490
    Peterson, R., Krivo, L., & Harris, M. (2000). Disadvantage and neighborhood violent crime: Do local institutions matter?Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37(1), 31–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022427800037001002
    Pezawas, L., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., Drabant, E., Verchinski, B., Munoz, K., Kolachana, B., et al. (2005). 5-HTTLPR polymorphism impacts human cingulated-amygdala interactions: A genetic susceptibility mechanism for depression. Nature Neuroscience, 6, 828–834. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nn1463
    Phan, T., Steel, Z., & Silove, D. (2004). An ethnographically derived measure of anxiety, depression and somatization: The Phan Vietnamese Psychiatric Scale. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41(2), 200–232. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1363461504043565
    Pharr, S. (2000). Reflections on liberation. In M.Adams, W. J.Blumenfeld, R.Castaneda, H.Hackman, M. L.Peters, & X.Zuniga (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice: An anthology on racism, anti-Semitism, sexism, het-erosexism, ableism, and classism (pp. 450–457). New York: Routledge.
    Phillips, L. (2005). Deconstructing “down low” discourse: The politics of sexuality, gender, race, AIDS, and anxiety. Journal of African American Studies, 9(2), 3–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12111-005-1018-4
    Pilkington, K., Kirkwood, C., Rampes, H., & Richardson, J. (2005). Yoga for depression: The research evidence. Journal of Affective Disorders, 89(1–3), 13–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2005.08.013
    Pilowsky, D., Wickramartne, P., Nomura, Y., & Weissman, M. (2006). Family discord, parental depression, and psychopathology in offspring: 20-year follow-up. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 45(4), 452–460. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.chi.0000198592.23078.8d
    Pincus, F. (2000). Discrimination comes In many forms: Individual, institutional, and structural. In M.Adams, W. J.Blumenfeld, R.Castaneda, H.Hackman, M. L.Peters, & X.Zuniga (Eds.), Readings for diversity and social justice: An anthology on racism, anti-Semitism, sexism, heterosexism, ableism, and classism (pp. 31–35). New York: Routledge.
    Pine, D., Goldstein, R., Wolk, S., & Weissman, M. (2001). The association between childhood depression and adulthood body mass index. Pediatrics, 107, 1049–1056. http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.107.5.1049
    Pingitoire, R., Dugoni, R., Tindale, S., & Spring, B. (1994). Bias against overweight job applicants in a simulated employment interview. Journal of Applied Psychology, 79, 909–917. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.79.6.909
    Piquero, A., Gibson, C., Tibbetts, S., Turner, M., & Katz, S. (2002). Maternal cigarette smoking during pregnancy and life-course-persistent offending. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 46(2), 231–247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0306624X02462008
    Piquero, A., & Tibbetts, S. (1999). The impact of pre/perinatal disturbances and disadvantaged familial environment in predicting criminal offending. Studies on Crime and Crime Prevention, 8, 52–70.
    Piquero, A., & White, N. (2003). On the relationship between cognitive abilities and life-course-persistent offending among a sample of African Americans: A longitudinal test of Moffitt's hypothesis. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 399–409. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0047-2352%2803%2900046-1
    Piven, F., & Cloward, R. (1977). Poor people's movements: Why they succeed, how they fail. New York: Pantheon.
    Piwoz, E., Ross, J., & Humphrey, J. (2004). Human immunodeficiency virus transmission during breastfeeding: Knowledge, gaps, and challenges for the future. Advances in Experimental Medical Biology, 554, 195–210.
    Pleck, J., Sonenstein, F., & Ku, L. (1993). Masculinity ideology: Its impact on adolescent males’ heterosexual relationships. Journal of Social Issues, 49(3), 11–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1993.tb01166.x
    Popkin, S., Rosenbaum, J., & Meaden, P. (1993). Labor market experiences of low-income black women in middle-class suburbs: Evidence from a survey of Gautreaux program participants. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 12(3), 556–573. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/3325306
    Popple, P. R., & Leighninger, L. (2003). The policy-based profession: An introduction to social welfare policy analysis for social workers (
    3rd ed.
    ). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
    Potter, L. (1999). Understanding the incidence of origins of community violence: Toward a comprehensive perspective of violence prevention. In T.Gullotta & S.McElhaney (Eds.), Violence in homes and communities: Prevention, intervention, and treatment(pp. 101–132). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Poulin, F., Dishion, T., & Burraston, B. (2001). 3-year iatrogenic effects associated with aggregating high-risk adolescents in cognitive-behavioral preventive interventions. Applied Development Science, 5(4), 214–224. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S1532480XADS0504_03
    Prado, G., Feaster, D., Schwartz, S., Pratt, I., Smith, L., & Szapocznik, J. (2004). Religious involvement, coping, social support, and psychological distress in HIV-seropositive African American mothers. AIDS and Behavior, 8(3), 221–235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:AIBE.0000044071.27130.46
    Prescott, C. A., McArdle, J. J., Hishinuma, E. S., Johnson, R. C., Miyamoto, R. H., Andrade, N., et al. (1998). Prediction of major depression and dysthymia from CES-D scores among ethnic minority adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(5), 495–503. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199805000-00012
    Prochaska, J. O., & DiClemente, C. C. (1983). Transtheoretical therapy: Toward a more integrative model of change. Psychotherapy: Theory, research and practice, 20, 161–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0088487
    Prochaska, J. O., DiClemente, C. C., & Norcross, J. (1992). In search of how people change: Applications to addictive behaviors. American Psychologist, 47, 1102–1114. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.47.9.1102
    Public Health Service Task Force. (2004, December 17). Recommendations for use of antiretroviral drugs in pregnant HIV-1-infected women for maternal health and interventions to reduce perinatal HIV-1 transmission in the United States. Retrieved February 9, 2005, from http://AIDSinfo.nih.gov
    Puhl, R., & Brownell, K. D. (2001). Bias, discrimination, and obesity. Obesity Research, 9, 788–805. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2001.108
    Quigley, L. A., & Marlatt, G. A. (1996). Drinking among young adults. Alcohol Health & Research World, 20(3), 185–191.
    Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A new self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/014662167700100306
    Radloff, L. S., & Rae, D S. (1981). Components of the sex difference in depression. Residential Community Mental Health, 2, 111–137.
    Radloff, L. S., & Terri, L. (1986). Use of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale with older adults. Clinical Gerontologist, 5, 119–136. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J018v05n01_06
    Raebel, M. A., Malone, D. C., Conner, D. A., Xu, S., Porter, J. A., & Lanty, F. A. (2004). Health services use and health care costs of obese and nonobese individuals. Archives of Internal Medicine, 164(19), 2135–2140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archinte.164.19.2135
    Raine, A. (1993). The psychopathology of crime: Criminal behavior as a clinical disorder. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
    Raine, A. (2002a). Annotation: The role of prefrontal deficits, low autonomic arousal, and early health factors in the development of antisocial and aggressive behavior. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 43, 417–434. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1469-7610.00034
    Raine, A. (2002b). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(4), 311–326. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1015754122318
    Raine, A., Brennan, P., & Farrington, D. (1997). Biosocial bases of violence: Conceptual and theoretical issues. In A.Raine, P.Brennan, D.Farrington, & S.Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 1–20). New York: Plenum.
    Raine, A., Brennan, P., Farrington, D., & Mednick, S. (Eds.). (1997). Biosocial bases of violence. New York: Plenum.
    Raine, A., Brennan, P., & Mednick, S. (1994). Birth complications combined with early maternal rejection at age 1 year predispose to violent crime at age 18 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 984–988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1994.03950120056009
    Raine, A., Buchsbaum, M., Stanley, J., Lottenberg, S., Abel, L., & Stoddard, J. (1994). Selective reductions in prefrontal glucose metabolism in murderers assessed with positron emission tomography. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 36, 365–373. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0006-3223%2894%2991211-4
    Raine, A., Park, S., Lenca, T., Bihrle, S., LaCasse, L., Widom, C., et al. (2001). Reduced right hemisphere activation in severely abused violent offenders during a working memory task: An fMRI study. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 111–129. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.4
    Raine, A., Reynolds, C., Venables, P., & Mednick, S. (1997). Biosocial bases of aggressive behavior In childhood. In A.Raine, P.Brennan, D.Farrington, & S.Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 107–126). New York: Plenum.
    Raine, A., Stoddard, J., Bihrle, S., & Buchsbaum, M. (1998). Prefrontal glucose deficits in murders lacking psychosocial deprivation. Neuropsychiatry, Neuropsychology, and Behavioral Neurology, 11, 1–7
    Raine, A., Venables, P., & Williams, M. (1990). Relationships between central and autonomic measures of arousal at age 15 years and criminality at age 24 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1003–1007. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1990.01810230019003
    Rajan, R. (2005). Straight talk: Debt relief and growth. Finance and Development, 42(2). Retrieved June 29, 2005, from http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2005/06/straight.htm
    Rallings, M. (2002). The impact of offending on police officers. Issues in Forensic Psychology, 3, 20–40.
    Rank, M. R., Yoon, H. S., & Hirschl, T A. (2003). American poverty as a structural failing: Evidence and arguments. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 30(4), 3–29.
    Rasmussen, A., Aber, M., & Bhana, A. (2004). Adolescent coping and neighborhood violence: Perceptions, exposure, and urban youths’ efforts to deal with danger. American Journal of Community Psychology, 33(1–2), 61–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:AJCP.0000014319.32655.66
    Rauch, S. L., Van der Kolk, B. A., Fisler, R. E., Alpert, N. M., Orr, S. P., Savage, C. R., et al. (1996). A symptom provocation study of posttraumatic stress disorder using positron emission tomography and script-driven imagery. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53(5), 380–387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1996.01830050014003
    Reeves, P. (2000). Coping in cyberspace: The impact of internet use on the ability of HIV-positive individuals to deal with their illness. Journal of Health Communication, 5(1), 47–59. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10810730050019555
    Reilly, T., & Woo, G. (2004). Social support and maintenance of safer sex practices among people living with HIV/AIDS. Health & Social Work, 29(2), 97–105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/29.2.97
    Resick, P. A., & Schnicke, M. K. (1992). Cognitive processing therapy for sexual assaultvictims. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 60(5), 748–756. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.60.5.748
    Resnicow, K., Jackson, A., Braithwaite, R., DiIorio, C., Blisset, D., Rahotep, S., et al. (2002). Healthy Body/Healthy Spirit: A church-based nutrition and physical activity intervention. Health Education Research, 17(5), 562–573. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/her/17.5.562
    Reynolds, C. F. (1994). Treatment of depression in late life. American Journal of Medicine, 97(6A), 395–465. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0002-9343%2894%2990362-X
    Reynolds, C. F., & Kupfer, D. J. (1999). Depression and aging: A look to the future. Psychiatric Services, 50(9), 1167–1172.
    Reynolds, C. F., Perel, J. M., Imber, S. D., Cornes, C., Morycz, R. K., Mazumdar, S., et al. (1992). Combined pharmacotherapy and psychiatric therapy in the acute and continuation treatment of elderly patients with recurrent major depression: A preliminary report. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 1687–1692.
    Rhodes, J. E., & Jason, L. A. (1990). A social stress model of substance abuse. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58, 395–401. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.58.4.395
    Rhodes, R., & Johnson, A. D. (1997). A feminist approach to treating alcohol and drug addicted African-American women. Women and Therapy, 20, 23–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J015v20n03_02
    Richard, R., & Van der Plight, J. (1991). Factors affecting condom use among adolescents. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 1(2), 105–116. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/casp.2450010205
    Richardson, L. P., Davis, R. D., Poulton, R., McCauley, E., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., et al. (2003). A longitudinal evaluation of adolescent depression and adult obesity. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 157, 739–745. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpedi.157.8.739
    Richmond, M. (1917). Social diagnosis. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Rintamaki, L., & Brashers, D. (2005). Social identity and stigma management for people living with HIV. In E.Ray (Ed.), Health communication in practice: A case study approach (pp. 145–156). Mahway NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Roberts, A., Jackson, M. S., & Carlton-Laney, I. (2000). Revisiting the need for feminist and Afrocentric theory when treating African-American female substance abusers. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 901–918.
    Roberts, J., & Stalans, L. (2004). Restorative sentencing: Exploring the views of the public. Social Justice Research, 17(3), 315–334. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:SORE.0000041296.99271.52
    Roby, J. L. (2005). Women and children in the global sex trade: Toward more effective policy. International Social Work, 48(2), 136–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020872805050206
    Roche, H. M. (2004). Dietary lipids and gene expression. Biochemical Social Transactions, 32(6), 999–1002. http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BST0320999
    Roe, C. M., & Schwartz, M. (1996). Characteristics of previously forgotten memories of sexual abuse: A descriptive study. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 24, 189–206.
    Roff, L. L., Klemmack, D. L., Parker, M., Koenig, H. G., Crowther, M., Baker, P. S., et al. (2005). Depression and religiosity in African American and white community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 10(1), 175–189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J137v10n01_04
    Rogers, E. (1983). Diffusion of innovations. New York: Free Press.
    Rogers, S., Ying, L., Xin, Y., Fung, K., & Kaufman, J. (2002). Reaching and identifying the STUD/HIV risk of sex workers in Beijing. AIDS Education and Prevention, 14(3), 217–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1521/aeap.14.3.217.23892
    Rogers, W A. (2003). Evidence based medicine and justice: A framework for looking at the impact of EBM upon vulnerable or disadvantaged groups. Journal of Medical Ethics, 30, 141–145. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jme.2003.007062
    Rohrer, J. E., Rush, P. J., & Blackburn, C. (2005). Lifestyle and mental health. Preventive Medicine, 40(4), 438–443. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.07.003
    Rohsenow, D., Corbett, R., & Devine, D. (1988). Molested as children: A hidden contribution to substance abuse?Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 5, 13–18. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0740-5472%2888%2990032-3
    Rohsenow, D J., Martin, R. A., & Monti, P. M. (2005). Urge-specific and lifestyle coping strategies of cocaine abusers: Relationship to treatment outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 78, 211–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.03.001
    Roisman, G. I., Padron, E., Sroufe, L. A., & Egeland, B. (2002). Earned-secure attachment status in retrospect and prospect. Child Development, 73(4), 1204–1219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00467
    Rolls, D. J. (2000). The role of energy density in the overconsumption of fat. Journal of Nutrition, 130, 268S-271S.
    Rolls, D. J., Engeli, D., & Birch, I.I. (2000). Serving portion size influences 5-year-old but not 3-year-old children's food intake. Journal of the American Dietary Association, 100, 232–234. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223%2800%2900070-5
    Rosack, J. (2006a). Companies desperately seek antidepressant breakthrough. Psychiatric News, 41(11), 22–29.
    Rosack, J. (2006b). MAOI skin patch wins FDA approval for depression. Psychiatric News, 41(7), 31.
    Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E. W., & Hunter, J. (2004). Predictors of substance use over time among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: An examination of three hypotheses. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 1623–1631. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.02.032
    Rose, D. (1997). Assessing food insecurity in the United States. Washington, DC: USDA Economic Research Service, Food and Consumer Economics Division No. 9706.
    Rose, D., Basiotis, P. P., & Klein, B. W. (1995). Improving federal efforts to assess hunger and food insecurity. Food Review, 18, 18–23.
    Rose, S. J., & Hartmann, H.I. (2004). Still a man's labor market: The long-term earnings gap. Washington, DC: Institute for Women's Policy Research.
    Rosenthal, B. (2000). Exposure to community violence in adolescence: Trauma symptoms. Adolescence, 35(138), 271–284.
    Rosenthal, B., & Wilson, W. (2003). The association of ecological variables and psychological distress with exposure to community violence among adolescents. Adolescence, 38(151), 459–479.
    Rothblum, E., Miller, C., & Garbutt, B. (1988). Stereotypes of obese female job applicants. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 7, 277–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1098-108X%28198803%297:2%3C277::AID-EAT2260070213%3E3.0.CO;2-2
    Rotton, J., & Cohn, E. G. (2004). Outdoor temperature, climate control, and criminal assault: The spatial and temporal ecology of violence. Environment and Behavior, 36(2), 276–306. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916503259515
    Rounds, K., Galinsky, M., & Despard, M. (1996). Evaluation of telephone support groups for persons living with HIV disease. Research on Social Work Practice, 5(4), 442–459. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/104973159500500405
    Rounds-Bryant, J. L., Kristiansen, P. L., & Hubbard, R. L. (1999). Drug abuse treatment outcome study of adolescents: A comparison of client characteristics and pretreatment behaviors in three treatment modalities. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 25(4), 573–591. http://dx.doi.org/10.1081/ADA-100101880
    Rowe, C. L., Liddle, H. A., Greenbaum, P. E., & Henderson, C. E. (2004). Impact of psychiatric comorbidity on treatment of adolescent drug abusers. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 26, 129–140. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0740-5472%2803%2900166-1
    Roy, J. (2004). Socioeconomic status and health: A neurobiological perspective. Medical Hypotheses, 62(2), 222–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0306-9877%2803%2900315-3
    Rudorfer, M. V., & Lebowitz, B. D. (1999). Letter to the editor: Progress in ECT research. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 975.
    Runyan, D. K., & Litrownik, A. J. (2003). Introduction to special issue: LONGSCAN and family violence. Journal of Family Violence, 18, 1–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1021468429435
    Russell Sage Foundation. (2000). Preliminary findings from the Multi-City Study of Urban Inequality (MCSUI). Retrieved June 9, 2006, from http://www.russellsage.org/special_interest/mcsui_points.html
    Rutter, M. (2000). Resilience reconsidered: Conceptual considerations, empirical findings and policy implications. In J. P.Shonkoff & S. J.Meisels (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood intervention (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 651–682). New York: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511529320.030
    Rutter, M. (2002). The interplay of nature, nurture, and developmental influences. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59(11), 996–1000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.59.11.996
    Rutter, M. (2003). Genetic influences on risk and protection: Implications for understanding resilience. In S.Luther (Ed.), Resilience and vulnerability: Adaptation in the context of childhood adversities (pp. 489–509). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511615788.022
    Ryan, J. P., Marsh, J. C., Testa, M. F., & Louderman, R. (2006). Integrating substance abuse treatment and child welfare services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration. Social Work Research, 30(2), 95–107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/swr/30.2.95
    Ryle, G. (1949). The concept of mind. London: Hutchinson.
    Saakvitne, K. W., Gamble, S. J., Pearlman, L. A., & Tabor Lev, B. (2000). Risking connection: A training curriculum for working with survivors of childhood abuse. Lutherville, MD: Sidran Press.
    Saal, D., Dong, Y., Bonci, A., & Malenka, R. (2003). Drugs of abuse and stress trigger a common synaptic adaptation in dopamine neurons. Neuron, 37(4), 577–582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0896-6273%2803%2900021-7
    Sachs, J. D. (2005). The end of poverty: Economic possibilities for our time. New York: Penguin.
    Sadker, M., & Sadker, D. (1994). Failing at fairness: How America's schools cheat girls. New York: Scribner.
    Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2001). Pocket handbook of psychiatric drug treatment (
    3rd. ed.
    ). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
    Sadock, B. J., & Sadock, V. A. (2003). Kaplan & Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences, clinical psychiatry (
    9th ed.
    ). Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins.
    Safman, R. (2004). Assessing the impact of or phanhood on Thai children affected by AIDS and their caregivers. AIDS Care, 16(1), 11–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540120310001633930
    Saigh, P., Yasik, A., Sack, W., & Koplewicz, H. (1999). Child-adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder: Prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity. In P.Saigh & J. D.Bremner (Eds.), Posttraumatic stress disorder: A comprehensive text (pp. 18–43). Needham Heights, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
    Samaan, R. A. (2000). The influences of race, ethnicity, and poverty on the mental health of children. Journal of Health Care for the Po or & Underserved, 11(1), 100–110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2010.0557
    Samantrai, K. (2004). Culturally competent public child welfare practice. Pacific Grove, CA: Thomson.
    Sampson, R. (2003). The neighborhood context of well-being. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 46(3), S53-S65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/pbm.2003.0059
    Sampson, R., Morenoff, J., & Earls, F. (1999). Beyond social capital: Spatial dynamics of collective efficacy for children. American Sociological Review, 64, 633–660. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2657367
    Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: A multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918–924. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.277.5328.918
    Sander, J. B., & McCarty, C. A., (2005). Youth depression in the family context. Familial risk factors and models of treatment. Clinical Child and Family Psychological Review, 8(3), 203–219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10567-005-6666-3
    Sanders-Phillips, K. (1997). Assaultive violence in the community: Psychological responses of adolescent victims and their parents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 21, 356–365. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2897%2900165-1
    Sandler, I. N., Wolchick, S. A., MacKinnon, D., Ayers, T. S., & Roosa, M. (1997). Developing linkages between theory and intervention In stress and coping processes. In S. A.Wolchick & I. N.Sandler (Eds.), Handbook of children's coping: Linking theory and intervention (pp. 3–40). New York: Plenum.
    Sapolsky, R. (2005). Sick of poverty: Poor people more prone to diseases due to stress. Scientific American, 293(6), 92–99. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican1205-92
    Sarwer, D. B., Wadden, T A., & Fabricatore, A. N. (2005). Psychosocial and behavioral aspects of bariatric surgery. Obesity Research, 13(4), 639–648. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2005.71
    Satter, E. (1995). Feeding dynamics: Helping children to eat well. Journal of Pediatric Health Care, 9, 178–180. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5245%2805%2980033-1
    Satter, E. (1996). Internal regulation and the evolution of normal growth as the basis for prevention of obesity in children. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 96, 860–862. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223%2896%2900237-4
    Saunders, R. (2004a). Grazing: A high-risk behavior. Obesity Surgery, 14(1), 98–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1381/096089204772787374
    Saunders, R. (2004b). Post-surgery group therapy for gastric bypass patients. Obesity Surgery, 14(8), 1128–1131. http://dx.doi.org/10.1381/0960892041975532
    Scarpa, A. (1997). Aggression In physically abused children: The interactive role of emotion regulation. In A.Raine, P.Brennan, D.Farrington, & S.Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 341–343). New York: Plenum.
    Schiele, J. (2000). Human services and the Afrocentric paradigm. New York: Haworth Press.
    Schiffer, F., Teicher, M. H., & Papanicolau, A. C. (1995). Evoked potential evidence for right brain activity during the recall oftraumatic memories. Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, 7, 169–175.
    Schiller, B. (2004). The economics of poverty and discrimination (
    9th ed.
    ). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Schmeelk-Cone, K. H., & Zimmerman, M. A. (2003). A longitudinal analysis of stress in African-American youth: Predictors and outcomes of stress trajectories. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32(6), 419–430. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1025934301468
    Schmidt, C. (2003). Obesity: A weighty issue for children. Environmental Health Perspectives, 111(13), 700–707. http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.111-a700
    Schneider, F., Habel, U., Wagner, M., Franke, P., Salloum, J. B., Shah, N. J. S., et al. (2001). Subcortical correlates of craving in recently abstinent alcoholic patients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(7), 1075–1083. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.158.7.1075
    Schneider, R. L., & Lester, L. (2001). Social work advocacy: A new framework for action. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Schore, A. (1994). Affect regulation and the origin of the self. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
    Schuckit, M. A., & Sweeney, S. (1987). Substance use and mental health problems among sons of alcoholics and controls. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 48, 528–534.
    Schulenberg, J., Maggs, J. L., & Hurrelmann, K. (1997). Negotiating developmental transitions during adolescence and young adulthood: Health risks and opportunities. In J.Schulenberg, J. L.Maggs, & K.Hurrelman (Eds.), Health risks and developmental transitions during adolescence (pp. 1–19). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Schulenberg, J., Maggs, J. L., Steinman, K. J., & Zucker, R. A. (2001). Development matters: Taking the long view on substance abuse etiology and intervention during adolescence. In P. M.Monti, S. M.Colby, & T. A.O'Leary (Eds.), Adolescents, alcohol, and substance abuse (pp. 19–57). New York: Guilford Press.
    Schulz, A., Israel, B., Zenk, S., Parker, E., Lictenstein, R., Shellman-Weir, S., et al. (2006). Psychosocial stress and social support as mediators of relationships between income, length of residence and depressive symptoms among African American women on Detroit's eastside. Social Science & Medicine, 62(2), 510–522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.06.028
    Schwartz, A., & Schwartz, R. (1993). Depression theories and treatments: Psychological, biological, and social perspectives. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Schwartz, D., & Proctor, L. (2000). Community violence exposure and children's social adjustment in the school peer group: The mediating roles of emotional regulation and social cognition. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 670–683. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.68.4.670
    Schwartz, M. B., Chambliss, H., Brownell, K. D., Blair, S. N., & Billington, C. (2003). Weight bias among health professionals specializing in obesity. Obesity Research, 11, 1033–1039. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2003.142
    Schwartzberg, S. (1993). Struggling for meaning: How HIV-positive gay men make sense of AIDS. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 24, 483–490. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.24.4.483
    Sciammacco, C. (1998). Feminists call for closing of wage gap: Equal pay day shows women still behind [Electronic version]. National NOW Times. Retrieved May 19, 2005, from http://www.now.org/nnt/05-98/wagegap.html
    Sedlak, A. J., & Broadhurst, D. D. (1996). Executive summary of the Third National Incidence Study of Child Abuse & Neglect. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Seidell, J. C., & Rissanen, A. M. (2004). Prevalence of obesity In adults: The global epidemic. In G. A.Bray & C.Bouchard (Eds.), Handbook of obesity: Etiology and pathophysiology (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 93–107). New York: Marcel Dekker.
    Seipel, M. M. O. (2003). Global poverty: No longer an untouchable problem. International Social Work, 46(2), 191–207. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0020872803046002005
    Sell, L. A., Morris, J. S., Bearn, J., Frackowiak, R. S. J., Friston, K. J., & Dolan, R. J. (2000). Neural responses associated with cue evoked emotional states and heroin in opiate addicts. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 60, 207–216. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0376-8716%2899%2900158-1
    Semaan, S., Lauby, J., O'Connell, A., & Cohen, A. (2003). Factors associated with perceptions of, and decisional balance for, condom use with main partner among women at risk for HIV infection. Women & Health, 37(3), 53–69. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J013v37n03_04
    Seymour, B., Kinn, S., & Sutherland, N. (2003). Valuing both critical and creative thinking in clinical practice: Narrowing the research-practice gap?Journal of Advanced Nursing, 42(3), 288–296. http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02618.x
    Shaffer, N., Bulterys, M., & Simonds, R. (1999). Short courses of zidovudine and perinatal transmission of HIV. New England Journal of Medicine, 340, 1042–1043.
    Shaham, Y., Erb, S., & Stewart, J. (2000). Stress-induced relapse to heroin and cocaine seeking in rats: A review. Brain Research Reviews, 33, 13–33. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0165-0173%2800%2900024-2
    Shahinfar, A., Fox, N., & Leavitt, L. (2000). Preschool children's exposure to violence: Relation of behavior problems to parent and child reports. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70(1), 1115–1125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0087690
    Shapiro, J., Radecki, S., Charchian, A., & Josephson, V. (1999). Sexual behavior and AIDS-related knowledge among community college students in Orange County, California. Journal of Community Health, 24, 29–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/A:1018713231400
    Sharma, V., Das, S., Mondal, S., Goswampi, U., & Gandhi, A. (2005). Effect of Sahag Yoga on depressive disorders. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, 49(4), 462–468.
    Shaw, A., Herbert, R., Lewis, S., Mahendran, R., Platt, J., & Bhattacharyya, B. (1997). Screening for depression among acutely ill geriatric inpatients with a short geriatric depression scale. Age and Aging26(3), 217–223. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/26.3.217
    Shaw, B., Krause, N., Chatters, L. M., Connell, C. M., & Ingersoll-Dayton, B. (2004). Emotional support from parents early in life, aging, and heath. Psychology and Aging, 19(1), 4–12. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0882-7974.19.1.4
    Shaw, C., & McKay, H. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Sheeran, P., Abraham, C., & Orbell, S. (1999). Psychosocial correlates of heterosexual condom use: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 125(1), 90–132. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.125.1.90
    Sheppard, D., Smith, G. T., & Rosenbaum, G. (1988). Use of the MMPI subtypes in predicting completion of a residential alcoholism treatment program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 590–596. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.56.4.590
    Sher, K. J. (1991). Children of alcoholics: A critical appraisal of theory and research. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Sherman, L., Gottfredson, D., MacKenzie, D., Eck, J., Reuter, P., & Bushway, S. (1997). Preventing crime: What works, what doesn't, what's promising. A report to the United States Congress (NCJ 171676). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs.
    Shernoff, M. (1990). Why every social worker should be challenged by AIDS. Social Work, 35(1), 5–8.
    Shih, R. A., Belmonte, P. L., & Zandi, P. P. (2004). A review of the evidence from family, twin and adoption studies for a genetic contribution to adult psychiatric disorders. International Review of Psychiatry, 16(4), 260–283. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540260400014401
    Shikora, S. A. (2004). Implantable gastric stimulation—the surgical procedure: Combining safety with simplicity. Obesity Surgery, 14, S9-S13.
    Shipler, D. K. (2004). The working poor invisible in America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.
    Shlonsky, A., & Wagner, D. (2005). The next step: Integrating actuarial risk assessment and clinical judgment into an evidence-based practice framework in CPS case management. Children & Youth Services Review, 27(4), 409–427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.childyouth.2004.11.007
    Shoal, G., Giancola, P., & Kirillova, G. (2003). Salivary cortisol, personality, and aggressive behavior in adolescent boys: A 5-year longitudinal study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(9), 1101–1107. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.CHI.0000070246.24125.6D
    Shonkoff, J. P., & Phillips, D. A. (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Shor, R. (1998). The significance of religion in advancing a culturally sensitive approach towards child maltreatment. Families in Society, 79(4), 400–409.
    Shulman, B. (2003). The betrayal of work: How low wage jobs fail 30 million Americans. New York: New Press.
    Siegel, D. J. (1999). The developing mind. New York: Guilford Press.
    Siegel, D. J. (2001). Memory: An overview, with emphasis on developmental, interpersonal, and neurobiological aspects. Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(9), 997–1011. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200109000-00008
    Siegel, D. J. (2003). An interpersonal neurobiology of psychotherapy: The developing mind and the resolution of trauma. In M.Solomon & D.Siegel (Eds.), Healing trauma: Attachment, mind, body, and brain (pp. 1–56). New York: Norton.
    Siegel, K., Brown-Bradley, C., & Lekas, H. (2004). Strategies for coping with fatigue among HIV-positive individuals fifty years and older. AIDS Patient Care and STDs, 18(5), 275–288. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/108729104323076016
    Siegel, K., & Schrimshaw, E. (2002). The perceived benefits of religious and spiritual coping among older adults living with HIV/AIDS. Journal of Scientific Study of Religion, 41(1), 91–102. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1468-5906.00103
    Sikkema, K., Koob, J., Cargill, V., Kelly, J., Desiderato, L., Roffman, R., et al. (1995). Levels and predictors of HIV risk among women in low-income public housing developments. Public Health Reports, 110, 707–713.
    Silove, D., Steel, Z., McGorry, P., & Mohan, P. (1998). Trauma exposure, post-migration stressors and symptoms of anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress in Tamil asylum seekers: Comparison with refugees and immigrants. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 97, 175–181. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0447.1998.tb09984.x
    Simeon, J. (1989). Depressive disorders in children and adolescents. Psychiatric Journal of the University of Ottawa, 14(2), 356–361.
    Simon, T., Mercy, J., & Craig, P. (2001). National crime victimization survey: Injuries from violent crime, 1992–98. (NCJ Publication No. 168633). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Simoni, J., Martone, M., & Kerwin, J. (2002). Spirituality and psychological adaptation among women with HIV/AIDS: Implications for counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(2), 139–147. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.49.2.139
    Singer, M. (1994). AIDS and the health crisis of the U.S. urban poor: The perspective of critical medical anthropology. Social Science and Medicine, 39(7), 931–948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536%2894%2990205-4
    Sjosten, N., & Kivela, S. (2006). The effects of physical exercise on depressive symptoms among the aged: A systematic review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 21(5), 410–418. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gps.1494
    Skinner, C. (1995). Urban labor markets and young black men: A literature review. Journal of Economic Issues, 29(1), 47–65.
    Skinner, D., Slattery, E., & Lachicotte, W. (2002). Disability, health coverage, and welfare reform. Washington, DC: Kaiser Commission on Medicaid and the Uninsured.
    Sloan, R. P., & Bagiella, E., (2002). Claims about religious involvement and health outcomes. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24(1), 14–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S15324796ABM2401_03
    Small, G. W. (1998). Treatment of geriatric depression. Depression and Anxiety, 1(Suppl.), 32–42. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/%28SICI%291520-6394%281998%298:1+%3C32::AID-DA6%3E3.0.CO;2-J
    Smeeding, T. M., Rainwater, L., & Burtless, G. (2001). U.S. poverty In a cross-national context. In S. H.Danzinger & R. H.Haveman (Eds.), Understanding poverty. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
    Smith, C., & Carlson, B. (1997). Stress, coping, and resilience in children and youth. Social Service Review, 71, 231–256. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/604249
    Smith, C., & Hay, P. (2005). Acupuncture for depression. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2004, Issue 3. Art. No.: CD004046. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004046.pub2.
    Smith, G. T. (1994). Psychological expectancy as mediator of vulnerability to alcoholism. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 708, 165–171. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1994.tb24709.x
    Smith, G. T., McCarthy, D. M., & Goldman, M. S. (1995). Self-reported drinking and alcohol-related problems among adolescents: Dimensionality and validity over 24 months. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 56, 383–394.
    Smith, H., & Betz, N. (2002). An examination of efficacy and esteem pathways to depression in young adulthood. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 49(4), 438–448. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.49.4.438
    Smith, M., & Fong, R. (2004). The children of neglect: When no one cares. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
    Smith, P. (2002). A reflection on reflection. Primary Voices, 10(4), 31–34.
    Sokero, T P., Melartin, T. K., Rytsala, H. J., Leskela, U. S., Lestela-Mielonen, P. S., & Isometsa, E. T. (2005). Prospective study of risk factors for attempted suicide among patients with DSM-IV major depressive disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186(4), 314–318. http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/bjp.186.4.314
    Solomon, M. F., & Siegel, D. J. (2003). Healing trauma: Attachment, mind, body, and brain. New York: W. W. Norton.
    Son, S., & Kirchner, J. (2000). Depression in children and adolescents. American Family Physician, 62(10), 2297–2308.
    Song, Y. J., Hofstetter, C. R., Hovell, M. F., Paik, H. Y., Park, H. R., Lee, J., et al. (2004). Acculturation and health risk behaviors among Californians of Korean descent. Preventive Medicine, 39(1), 147–156. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.01.013
    Spencer, N. (2003). Social, economic, and political determinants of child health. Pediatrics, 112(3), 704–706.
    Stack, C. (1974). All our kin. New York: Basic Books.
    Stacy, A. W., Ames, S. L., Sussman, S., & Dent, C. W. (1996). Implicit cognition in adolescent drug use. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 10(3), 190–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.10.3.190
    Stacy, A. W., Widaman, K. F., & Marlatt, G. A. (1990). Expectancy models of alcohol use. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58(5), 918–928. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.58.5.918
    Stall, R., Mills, T., Williamson, J., Hart, T., Greenswood, G., Paul, J., et al. (2003). Association of co-occurring psychosocial health problems and increased vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among urban men who have sex with men. American Journal of Public Health, 93(6), 939–942. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.93.6.939
    Stamm, B. H. (1997). Work-related secondary traumatic stress. PTSD Research Quarterly, 8(2), 1–8.
    Steele, W., & Raider, M. (2001). Structured sensory interventions for traumatized children, adolescents, and parents: Strategies to alleviate trauma. New York: Edwin Mellen Press.
    Steffans, D. C., & Krishnan, K. R. (1998). Structural neuro-imaging and mood disorders: Recent findings, implications for classification and future directions. Biological Psychiatry, 4, 705–712. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0006-3223%2898%2900084-5
    Steward, S., Kennard, B., Hughes, C., Mayes, T., Emslie, G., Lee, P., et al. (2004). A cross-cultural investigation of cognitions and depressive symptoms in adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(2), 248–257. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0021-843X.113.2.248
    Stewart, E., Simons, R., & Conger, R. (2002). Assessing neighborhood and social psychological influences on childhood violence in an African-American sample. Criminology, 40(4), 801–829. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9125.2002.tb00974.x
    Stewart, S. H., Ouimette, P., & Brown, P. J. (2002). Gender and the comorbidity of PTSD with substance use disorders. In R.Kimerling, P.Ouimette, & J.Wolfe (Eds.), Gender and PTSD (pp. 233–269). New York: Guilford Press.
    Stillwaggon, E. (2002). HIV/AIDS in Africa: Fertile terrain. Journal of Developmental Studies, 38(6), 1–22. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00220380412331322561
    Stoller, E., & Gibson, R. (2000). Worlds of difference: Inequality in the aging experience (
    3rd ed.
    ). Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
    Stoto, M., Almario, D., & McCormick, M. (Eds.). (1999). Reducing the odds: Preventing perinatal transmission of HIV in the United States. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
    Strauch, B., Herman, C., Rohde, C., & Baum, T. (2006). Mid-body contouring in the post-bariatric surgery patient. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 117(7), 2200–2211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.prs.0000218185.10795.aa
    Straus, M. A., Hamby, S. L., & Finkelhor, D. (1998). Identification of child maltreatment with the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales: Development and psychometric data for a national sample of American parents. Child Abuse & Neglect, 22(4), 249–270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0145-2134%2897%2900174-9
    Straus, M. A., & Kantor, G. K. (2005). Definition and measurement of neglectful behavior: Some principles and guidelines. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(1), 19–29. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.08.005
    Stronski, S. M., Ireland, M., Michaud, P.-A., Narring, F., & Resnick, M. D. (2000). Protective correlates of stages in adolescent substance use: A Swiss nationalstudy. Journal of Adolescent Health, 26, 420–427. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1054-139X%2899%2900057-9
    Strother, P. (2003). Exit from poverty: How “welfare mothers” achieve economic viability. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 7(3/4), 97–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J137v07n03_07
    Strug, D. L., Grube, B. B., & Beckerman, N. L. (2002). Challenges and changing roles in HIV/AIDS social work: Implications for training and education. Social Work in Health Care, 35(4), 1–19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1300/J010v35n04_01
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2005). Overview of findings from the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (Office of Applied Studies, NSDUH Series H-27, DHHS Pub. No. SMA 05-4061). Rockville, MD: Author.
    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. (1998). Addiction counseling competencies: The knowledge, skills, and attitudes of professional practice (DHHS Pub. No. SMA 98-3171). Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    Sullivan, H. (1953). The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton.
    Surkan, P., Peterson, K., Hughes, M., & Gottlieb, B. (2006). The role of social networks and support in postpartum women's depression: A multiethnic urban sample. Maternal and Child Health Journal, 11, 1–9.
    Sutherland, E. (1942). The development of the concept of differential association. Ohio Valley Sociologist, 15, 3–4.
    Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Principles of criminology. New York: Harper & Row
    Sweatt, L., Harding, C., Knight-Lynn, L., Rasheed, S., & Carter, P. (2002). Talking about the silent fear: Adolescents’ experiences of violence in an urban high-rise community. Adolescence, 37(145), 109–120.
    Swinburn, B. A., & Egger, G. J. (2004). Influence of obesity-producing environments. In G. A.Bray & C.Bouchard (Eds.), Handbook of obesity: Clinical applications (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 97–114). New York: Marcel Dekker.
    Szalay, L. B., Strohl, J. B., & Doherty, K. T. (1999). Psychoenvironmental forces in substance abuse prevention. New York: Plenum.
    Tafet, G., & Smolovich, J. (2004). Psychoneuroendocrinological studies on chronic stress and depression. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1032, 276–278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1196/annals.1314.037
    Taking Off Pounds Sensibly. (2006). Home page. Retrieved June 16, 2006, from http://www.tops.org/
    Taylor, A. F., Wiley, A., Kuo, F. E., & Sullivan, W. C. (1998). Growing up in the inner city: Green spaces as places to grow. Environment & Behavior, 30(1), 3–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916598301001
    Teets, J. M. (1995). Childhood sexual trauma of chemically dependent women. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 27, 231–238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02791072.1995.10472468
    Teicher, M. (2002). Scars that will not heal: The neurobiology of child abuse. Scientific American, 286(3), 68–75. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0302-68
    Teicher, M. H., Ito, Y., Glod, D. A., Anderson, S. L., Dumont, N., & Ackerman, E. (1997). Preliminary evidence for abnormal cortical development in physically and sexually abused children using EEG coherence and MRI. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 821, 160–173. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1997.tb48277.x
    Ten Bensel, R. W., Rheinberger, M. M., & Radbill, S. X. (1997). Children In a world of violence: The roots of child maltreatment. In M. E.Helfer, R. S.Kempe, & R. D.Krugman (Eds.), The battered child (5th ed., pp. 3–28). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Terr, L. C. (1991). Childhood traumas: An outline andoverview. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148(1), 10–20.
    Thomas, D., Leicht, C., Hughes, C., Madigan, A., & Dowell, K. (2003). Emerging practices in the prevention of child abuse and neglect. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families.
    Thomlison, B. (2003). Characteristics of evidence-based child maltreatment interventions. Child Welfare, 82, 541–569.
    Thomlison, B. (2004). Child maltreatment: A risk and protective factor perspective. In M. W.Fraser (Ed.), Risk and resilience in childhood: An ecological perspective (
    2nd ed.
    , pp. 89–132). Washington, DC: National Association of Social Workers Press.
    Thompson, D., Jago, R., Baranowski, T., Watson, K., Zakeri, I., Cullen, K. W., et al. (2004). Covariability in diet and physical activity in African-American girls. Obesity Research, 12(9), 46S-54S. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2004.268
    Thompson, E., & Pleck, J. (1995). Masculinity ideologies: A review of research instrumentation on men and masculinities. In R.Levant & W.Pollack (Eds.), A new psychology of men (pp. 129–162). New York: Basic Books. Thompson, L. S., & Story, M. (2003). Perceptions of overweight and obesity in their community: Findings from focus groups with urban, African-American caretakers of preschool children. Journal of National Black Nurses Association, 14(1), 28–37.
    Thompson, M. S., & Peebles-Wilkins, W. (1992). The impact of formal, informal and societal support activities on the psychological well-being of black adolescent mothers. Social Work, 37(4), 322–328.
    Thorpe, K. E., Florence, C. S., Howard, D. H., & Joski, P. (2004). Trends: The impact of obesity on rising medical spending (W4-480-486). Health Affairs, Jul–Dec. Web Exclusive, October 20, 2004.
    Tiffany, S. T. (1990). A cognitive model of drug urges and drug-use behavior: Role of automatic and nonautomatic processes. Psychological Review, 97, 147–168. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.97.2.147
    Timmons, J., & Fesko, S. (2004). The impact, meaning, and challenges of work: Perspectives of individuals with HIV/AIDS. Health & Social Work, 29(2), 137–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hsw/29.2.137
    Todd, J. L., & Worell, J. (2000). Resilience in low-income, employed, African American women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 24, 119–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.2000.tb00192.x
    Tolin, D. F., & Foa, E. B. (2002). Gender and PTSD: A cognitive model. In R.Kimerling, P.Ouimette, & J.Wolfe (Eds.), Gender and PTSD (pp. 76–97). New York: Guilford Press.
    Tolman, R., & Wang, H. (2005). Domestic violence and women's employment: Fixed effects models of three waves of Women's Employment Study Data. American Journal of Community Psychology, 36(1–2), 147–158. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10464-005-6239-0
    Townsend, M., Peerson, J., Love, B., Achterberg, C., & Murphy, S. (2001). Food insecurity is positively related to overweight in women. Journal of Nutrition, 13, 1738–1745.
    Trattner, W. I. (1998). From poor law to welfare state: A history of social welfare in America (
    6th ed.
    ). New York: Free Press.
    Tremblay, R., Schaal, B., Boulerice, B., Arseneault, L., Soussignan, R., & Perusse, D. (1997). Male physical aggression, social dominance, and testosterone levels at puberty: A developmental perspective. In A.Raine, P.Brennan, D.Farrington, & S.Mednick (Eds.), Biosocial bases of violence (pp. 271–291). New York: Plenum.
    Tubman, J., Montgomery, M., Gil, A., & Wagner, E. (2004). Abuse experiences in a community sample of young adults: Relations with psychiatric disorders, sexual risk behaviors, and sexually transmitted diseases. American Journal of Community Psychology, 34(1–2), 147–153. http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:AJCP.0000040152.49163.58
    Turner, H., Pearlin, L., & Mullan, J. (1998). Sources and determinants of social support for caregivers of persons with AIDS. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 39(2), 137–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2676396
    Tzeng, O. C. S., Jackson, J. W., & Karlson, H. C. (1991). Theories of child abuse and neglect: Differential perspectives, summaries, and evaluations. New York: Praeger.
    UCSF AIDS Health Project Training Unit. (2001). HIV timeline: 1980–2001. San Francisco: University of California at San Francisco.
    UNAIDS. (2005a). Global summary of the HIV and AIDS epidemic in 2004. Retrieved April 24, 2005, from http://www.unaids.org/en/resources/epidemiology
    UNAIDS. (2005b). Progress on global access to HIV Antiretroviral Therapy: An update on “3 by 5.”Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.
    Uneze, A. (2004, Dec. 7). PLWHAS discrimination, barrier to AIDS prevention efforts. Africa News Service.
    UNICEF. (2003). A league table of child maltreatment deaths in rich nations. Innocenti Report Card, 5. Florence, Italy: Innocenti Research Centre.
    UNICEF. (2005). Child poverty in rich countries 2005: Report card no. 6. Florence, Italy: Innocenti Research Centre.
    UNIted Nations. (1996, December 3). Focus on poverty and disability. Retrieved May 20, 2005, from