Careers in and out of Organizations


Douglas T. Hall

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: NoneContemporary Careers

    Part II: Elements of the Career

    Part III: Implementing Career Concepts

  • Multicultural Aspects of Counseling Series


    Paul Pedersen, Ph.D., University of Alabama at Birmingham


    • Patricia M. Arredondo, Ed.D.
    • Arizona State University
    • J. Manuel Casas, Ph.D.
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
    • Harold E. Cheatham, Ph.D.
    • The Pennsylvania State University
    • William E. Cross, Jr., Ph.D.
    • University of Massachusetts
    • Candace Marie Fleming, Ph.D.
    • University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
    • Mary Fukuyama, Ph.D.
    • University of Florida
    • L. Sunny Hansen, Ph.D.
    • University of Minnesota
    • Allen E. Ivey, Ed.D.
    • University of Massachusetts
    • Teresa LaFromboise, Ph.D.
    • Stanford University
    • Jun-chih Gisela Lin, Ph.D., ABPP
    • Texas A&M University
    • Don C. Locke, Ed.D.
    • University of North Carolina, Asheville
    • Amado M. Padillo, Ph.D.
    • Stanford University
    • Joseph G. Ponterotto, Ph.D.
    • Fordham University
    • Derald Wing Sue, Ph.D.
    • California State University, Hayward
    • Norman D. Sundberg, Ph.D.
    • University of Oregon
    • Junko Tanaka-Matsumi, Ph.D.
    • Hofstra University
    • Joseph E. Trimble, Ph.D.
    • Western Washington University
    • Melba J.T Vasquez, Ph.D.
    • Independent Practice, Austin, Texas
    • Clemmont E. Vontress, Ph.D.
    • George Washington University


    • Increasing Multicultural Understanding (2nd edition): A Comprehensive Model by Don C. Locke
    • Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors and Educators by Joseph G. Ponterotto and Paul B. Pedersen
    • Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs edited by Richard W. Brislin and Tomoko Yoshida
    • Assessing and Treating Culturally Diverse Clients (2nd edition): A Practical Guide by Freddy A. Paniagua
    • Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide to Intentional Intervention by Charles R. Ridley
    • Multicultural Counseling With Teenage Fathers: A Practical Guide by Mark S. Kiselica
    • Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Assessment, Education and Training, and Supervision edited by Donald B. Pope-Davis and Hardin L. K. Coleman
    • Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs, Volume 2 edited by Kenneth Cushner and Richard W. Brislin
    • Understanding Cultural Identity in Intervention and Assessment by Richard H. Dana
    • Psychological Testing of American Minorities (2nd edition) by Ronald J. Samuda
    • Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Individual and Organizational Development by Derald Wing Sue et al.
    • Counseling Multiracial Families by Bea Wehrly, Kelley R. Kenney, and Mark E. Kenney
    • Integrating Spirituality Into Multicultural Counseling by Mary A. Fukuyama and Todd D. Sevig
    • Counseling With Native American Indians and Alaska Natives: Strategies for Helping Professionals by Roger D. Herring
    • Diagnosis in a Multicultural Context: A Casebook for Mental Health Professionals by Freddy A. Paniagua
    • Psychotherapy and Counseling With Asian American Clients: A Practical Guide by George K. Hong and Mary Anna Domokos-Cheng Ham
    • Counseling Latinos and la familia: A Practical Guide by Azara L. Santiago-Rivera, Patricia Arredondo and Maritza Gallardo-Cooper


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    To Marcy (and I'll be right home …)

    Introduction to the Series

    The title of this series, Foundations for Organizational Science (FOS), denotes a distinctive focus. FOS books are educational aids for mastering the core theories, essential tools, and emerging perspectives that constitute the field of organizational science (broadly conceived to include organizational behavior, organizational theory, human resource management, and business strategy). Our ambitious goal is to assemble the “essential library” for members of our professional community.

    The vision for the series emerged from conversations with several colleagues, including Peter Frost, Anne Huff, Rick Mowday, Benjamin Schneider, Susan Taylor, and Andy Van de Ven. A number of common interests emerged from these sympathetic encounters, including enhancing the quality of doctoral education by providing broader access to the master teachers in our field, “bottling” the experience and insights of some of the founding scholars in our field before they retire, and providing professional development opportunities for colleagues seeking to broaden their understanding of the rapidly expanding subfields within organizational science.

    Our unique learning objectives are reflected in an unusual set of instructions to FOS authors. They are encouraged to (a) “write the way they teach”—framing their book as an extension of their teaching notes rather than as the expansion of a handbook chapter; (b) pass on their “craft knowledge” to the next generation of scholars—making them wiser, not just smarter; (c) share with their “virtual students and colleagues” the insider tips and best bets for research that are normally reserved for one-on-one mentoring sessions; and (d) make the complexity of their subject matter comprehensible to nonexperts so that readers can share their puzzlement, fascination, and intrigue.

    We are proud of the group of highly qualified authors who have embraced the unique educational perspective of our “Foundations” series. We encourage your suggestions for how these books can better satisfy your learning needs—as a newcomer to the field preparing for prelims or developing a dissertation proposal, or as an established scholar seeking to broaden your knowledge and proficiency.

    David A.Whetten Series Editor


    This book is in part a revision of my 1976 volume, Careers in Organizations (and thus the similarity in the titles) and in part a new piece of work. I started this project with the intention of revising the original book, but then it became clear that there are now career issues that simply did not exist in 1976, such as the changing career contract, work/family balance, career metacompetencies such as identity growth and adaptability, and tools for working on these metacompetencies such as personal reflection and relational processes. Thus, the book took on a life of its own and has emerged as a combination of a new book and a revision.

    Plan for the Book

    Now that we have some common understanding of the term career, we can examine how people's careers are influenced by (and sometimes influence) organizations.

    The book is organized into three parts. Part I provides an overview of contemporary careers. In Chapter 1, we review the overall terrain of the career landscape and provide a definition of the term career. In Chapter 2, we consider the ways careers have changed during the past 25 or more years. In particular, we focus on the changing career contract and what I have called the protean career.

    Part II examines the specific components or elements of the career. In Chapter 3, we examine the process of career choice and discuss different approaches that have been taken to study career decision making. For many people, this occurs mainly at the beginning of their work lives. Today, however, it often occurs at various points in one's career, particularly in midcareer and even in late career. In Chapter 4, we examine the general developmental stages people pass through during the course of their working lives in organizations. Although a person's specific experiences will depend greatly on the particular occupation and type of organization he or she enters, current studies suggest that there are certain general phases that seem to occur in fairly regular order. Chapter 4, then, will give us a broad overview of the person's total life/career experience. Chapter 5 examines what happens after a career choice has been made, in particular, how the individual level of performance can be predicted. Performance will be viewed as one of four important dimensions of career effectiveness.

    Chapter 6 discusses factors related to two other dimensions of career effectiveness: identity and attitudes. Again, we examine the possible predictability of these dimensions, although there has been far more research on performance. Chapter 7 examines the final element of career effectiveness, career adaptability. Together, adaptability and identity represent what I call career metacompetencies. By this I mean that if a person has the capacity for adaptability and for gaining self-knowledge, that person has the capacity to learn how to learn.

    Chapter 8 examines the career in the broader context of the full set of the person's life roles. Because in countries such as the United States more than half of workers are part of a two-income family, these issues of integrating career and personal life are critical to a person's well-being and success.

    In Part III, we turn from research to the practical issues involved in applying theory to actuality in career and organizational effectiveness. Chapter 9 examines how a person can tap more of the potential learning that can result from challenging work experiences. We have often heard that “experience is the best teacher.” What we are learning from recent research, however, is that experience may be the best teacher—if you can learn from it.

    In Chapters 10 and 11, we examine how organizations and individuals can “put it all together.” Here, we discuss some of the current and not so obvious problems of organizational careers and how our understanding of career dynamics can be employed to make careers work better for individuals and for the work communities in which they are employed.

    Following Chapter 1, which is primarily definitional, the end of each chapter contains some questions or implications for further research. Because many of the readers of this book may be graduate students, this section of each chapter attempts to provide some guidance for people who are beginning to do research on issues related to careers. These ideas are not meant to be exhaustive or the “final word” about future research; rather, they are just my “top-of-the-head” musings about issues that I would like to explore if I had the opportunity, and they are presented in that spirit.


    This book has had a long journey since appearing in its original form as Careers in Organizations in 1976, and there have been many people to thank along the way.

    The editor of the original Goodyear Series in Management and Organizations was Lyman Porter. He envisioned the books in this series as stressing key issues related to a given topic, and he asked the authors to “distinguish figure from ground.” I believe that this activity is even more critical in the this book because the field of careers has become so much more mature during the past 25 years. Thus, although Porter is not formally involved in the current project, I still hear and benefit from his wisdom from years ago. He has also been a strong supporter throughout the years for the use of the concept of career in management research as well as a strong supporter of me personally—and a good friend.

    Three other long-term supporters and guides for me are Chris Argyris, Ed Schein, and Warren Bennis. Chris was my first teacher in organizational behavior, back when there was no field by that name. The term existed only in the title of Chris's senior-level undergraduate course. It was a large fall lecture course, out of which he selected a small group to take a course with him the second semester. More than half of the small group of 12 undergraduate seniors went on to get doctorates in organizational behavior or other fields of management (including Clay Alderfer and Lee Bolman, who are still active publishers today). Chris remained in contact with me when I was in graduate school at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School, where I came in contact with Ed Schein and Warren Bennis, who were my dissertation committee and helped shape my interest in and ways of approaching careers. Throughout the years, they have been role models for their ability to make fresh contributions to many fields and their long-term passion for melding theory, research, and practice.

    After graduate school, when I went back to Yale to teach, Chris was department chair, and those 5 years working under his leadership I now view as the world's best postdoctoral education. By teaching with him, working collaboratively on research (such as the priest study, in which he consulted me and Ben Schneider), helping him build a strong organizational behavior group, and even being in a couples group together, I had incredibly rich opportunities to grow personally and professionally. Also, I have always thought that Chris's ideas on the relationship between the organization and the individual are, in fact, career theory because they explain the changing work experiences and attitudes of the individual over time. Through all this relational development, Chris has been a true mentor to me.

    Specifically related to this book, the person I thank most of all is my old friend and sometime collaborator, Ben Schneider. As an editor of the Sage series Foundations for Organizational Science, in which this book appears, Ben has nudged, cajoled, sweet-talked, threatened, begged, and flattered me into producing this book. (He referred to me as “The Whip” years ago for pushing him to complete a research paper, and he has more than returned the favor and claimed title to the nickname for himself.) This has been one of my more difficult books to write, perhaps because the original volume was so important to me and because it is very challenging to cover 25 years of the birth of a field without writing a completely new and different book. Ben was there when I started the first one (in fact, we were working on another one at the same time), and he has been there with me in various ways, personally and professionally, throughout the years, so he understands this project in a very deep way. In our book authored together (Organizational Climates and Careers: The Work Lives of Priests, 1973), we discovered the notion of supportive autonomy to describe a balance of help (but not oversupervision) and freedom (but not abandonment) that supports a person's growth. Ben applied that concept well to this project. He is a dear friend.

    It has also been a delight to discover a new publisher in this process. The various editors I have had the pleasure to work with at Sage have been extremely good and efficient at their respective tasks. Marquita Flemming, acquisition editor for Sage, who has overall responsibility for this series, has been incredibly enthusiastic and supportive at every step of the way. There is nothing like the feeling of finishing something after a long, hard slug of work, feeling exhausted, e-mailing it to her, and then receiving a very prompt and excited reply from Marquita. It does serve to keep one going! On the production side, Diane Foster, Senior Production Editor and Dan Hays, the book's copy editor, have made my least favorite part of the process, dealing with the production process, almost bearable work—and a very pleasant interpersonal experience. Not only do they know copyediting but also the psychology of authors, and their patience and understanding make everything work smoothly. Even the permissions process, which to me makes root canal work seem almost attractive by comparison (my parents did not raise me to be an accountant or any other kind of detail person), has been surprisingly painless. Although I have definitely been a challenge to work with for Anna Howland, the permissions editor, she has been incredibly helpful and patient, simplifying and clarifying just what I needed to do and providing good encouragement along the way.

    I also thank the various reviewers who have greatly strengthened the final version of the manuscript. In particular, Ben Schneider and Susan Taylor gave early coaching and feedback when there were basic decisions to be made about tone and direction. Later reviewers who read and commented on the completed manuscript include: Michael Arthur, Ayse Karaevli, and Samuel Rabinowitz.

    Like many other books in our field, this one has a special group of “godfathers” (I mean this in the spiritual/familial sense, not the underworld meaning of the term). Specifically, I have been blessed to be a member of a men's support group, variously called the Brookline Circle (although no one lives there anymore), the Boys' Group, the Mystic Knights of Marginality (although most are now pretty central to their respective systems), and simply The Group. We meet every month or two to solve the problems of the world, deal with personal and professional crises, explore intergenerational interfaces, develop grand theory, support one another's dreams, and figure out the meaning and purpose of life. It is very comforting to know that when a major problem occurs, one answer for me is always, “I'll bring this to the Boys' Group.” Deep thanks to Lee Bolman, Dave Brown, Todd Jick, Bill Kahn, Phil Mirvis, and Barry Oshry.

    Another strong source of support has been colleagues, students, and institutions in the School of Management at Boston University. Under the leadership of Dean Lou Lataif, two research centers have supported my research and writing in various ways—The Human Resources Policy Institute (under the leadership of Fred Foulkes) and the Executive Development Roundtable (EDRT), which I direct. Faculty colleagues, such as Kathy Kram, Lloyd Baird, Aimin Yan, and Gerry Leader, have played strong roles in these research centers, and our collaborations in various spheres have been tremendously helpful and satisfying to me. The members of EDRT have been valuable sources of wisdom about career development processes as they affect managers and directors. In particular, EDRT members who have been especially insightful coaches about this process in relation to this book are Lisa Cheraskin at Eli Lilly, Laurie Hutton-Corr at Marsh and McLennan, Ellen Johnston at Sun Microsystems, and Paul Yost and Mary Mannion-Plunkett at Boeing. Administrators for EDRT, such as Patti Collins, Leslie Steinberg, and Susan Casey Bourland, have been very helpful to the completion of this project. One “ace” student assistant in particular, Sarah Leivick (mock trial star, U.S. Senate intern, and future lawyer who has also had experience in the publishing industry), has made several key editorial contributions at critical points.

    Most important, of course, has been my family's support and encouragement—along with the occasional urgings to “balance your life!” (Marcy Crary, personal communication, August 17, 2001). (In other words, leave that book alone for a while and remember what it is all about, anyway!) A major part of what it is all about are my children and grandchildren: Elizabeth (Liz) and my son-in-law Scott, Chip and my daughter-in-law Christina, Mary Lauran, and grandchildren Matthew, Sabrina, one little person who is on the way, and perhaps others to come. I have already learned much about the new careers from Elizabeth and Chip and Christina and Scott, now in their 30s and pursuing very protean careers. They have a way of occasionally asking me for career coaching (since their dad is the “expert,” right?). The result of the con versation is usually that I am the one who ends up enlightened about how careers really work in this new environment. I hope that by the time Matthew and Sabrina and any future cousins of theirs start their careers, many of the career problems described in this text will be long resolved. May they have the identity strength and adaptability to cope masterfully with those new challenges that will have emerged in their future careers, in and out of organizations.

    My wife and soul mate, Marcy, is always ready to discuss some idea or issue that I am working on (or that she is working on), to listen patiently to my rants about various facets of the project, and to help me disengage from it at times. She helps ground me and try to keep in touch with what this is all about, anyway. She is a graceful, generous, and loving lady. And did I mention strong? This book is dedicated to her, with my love and gratitude.

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    About the Author

    Douglas T. (Tim) Hall is Professor of Organizational Behavior and Director of the Executive Development Roundtable in the School of Management at Boston University. He is a recipient of the American Psychological Association's James McKeen Cattell Award (now called the Ghiselli Award) for research design. His research and consulting activities have dealt with career development, the new employer-employee contract, executive succession, management of diversity, and work/life issues. He is a fellow of the Academy of Management and the American Psychological Association and is currently serving on the board of governors of the Center for Creative Leadership. He is author of Careers in Organizations (1976) and Career Development (1994); coauthor of Organizational Climates and Careers (1973), The Two Career Couple (1979), Experiences in Management and Organizational Behavior (4th ed., 1997), Human Resource Management (1986), Career Development in Organizations (1986), Turbulencein the American Workplace (1991), and The Career is DeadLong Live the Career (1996); and coeditor of Handbook of Career Theory (1989). His research interests include work/life balance, career planning and development, leadership development and executive succession, and managing diversity. In 2001, he won the Everett Cherrington Hughes Award from the Academy of Management for his research on careers. He will hold an Erskine Visiting Fellowship at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 2002.

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