Carl Rogers

Books

Brian Thorne

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Key Figures in Counselling and Psychotherapy Series Editor: Windy Dryden

    The books in this series provide concise introductions to the life, work and influence of leading innovators whose theoretical and practical contributions have shaped the development of contemporary counselling and psychotherapy. The series includes the following titles:

    Sigmund Freud, second edition

    by Michael Jacobs

    Carl Rogers, second edition

    by Brian Thorne

    Eric Berne

    by Ian Stewart

    Melanie Klein

    by Julia Segal

    Fritz Perls

    by Petruska Clarkson and Jennifer Mackewn

    Aaron T. Beck

    by Marjorie Weishaar

    Albert Ellis

    by Joseph Yankura and Windy Dryden

    D.W. Winnicott

    by Michael Jacobs

    George Kelly

    by Fay Fransella

    Joseph Wolpe

    by Roger Poppen

    J.L. Moreno

    by A. Paul Hare and June Rabson Hare

    Milton H. Erickson

    by Jeffrey K. Zeig and W. Michael Munion

    Carl Gustav Jung

    Copyright

    View Copyright Page

    Dedication

    ‘I can trust my experience’

    Carl Rogers

    For Natalie in love and gratitude for her commitment to honouring and extending the work of her father

    For Christine whose non-possessive love continues to sustain and irradiate my life

    Preface to Second Edition

    It may seem a somewhat strange enterprise to revise a book about a man who had died more than five years before the appearance of the first edition. Clearly Carl Rogers himself cannot have generated fresh theories or initiated new practices in the intervening period and it may well be asked what of further interest there is to say. For me, however, a second edition is timely for a number of reasons and, at the very least, it serves as an additional tribute to an outstanding human being in the centenary year of his birth. It is also perhaps relevant that the enduring power of Rogers' work is clearly indicated by the numerous conferences, seminars and celebrations (in many parts of the world) that took place throughout 2002 in acknowledgement of his continuing influence not only on psychotherapy and counselling but on many allied fields of human endeavour.

    The most pressing case for the appropriateness of a second edition is provided, however, by the current state of the world and by the formidable challenge which it offers to Rogers' hopeful view of the evolution of humanity. As dark clouds loom over the Middle East and as the current American administration in the aftermath of 11 September 2001 rattles more than sabres in its determination to oust Saddam Hussein, it seems that we do well to hear again the voice of a man who passionately believed in the capacity of humankind to transcend itself and who dedicated much of the final period of his life to the pursuit of world peace. In the narrower world of psychotherapy and counselling, too, Rogers' convictions are badly needed. He was always profoundly distrustful of ‘experts’ and reserved some of his sharpest criticisms for those ‘helping professionals’ who believed that they knew better than their clients and had the arrogance to diagnose, analyse and prescribe without taking the trouble to enter the client's inner world. Rogers would have been amused at the generous references to empathy nowadays by practitioners from many different traditions but he is unlikely to have been fooled into believing that the word carries the same resonance or even the same meaning as it does for the person-centred practitioner. We know, too, that he would have been alarmed by the increasing emphasis on accreditation, registration and the exclusive professionalism of the therapist. His would have been a voice raised in caution against the tightening straitjacket of government controls and the insidious power of the medical insurance companies. In a world, too, where in the face of militant Islamic fundamentalism, the Christian churches seem to have little to offer, Rogers stands out as a therapist and scholar who was convinced that the future challenge lay in the embracing of the spiritual and the transcendent not only as an essential part of many therapeutic processes but as the path of reconciliation between warring faiths and cultures. In brief, this second edition is inspired by the conviction that, in the centenary year of his birth, Rogers is even more a man for our times whose prophetic insights we ignore at our peril.

    BrianThorneNorwich 2002

    Preface to First Edition

    Carl Rogers enabled countless people throughout the world to be themselves with confidence. His impact has been enormous through his voluminous writings, through the school of counselling and psychotherapy which he founded and through the indirect influence of his work on many areas of professional activity where the quality of human relationships is central. And yet he was always suspicious of those who sought power and he eschewed every attempt to make him into a guru figure. He believed deeply in the capacity of every individual to find his or her own way forward and, as a result, he not infrequently adopted a self-effacing attitude which for the less discerning concealed his greatness. The best facilitator, he maintained, was the one who enabled others to feel that they had done it themselves, whatever ‘it’ might be.

    This small book attempts to convey the essence of Rogers' theoretical ideas about the nature of human beings and about what happens in effective therapeutic relationships. It also gives an insight into Rogers' actual way of working with people in therapy and draws out the practical implications of what is, in effect, a functional philosophy of human growth and relationships. Rogers, gentle and courteous as he usually was, made enemies because his ideas and way of being tend to threaten those whose self-esteem is dependent on their professional expertise or their capacity to impose a particular perception of reality on others. Both among fellow psychologists and those from other disciplines he was sometimes seen as naive, utopian and perversely misguided in his optimistic view of human potential. Some of his critics undoubtedly raise serious questions about the validity of his approach and in Chapter 4 I attempt to explore the more telling of these objections and to refute them where possible. Rogers himself, however, never claimed that he had established the absolute truth about anything; indeed he was committed to a ceaseless process of learning and held to the temporariness of all knowledge. For him the mark of the mature person was a fearless openness to both inner and outer experience, however disturbing this might prove to previously held convictions.

    I was privileged to know Rogers during the last ten years of his life and to work with him on a number of occasions in different parts of the world. The biographical chapter with which the book opens owes little, however, to my direct involvement with him. Most of the content is distilled from Rogers' own writings, from Howard Kirschenbaum's outstanding biography, On Becoming Carl Rogers (1979) and from the summary of Rogers' life provided by David Cain, editor of the Person-Centered Review, in Vol. 2 No. 4 (1987b) of the journal which served the person-centred community well in the immediate years after Rogers' death in February 1987. I trust these two men will forgive my plundering of their dedicated research into Rogers' life and work.

    In one respect this book may perhaps claim some originality. Unlike many of my colleagues in the field of person-centred or client-centred therapy, I see in Rogers and his work the re-emergence of a spiritual tradition which has its origins in the early writers of the Old Testament and continues through Jesus, the earliest Christian theologians and many of the great medieval writers, not least Dame Julian of Norwich, much loved and honoured in the city where I live and work. This tradition is acutely conscious of the divine indwelling within the created universe and in each human being. It bears witness to the unconditionality of the love which is poured out by God on his creation and to the capacity of human beings to internalize that love and then to give it expression in their relating. Rogers died an agnostic but in his later years his openness to experience compelled him to acknowledge the existence of a dimension to which he attached such adjectives as mystical, spiritual and transcendental. In many ways he often provides the channel into spiritual experience for secular men and women who have long since rejected the idea of God and the trappings of institutional religion and he does so by enabling them to discover the infinite worth and uniqueness of their own being. Yet with this recognition of personal value there comes an accompanying sense of interconnectedness with other human beings and with the whole of the created order. In short, Rogers does not provide, as some have suggested, the mirror for Narcissus but the assurance and acceptance of individual uniqueness and the invitation to communion. Given a different theology in his childhood and adolescence, it is not over-fanciful to suppose that Rogers might himself have become a much-loved pastor and theologian whose life could have transformed the face of the Church. An underlying theme in this book, however, is that God moves in a mysterious way and that client-centred therapy and the person-centred approach will continue to contribute to the psychological and spiritual well-being of humanity to a degree which would have been impossible if Rogers had not turned his back on Christianity and the Church in order to find a greater freedom.

    Many people have encouraged me in the writing of the book but I am particularly indebted to my colleagues at the University of East Anglia, the Norwich Centre and Person-Centred Therapy (Britain) for their support and the stimulation they have offered, often in the midst of frenetic lives characterized by an ever-escalating clientele. I am grateful to the University for granting me a brief period of study leave in the summer of 1991 and to my Norwich Centre partners for convincing me that I should not feel guilty about writing books instead of seeing yet more clients in order to ensure the Centre's financial security. To Maria Bowen, Rogers' close friend and colleague at the Center for Studies of the Person in La Jolla, my debt is inestimable for she not only encouraged me in the project but also provided me with invaluable material from her own long experience of sharing in Rogers' work and aspirations. I only hope the result will serve to make Rogers' immense contribution more accessible to those to whom he is little more than a name in psychology textbooks. I hope, too, that in a small way it will help to ensure the continuing health and development of person-centred therapy in a world which all too often seems to sacrifice persons on the altars of efficiency, expediency or the latest version of the market economy.

    BrianThorneNorwich 1991

    Acknowledgements

    I wish to acknowledge the exemplary support afforded to me, as always, by Alison Poyner and her colleagues at Sage. Such encouragement is vital to those who continue to endure the increasing freneticism of life in Britain's hard-pressed universities. My thanks, too, to the secretarial staff of the Norwich Centre and especially to Megan Craven who has borne the brunt of the word-processing labours.

    I am particularly grateful to Yvonne Bates, editor of Ipnosis, and to the contributors to the summer issue 2002 of this splendid new journal which contained a ‘celebration’ of the life and work of Carl Rogers. Their reflections have made a significant contribution to the final chapter of this present volume.

  • A Select Bibliography of the Works of Carl Rogers

    In the list that follows, those works which are marked with an asterisk are regarded as key texts.

    Book
    Counseling and Psychotherapy: Newer Concepts in Practice (1942). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    *Client-Centered Therapy: Its Current Practice, Implications and Theory (1951). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. (Other editions include: London: Constable, 1965.)
    With R.F.Dymond (eds), Psychotherapy and Personality Change (1954). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    *On Becoming a Person (1961). Boston: Houghton Mifflin. (Other editions include: London: Constable, 1974.)
    Freedom to Learn: a View of What Education Might Become (1969). Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
    *Carl Rogers on Personal Power: Inner Strength and its Revolutionary Impact (1977). New York: Delacorte Press. (Other editions include: London: Constable, 1978.)
    *A Way of Being (1980). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    With H.J.Freiberg, Freedom to Learn (1994). Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
    Two edited ‘anthologies’ exist which provide an excellent overview of Rogers' work as well as including previously unavailable material:
    Kirschenbaum, H. and Henderson, V.L. (eds) (1990) The Carl Rogers Reader. London: Constable.
    Kirschenbaum, H. and Henderson, V.L. (eds) (1990) Carl Rogers: Dialogues. London: Constable.
    To celebrate the centenary of Rogers' birth, an invaluable ‘oral history’ has been published which contains the transcripts of numerous extended interviews which Rogers gave during the last year of his life:
    Rogers, C.R. and Russell, D.E. (2002) Carl Rogers: The Quiet Revolutionary. Roseville, CA: Penmarin Books.
    Articles
    ‘A note on the “nature of man”’ (1957) Journal of Counseling Psychology, 4(3): 199–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0048308
    *‘The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change’ (1957) Journal of Counseling Psychology, 21(2): 95–103.
    ‘The characteristics of a helping relationship’ (1958) Personnel and Guidance Journal, 37: 6–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-4918.1958.tb01147.x
    *‘A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships, as developed in the client-centered framework’ (1959) in S.Koch (ed.), Psychology: a Study of Science, Vol. III. Formulations of the Person and the Social Context. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    ‘Toward a modern approach to values: the valuing process in the mature person’ (1964) Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68(2): 160–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0046419
    ‘The formative tendency’ (1978) Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 18(1): 23–6. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002216787801800103
    *‘Do we need “a” reality?’ (1978) Dawnpoint, 1(2): 6–9.
    ‘Toward a more human science of the person’ (1985) Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25(4): 7–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167885254002
    *‘A client-centered/person-centered approach to therapy’ (1986) in I.Kutash and A.Wolf (eds), Psychotherapist's Casebook. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. pp. 197–208.
    *With R.Sanford, ‘Client-centered psychotherapy’ (1989) in H.I.Kaplan and B.J.Sadock (eds), Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, 5. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1482–501.
    Collections and Websites
    The Department of Special Collections at the Davidson Library, University of California, Santa Barbara, contains selected papers, photographs and audio and video tapes of Carl Rogers. To access any of these materials, visit the Carl Rogers Archives website at: http://www.oac.cdlib.org/cgi-bin/oac/ucsb/rogers.
    The Library of Congress, Washington, DC, holds all of Rogers' earlier material. To access the library catalogue, go to: http://catalog.loc.gov/.

    Important Events in the Life of Carl Rogers

    Formative Years
    1902January 8: Carl is born in Oak Park, Illinois
    1919Enters agriculture studies at University of Wisconsin, Madison
    1922Travels to the Far East, Japan, Korea, China
    1922October 22: Becomes engaged to Helen Elliott
    1924June 23: Receives BA in History from University of Wisconsin
    1924August 28: Marries Helen Elliott
    1924Enrols in liberal Union Theological Seminary, New York City
    1926Leaves Union for Columbia University Teachers College
    1926March 17: David Elliott Rogers born
    1927June 1: Receives MA from Columbia University Teachers College
    Emerging Theory
    1928Joins Rochester Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children (RSPCC) as child psychologist
    1928October 9: Natalie Rogers born
    1929Appointed director of the Child Study Department, RSPCC
    1931March 20: Receives doctorate from Columbia University Teachers College
    1939The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child is published
    1940Accepts position at Ohio State University as clinical psychologist and full professor
    1940December 11: Client-centered therapy is ‘born’ as Carl addresses the University of Minnesota's Psychological Honors Society
    1942Counseling and Psychotherapy is published
    Theory in Practice
    1945Moves to the University of Chicago to start Counseling Center
    1946–47Serves as president of the American Psychological Association (APA)
    1951Client-Centered Therapy is published
    1954Psychotherapy and Personality Change (with Rosalind Dymond and others) is published
    1957cAcepts appointment at University of Wisconsin, Madison, in psychiatry and psychology
    1961On Becoming a Person is published
    Global Influence
    1964Moves to La Jolla, California, to join staff of the Western Behavioral Studies Institute (WBSI)
    1967The Therapeutic Relationship and its Impact: a Study of Psychotherapy with Schizophrenics is published
    1968With several WBSI colleagues, leaves to form the Center for Studies of the Person (CSP)
    1968–77Works with ‘encounter groups’ and larger organizations
    1969Freedom to Learn: a View of What Education Might Become is published
    1970Carl Rogers on Encounter Groups is published
    1972Becoming Partners: Marriage and its Alternatives is published
    1977Carl Rogers on Personal Power: Inner Strength and its Revolutionary Impact is published
    1979March 29: Helen Rogers dies
    1980A Way of Being is published
    1983Freedom to Learn for the ‘80s is published
    1975–85Travels extensively in the US, Europe, Latin America, Russia, Japan, and South America to facilitate Person-Centered Approach workshops
    1985The Rust Peace Workshop, Austria
    1987January 28: Nominated for the Nobel Peace Prize by Congressman Jim Bates
    1987February 4: Carl dies in La Jolla, California

    References

    Allchin, A.M. (1988) Participation in God. London: Darton, Longman & Todd.
    Aspy, D. and Roebuck, F.N. (1983) ‘Researching person-centred issues in education’, in C.R.Rogers (ed.), Freedom to Learn for the ‘80s. Columbus, OH: Charles Merrill.
    Baldwin, M. (2000) The Use of Self in Therapy,
    2nd edn
    , New York: The Haworth Press.
    BAPCA (2001) Client-Centred Psychotherapy in the UK – the Future, London: British Association for the Person-Centred Approach.
    Barrineau, P. (1990) ‘Chicago revisited: an interview with Elizabeth Sheerer’, Person-Centered Review, 5(4): 416–24.
    Binder, U. (1998) ‘Empathy and empathy development with psychotic clients’, in B.Thorne and E.Lambers (eds), Person-Centred Therapy: a European Perspective. London: Sage. pp. 216–30.
    Bowen, M. (1987) In Memory of Carl Rogers, unpublished manuscript.
    Bozarth, J. (1990) ‘The essence of client-centered therapy’, in G.Lietaer, J.Rombauts and R.Van Balen (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy in the Nineties. Leuven: Leuven University Press. pp. 59–64.
    Bozarth, J. (1998) Person Centred Therapy: a Revolutionary Paradigm. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books.
    Brazier, D.J. (1993) Beyond Carl Rogers. London: Constable.
    Brazier, D.J. (1995) Zen Therapy. London: Constable.
    Brazier, D.J. (2002) ‘Thank you Carl, we still need you’, Ipnosis, No. 6: 14–15.
    Buber, M. (1937) I and Thou (translated by W.Kaufmann in 1970). New York: Charles Scribener's Sons.
    Burton, A. (1972) Twelve Therapists. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Cain, D. (1987a) ‘Our international family’, Person-Centered Review, 2(2): 139–49.
    Cain, D. (1987b) ‘Carl Rogers's life in review’, Person-Centered Review, 2(4): 476–506.
    Cain, D. (1990) ‘Celebration, reflection and renewal’, Person-Centered Review, 5(4): 357–63.
    Clark, J. (ed.) (2002a) Freelance Counselling and Psychotherapy: Competition and Collaboration. Hove: Brunner-Routledge. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203361313
    Clark, J. (2002b) ‘Some personal memories of Carl Rogers’, Ipnosis, No. 6: 16.
    Fosdick, H.E. (1943) On Being a Real Person. New York: Harper.
    Freud, S. (1962) Civilization and its Discontents. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Friedli, K., King, M., Lloyd, M. and Horder, J. (1997) ‘Randomised controlled assessment of non-directive psychotherapy versus routine general practitioner care’, Lancet, 350: 1662–5. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736%2897%2905298-7
    Gendlin, E.T. (1978) Focusing. New York: Everest House.
    Gendlin, E.T. (1990) ‘The small steps of the therapy process: how they come and how to help them come’, in G.Lietaer, J.Rombauts and R.Van Balen (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy in the Nineties. Leuven: Leuven University Press. pp. 205–24.
    Hendricks, M.N. (2002) ‘What difference does philosopy make? Crossing Gendlin and Rogers’, in J.C.Watson, R.N.Goldman and M.S.Warner (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy in the 21st Century: Advances in Theory, Research and Practice. Ross-on-Wye: PCCS Books. pp. 52–63.
    House, R. (2002) ‘Ahead of his time: Carl Rogers on “Professionalism”, 1973’, Ipnosis, No. 6: 20–22.
    King, M., Sibbald, B., Ward, E., Bower, P., Lloyd, M., Gabbay, M. and Byford, S. (2000) ‘Randomised controlled trial of non-directive counselling, cognitive behaviour therapy and usual general practitioner care in the management of depression as well as mixed anxiety and depression in primary care’, Health Technology Assessment, 4(19).
    Kirschenbaum, H. (1979) On Becoming Carl Rogers. New York: Delacorte Press.
    Kirschenbaum, H. (1991) ‘Denigrating Carl Rogers: William Coulson's last crusade’, Journal of Counseling and Development, 69: 411–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1991.tb01535.x
    Kirschenbaum, H. and Henderson, V.L. (eds) (1990a) The Carl Rogers Reader. London: Constable.
    Kirschenbaum, H. and Henderson, V.L. (eds) (1990b) Carl Rogers: Dialogues. London: Constable.
    Lago, C. (2002) ‘Carl Rogers and his Work’, Ipnosis, No. 6: 13.
    Lambers, E. (1994) ‘Person-centred psychotherapy: personality disorder’, in D.Mearns, Developing Person-Centred Counselling. London: Sage. pp. 116–20.
    Leijssen, M., Lietaer, G., Stevens, I. and Wels, G. (2000) ‘Focusing training for stagnating clients: an analysis of four cases’, in J.Marques-Teixeira and S.Antunes (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy. Linda a Velha: Vale & Vale. pp. 207–24.
    Levant, R.F. and Shlien, J.M. (eds) (1984) Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach. New York: Praeger.
    Liebermann, E.J. (1985) Acts of Will: The Life and Work of Otto Rank. New York: Free Press.
    Masson, J. (1984) The Assault on Truth: Freud's Suppression of the Seduction Theory. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux.
    Masson, J. (1989) Against Therapy. London: Collins.
    May, R. (1982) ‘The problem of evil: an open letter to Carl Rogers’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 22(3): 10–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167882223003
    Mearns, D. (2002) ‘Carl Rogers’, Ipnosis, No. 6: 22.
    Mearns, D. and McLeod, J. (1984) ‘A person-centered approach to research’, in R.F.Levant and J.M.Shlien (eds), Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach. New York: Praeger. pp. 370–89.
    Mearns, D. and Thorne, B. (1988) Person-Centred Counselling in Action. London: Sage.
    Mearns, D. and Thorne, B. (1999) Person-Centred Counselling in Action,
    2nd edn.
    London: Sage.
    Mearns, D. and Thorne, B. (2000) Person-Centred Therapy Today. London: Sage.
    Merry, T. and Temaner Brodley, B. (2002) ‘The nondirective attitude in client-centered therapy: a response to Kahn’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 42(2): 66–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167802422006
    Nakata, Y. (2000) ‘Company model of listener in focusing’. Unpublished paper, Chicago International Conference.
    Nye, R.D. (1986) Three Psychologies,
    3rd edn.
    Monterey, CA: Brooks/Cole.
    Patterson, C.H. (1990) ‘On being client-centered’, Person-Centered Review, 5(4): 425–32.
    Pörtner, M. (2002) Trust and Understanding – the Person-Centred Approach to Everyday Care for People with Special Needs. Ross on Wye: PCCS Books.
    Prouty, G. (1994) Theoretical Evolutions in Person-Centered/Experiential Therapy: applications to schizophrenic and retarded psychoses. Westport, CN: Praeger.
    Purton, C. (2002) ‘Focusing on focusing: The practice and the philosophy’ in J.C.Watson, R.N.Goldman and M.S.Warner (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy in the 21st Century: Advances in Theory, Research and Practice. Ross-on-Wye, PCCS Books. pp. 89–98.
    Rank, O. (1966) ‘Yale lecture’, Journal of the Otto Rank Association, 1: 12–25.
    Reason, P. and Rowan, J. (eds) (1981) Human Inquiry: a Sourcebook of New Paradigm Research. New York: John Wiley.
    Rogers, C.R. (1939) The Clinical Treatment of the Problem Child. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, C.R. (1942) Counseling and Psychotherapy: Newer Concepts in Practice. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, C.R. (1951) Client-Centered Therapy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, C.R. (1956) ‘Reinhold Niebuhr's “The Self and the Dramas of History”’, Chicago Theological Seminary Register, 46: 13–14.
    Rogers, C.R. (1957a) ‘The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change’, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 21(2): 95–103.
    Rogers, C.R. (1957b) ‘A note on the “nature of man”’, Journal of Counseling Psychology, 4(3): 199–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0048308
    Rogers, C.R. (1958) ‘Concluding comment’ (to: ‘Reinhold Niebuhr and Carl Rogers. A discussion by Bernard M. Loomer, Walter M. Horton and Hans Hofmann’), Pastoral Psychology, 9(85): 15–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01758621
    Rogers, C.R. (1959) ‘A theory of therapy, personality and interpersonal relationships as developed in the client-centered framework’, in S.Koch (ed.), Psychology: a Study of Science, Vol. III. Formulations of the Person and the Social Context. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 184–256.
    Rogers, C.R. (1961) On Becoming a Person. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, C.R. (1969) Freedom to Learn: a View of What Education Might Become. Columbus, OH: Charles E. Merrill.
    Rogers, C.R. (1970) Carl Rogers on Encounter Groups. New York: Harper & Row.
    Rogers, C.R. (1972) Becoming Partners: Marriage and its Alternatives. New York: Delacorte Press.
    Rogers, C.R. (1973) ‘Some New Challenges to the Helping Professions’, American Psychologist, 28(5): 379–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034621
    Rogers, C.R. (1974a) ‘In retrospect: forty-six years’, American Psychologist, 29(2): 115–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0035840
    Rogers, C.R. (1974b) ‘Remarks on the future of client-centered therapy’, in D.Wexler and L.Rice (eds), Innovations in Client-Centered Therapy. New York: John Wiley. pp. 7–13.
    Rogers, C.R. (1977) Carl Rogers on Personal Power: Inner Strength and its Revolutionary Impact. New York: Delacorte Press.
    Rogers, C.R. (1978) ‘Do we need “a” reality?’, Dawnpoint, 1(2): 6–9.
    Rogers, C.R. (1980) A Way of Being. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
    Rogers, C.R. (1981) ‘Some unanswered questions’, Journey, 1(1): 1, 4.
    Rogers, C.R. (1982) ‘Reply to Rollo May's letter’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 22(4): 85–9.
    Rogers, C.R. (1983) Freedom to Learn for the ‘80s. Columbus, OH: Charles Merrill.
    Rogers, C.R. (1985) ‘Toward a more human science of the person’, Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25(4): 7–24. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0022167885254002
    Rogers, C.R. (1986a) ‘Carl Rogers on the development of the person-centered approach’, Person-Centered Review, 1(3): 257–9.
    Rogers, C.R. (1986b) ‘A client-centered/person-centered approach to therapy’, in I.L.Kutash and A.Wolf (eds), Psychotherapist's Casebook. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. pp. 197–208.
    Rogers, C.R. (1986c) ‘Rogers, Kohut and Erickson: a personal perspective on some similarities and differences’, Person-Centered Review, 1(2): 125–40.
    Rogers, C.R. (1986d) ‘Reflection of feelings’, Person-Centered Review, 1(4): 375–7.
    Rogers, C.R. (1987) ‘Comment on Shlien's article “A countertheory of transference”’, Person-Centered Review, 2(2): 182–8.
    Rogers, C.R. and Dymond, R.F. (eds) (1954) Psychotherapy and Personality Change. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Rogers, C.R., Gendlin, E.T., Kiesler, D.J. and Truax, C.B. (eds) (1967) The Therapeutic Relationship and its Impact: A Study of Psychotherapy with Schizophrenics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.
    Rogers, C.R. and Russell, D.E. (2002) Carl Rogers: The Quiet Revolutionary. Roseville, CA: Penmarin Books.
    Rogers, C.R. and Sanford, R.C. (1989) ‘Client-centered psychotherapy’, in H.I.Kaplan and B.J.Sadock (eds), Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry 5. Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins. pp. 1482–501.
    Rogers, N. (1993) The Creative Connection. Santa Rosa, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
    Rowan, J. (2002) ‘Carl Rogers: a memory’, Ipnosis, No. 6: 17.
    Rowland, N., Mellor Clarke, J., Dower, P., Heywood, P., Young, P., and Godfrey, C. (2000) ‘Counselling for depression in primary care (protocol for a Cochrane review)’, The Cochrane Library (3): update software.
    Schmid, P. (2000) ‘Prospects on further developments in the Person-Centered Approach’, in J.Marques-Teixeira and S.Antunes (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy. Linda a Velha: Vale & Vale. pp. 11–31.
    Shlien, J.M. (1984) ‘A countertheory of transference’, in R.F.Levant and J.M.Shlien (eds), Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach. New York: Praeger. pp. 153–81.
    Shostrom, E. (ed.) (1965) Three Approaches to Psychotherapy: Client-Centered Therapy. Film production. Orange, CA: Psychological Films.
    Silverstone, L. (1997) Art Therapy. The Person-Centred Way,
    2nd edn.
    London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
    Standal, S. (1954) ‘The need for positive regard: a contribution to client-centered theory’. Doctoral dissertation, University of Chicago.
    Staniloae, D. (2002) Orthodox Spirituality. South Canaan: St Tikhon's Seminary Press.
    Taft, J. (1958) Otto Rank. New York: Julian Press.
    Tausch, R. (1978) ‘Facilitative dimensions in interpersonal relations: verifying the theoretical assumptions of Carl Rogers in school, family education, client-centered therapy and encounter groups’, College Student Journal, 12: 2–11.
    Tausch, R. (1990) ‘The supplementation of client-centered communication therapy with other validated therapeutic methods: a client-centered necessity’, in G.Lietaer, J.Rombauts and R.Van Balen (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy in the Nineties. Leuven: Leuven University Press. pp. 448–55.
    Temaner Brodley, B. (1988) ‘Re-examination of client-centered therapy using Rogers' tapes and films’. From panel discussion on client-centered therapy, Symposium at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Atlanta.
    Temaner Brodley, B. (1990) ‘Client-centered and experiential: two different therapies’, in G.Lietaer, J.Rombauts and R.Van Balen (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy in the Nineties. Leuven: Leuven University Press. pp. 87–107.
    Temaner Brodley, B. (1991) ‘Some observations of Carl Rogers' verbal behaviour in therapy interviews’. Unpublished presentation at the Second International Conference on Client-Centred and Experiential Psychotherapy, University of Stirling, Scotland.
    Thorne, B.J. (1985) The Quality of Tenderness. Norwich: Norwich Centre Publications.
    Thorne, B.J. (1988) ‘The person-centred approach to large groups’, in M.Aveline and W.Dryden (eds), Group Therapy in Britain. Milton Keynes: Open University Press. pp. 185–207.
    Thorne, B.J. (1990) ‘Carl Rogers and the doctrine of original sin’, Person-Centered Review, 5(4): 394–405.
    Thorne, B.J. (2002a) ‘Regulation – a treacherous path?’, CPJ (Counselling and Psychotherapy Journal), 13(2): 4–5.
    Thorne, B.J. (2002b) The Mystical Power of Person-Centred Therapy. London: Whurr Publishers.
    Thorne, B.J. (2002c) ‘Carl Rogers and a liberal Christian’, Ipnosis, No. 6: 13.
    Thorne, B. and Lambers, E. (eds) (1998) Person-Centred Therapy: a European Perspective. London: Sage.
    Tudor, K. (2002) ‘From the person of Carl Rogers to the person-centred approach’, Ipnosis, No. 6: 18–19.
    Tudor, K. and Merry, T. (2001) Dictionary of Person-Centred Psychology. London: Whurr Publishers.
    Van Balen, R. (1990) ‘The therapeutic relationship according to Carl Rogers: only a climate? A dialogue? Or both?’, in G.Lietaer, J.Rombauts and R.Van Balen (eds), Client-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy in the Nineties. Leuven: Leuven University Press. pp. 65–85.
    Van Belle, H. (1980) Basic Intent and Therapeutic Approach of Carl Rogers. Toronto: Wedge Publishing Foundation.
    Van Werde, D. (1998) ‘ “Anchorage' as a core concept in working with psychotic people’, in B.Thorne and E.Lambers (eds), Person-Centred Therapy: a European Perspective. London: Sage. pp. 195–205.
    Vitz, P. (1977) Psychology as Religion: the Cult of Self-Worship (Revised 1994). Grand Rapids, MI: William B. Eerdmans.
    WAPCEPC (2000) World Association for Person-Centered and Experiential Psychotherapy and Counseling, Membership Brochure.
    Watson, N. (1984) ‘The empirical status of Rogers's hypotheses of the necessary and sufficient conditions for effective psychotherapy’, in R.F.Levant and J.M.Shlien (eds), Client-Centered Therapy and the Person-Centered Approach. New York: Praeger. pp. 17–40.
    Wilber, K. (1998) The Marriage of Sense and Soul: Integrating Science and Religion. Dublin: Newleaf.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website