CBT with Children, Young People & Families

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Peter Fuggle, Sandra Dunsmuir & Vicki Curry

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    About the Authors

    Peter Fuggle completed his clinical psychology training in 1984 and his PhD in 1989. Since qualifying, he has always worked in services for children including posts working with disability, paediatrics and in child mental health services. In 1995, he took up his current Clinical Director post in Islington Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) and has subsequently combined clinical practice with wider service development and management roles. In 2004, he was chair of the Child Clinical Psychology Faculty of the British Psychological Society. Since 2008, he has also worked at the UCL/Anna Freud Centre as Joint Course Director of the CBT Postgraduate Masters Course and in the development of a mentalisation-based approach to outreach work with adolescents, an approach known as AMBIT (Adolescent Mentalisation-based Integrative Treatment). Since 2011, he has also been joint lead for the Child-IAPT training delivered by UCL and KCL in London.

    Sandra Dunsmuir qualified as an educational psychologist in 1986 and completed her PhD in 2000. She is Co-Director of the Doctorate in Educational and Child Psychology at UCL and is also a Joint Course Director on the UCL postgraduate courses in CBT for Children and Young People, teaching and supervising practitioners from a range of professional backgrounds on a regular basis. Sandra has had extensive experience working as an educational psychologist in four different local authorities and continues to practise on a regular basis with children, their families and teachers in delivering CBT interventions in school and community settings. She has also edited a Portfolio of Measures of Children's Mental Health & Psychological Wellbeing. Her research integrates empirical research and psychological theory with a particular focus on relationships and communication, parent–teacher trust, interventions to support children's learning and cross-professional collaborative working. She is past Chair of the British Psychological Society Division of Educational and Child Psychology.

    Vicki Curry qualified as a clinical psychologist in 1996 and has worked with children and young people for over 15 years as part of the Islington Child and Adolescent Mental Health Service in both inpatient and community-based teams. She completed the Oxford Diploma in Cognitive Therapy in 1999, and has since provided training and consultation in CBT with children for professionals from a range of agencies, including health, education and social care. She was centrally involved in the development of this aspect of the curriculum within the Educational Psychology Group at UCL; as well as in setting up the UCL/Anna Freud Centre Postgraduate Certificate/Diploma/ MSc in CBT for Children and Young People, for which she is a joint Course Director. More recently, Vicki has been involved in the development and delivery of the Child IAPT training programme. She is an associate editor of the BABCP online journal The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist.

    Acknowledgements

    We would like to thank our colleagues at the Anna Freud Centre, Islington CAMHS and UCL Educational Psychology Group for their support and ideas on working with children. We are grateful to Peter Fonagy for his helpful comments on an early draft of this book and to Anne Stewart, Paul Stallard, David Trickey, Margot Levinson and Cathy Creswell, as well as the practice tutors past and present, who have generously provided ideas and advice to aid the development of the UCL/Anna Freud Course and the CBT session competency framework. We would also like to acknowledge Debbie Madell for her contribution to the thinking behind ‘what to do if it's not working’ and Sarah Towner for her help with the referencing for the book.

    All the students on the CBT for Children and Young People course have been stimulating, enthusiastic learners and invaluable in developing our thinking about delivering CBT with children across contexts. Inevitably it is the children and parents themselves who teach us most and we would like to thank them for the privilege of working with them over the years.

    Last but not least, we would like to thank our own families for all their patience and support.

  • Appendix 1: Session Competency Framework-Version 3

    This framework is also available to download at http://www.sagepub.co.uk/Fuggle

    Introduction

    This competency framework is consistent with the CAMHS competency framework developed by Roth, Pilling and Calder (CORE, 2011). It is designed to assess an individual's skills as a CBT practitioner with children and young people in a particular session. It can be used to assess the practice of others, but also for CBT practitioners to assess their own practice, both as a guide to essential elements of CBT practice with children and young people and also as a means of reflecting on the work demonstrated in a session.

    The framework is divided into sub-groups of competencies which aim at facilitating different aspects of CBT with children. Some of these are core therapeutic competencies, which should be evident in every session (marked with a star*). Others are competencies and skills that it would not be possible or appropriate to include in every session. Although the scale addresses individual work with child/young person and young people, it also includes other people with whom CBT practitioners work, such as parents and teachers. It is important to demonstrate consideration of systemic factors in the session.

    Each competency has a succinct descriptor followed by examples given to illustrate each competency. These are given as a guide rather than a comprehensive list of therapist behaviour and therapists are not expected to show all of them in one session. There are three possible outcomes relating to the level of competence demonstrated for each category within the framework.

    • Competent:
      • The therapist is either competent or highly competent in carrying out this aspect of CBT with child/young person and young people.
    • Partially competent:

      Either

      • The therapist demonstrates some of the descriptors relating to the competence
      • The therapist demonstrates the competence occasionally but not consistently
      • The therapist demonstrates sufficient competence for their level of training, but not yet reached full competence.
    • Not competent:

      Either

      • The therapist does not demonstrate sufficient evidence of this skill on this DVR
      • The therapist has demonstrated incompetence in relation to this skill.

    Contents

    • Setting the right context
      • Ethical practice
      • Active reference to and/or involvement of parent/carer/family members
      • Active reference to school/college/work factors and/or involvement of school/college staff/people at work
    • Therapeutic alliance
      • Empathy
      • Child/young person-centred
      • Creativity
    • Collaborative practice
      • Joint session planning
      • Being goal focused
      • Providing a rationale
      • Summarising
      • Seeking feedback
      • Monitoring and evaluating progress
    • Structuring the therapeutic process
      • Preparing for the session
      • Pacing and time management
      • Between-session tasks
    • CBT skills aimed at facilitating understanding
      • Psycho-education about CBT
      • Recognising emotions
      • Discovering cognitions
      • Developing a shared formulation
    • CBT skills aimed at facilitating coping, acceptance and change
      • Developing coping strategies and acceptance
      • Problem-solving
      • Encouraging positive behaviour
      • Specific behavioural change techniques
      • Cognitive change methods

    Recommendation: PASS □ FAIL □

    Overall positive comments in relation to competencies:

    Targets for development in relation to competencies:

    Appendix 2: Assessment Forms

    Basic Formulation (Maintenance Cycle): Ryan

    Developmental Formulation: Rehana

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