Carl Rogers' Helping System: Journey and Substance

Books

Godfrey T. Barrett-Lennard

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Part I: Carl Rogers and his Milieu

    Part II: The New Vision Unfolding

    Part III: Principles in Practice

    Part IV: Research

    Part V: Levels of Becoming

  • Copyright

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    Preface

    Writing this book was often like an extended inner conversation with varied imagined readers: student and teacher companions, colleagues with theoretical and research interest, practitioner-helpers in counselling and related disciplines, and inquiring individuals of other backgrounds. The work itself is the outcome of a search, of a long unfolding journey which began under a more modest aim than its conclusion reflects. In the period since I started on the ‘smallish’ book as first conceived, two decades ago, there have been ups and downs in my own life/career situation, periods in which the manuscript was wholly set aside, important further contributions within the approach in focus, and evolution in my own thought.

    The ‘journey’ in this book's title is the evolutionary course of a human science and helping system, rooted in the field of psychotherapy and counselling. My leaning toward exploration of the whole becoming of this approach was soon evident in what I found myself doing. The directional pull has been like a gravitational force, drawing me to an adventure in fresh learning and a revisiting of familiar landmarks in new depth. My belief is that when a system of ideas, inquiry and practice is seen in motion, through its whole span from germination to maturity, much fuller understanding is possible than can come from a view confined to current end-products of this evolution.

    My own acquaintance with the approach spans almost half a century, and includes memorable years with Rogers and others at the University of Chicago, in the 1950s. As with other international students, it was no mean task to gain this opportunity and actually get there, in the first place. For me, the culminating step was a long sea voyage, with my wife and infant son. After reaching our destination, a multi-level and far deeper journey followed. By another leap, some four years later, I joined a university in the ‘deep south’ of the United States – finding scope for student-centred teaching (and even a group workshop), and building on the research already reported for my PhD. From there our path led back to Australia and other new steps, but in a place still far from our roots in the West. After a time I was drawn back to North America, and spent many years in Canada before finally settling again in Perth. What I did in these varied settings is at some points a visible element in the far wider journey this book works to illuminate.

    I have brought together the contributions of many people, in addition to Carl Rogers himself, within a fresh perspective. The first large question addressed is that of how the innovation, reflected in Rogers' thought and the new therapy, came so vigorously into being in the time and place that it did. Chapters 2 and 3 tackle this issue in a previously untravelled path of exploration. A vigorous new system of thought and practice is likely to pass through a cohesive ‘school’ phase, and then become more pluralistic. Chapter 4 is a bird's eye view of main steps in the development of ideas, practice and research through the first quarter century of the new school; and Chapter 5 articulates its basic stance, constructs and theoretical vision, as evolved during this phase. The big six-chapter third part of the book, ‘Principles in Practice’, spans areas of process from individual therapy to large groups and community, and speaks in descriptive and studied vein to the many areas and interests now represented in the approach.

    The fourth group of chapters focuses on the story and contributions of research in psychotherapy and other fields that this system has spawned, from earliest beginnings to current challenges. The final, two-chapter part of the book articulates long-term continuities, present activity, and aspects of new thought. It includes a many-sided chapter on ‘training’, culminating in a review of the current international span of extended or full programs of study and training in this approach. The ending chapter includes my own view of continuities and core features of thought over the long haul, and maps ways of further growing our theory and range of practice.

    Most often in the detailed writing of the book I saw myself as a careful reporter and synthesizer, and worked hard in an effort to do feasible justice both to individual contributions and their interconnection within larger themes or strands of development. By the time eight or nine chapters were written, and the rest mapped out, my vision had shifted somewhat. I could see that the book itself might be an addition to the journey and the substance that it is about. I also felt that the movement Rogers began and spearheaded for so long was faltering, and in considerable danger of declining in substantiality as a system of thought and inquiry as well as practice. It seemed to me that what he had set in train both needed and deserved the best creative and integrative infusions that others could contribute. This became part of my incentive in completing the long enterprise of this work.

    I began writing about a system of psychotherapy, and this remains a primary axis, in keeping with the interest of perhaps the majority of readers to whom I have inwardly spoken along the way. There are other axes as well. New developments in ways of responding to human need, particularly those which take hold rapidly, do not arise de novo. I hope that readers who share a leaning toward the social-contextual understanding of such innovations will find food for thought in my tracing of pertinent features of the larger milieu in which Rogers' direction took form and became so quickly influential. Another axis is the close exploration of varied areas of application and development beyond one-to-one therapy – group encounter and therapy, teaching and parenting, experiences in community, and peace processes, to name some. In searching into each area, issues, principles and practice are in interwoven focus. The three-chapter sequence on the story and substance of research breaks new ground in its scope and approach. My inquiry into training complements in distinctive ways Mearns’ fine new book Person-Centred Counselling Training. The last chapter pleases me in that it directly expresses growing edges in my own thought and perspective, all evolved or furthered through this project.

    The whole work obviously covers a large canvas and I expect any reader will draw on it selectively, especially to start with. Each chapter begins with mention of its scope, and usually ends by opening a door to what follows next. Where topics of immediate interest are found rewarding, less familiar areas may beckon with invitation. I realize that some readers will be drawn first to what is novel to them and from there, perhaps, wish to explore areas already in their sights. My sources are closely documented throughout, although this impedes the flow a little. I have tended to judge others by myself, imagining the reader will be tempted here and there to mine the further riches of original sources and, in any case, wish to know what they are. Similarly, my cross-referencing, unnecessary if one reads from start to finish, is meant as an aid to the reader actively navigating his or her own individual course through the book.

    Curiosity, thoughtfulness, capacity for suspension of belief, interest in checking or discovery through research, all seem to me entirely compatible with responsive openness and attention to feeling-emotional life. Persons can use one side of their potential while neglecting another, but those more fortunate in their functioning call readily on all sides. A ‘left-brain’ tendency in the wider intellectual culture has perhaps contributed to a later reaction of mistrust of probing inquiry and intellectual interest by some members of the humanistic movement, even some who identify with person-centred work. This reaction has worried me; it might be personally freeing at first but is then limiting unless transcended – and it would please me if my work contributes to such transition.

    Achieving a particular effect is not, however, my deepest motivation. The fact is that this work has grown from absorbed interest and a career-long involvement in the approach itself and in reaching for an expanded frame of understanding. Extended engagement with Rogers himself and a community of other vital contributors has nourished my search. I am directly indebted to a good many of these colleagues for encouragement, information and materials, and critical feedback at times, as well as for their primary contributions. Given the long time-span and varied circumstance of my writing, I will not single anyone out here. My references to their work are the important testimony.

    I have not forgotten that way back near the beginning of this project, a Private Scholar research award from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada was a most valuable boost. Without that moral and practical assistance, the foundling enterprise might not have survived my transition from career academia and then back to Australia. Greatest of all in importance is the long companionship and support (and tolerance of my ‘work marriage’) of my wife and life-partner, Helen; and the ambient nurture of our children and my wider family.

    If you as reader have a sense of being in company with me, in parts of this book, I would welcome direct contact and sharing of ideas or reactions. This could be by letter (c/o School of Psychology, Murdoch University, WA, Australia 6150) or perhaps by Email (present address: <lennard@central.murdoch.edu.au>). This preface is a kind of letter to reader-companions, and it comes with my good wishes – and the hope that my book honours the trust of your interest.

    GodfreyBarrett-Lennard, Perth
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    Rogers, C.R. (1953). Some directions and end points in therapy. In O.H.Mowrer (ed.), Psychotherapy: Theory and research (44–68). New York: Ronald. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10572-002
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    Rogers, C.R. (1957d). Training individuals to engage in the therapeutic process. In C.R.Strother (ed.), Psychology and mental health. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
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    Rogers, C.R. (1966b). To facilitate learning. In M.Provus (ed.), Innovations for time to teach. Washington, DC: National Education Association.
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    Rogers, C.R. (1967a). Autobiography. In E.G.Boring and G.Lindzey (eds), A history of psychology in autobiography, Vol. 5. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.
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    Rogers, C.R. (1972a). Becoming partners: Marriage and its alternatives. New York: Delacorte Press.
    Rogers, C.R. (1972b). Some social issues which concern me. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 12 (Fall issue), 45–60. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002216787201200205
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    Rogers, C.R. (undated). Personal adjustment – set of audio cassette tapes, numbered 1 to 10. Chicago: Instructional Dynamics, c. 1972. (Personal talks, on a spectrum of life topics.)
    Rogers, C.R. (1973a). Some new challenges. American Psychologist, 28, 370–387. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034621
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    Rogers, C.R. (1974c). Remarks on the future of client-centered therapy. In D.A.Wexler and L.N.Rice (eds), Innovations in client-centered therapy (7–13). New York: Wiley. (Based on presentations in an APA conference symposium, Sept., 1964.)
    Rogers, C.R. (1974d). In retrospect: forty-six years. American Psychologist, 29 (2), 115–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035840
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    Rogers, C.R. (1980d). Client-centered psychotherapy. In H.I.Kaplan, B.J.Sadock and A.M.Freedman (eds), Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry (Chapter 30.3). Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins.
    Third edition
    .
    Rogers, C.R. (1982). A psychologist looks at nuclear war. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 22 (4), 9–20. And in H. Kirschenbaum and V.L. Henderson (eds) (1989a), The Carl Rogers reader (445–456). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, C.R. (1983). Freedom to learn for the 80's. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
    Rogers, C.R. (1986a). The Rust workshop: a personal overview. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 26 (3), 23–45. And in H. Kirschenbaum and V.L. Henderson (eds) (1989). The Carl Rogers reader (457–477). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167886263003
    Rogers, C.R. (1986b). The dilemmas of a South African white. Person-Centered Review, 1, 15–35.
    Rogers, C.R. (1986c). Journal of South African trip, and covering ‘letter to family and friends’. Unpublished manuscript.
    Rogers, C.R. (1986/1993). A client-centered, person-centered approach to therapy. In I.L.Kutash and A.Wolf (eds), Psychotherapist's casebook: Theory and technique in practice (197–208). 1986, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. 1993, Northvale, NJ: Aronson.
    Rogers, C.R. (1987). Inside the world of the soviet professional. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 27 (3), 277–304. And in H. Kirschenbaum and V.L. Henderson (eds) (1989). The Carl Rogers reader (478–501). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167887273002
    Rogers, C.R. and Dymond, R.F. (Eds) (1954). Psychotherapy and personality change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Rogers, C.R. and Farson, R.E. (1957). Active listening. University of Chicago: Industrial Relations Center (and University Library).
    Rogers, C.R., with Gendlin, E.T., Kiesler, D.J. and Truax, C.B. (eds). (1967). The therapeutic relationship and its impact: A study of psychotherapy with schizophrenics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Rogers, C.R., McGaw, W. and Farson, R.E. (1968). Journey into self (16 mm film). La Jolla, California: Western Behavioral Sciences Institute. (From an encounter group.)
    Rogers, C.R. and Roethlisberger, F.J. (1952). Barriers and gateways to communication. Harvard Business Review, 30 (4), 46–52.
    Rogers, C.R. and Rose, A. (facilitators) (1971). Because that's my way (16 mm film). Lincoln, Nebraska: Great Plains Instructional Television Library, University of Nebraska. (Portrays encounter group with drug-involved, mixed race membership.)
    Rogers, C.R. and Ryback, D. (1984). One alternative to nuclear planetary suicide. The Counseling Psychologist, 12 (2), 3–12. Also in R.F. Levant and J.M. Shlien (eds), Client-centered therapyhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0011000084122002
    and the person-centered approach: New directions in theory, research, and practice (400–422). New York: Praeger.
    Rogers, C.R. and Sanford, R. (1987). Reflections on our South African experience (January-February, 1986). Counseling and Values, 32 (1), 17–20. (Journal issue is titled Carl R. Rogers and the person-centered approach to peace.) http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cvj.1987.32.issue-1
    Rogers, C.R. and Skinner, B.F. (1956). Some issues concerning the control of human behavior. Science, 124, 1057–1066. http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.124.3231.1057
    Rogers, C.R. and Skinner, B.F. (1962/1989). Education and the control of human behavior. Dialogue held at the University of Minnesota, Duluth, June 11–12, 1962 (audiotaped). Published in H.Kirschenbuam and V.L.Henderson (eds), Carl Rogers: Dialogues (82–152). Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.
    Rogers, C.R. and Wallen, J.L. (1946). Counseling with returned servicemen. New York: McGraw-Hill. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/11564-000
    Rogers, C.R. and Wood, J.K. (1974). Client-centered theory: Carl R. Rogers. In A.Burton (ed.), Operational theories of personality (211–258). New York: Brunner/Mazel.
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    Rogers, N. (1993). The creative connection: Expressive arts as healing. Palo Alto, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
    Rogers, W.R. (1974). Client-centered and symbolic perspectives on social change: a schematic model. In D.A.Wexler and L.N.Rice (eds), Innovations in client-centered therapy (465–496). New York: Wiley.
    Rogers, W.R. (1984). Person-centered administration in higher education. In R.F.Levant and J.M.Shlien (eds), Client-centered therapy and the person-centered approach: New directions in theory, research and practice (317–336). New York: Praeger.
    Rombauts, J. and Devriendt, M. (1990). Conjoint couple therapy in client-centered practice. In G.Lietaer, J.Rombauts and R.Van Balen (eds), Client-centered and experiential psychotherapy in the nineties (847–863). Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press.
    Rosen, H.H. (1961) Dimensions of the perceived parent-relationship as related to juvenile delinquency. Unpublished Master's thesis, Auburn University, Alabama.
    Rudikoff, E.C. (1954). A comparative study of the changes in the concepts of the self, the ordinary person, and the ideal in eight cases. In C.R.Rogers and R.F.Dymond (eds), Psychotherapy and personality change (85–98). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Rudolph, J., Langer, I. and Tausch, R. (1980). Prüfung der psychischen Auswirkungen und Bedingungen von personenzentriertier Einzel-Psychotherapie (An investigation of the psychological effects and conditions of person-centered individual psychotherapy). Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychologic9, 23–33.
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    Sundaram, D.K. (1977). Psychological adjustment as a function of interpersonal relationships: a field study. Dissertation Abstracts International, 37, 5380–5381B.
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