Careers in and out of Organizations


Douglas T. Hall

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: NoneContemporary Careers

    Part II: Elements of the Career

    Part III: Implementing Career Concepts

  • Multicultural Aspects of Counseling Series


    Paul Pedersen, Ph.D., University of Alabama at Birmingham


    • Patricia M. Arredondo, Ed.D.
    • Arizona State University
    • J. Manuel Casas, Ph.D.
    • University of California, Santa Barbara
    • Harold E. Cheatham, Ph.D.
    • The Pennsylvania State University
    • William E. Cross, Jr., Ph.D.
    • University of Massachusetts
    • Candace Marie Fleming, Ph.D.
    • University of Colorado Health Sciences Center
    • Mary Fukuyama, Ph.D.
    • University of Florida
    • L. Sunny Hansen, Ph.D.
    • University of Minnesota
    • Allen E. Ivey, Ed.D.
    • University of Massachusetts
    • Teresa LaFromboise, Ph.D.
    • Stanford University
    • Jun-chih Gisela Lin, Ph.D., ABPP
    • Texas A&M University
    • Don C. Locke, Ed.D.
    • University of North Carolina, Asheville
    • Amado M. Padillo, Ph.D.
    • Stanford University
    • Joseph G. Ponterotto, Ph.D.
    • Fordham University
    • Derald Wing Sue, Ph.D.
    • California State University, Hayward
    • Norman D. Sundberg, Ph.D.
    • University of Oregon
    • Junko Tanaka-Matsumi, Ph.D.
    • Hofstra University
    • Joseph E. Trimble, Ph.D.
    • Western Washington University
    • Melba J.T Vasquez, Ph.D.
    • Independent Practice, Austin, Texas
    • Clemmont E. Vontress, Ph.D.
    • George Washington University


    • Increasing Multicultural Understanding (2nd edition): A Comprehensive Model by Don C. Locke
    • Preventing Prejudice: A Guide for Counselors and Educators by Joseph G. Ponterotto and Paul B. Pedersen
    • Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs edited by Richard W. Brislin and Tomoko Yoshida
    • Assessing and Treating Culturally Diverse Clients (2nd edition): A Practical Guide by Freddy A. Paniagua
    • Overcoming Unintentional Racism in Counseling and Therapy: A Practitioner's Guide to Intentional Intervention by Charles R. Ridley
    • Multicultural Counseling With Teenage Fathers: A Practical Guide by Mark S. Kiselica
    • Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Assessment, Education and Training, and Supervision edited by Donald B. Pope-Davis and Hardin L. K. Coleman
    • Improving Intercultural Interactions: Modules for Cross-Cultural Training Programs, Volume 2 edited by Kenneth Cushner and Richard W. Brislin
    • Understanding Cultural Identity in Intervention and Assessment by Richard H. Dana
    • Psychological Testing of American Minorities (2nd edition) by Ronald J. Samuda
    • Multicultural Counseling Competencies: Individual and Organizational Development by Derald Wing Sue et al.
    • Counseling Multiracial Families by Bea Wehrly, Kelley R. Kenney, and Mark E. Kenney
    • Integrating Spirituality Into Multicultural Counseling by Mary A. Fukuyama and Todd D. Sevig
    • Counseling With Native American Indians and Alaska Natives: Strategies for Helping Professionals by Roger D. Herring
    • Diagnosis in a Multicultural Context: A Casebook for Mental Health Professionals by Freddy A. Paniagua
    • Psychotherapy and Counseling With Asian American Clients: A Practical Guide by George K. Hong and Mary Anna Domokos-Cheng Ham
    • Counseling Latinos and la familia: A Practical Guide by Azara L. Santiago-Rivera, Patricia Arredondo and Maritza Gallardo-Cooper


    View Copyright Page


    To Marcy (and I'll be right home …)

    Introduction to the Series

    The title of this series, Foundations for Organizational Science (FOS), denotes a distinctive focus. FOS books are educational aids for mastering the core theories, essential tools, and emerging perspectives that constitute the field of organizational science (broadly conceived to include organizational behavior, organizational theory, human resource management, and business strategy). Our ambitious goal is to assemble the “essential library” for members of our professional community.

    The vision for the series emerged from conversations with several colleagues, including Peter Frost, Anne Huff, Rick Mowday, Benjamin Schneider, Susan Taylor, and Andy Van de Ven. A number of common interests emerged from these sympathetic encounters, including enhancing the quality of doctoral education by providing broader access to the master teachers in our field, “bottling” the experience and insights of some of the founding scholars in our field before they retire, and providing professional development opportunities for colleagues seeking to broaden their understanding of the rapidly expanding subfields within organizational science.

    Our unique learning objectives are reflected in an unusual set of instructions to FOS authors. They are encouraged to (a) “write the way they teach”—framing their book as an extension of their teaching notes rather than as the expansion of a handbook chapter; (b) pass on their “craft knowledge” to the next generation of scholars—making them wiser, not just smarter; (c) share with their “virtual students and colleagues” the insider tips and best bets for research that are normally reserved for one-on-one mentoring sessions; and (d) make the complexity of their subject matter comprehensible to nonexperts so that readers can share their puzzlement, fascination, and intrigue.

    We are proud of the group of highly qualified authors who have embraced the unique educational perspective of our “Foundations” series. We encourage your suggestions for how these books can better satisfy your learning needs—as a newcomer to the field preparing for prelims or developing a dissertation proposal, or as an established scholar seeking to broaden your knowledge and proficiency.

    David A.Whetten Series Editor


    This book is in part a revision of my 1976 volume, Careers in Organizations (and thus the similarity in the titles) and in part a new piece of work. I started this project with the intention of revising the original book, but then it became clear that there are now career issues that simply did not exist in 1976, such as the changing career contract, work/family balance, career metacompetencies such as identity growth and adaptability, and tools for working on these metacompetencies such as personal reflection and relational processes. Thus, the book took on a life of its own and has emerged as a combination of a new book and a revision.

    Plan for the Book

    Now that we have some common understanding of the term career, we can examine how people's careers are influenced by (and sometimes influence) organizations.

    The book is organized into three parts. Part I provides an overview of contemporary careers. In Chapter 1, we review the overall terrain of the career landscape and provide a definition of the term career. In Chapter 2, we consider the ways careers have changed during the past 25 or more years. In particular, we focus on the changing career contract and what I have called the protean career.

    Part II examines the specific components or elements of the career. In Chapter 3, we examine the process of career choice and discuss different approaches that have been taken to study career decision making. For many people, this occurs mainly at the beginning of their work lives. Today, however, it often occurs at various points in one's career, particularly in midcareer and even in late career. In Chapter 4, we examine the general developmental stages people pass through during the course of their working lives in organizations. Although a person's specific experiences will depend greatly on the particular occupation and type of organization he or she enters, current studies suggest that there are certain general phases that seem to occur in fairly regular order. Chapter 4, then, will give us a broad overview of the person's total life/career experience. Chapter 5 examines what happens after a career choice has been made, in particular, how the individual level of performance can be predicted. Performance will be viewed as one of four important dimensions of career effectiveness.

    Chapter 6 discusses factors related to two other dimensions of career effectiveness: identity and attitudes. Again, we examine the possible predictability of these dimensions, although there has been far more research on performance. Chapter 7 examines the final element of career effectiveness, career adaptability. Together, adaptability and identity represent what I call career metacompetencies. By this I mean that if a person has the capacity for adaptability and for gaining self-knowledge, that person has the capacity to learn how to learn.

    Chapter 8 examines the career in the broader context of the full set of the person's life roles. Because in countries such as the United States more than half of workers are part of a two-income family, these issues of integrating career and personal life are critical to a person's well-being and success.

    In Part III, we turn from research to the practical issues involved in applying theory to actuality in career and organizational effectiveness. Chapter 9 examines how a person can tap more of the potential learning that can result from challenging work experiences. We have often heard that “experience is the best teacher.” What we are learning from recent research, however, is that experience may be the best teacher—if you can learn from it.

    In Chapters 10 and 11, we examine how organizations and individuals can “put it all together.” Here, we discuss some of the current and not so obvious problems of organizational careers and how our understanding of career dynamics can be employed to make careers work better for individuals and for the work communities in which they are employed.

    Following Chapter 1, which is primarily definitional, the end of each chapter contains some questions or implications for further research. Because many of the readers of this book may be graduate students, this section of each chapter attempts to provide some guidance for people who are beginning to do research on issues related to careers. These ideas are not meant to be exhaustive or the “final word” about future research; rather, they are just my “top-of-the-head” musings about issues that I would like to explore if I had the opportunity, and they are presented in that spirit.


    This book has had a long journey since appearing in its original form as Careers in Organizations in 1976, and there have been many people to thank along the way.

    The editor of the original Goodyear Series in Management and Organizations was Lyman Porter. He envisioned the books in this series as stressing key issues related to a given topic, and he asked the authors to “distinguish figure from ground.” I believe that this activity is even more critical in the this book because the field of careers has become so much more mature during the past 25 years. Thus, although Porter is not formally involved in the current project, I still hear and benefit from his wisdom from years ago. He has also been a strong supporter throughout the years for the use of the concept of career in management research as well as a strong supporter of me personally—and a good friend.

    Three other long-term supporters and guides for me are Chris Argyris, Ed Schein, and Warren Bennis. Chris was my first teacher in organizational behavior, back when there was no field by that name. The term existed only in the title of Chris's senior-level undergraduate course. It was a large fall lecture course, out of which he selected a small group to take a course with him the second semester. More than half of the small group of 12 undergraduate seniors went on to get doctorates in organizational behavior or other fields of management (including Clay Alderfer and Lee Bolman, who are still active publishers today). Chris remained in contact with me when I was in graduate school at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Sloan School, where I came in contact with Ed Schein and Warren Bennis, who were my dissertation committee and helped shape my interest in and ways of approaching careers. Throughout the years, they have been role models for their ability to make fresh contributions to many fields and their long-term passion for melding theory, research, and practice.

    After graduate school, when I went back to Yale to teach, Chris was department chair, and those 5 years working under his leadership I now view as the world's best postdoctoral education. By teaching with him, working collaboratively on research (such as the priest study, in which he consulted me and Ben Schneider), helping him build a strong organizational behavior group, and even being in a couples group together, I had incredibly rich opportunities to grow personally and professionally. Also, I have always thought that Chris's ideas on the relationship between the organization and the individual are, in fact, career theory because they explain the changing work experiences and attitudes of the individual over time. Through all this relational development, Chris has been a true mentor to me.

    Specifically related to this book, the person I thank most of all is my old friend and sometime collaborator, Ben Schneider. As an editor of the Sage series Foundations for Organizational Science, in which this book appears, Ben has nudged, cajoled, sweet-talked, threatened, begged, and flattered me into producing this book. (He referred to me as “The Whip” years ago for pushing him to complete a research paper, and he has more than returned the favor and claimed title to the nickname for himself.) This has been one of my more difficult books to write, perhaps because the original volume was so important to me and because it is very challenging to cover 25 years of the birth of a field without writing a completely new and different book. Ben was there when I started the first one (in fact, we were working on another one at the same time), and he has been there with me in various ways, personally and professionally, throughout the years, so he understands this project in a very deep way. In our book authored together (Organizational Climates and Careers: The Work Lives of Priests, 1973), we discovered the notion of supportive autonomy to describe a balance of help (but not oversupervision) and freedom (but not abandonment) that supports a person's growth. Ben applied that concept well to this project. He is a dear friend.

    It has also been a delight to discover a new publisher in this process. The various editors I have had the pleasure to work with at Sage have been extremely good and efficient at their respective tasks. Marquita Flemming, acquisition editor for Sage, who has overall responsibility for this series, has been incredibly enthusiastic and supportive at every step of the way. There is nothing like the feeling of finishing something after a long, hard slug of work, feeling exhausted, e-mailing it to her, and then receiving a very prompt and excited reply from Marquita. It does serve to keep one going! On the production side, Diane Foster, Senior Production Editor and Dan Hays, the book's copy editor, have made my least favorite part of the process, dealing with the production process, almost bearable work—and a very pleasant interpersonal experience. Not only do they know copyediting but also the psychology of authors, and their patience and understanding make everything work smoothly. Even the permissions process, which to me makes root canal work seem almost attractive by comparison (my parents did not raise me to be an accountant or any other kind of detail person), has been surprisingly painless. Although I have definitely been a challenge to work with for Anna Howland, the permissions editor, she has been incredibly helpful and patient, simplifying and clarifying just what I needed to do and providing good encouragement along the way.

    I also thank the various reviewers who have greatly strengthened the final version of the manuscript. In particular, Ben Schneider and Susan Taylor gave early coaching and feedback when there were basic decisions to be made about tone and direction. Later reviewers who read and commented on the completed manuscript include: Michael Arthur, Ayse Karaevli, and Samuel Rabinowitz.

    Like many other books in our field, this one has a special group of “godfathers” (I mean this in the spiritual/familial sense, not the underworld meaning of the term). Specifically, I have been blessed to be a member of a men's support group, variously called the Brookline Circle (although no one lives there anymore), the Boys' Group, the Mystic Knights of Marginality (although most are now pretty central to their respective systems), and simply The Group. We meet every month or two to solve the problems of the world, deal with personal and professional crises, explore intergenerational interfaces, develop grand theory, support one another's dreams, and figure out the meaning and purpose of life. It is very comforting to know that when a major problem occurs, one answer for me is always, “I'll bring this to the Boys' Group.” Deep thanks to Lee Bolman, Dave Brown, Todd Jick, Bill Kahn, Phil Mirvis, and Barry Oshry.

    Another strong source of support has been colleagues, students, and institutions in the School of Management at Boston University. Under the leadership of Dean Lou Lataif, two research centers have supported my research and writing in various ways—The Human Resources Policy Institute (under the leadership of Fred Foulkes) and the Executive Development Roundtable (EDRT), which I direct. Faculty colleagues, such as Kathy Kram, Lloyd Baird, Aimin Yan, and Gerry Leader, have played strong roles in these research centers, and our collaborations in various spheres have been tremendously helpful and satisfying to me. The members of EDRT have been valuable sources of wisdom about career development processes as they affect managers and directors. In particular, EDRT members who have been especially insightful coaches about this process in relation to this book are Lisa Cheraskin at Eli Lilly, Laurie Hutton-Corr at Marsh and McLennan, Ellen Johnston at Sun Microsystems, and Paul Yost and Mary Mannion-Plunkett at Boeing. Administrators for EDRT, such as Patti Collins, Leslie Steinberg, and Susan Casey Bourland, have been very helpful to the completion of this project. One “ace” student assistant in particular, Sarah Leivick (mock trial star, U.S. Senate intern, and future lawyer who has also had experience in the publishing industry), has made several key editorial contributions at critical points.

    Most important, of course, has been my family's support and encouragement—along with the occasional urgings to “balance your life!” (Marcy Crary, personal communication, August 17, 2001). (In other words, leave that book alone for a while and remember what it is all about, anyway!) A major part of what it is all about are my children and grandchildren: Elizabeth (Liz) and my son-in-law Scott, Chip and my daughter-in-law Christina, Mary Lauran, and grandchildren Matthew, Sabrina, one little person who is on the way, and perhaps others to come. I have already learned much about the new careers from Elizabeth and Chip and Christina and Scott, now in their 30s and pursuing very protean careers. They have a way of occasionally asking me for career coaching (since their dad is the “expert,” right?). The result of the con versation is usually that I am the one who ends up enlightened about how careers really work in this new environment. I hope that by the time Matthew and Sabrina and any future cousins of theirs start their careers, many of the career problems described in this text will be long resolved. May they have the identity strength and adaptability to cope masterfully with those new challenges that will have emerged in their future careers, in and out of organizations.

    My wife and soul mate, Marcy, is always ready to discuss some idea or issue that I am working on (or that she is working on), to listen patiently to my rants about various facets of the project, and to help me disengage from it at times. She helps ground me and try to keep in touch with what this is all about, anyway. She is a graceful, generous, and loving lady. And did I mention strong? This book is dedicated to her, with my love and gratitude.

  • References

    Abraham, J. D., & Hansson, R. O. (1995). Successful aging at work: An applied study of selection, optimization, and compensation through impression management. Journal of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences, 50B, 94–103.
    Albert, S., & Whetten, D. (1985). Organizational identity. Research in Organizational Behavior, 7, 263–295.
    Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). Organization socialization tactics: A longitudinal analysis of links to newcomers’ commitment and role orientation. Academy of Management Journal, 33, 847–858.
    Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Anakwe, U. P., Hall, J. C., & Schor, J. (1999, August). Career management in changing times: Role of self-knowledge, interpersonal knowledge, and environmental knowledge. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Chicago.
    Andrews, J. D.W. (1967). The achievement motive and advancement in two types of organizations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 6, 163–169.
    Argyris, C. (1954). Human relations in a bank. Harvard Business Review, 32, 63–72.
    Argyris, C. (1957a). Understanding organizational behavior. Homewood, IL: Irwin- Dorsey.
    Argyris, C. (1957b). Personality and organization. New York: Harper & Row.
    Army Training and Leader Development Panel. (2001). The Army Training and Leader Development Panel officer study report to the Army. Washington, DC: Department of the Army.
    Arthur, M. B., Inkson, K., & Pringle, J. K. (1999). The new careers: Individual action and economic change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Arthur, M. B., & Rousseau, D. M. (Eds.). (1996). The boundaryless career: Anew employment principle for a new organizational era. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Ashford, S. J., & Taylor, M. S. (1990). Adaptation to work transitions: An integrative approach. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 8, 1–39.
    Ashforth, B. E. (2000). Role transitions in organizational life: An identity-based perspective. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Ashforth, B. E., Kreiner, G. E., & Fugate, M. (2000). All in a day's work: Boundaries and micro role transitions. Academy of Management Review, 25, 472–491.
    Ashforth, B. E., & Saks, A. M. (1996). Socialization tactics: Longitudinal effects on newcomer adjustment. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 149–178.
    Ashforth, B. E., Saks, A. M., & Lee, R. T. (1997). On the dimensionality of Jones’ (1986) measures of organizational socialization tactics. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 5(4), 200–214.
    Ashforth, B. E., Saks, A. M., & Lee, R. T. (1998). Socialization and newcomer adjustment: The role of organizational context. Human Relations, 51(7), 897–926.
    Bailyn, L. (1993). Breaking the mold: Women, men and time in the new corporate world. New York: Free Press.
    Baltes, P. B., & Baltes, M. M. (1990). Psychological perspectives on successful aging: The model of selective optimization with compensation. In P. B.Baltes & M. M.Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences (pp. 1–34). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Baltes, P. B., & Schaie, K. W. (1975, March). The myth of the twilight years. Psychology Today, 35–40.
    Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.
    Barber, A. E. (1998). Recruiting employees: Individual and organizational perspectives. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Bardwick, J. (1980). The seasons of a woman's life. In D. G.McGuigan (Ed.), Women's lives: New theory, research and policy (pp. 35–55). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, Center for Continuing Education of Women.
    Barley, S. (1989). Careers, identities, and institutions: The legacy of the Chicago School of Sociology. In M. B.Arthur, D. T.Hall, & B. S.Lawrence (Eds.), Handbook of career theory (pp. 41–65). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Barnett, R., & Baruch, G. K. (1985). Women's involvement in multiple roles and psychological distress. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4(91), 135–145.
    Barnett, R., & Brennan, R. T. (1995). The relationship between job experiences andpsychological distress: A structural equation approach. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 259–276.
    Barnett, R., & Brennan, R. T. (1997). Change in job conditions, change in psychological distress, and gender: A longitudinal study of dual earner couples. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 253–274.
    Barnett, R. C., & Gareis, K. C. (2000). Reduced-hours employment. Work and Occupations, 27(2), 168–187.
    Barnett, R. C., & Gareis, K. C. (2001, April). Career satisfaction among full-time and reduced hours professionals: A study of married women physicians with children. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego.
    Barnett, R., Gareis, K. C., & Brennan, R. T. (1999). Fit as a mediator of the relationship between work hours and burnout. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, 307–317.
    Barney, J. (1991). Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17, 99–120.
    Bartlett, C. A., & Ghoshal, S. (1989). Managing across borders: The transnational solution. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Beck, K., & Wilson, C. (2000). Development of affective organizational commitment: A cross-sequential examination of change with tenure. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 114–136.
    Becker, H., Geer, B., Hughes, E., & Strauss, A. (1961). Boys in white. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Bell, E. L. (1986). The power within: Bicultural life structures and stress among black women. PhD dissertation, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH.
    Bell, E. L. (1992). Myths, stereotypes, and realities of black women: A personal reflection. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 28, 363–376.
    Bell, E. L., & Nkomo, S. M. (2001). Our separate ways: Black and white women and the struggle for professional identity. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Bellesi, B. E. (1999, March). The changing American workforce. Management Review, 9.
    Berlew, D. E., & Hall, D. T. (1964, Fall). The management of tension in organization: Some preliminary findings. Industrial Management Review, 31–40.
    Berlew, D. E., & Hall, D. T. (1966). The socialization of managers: Effects of expectations on performance. Administrative Science Quarterly, 11, 207–223.
    Betz, N. E., Fitzgerald, L. F., & Hill, R. E. (1989). Trait-factor theories: Traditional cornerstone of career theory. In M. B.Arthur, D. T.Hall, & B. S.Lawrence (Eds.), Handbook of career theory (pp. 26–40). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Betz, N. E., & Schifano, R. S. (2000). Evaluation of an intervention to increase realistic self-efficacy and interests in college women. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56, 35–52.
    Black, J. S., & Gregersen, H. B. (1999). The right way to manage expats. Harvard Business Review, 77(2), 52–63.
    Black, J. S., Gregersen, H. B., & Mendenhall, M. (1992). Global assignments: Successfully expatriating and repatriating international managers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Blanchard-Fields, F., Chen, Y., & Hebert, C. E. (1997). Interrole conflict as a function of life stage, gender, and gender- related personality attributes. Sex Roles, 37, 155–174.
    Block, J., & Kremen, A. M. (1996). IQ and ego-resiliency: Conceptual and empirical connections and separateness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 349–361.
    Blustein, D. L. (1997). A context-rich perspective on career exploration across life roles. Career Development Quarterly, 45(3), 260–274.
    Bolman, L., & Deal, T. (2001). Leading with soul: An uncommon journey (
    Rev. ed.
    ). New York: John Wiley.
    Bond, J. T., Galinsky, E., & Swanberg, J. E. (1998). The 1997 National Study of the Changing Workforce. New York: Families and Work Institute.
    Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). The competent manager: A model for effective performance. NewYork: John Wiley.
    Boyd, E. M., & Fales, A. W. (1983). Reflective learning: The key to learning from experience. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 23(2), 99–117.
    Bray, D. W. (1972). The management recruit: Early career and development. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, Honolulu.
    Bray, D. W., Campbell, R. J., & Grant, D. L. (1974). Formative years in business. New York: John Wiley.
    Bray, D. W., & Grant, D. L. (1966). The assessment center in the measurement of potential for business management. Psychological Monographs, 80(17), 2.
    Bridges, W. (1994). Job shift: How to prosper in a workplace without jobs. Reading, MA: Addison- Wesley.
    Brim, O. (1966). Socialization through the life cycle. In O. G.Brim & S. G.Wheeler (Eds.), Socialization after childhood. New York: John Wiley.
    Brim, O. G., Jr., & Wheeler, S. (1966). Socialization after childhood: Two essays. New York: John Wiley.
    Briscoe, J. P., & Hall, D. T. (1999, Autumn). Grooming and picking leaders using competency frameworks: Do they work? An alternative approach and new guidelines for practice. Organizational Dynamics, 37–52.
    Brockner, J. (1988). Self-esteem at work: Research, theory and practice. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Brown, D., & Brooks, L. (1996). Career choice and development (
    3rd ed.
    ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Brush, C. (1992). Research on women business owners: Past trends, future directions, and a new perspective. Entrepreneur ship Theory and Practice, 16(4), 5–30.
    Brush, C. (1999). Women's entrepreneurship. The second ILO enterprise forum, International Small Enterprise Programme. Zurich, Switzerland: International Labour Organization.
    Buchanan, B., II. (1974). Building organizational commitment: The socialization of managers in work organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19, 533–546.
    Buffington, P. W. (1992). Creating healthy change. In S. S.Gryskiewicz & D. A.Hill (Eds.), Readings in innovation (pp. 93–97). Greensboro, NC: Center for Creative Leadership.
    Burnstein, E. (1963). Fear of failure, achievement motivation, and aspiring to prestigeful occupations. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 67, 189–193.
    Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (1994). Pay preferences and job search decisions: A person-organization fit perspective. Personnel Psychology, 47, 393–398.
    Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (1996). Person-organization fit, job choice decisions, and organizational entry. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 67, 294–311.
    Cable, D. M., & Judge, T. A. (1997). Interviewers’ perceptions of persons: Organization fit and organizational selection decisions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 546–561.
    Cain, L. D., Jr. (1964). Life course and social structure. In R.Faris (Ed.), Handbook of modern sociology. Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Cairo, P. C., Kritis, K. J., & Myers, R. M. (1996). Career assessment and the Adult Career Concerns Inventory. Journal of Career Assessment, 4(2), 189–204.
    Campbell, D. P., Hyne, S. A., & Nilsen, D. L. (1992). Campbell Interest and Skills Survey. Minneapolis, MN: National Computer Systems.
    Campbell, J. P., Dunnette, M. D., Lawler, E.E., III, & Weick, K. E., Jr. (1970). Managerial behavior, performance, and effectiveness. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Campbell, R. J. (1968). Career development: The young business manager. In J. R.Hackman (Chairman), Longitudinal approaches to career development. Symposium presented at the American Psychological Association annual convention, San Francisco.
    Campbell, R. J., & Bray, D. W. (1967, March/April). Assessment centers: An aid in management selection. Personnel Administration, 30, 6–13.
    Carr, P. L., Ash, A. S., Friedman, R. H., Scaramucci, B. T., Barnett, R. C., Szalacha, L., Palepu, A., & Moskowitz, M. A. (1998). The relationship of family responsibilities and gender to the productivity and career satisfaction of medical faculty. Annals of Internal Medicine, 129, 532–538.
    Champy, J., & Hammer, M. (1995, January 17). Re-engineering the corporation. Wall Street Journal, p. B1.
    Chartrand, J. M., & Camp, C. C. (1991). Advances in the measurement of career development constructs: A 20-year review. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39, 1–39.
    Clark, S. C. (2001). Work cultures and work/family balance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 348–365.
    Cohen, A. (1993). Organizational commitment and turnover: A meta-analysis. Academy of Management Journal, 36, 1140–1157.
    Cohen, M. S. (1993). The naturalistic basis of decision biases. In G. A.Klein, J.Oransanu, R.Calderwood, & C. E.Zsambok (Eds.), Decision making in action: Models and methods (pp. 51–99). Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Cox, T., & Driver, M. J. (1994). Workforce personality and the new information age workplace. In J. A.Auerbach & J. C.Welsh (Eds.), Aging and competition: Rebuilding the U.S. workforce (pp. 185–204). Washington, DC: National Council on the Aging and the National Planning Association.
    Crane, D. (1966). Scientists at major and minor universities: A study of productivity and recognition. American Sociological Review, 30, 699–714.
    Crites, J. O. (1973). Career Maturity Inventory. Monterey, CA: McGraw-Hill.
    Cuddihy, B. R. (1974). How to give phased-out managers a new start. Harvard Business Review, 61–69.
    Dainty, A. R. J., Neale, R. H., & Bagilhole, B. M. (1999). Women's careers in large construction companies: Expectations unfulfilled?Career Development International, 4(7), 353–357.
    Dalton, G. W. (1989). Developmental views of careers in organizations. In M. B.Arthur, D. T.Hall, & B. S.Lawrence (Eds.), Handbook of career theory (pp. 89–109). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Dalton, G. W., & Thompson, P. (1986). Novations: Strategies for career development. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Dalton, G. W., Thompson, P., & Price, R. (1977, Summer). The four stages of professional careers. Organizational Dynamics, 19–42.
    Dalton, M. (1959). Men who manage. New York: John Wiley.
    Daudelin, M. (1995). Learning from experience through reflection. Organizational Dynamics, 23, 36–48.
    DeFillippi, R. J., & Arthur, M. B. (1993). The boundaryless career: An inter-firm perspective on careers, entrepreneurship and cooperation. In Proceedings of the 1993 Meeting of the Academy of Management. White Plains, NY: Academy of Management.
    Delbecq, A. L., & McGee, J. J. (2001, March 9–10). Bridging the gap: Spirituality and business. Conference sponsored by the Institute for Spirituality and Organizational Leadership, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA.
    Dix, J. E., & Savickas, M. L. (1995). Establishing a career: Developmental tasks and coping responses. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47, 93–107.
    Douvan, E., & Adelson, J. (1966). The adolescent experience. New York: John Wiley.
    Downey, H. K., Hellriegel, D., & Slocum, J. W., Jr. (1975). Congruence between individual needs, organizational climate, job satisfaction, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 18, 149–154.
    DuBois, W. E. B. (1903). The souls of black folks. Chicago: Chicago University Press.
    Duncan, R. B. (1971). Characteristics of organizational environments and perceived environmental uncertainty. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 313–327.
    Eccles, R., Nohria, N., & Berkley, J. (1992). Beyond the hype: Rediscovering the essence of management. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Edwards, J. E., & Morrison, R. F. (1994). Selecting and classifying future naval officers: The paradox of greater specialization in broader areas. In M. G.Rumsey, C. B.Walker, & J. H.Harris (Eds.), Personnel selection and classification (pp. 69–84). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14, 532–550.
    Ellington, J. E., Gruys, M. L., & Sackett, P. R. (1999). Factors related to the satisfaction and performance of temporary employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 913–921.
    Erikson, E. H. (1963). Childhood and society. New York: Norton.
    Erikson, E. H. (1966). The concept of identity in race relations: Notes and queries. Daedalus, 95, 145–171.
    Evans, P. A. L., & Bartolome, F. (1981). Must success cost so much?New York: Basic Books.
    Evans, P. A. L., & Bartolome, F. (1984). The changing pictures of the relationship between career and family. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 5, 9–21.
    Evers, F. T., Rush, J. C., & Berdrow, I. (1998). The bases of competence: Skills for lifelong learning and employability. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Featherman, D. L., Smith, J., & Peterson, J. G. (1990). Successful aging in a post-retired society. In P. B.Baltes & M. M.Baltes (Eds.), Successful aging: Perspectives from the behavioral sciences (pp. 50–93). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Fiol, C. (1991). Managing culture as a competitive resource: An identity-based view of sustainable competitive advantage. Journal of Management, 17, 191–211.
    Fiol, C. (1994). Consensus, diversity, and learning in organizations. Organization Science, 5, 21–50.
    Fisher, C. D. (1986). Organizational socialization: An integrative review. Research in Personnel and Human Resources Management, 4, 101–145.
    Fletcher, J. (1994a). Toward a theory of relational practice in organizations: A feminist reconstruction of “real” work. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University, Boston.
    Fletcher, J. (1994b). Castrating the female advantage: Feminist standpoint research and management science. Journal of Management Inquiry, 3, 74–82.
    Fletcher, J. (1996). A relational approach to the protean worker. In D. T. Hall & Associates (Eds.), The career is dead—Long live the career: A relational approach to careers (pp. 105–131). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Fletcher, J. (1998). Disappearing acts. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Fletcher, J. (1999). Disappearing acts: Gender, power, and relational practice at work. Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Friedman, T. (2000). The Lexus and the olive tree: Understanding globalization. New York: Bantam Doubleday Dell.
    Fuqua, D. R., & Hartman, B. W. (1983). Differential diagnosis and treatment of career indecision. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 62, 27–29.
    Ginzberg, E., Ginsburg, J. W., Axelrad, S., & Herma, J. L. (1951). Occupational choice. New York: Columbia University Press.
    Gist, M. E., & Mitchell, T. R. (1992). Self-efficacy: A theoretical analysis of its determinants and malleability. Academy of Management Review, 17, 183–211.
    Glaser, B., & Strauss, A. (1971). Status passage. Chicago: Aldine/Atherton.
    Glaser, B. G. (1964). Organizational scientists: Their professional careers. New York: Bobbs-Merrill.
    Goffman, E. (1961). The moral career of the mental patient. In E.Goffman (Ed.), Asylums. New York: Anchor.
    Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence: Why it can matter more than IQ. New York: Bantam.
    Goleman, D. (1998). Working with emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam.
    Goodman, J. (1994). Career adaptability in adults: A construct whose time has come. Career Development Quarterly, 43(1), 74–84.
    Googins, B. K. (1991). Work-family conflicts. New York: Auburn House.
    Gore, S., & Mangione, T. W. (1983). Social roles, sex roles, and psychological distress: Additive and interactive models of sex differences. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 34, 300–312.
    Gottfredson, L. S. (1978). An analytic description of employment according to race, sex, prestige, and Holland type of work. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 13, 210–221.
    Gottfredson, L. S. (1996). Gottfredson's theory of circumspection and compromise. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 179–232). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Gould, S. B. (1975). Organizational identification and commitment in two environments. Unpublished PhD dissertation, Michigan State University, Lansing.
    Gould, S. B., & Hawkins, B. L. (1978). Organizational career stage as a moderator of the satisfaction-performance relationship. Academy of Management Journal, 21, 434–450.
    Gouldner, A. W. (1958/1959). Cosmopolitans and socials: Towards an analysis of latent social roles. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2, 446–450, 465–467.
    Greenhaus, J. H., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review, 10, 76–88.
    Greenhaus, J. H., & Callanan, G. A. (1994). Career management (
    2nd ed.
    ). Orlando, FL: Dry den.
    Greenhaus, J. H., & Parasuraman, S. (1999). Research on work, family, and gender: Current status and future directions. In G. N.Powell (Ed.), Handbook of gender in organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Grezda, M. M. (1999). Re-conceptualizing career change: A career development perspective. Career Development International, 4(6), 305–311.
    Gunz, H. P., Evans, M. G., & Jalland, R. M. (2000). Career boundaries in a “boundary-less” world. In M. A.Peiperl, R.Goffee, M. B.Arthur, & T.Morris (Eds.), Career frontiers: New conceptions of working lives. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hackett, G. (1995). Self-efficacy and career choice and development. In A.Bandura (Ed.), Self-efficacy in changing societies. New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Haddad, T., & Lam, L. (1988). Canadian families—Men's involvement in family work: A case study of immigrant men in Toronto. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 29(3–4), 269–281.
    Hakim, C. (1994). We are all self-employed: The new social contract for working in a changed world. San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.
    Hall, D. T. (1968). Identity changes during the transition from student to professor. School Review, 76, 445–469.
    Hall, D. T. (1971). A theoretical model of career subidentity development in organizational settings. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 6, 50–76.
    Hall, D. T. (1972). A model of coping with role conflict: The role behavior of college educated women. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 471–486.
    Hall, D. T. (1976). Careers in organizations. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Hall, D. T. (1985). Project work as an antidote to career plateauing in a declining engineering organization. Human Resource Management, 24, 271–292.
    Hall, D. T. (1986). Breaking career routines: Midcareer choice and identity development. In D. T. Hall & Associates (Eds.), Career development in organizations (pp. 120–159). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Hall, D. T. (1993, November). The new “career contract”: Wrong on both counts. Boston: Boston University Executive Development Roundtable.
    Hall, D. T. (1994). The new “career contract”: Wrong on both counts? (Tech. Rep.). Boston: Boston University School of Management, Executive Development Roundtable.
    Hall, D. T. (1995). Executive careers and learning: Aligning selection, strategy, and development. Human Resource Planning, 18, 14–23.
    Hall, D. T. (Ed.). (1996, February/1997, February). Careers in the 21st century [Special issue]. Academy of Management Executive.
    Hall, D. T. (1996b). Protean careers of the 21st century. Academy of Management Executive, 10(4), 8–16.
    Hall, D. T. (1999). Accelerate career development—At your peril!Career Development International, 4, 237–239.
    Hall, D. T., & Associates. (Eds.). (1986). Career development in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Hall, D. T., & Associates. (Eds.). (1996). The career is dead—Long live the career: A relational approach to careers. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Hall, D. T., Briscoe, J. P., & Kram, K. E. (1997). Identity, values and learning in the protean career. In C. L.Cooper & S. E.Jackson (Eds.), Creating tomorrow's organizations: A handbook for future research in organizational behavior (pp. 321–337). London: John Wiley.
    Hall, D. T., & Foster, L. W. (1977). A psychological success cycle and goal setting: Goals, performance, and attitudes. Academy of Management Journal, 20, 282–290.
    Hall, D. T., & Gordon, F. (1973). Career choices of married women: Effects on conflict, role behavior, and satisfaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 58, 42–48.
    Hall, D. T., & Hall, F. S. (1976). The relationship between goals, performance, success, self-image, and involvement under different organization climates. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 9, 267–278.
    Hall, D. T., & Hall, F. S. (1979). The two career couple. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Hall, D. T., & Hall, F. S. (1980). Stress and the two-career couple. In C. L.Cooper & R.Payne (Eds.), Current concerns in occupational stress (pp. 243–266). London: Wiley.
    Hall, D. T., & Kahn, W. A. (2001). Developmental relationships at work: A learning perspective. In C.Cooper & R. J.Burke (Eds.), The new world of work. London: Blackwell.
    Hall, D. T., & Louis, M. R. (1988). When careers plateau. Research Management, 41–45.
    Hall, D. T., & Mansfield, R. (1971). Organizations and individual response to external stress. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, 533–547.
    Hall, D. T., & Mansfield, R. (1975). Relationships of age and seniority with career variables of engineers and scientists. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 201–350.
    Hall, D. T., & Mirvis, P. H. (1993, October-December). The new workplace: A place for older workers?Perspectives on Aging, 15–17.
    Hall, D. T., & Mirvis, P. H. (1994a). Careers as lifelonglearning. In A.Howard (Ed.), The changing nature of work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Hall, D. T., & Mirvis, P. H. (1994b). The new workplace and older workers. In J. A.Auerbach & J. C.Welsh (Eds.), Aging and competition: Rebuilding the U.S. workforce (pp. 58–93). Washington, DC: The National Council on the Aging and the National Planning Association.
    Hall, D. T., & Mirvis, P. H. (1995). The new career contract: Developing the whole person at midlife and beyond. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 47, 269–289.
    Hall, D. T., & Mirvis, P. H. (1996). The new protean career: Psychological success and the path with a heart. In D. T. Hall & Associates (Eds.), The career is dead—Long live the career: A relational approach to careers (pp. 15–45). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Hall, D. T., & Mirvis, P. H. (1998). Increasing the value of older workers: Flexible employment and lifelong learning. In J. A.Auerbach (Ed.), Through a glass darkly: Building the new workplace for the 21st century. Washington, DC: National Planning Association.
    Hall, D. T., & Moss, J. E. (1998, Winter). The newprotean career contract: Helping organizations and employees adapt. Organizational Dynamics, 26(3), 22–37.
    Hall, D. T., & Nougaim, K. (1968). An examination of Maslow's need hierarchy in an organizational setting. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 3,12–35.
    Hall, D. T., Otazo, K., & Hollenbeck, G. P. (1999, Winter). Behind closed doors: What really happens in executive coaching. Organizational Dynamics, 27(3), 39–53.
    Hall, D. T., & Richter, J. (1988). Balancing work life and home life: What can organizations do to help?Academy of Management Executive, 2(3), 213–223.
    Hall, D. T., & Richter, J. (1990). Career gridlock: Baby boomers hit the wall. Academy of Management Executive, 4, 7–22.
    Hall, D. T., & Schneider, B. (1972). Correlates of organizational identification as a function of career pattern and organizational type. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 340–350.
    Hall, D. T., & Schneider, B. (1973). Organizational climates and careers: The work lives of priests. New York: Academic Press.
    Hall, D. T., Schneider, B., & Nygren, H. T. (1970). Personal factors in organizational identification. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15, 176–190.
    Hammer, L. B., Allen, E., & Grigsby, T. D. (1997). Work-family conflict in dual-earner couples: Within-individual and crossover effects of work and family. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50, 185–203.
    Handy, C. (1989). The age of unreason. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Handy, C. (1994). The age of paradox. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Hansen, L. S. (1997). Integrative life planning: Critical tasks for career development and changing life patterns. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Harquail, C. V. (1991). Career paths and career success in the early career stages of male and female MBAs. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 39, 54–75.
    Heifetz, R. A. (1994). Leadership without easy answers. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Hesketh, B., & Neal, A. (1999). Technology and performance. In D. R.Ilgen & E. D.Pulakos (Eds.), The changing nature of performance: Implications for staffing, motivation, and development (pp. 21–55). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Higgins, M. C. (1998). Early career change: Toward a portfolio theory of relations (Working Paper No. 98–016). Boston: Harvard Business School, Division of Research.
    Higgins, M. C. (1999). Changing careers: The effects of social context. Unpublished manuscript, Harvard Business School, Boston.
    Higgins, M. C., & Kram, K. E. (2001, April). Reconceptualizing mentoring at work: A developmental network perspective. Academy of Management Review, 26(2), 264–288.
    Hill, L. A. (1992). Becoming amanager: Mastery of a new identity. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Hillman, J. (1997). The soul's code: In search of character andcalling. New York: Warner.
    Hillman, J. (1999). The force of character and the lasting life. New York: Random House.
    Hipple, S. (1998). Contingent work: Results from the second survey. Monthly Labor Review, 11, 22–32.
    Hoehn, M. (2000). The role of agility in executive learning. Boston: Boston University Executive Development Roundtable.
    Holland, J. L. (1985). The self-directed search. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.
    Holland, J. L. (1997). Making vocational choices: A theory of vocational personalities and work environments (
    3rd ed.
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Hollenbeck, G., & Hall, D. T. (2001). Self confidence and leadership development (Technical report). Boston: Boston University Executive Development Roundtable.
    Hollenbeck, J. R., LePine, J. A., & Ilgen, D. R. (1996). Adapting to roles in decision-making teams. In K. R.Murphy (Ed.), Individual differences and behavior in organizations (pp. 300–333). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Howard, A. (1992). Work and family crossroads spanning the career. In S.Zedeck (Ed.), Work, families, and organizations (pp. 70–137). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Howard, A. (Ed.). (1995). The changing nature of work. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Howard, A., & Bray, D. W. (1988). Managerial lives in transition: Advancing age and changing times. New York: Guilford.
    Hrebiniak, L. C., & Alutto, J. A. (1973). Personal and role-related factors in the development of organizational commitment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 18,555–572.
    Hughes, E. C., & Coser, L. A. (Eds.). On work, race, and the sociological imagination. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Hullfish, H. G., & Smith, P. G. (1961). Reflective thinking: The method of education. NewYork: Dodd, Mead.
    Jacobs, J. A., & Gerson, K. (1997). The endless day or flexible office? Working hours, work-family conflict, and gender equity in the modern workplace. New York: Alfred P. Sloan Foundation.
    Jacques, E. (1965). Death and the mid-life crises. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 46, 502–514.
    Jacques, E. (1973). Equitable payment, 1961. In Task Force for the Secretary of HEW, Work in America (pp. 1–12). Cambridge: MIT Press.
    Jennings, E. E. (1971). Routes to the executive suite. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Jones, C., Hesterly, W. S., & Borgatti, S. P. (1997). A general theory of network governance: Exchange conditions and social mechanisms. Academy of Management Review, 22, 911–945.
    Jones, G. R. (1986). Socialization tactics, self-efficacy and newcomers’ adjustments to organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 29, 262–279.
    Judge, T. A., & Cable, D. M. (1997). Applicant personality, organizational culture, and organization attraction. Personnel Psychology, 50, 359–394.
    Kahn, W. A. (1996). Secure base relationships at work. In D.T. Hall & Associates (Eds.), The career is dead—Long live the career: A relational approach to careers (pp. 158–179). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Kaufman, H. G. (1974). Obsolescence and professional career development. New York: AMACOM.
    Kegan, R. (1982). The evolving self: Problems and process in human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads: The mental demands of modern life. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Kegan, R., & Lahey, L. L. (2000). How the way we talk can change the way we work: Seven languages for transformation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Knasel, E. G. (1980). A model, specifications and sample items for a measure of career adaptability in young blue-collar workers. Canadian Counselor, 15(1), 31–37.
    Knasel, E. G. (1982, July 29). Career maturity in adulthood. Paper presented at the 20th International Congress of Applied Psychology, Edinburgh, United Kingdom. 324 CAREERS IN AND OUT OF ORGANIZATIONS.
    Kobasa, S. (1982). The hardy personality: Toward a social psychology of stress and health. In G. S.Sanders & J.Suls (Eds.), Social psychology of health and illness. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Koretz, G. (1997, January 27). Job mobility, American style. Business Week, 20.
    Korman, A. (1967). Self-esteem as a moderator of the relationship between self-perceived abilities and vocational choice. Journal of Applied Psychology, 51, 65–67.
    Korman, A. (1994). Human dilemmas in work organizations. New York: Guilford.
    Korman, A., & Korman, R. (1980). Career success/personal failure. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1995). The leadership challenge: How to keep getting extraordinary things done in organizations (
    2nd ed.
    ). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Kram, K. E. (1985). Mentoring at work. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
    Kram, K. E. (1988). Mentoring at work: Developmental relationships in organizational life. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    Kram, K. E. (1996). A relational approach to career development. In D. T. Hall & Associates (Eds.), The career is dead—Long live the career: A relational approach to careers (pp. 132–157). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Kram, K. E., & Hall, D. T. (1991). Mentoring as an antidote to stress during corporate trauma. Human Resource Management, 28(4), 493–510.
    Kram, K. E., & Hall, D. T. (1996). Mentoring in a context of diversity and turbulence. In E. E.Kossek & S. A.Lobel (Eds.), Managing diversity: Human resource strategies for transforming the workplace (pp. 108–136). Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.
    Kram, K. E., & Isabella, L. A. (1985). Mentoring alternatives: The role of peer relationships in career development. Academy of Management Journal, 28(1), 110–132.
    Kramer, D. A. (1986). A life-span view of social cognitions. Education Gerontology, 12, 277–289.
    Krantz, D. (1977). The Santa Fe experience. In S.Sarason (Ed.), Work, aging, and social change (pp. 165–189). New York: Free Press.
    Kuder, F. (1977). Activity interests and occupational choice. Chicago: Science Research Associates.
    Kutner, D. H. (1971). Crisis and decision at mid-life. Unpublished manuscript, Yale University, New Haven, CT.
    Labich, K. (1995, February 20). Kissing off corporate America: Why big companies can't hire the best and the brightest. Fortune, 44–52.
    Lambert, C. (2001, March/April). The talent for aging well. Harvard Magazine, 103(4), 45–99.
    Latack, J. C. (1984). Career transitions within organizations: An exploratory study of work, nonwork, and coping strategies. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 34, 296–322.
    Latack, J. C. (1990). Organizational restructuring and career management: From outplacement and survival to inplacement. In G. R.Ferris & K. M.Rowland (Eds.), Research in personnel and human resource management (pp. 109–139). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
    Lawler, E. E., III. (1997). From the ground up: Six principles for building the new logic corporation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Lawrence, P. R., & Lorsch, J. W. (1967). Organization and environment: Managing differentiation and integration. Boston: Harvard University, Graduate School of Business Administration.
    Lee, S. M. (1971). An empirical analysis of organizational identification. Academy of Management Journal, 14, 213–226.
    Lehman, H. C. (1953). Age and achievement. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
    Leibowitz, Z. B., Farren, C., & Kaye, B. L. (1986). Designing career development systems. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Levinson, D. J. (1959). Role, personality, and social structure in the organizational setting. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 58, 170–180.
    Levinson, D. J. (1986). A conception of adult development. American Psychologist, 41, 3–13.
    Levinson, D. J. (with Levinson, J.). (1996). The seasons of a woman's life. New York: Knopf.
    Levinson, D. J., Darrow, C. N., Klein, E. B., Levinson, M. H., & McKee, B. (1978). The seasons of a man's life. New York: Knopf.
    Levinson, H. (1962). Men, management, and mental health. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Levinson, H. (1969). On being a middle-aged manager. Harvard Business Review, 47, 51–60.
    Lewin, K. (1936). The psychology of success and failure. Occupations, 14, 926–930.
    Lewin, K., Dembo, T., Festinger, L., & Sears, P. (1944). Level of aspiration. In J. McV.Hunt (Ed.), Personality and behavior disorders. New York: Ronald Press.
    Linehan, M., & Walsh, J. S. (2001). Mentoring relationships and the female managerial career. Career Development International, 4, 348–352.
    Lipsett, S. M., & Malm, F. T. (1955). First jobs and career patterns. American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 14, 247–261.
    Livingston, J. S. (1976, July/August). Pygmalion in management. Harvard Business Review, 47, 81–89.
    Lodahi, T., & Kejner, M. (1965). The definition and measurement of job involvement. Journal of Applied Psychology, 49, 24–33.
    London, M. (1983). Toward a theory of work motivation. Academy of Management Review, 8(4), 620–630.
    London, M. (1998). Career barriers: How people experience, overcome, and avoid failure. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    London, M., & Mone, E. M. (1987). Career management and survival in the workplace. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    London, M., & Mone, E. M. (1999). Continuous learning. In D. R.Ilgen & E. D.Pulakos (Eds.), The changing nature of performance: Implications for staffing, motivation, and development (pp. 119–153). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Lynn, S. A., Cao, L. T., & Horn, B. C. (1996). The influences of career stage on the work attitudes of male and female accounting professionals. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 17, 135–149.
    MacNeil, I. R. (1980). The new social contract. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    MacNeil, I. R. (1985). Relational contracts: What we do and do not know. Wisconsin Law Review, 483–525.
    Major, D. A. (1999). Effective newcomer socialization into high performance organizational cultures. In N. M.Ashkanasy, C.Wilderom, & M. F.Peterson (Eds.), The handbook of organizational climate and culture. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    March, J., & Simon, H. (1958). Organizations. New York: John Wiley.
    Marx, M. H. (1963). The general nature of theory construction. In M. H.Marx (Ed.), Theories in contemporary psychology (pp. 4–46). New York: Macmillan.
    Marx, M. H., & Hillix, W. A. (1963). Systems and theories in psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Maslach, C. (1982). Burnout: The cost of caring. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (1997). The truth about burnout: How organizations cause personal stress and what to do about it. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Maslow, A. H. (1968, July). A theory of metamotivation. Psychology Today, 2, 38, 39, 58–61.
    McCall, M. W., Jr. (1998). Highflyers: Developing the next generation of leaders. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    McCall, M. W., Lombardo, M., & Morrison, A. M. (1988). Lessons of experience: How successful executives develop on the job. New York: Free Press.
    McCarthy, J. F. (2000). Short stories and tall tales at work: Organizational storytelling as a leadership conduit during turbulent times. Dissertation proposal, Boston University Graduate School of Management, Boston.
    McClurg, L. N. (1999). Organisational commitment in the temporary-help service industry. Journal of Applied Management Studies, 8, 5–26.
    McKinsey & Company. (1999). The war for talent. New York: Author.
    Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1984). Testing the “side-bet theory” of organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69, 372–378.
    Meyer, J. P., & Allen, N. J. (1997). Commitment in the workplace: Theory, research, and application. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Meyerson, D. E., & Fletcher, J. K. (2000, January/February). A modest manifest for shattering the glass ceiling. Harvard Business Review, 78(1), 126–136.
    Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions in adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Miles, M. B., & Huberman, M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Miller, J. B. (1986). Toward a new psychology of women. Boston: Beacon.
    Miller, J. B. (1991). The development of women's sense of self. In J. V.Jordan, A. G.Kaplan, J. B.Miller, I. P.Stiver, & J. L.Surrey (Eds.), Women's growth in connection. New York: Guilford.
    Mintzberg, H. (1990, March/April). The manager's job: Folklore and fact. Harvard Business Review, 163–176.
    Mirvis, P. H., & Hall, D. T. (1994). Psychological success and the boundaryless career. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 365–380.
    Mitroff, I. I., & Denton, E. A. (1999). A spiritual audit of corporate America. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Morrison, A. M. (1992). The new leaders: Guidelines for leadership diversity in America. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Morrison, A. M. (1996). The new leaders: Leadership diversity in America (Reprint). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Morrison, R. F. (1974, June). A career development model: Implications for practicing physicians. Invited address to the Colloquium on the Career Development of Physicians, Association of American Medical Colleges, Washington, DC.
    Morrison, R. F. (1977). Career adaptivity: The effective adaptation of mangers to changing role demands. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 549–558.
    Morrison, R. H., & Hall, D. T. (2001). Adaptability: Toward a conceptual model (Tech. Rep.). Boston: Boston University School of Management, Executive Development Roundtable.
    Morrow, P. C., & McElroy, J. C. (1987). Work commitment and job satisfaction over three career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 330–346.
    Moses, Joel (2001). “Distinguished professional contribution award: How to assess (and develop) leaders better.” Paper presented at the 16th Annual Meeting of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego, CA, April 27.
    Mowday, R., Porter, L., & Steers, R. (1982). Employee-organization linkages: The psychology of commitment, absenteeism, and turnover. New York: Academic Press.
    Mumford, M. (1991). Attributes conditioning the capacity for effective development: Background data measures of predicting performance in variable situations (Contract No. N00014-91-5-1435). Arlington, VA: Office of Naval Research.
    Mumford, M., Baughman, W. A., Threfall, K. V., Uhlman, C. E., & Costanza, D. P. (1993). Personality, adaptability, and performance: Performance on well-defined and ill-defined problem-solving tasks. Human Performance, 6, 241–285.
    Munley, P. H. (1975). Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development and vocational development. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 22, 314–319.
    Murphy, P. R., & Jackson, S. E. (1999). Managing work role performance: Challenges for twenty-first century organizations and their employees. In D. R.Ilgen & E. D.Pulakos (Eds.), The changing nature of performance: Implications for staffing, motivation, and development (pp. 325–365). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Near, J. (1989). Organizational commitment among Japanese and U.S. workers. Organizational Studies, 10, 281–300.
    Nelson, P. D. (1975, April). Biographical constructs as predictors of adjustment to organizational environments. Paper presented at the Research Seminar on Social Psychology of Military Service, University of Chicago, Chicago.
    Nevill, D. D., & Super, D. E. (1986). The salience inventory manual: Theory, application, and research. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Nicholson, N., & West, M. A. (1988). Managerial job change. London: Cambridge University Press.
    Nicholson, N., & West, M. (1989). Transitions, work histories, and careers. In M. B.Arthur, D. T.Hall, & B. S.Lawrence (Eds.), Handbook of career theory (pp. 133–201). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Nkomo, S., & Cox, T. (1996). Diverse identities in organizations. In S.Clegg, W.Hardy, & W.Nord (Eds.), Handbook of organization studies. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Noer, D. (1993). Healing the wounds: Overcoming the trauma of layoffs and revitalizing downsized organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    O'Connell, D. J. (2001). FAST stages in contingent employment: Finding, adapting, staying, and transforming. Davenport, IA: St. Ambrose University, College of Business.
    O'Reilly, C. A., & Chatman, J. A. (1996). Culture as social control: Corporations, cults, and commitment. Research in Organizational Behavior, 18, 157–200.
    O'Reilly, C. A., Chatman, J., & Caldwell, D. F. (1991). People and organizational culture: A profile comparison approach to assessing person-organization fit. Academy of Management Journal, 34, 487–516.
    Organ, D. W. (1988). Organizational citizenship behavior: The good soldier syndrome. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Organ, D. W., & Konovsky, M. (1989). Cognitive versus affective determinants of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 157–164.
    Orlofsky, J. L., & Windle, M. T. (1978). Sex-role orientation, behavioral adaptability and personal adjustment. Sex Roles, 4, 801–811.
    Ornstein, S., Cron, W. L., & Slocum, J. (1989). Life stages versus career stage: A comparative test of Levinson and Super. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 117–133.
    Ornstein, S., & Isabella, L. (1990). Age v. stage models of career attitudes of women: A partial replication and extension. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 1–19.
    Osherson, S. (1980). Holding on or letting go: Men and career change in midlife. New York: Free Press.
    Ozer, E. M., Barnett, R. C., Brennan, R. T., & Sperling, J. (1998). Does childcare involvement increase or decrease distress among dual-earner couples?Women's Health: Research on Gender, Behavior, and Policy, 4, 285–311.
    Patchen, M. (1970). Participation, achievement and involvement on the job. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Peiperl, M., & Baruch, Y. (1997, Spring). Back to square zero: The post-corporate career. Organizational Dynamics, 23–34.
    Peiperl, M., & Lidewey, V. S. (1999, August). The navigation of boundarylessness: Job change, extrinsic and intrinsic career success among early-career MBAs. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Academy of Management, Chicago.
    Peiperl, M. A., Arthur, M. B., Goffee, R., & Morris, T. (Eds.). (2000). Career frontiers: New conceptions of working lives. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Pelz, D. C., & Andrews, F. M. (1966). Scientists in organizations. New York: John Wiley.
    Peres, S. H., (1966). Factors which influence careers in General Electric. Crotonville, NY: General Electric Company, Management Development and Employee Relations Service.
    Pervin, L. A. (1968). Performance and satisfaction as afunction of individual-environment fit. Psychological Bulletin, 69, 56–68.
    Pfeffer, J. (1998). The human equation: Building profits by putting people first. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Phillips, S. D. (1997). Toward an expanded definition of adaptive decision making. Career Development Quarterly, 45(3), 275–287.
    Porter, L. W., & Lawler, E. E., III. (1968). Managerial attitudes and performance. New York: John Wiley.
    Pratt, M., & Foreman, P. (2000). Classifying managerial responses to multiple identities. Academy of Management Review, 25, 18–42.
    Pulakos, E. D., Arad, S., Donovan, M. A., & Plamondon, K. E. (2000). Adaptability in the workplace: Development of a taxonomy of adaptive performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85(4), 612–624.
    Quinn, J. B. (1992). Intelligent enterprise: A knowledge and service based paradigm for industry. New York: Free Press.
    Rabinowitz, S., & Hall, D. T. (1977). Organizational research on job involvement. Psychological Bulletin, 84(2), 265–288.
    Raelin, J. (1984). The salaried professional. New York: Praeger.
    Raelin, J. (1985). Work patterns in the professional life cycle. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 58, 177–187.
    Raelin, J. (1991). The class of cultures: Managers managing professionals. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Rapoport, R., & Rapoport, R. N. (1969). The dual-career family: A variant pattern and social change. Human Relations, 22, 3–29.
    Rapoport, R., & Rapoport, R. N. (1975). Men, women, and equity. The Family Coordinator, 24, 421–432.
    Reichheld, F. F. (1996). The loyalty effect. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Reidy, M. T. V., & White, L. C. (1977). The measurement of traditionalism among Roman Catholic priests: An exploratory study. British Journal of Sociology, 28(2), 226–241.
    Roberts, P., & Newton, P. (1987). Levinsonian studies of women's adult development. Psychology and Aging, 2(2), 154–163.
    Roe, A. (1957). Early determinants of vocational choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 4, 212–217.
    Roethlisberger, F. J., & Dickson, W. J. (1939). Management and the worker. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Rothstein, H. R. (1999). Recruitment and selection: Benchmarking at the millennium. In A. I.Kraut & A. K.Korman (Eds.), Evolving practices in human resource management: Responses to a changing world of work (pp. 69–89). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Rousseau, D. M. (1990). New hire perceptions of their own and their employer's obligations: A study of psychological contracts. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 389–400.
    Rousseau, D. M. (1995). Psychological contracts in organizations: understanding written and unwritten agreements. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Rousseau, D. M., Schalk, R., & Schalk, R. (Eds.). (2000). Psychological contracts in employment: Cross cultural perspectives. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
    Saks, A. M., & Ashforth, B. E. (1997). Socialization tactics and newcomer information acquisition. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 51, 48–61.
    Sarason, S. (Ed.). (1977). Work, aging, and social change. New York: Free Press.
    Savickas, M. L. (1990). The use of career choice measures in counseling practice. In E.Watkins & V.Campbell (Eds.), Testing in counseling practice (pp. 373–417). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Savickas, M. L. (1997). Career adaptability: An integrative construct for life-span, life-space theory. Career Development Quarterly, 45(3), 247–259.
    Savickas, M. L., & Super, D. E. (1993). Can life stages be identified in students?Man and Work: Journal of Labor Studies, 4, 71–78.
    Schein, E. H. (1964). How to break the college graduate. Harvard Business Review, 42, 68–76.
    Schein, E. H. (1965). Organizational psychology. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Schein, E. H. (1967). Attitude change during management education: A study of organizational influences on student attitudes. Administrative Science Quarterly, 11, 601–628.
    Schein, E. H. (1970). Organizational psychology (
    2nd ed.
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Schein, E. H. (1971). The individual, the organization, and the career: A conceptual scheme. Journal of Applied Psychology, 7, 401–426.
    Schein, E. H. (1978). Career dynamics: Matching individual and organizational needs. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Schein, E. H. (1996). Career anchors revisited: Implications for career development in the 21st century. Academy of Management Executive, 10(4), 80–88.
    Schneider, B. (1972). Organization climate: Individual preferences and organizational realities. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56, 211–217.
    Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40, 437–453.
    Schneider, B. (1999). Is the sky really falling? A view of the future. In A. I.Kraut & A. K.Korman (Eds.), Evolving practices in human resource management: Responses to a changing world of work (pp. 328–357). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Schneider, B., & Bowen, D. E. (1995). Winning the service game. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Schneider, B., & Konz, A. M. (1989). Strategic job analysis. Human Resource Management, 28, 51–63.
    Schneider, B., Kristof-Brown, A., Goldstein, H. W., & Smith, D. B. (1997). What is this thing called fit? In N.An derson & P.Herriott (Eds.), International handbook of selection and assessment (pp. 393–412). London: Wiley.
    Schneider, B., & Rentsch, J. (1988). Managing climates and cultures: A futures perspective. In J.Hage (Ed.), Futures of organizations (pp. 181–200). Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Schneider, B., Smith, D. B., Taylor, S., & Fleenor, J. (1998). Personality and organizations: A test of the homogeneity of personality hypothesis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(3), 462–470.
    Scott, W. R. (1992). Organizations: Rational, natural, and open systems (
    3rd ed.
    ). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    Seibert, K. W. (1996a). The nature of managerial reflection in learning from developmental job experiences in organizations. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University School of Management, Boston.
    Seibert, K. W. (1996b). Experience is the best teacher, if you can learn from it: Real-time reflection and development. In D. T. Hall & Associates (Eds.), The career is dead—Long live the career: A relational approach to careers (pp. 246–264). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Seibert, K. W. (1999). Reflection-in-action: Tools for cultivating on-the-job learning conditions. Organizational Dynamics, 27(3), 54–65.
    Seibert, K. W., & Daudelin, M. W. (1999). The role of reflection in managerial learning: Theory, research, and practice. Westport, CT: Quorum.
    Seibert, K. W., Hall, D. T., & Kram, K. E. (1995). Strengthening the weak link in strategic executive development: Integrating individual development and global business strategy. Human Resource Management, 34(4), 549–567.
    Sekaran, U. (1986). Dual-career families. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Sekaran, U., & Hall, D. T. (1989). Asynchronism in dual-career and family linkages. In M. B.Arthur, D. T.Hall, & B. S.Lawrence (Eds.), Handbook of career theory (pp. 159–180). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
    Sheehy, G. (1995). New passages. New York: Random House.
    Sheldon, M. E. (1971). Investments and involvements as mechanisms producing commitment to the organization. Administrative Science Quarterly, 16, 143–150.
    Shepard, H. A. (1984). On the realization of human potential: A path with a heart. In M. B.Arthur, L.Bailyn, D. J.Levinson, & H. A.Shepard (Eds.), Working with careers. New York: Columbia University, Graduate School of Business.
    Slocum, J., & Cron, W. L. (1985). Job attitudes and performance during three career stages. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 26, 126–145.
    Slocum, J., Cron, W. L., Hansen, R. W., & Rawlings, S. (1985). Business strategy and the management of the plateaued performer. Academy of Management Journal, 28, 133–154.
    Smith, E. M., Ford, J. K., & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (1997). Building adaptive expertise: Implications for training design. In M. A.Quinones, A.Ehrenstein, et al. (Eds.), Training for a rapidly changing workplace (pp. 89–118). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Soelberg, P. O. (1966). Unprogrammed decision making. Paper presented at the 26th annual meeting of the Academy of Management, San Francisco.
    Sofer, C. (1970). Men in mid-career. London: Cambridge University Press.
    Spencer, L. M., McClelland, D. C., & Spencer, S. M. (1996). Competency assessment methods: History and state of the art. Boston: Hay/McBer Research.
    Staw, B. M., & Barsade, S. G. (1993). Affect and managerial performance: A test of the sadder-but-wiser vs. happier-and-smarter hypotheses. Administrative Science Quarterly, 38, 304–331.
    Steiner, G. A. (Ed.). (1965). The creative organization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Stevens, M. (1981). The big eight. New York: Macmillan.
    Strauss, A. (1970). Mirrors and masks: The search for identity. San Francisco: Sociology Press.
    Stroh, L. K., Brett, J. M., & Reilly, A. H. (1994). A decade of change: Managers’ attachment to their organizations and their jobs. Human Resource Management, 33, 531–548.
    Stroh, L. K., Gregersen, H. B., & Black, J. S. (1998). Closing the gap: Expectations versus reality among expatriates. Journal of World Business, 33(2), 11–24.
    Stumpf, S. A., & Rabinowitz, S. (1981). Career stage as a moderator of performance relationships with facets of job satisfaction and role perceptions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 18, 202–218.
    Sullivan, G. R., & Harper, M. V. (1997). Hope is not a method: What business leaders can learn from America's army. New York: Broadway Books.
    Super, D. E. (1955). The dimensions and measurement of vocational maturity. Teachers College Record, 57, 151–163.
    Super, D. E. (1957). The psychology of careers. New York: Harper & Row.
    Super, D. E. (1990). A life-span, life-space approach to career development. In D.Brown & L.Brooks (Eds.), Career choice and development (pp. 197–261). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Super, D. E. (1992). Toward a comprehensive theory of career development. In D. H.Montross & C. J.Shinkman (Eds.), Career development: Theory and Practice (pp. 35–64). Springfield, IL: Charles C Thomas.
    Super, D. E., & Bohn, M. J., Jr. (1970). Occupational psychology. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
    Super, D. E., Crites, J., Hummel, R., Moser, H., Overstreet, P., & Warnath, C. (1967). Vocational development: A framework for research (pp. 40–41). New York: Teachers College Press.
    Super, D. E., & Knasel, E. G. (1979). Specifications for a measure of career adaptability in young adults. Cambridge, UK: National Institute for Careers Education and Counseling.
    Super, D. E., & Knasel, E. G. (1981). Career development in adulthood: Some theoretical problems and a possible solution. British Journal of Guidance and Counseling, 9, 194–201.
    Super, D. E., Savickas, M. L., & Super, C. M. (1996). The life-span, life-space approach to careers. In D. Brown, L. Brooks, & Associates (Eds.), Career choice and development (
    3rd ed.
    , pp. 121–178). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
    Super, D. E., Thompson, A. S., & Lindeman, R. H. (1988). Adult Career Concerns Inventory: Manual for research and exploratory use in counseling. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Tenbrunsel, A. E., Galvin, T. L., Neale, M. A., & Bazerman, M. H. (1999). Cognitions in organizations. In S. R.Clegg, C.Hardy, & W. R.Nord (Eds.), Managing organizations (pp. 63–87). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Tharp, C. (1999, May 7). The role of performance management in organizational change at Bristol-Myers Squibb. Paper presented to the Boston University Human Resources Policy Institute, Boston.
    Thelen, E. (1992). Development as a dynamic system. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, 189–193.
    Thoits, P. A. (1992). Identity structures and psychological well being: Gender and marital status comparisons. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55(3), 236–256.
    Thompson, A. S., Lindeman, R. H., Super, D. E., Jordaan, J. P., & Myers, R. A. (1984). Career Development Inventory: Technical manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.
    Thomas, D. A. (2001, April). The truth about mentoring minorities: Race matters. Harvard Business Review, 79(4), 98–107.
    Thomas, D. A., & Alderfer, C. P. (1989). The influence of race on career dynamics: Theory and research on minority career experiences. In M. B.Arthur, D. T.Hall, & B. S.Lawrence (Eds.), Handbook of career theory (pp. 133–158). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Thomas, D. A., & Gabarro, J. J. (1999). Breaking glass: The making of minority executives in corporate America. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
    Tiedeman, D. V., & O'Hara, R. P. (1963). Career development: Choice and adjustment. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.
    Topel, R. H., & Ward, M. P. (1992). Job mobility and the careers of young men. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 197(2), 439–479.
    Turban, D. R. (2001). Organizational attractiveness as an employer on college campuses: An examination of the applicant population. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 58, 293–312.
    Turban, D. R., & Keon, T. L. (1993). Organizational attractiveness: An interactionist perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 184–193.
    Vaillant, G. E. (1977). Adaptation to life. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Vaillant, G. E. (1993). The wisdom of the ego. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Vaillant, G. E. (2002). Aging well: Surprising guideposts to a happier life from the landmark Harvard study of adult development. Boston: Little, Brown.
    Van Gennep, A. (1960). The rites of passage. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Van Maanen, J. (1976). Breaking in: Socialization to work. In R.Dubin (Ed.), Handbook of work, organization, and society (pp. 67–130). Chicago: Rand McNally.
    Van Maanen, J., & Schein, E. H. (1979). Toward a theory of organizational socialization. Research in Organizational Behavior, 6, 287–365.
    Von Hipple, C., Mangum, S. L., Greenberger, D. B., Heneman, R. L., & Skoglind, J. D. (1997). Temporary employment: Can organizations and employees both win?Academy of Management Executive, 11(1), 93–104.
    Voyandoff, P. (1988). Work role characteristics, family structure demands, and work/family conflict. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 749–761.
    Vroom, V. (1966). Organizational choice: A study of pre- and post-decision processes. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 1, 212–225.
    Vroom, V., & Deci, E. (1971). The stability of post-decision dissonance: A follow-up study of job attitudes of business school graduates. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 6, 36–49.
    Walker, B. A., & Hanson, W. C. (1992). Valuing differences at Digital Equipment Corporation. In S. Jackson & Associates (Eds.), Diversity in the workplace: Human resource initiatives (pp. 50–65). New York: Guilford.
    Wanous, J. P. (1992). Organizational entry: Recruitment, selection, and socialization of newcomers (
    2nd ed.
    ). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
    Ward, S. P., Wilson, T. E., Jr., & Ward, D. R. (1994). Perceptions of retirement satisfaction: Data from retired certified public accountants. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78, 525–526.
    Weick, K. E. (1984). Small wins: Redefining the scale of social problems. American Psychologist, 39(1), 40–49.
    Weick, K. E., & Berlinger, L. R. (1989). Career improvisation in self-designing organizations. In M. B.Arthur, D. T.Hall, & B. S.Lawrence (Eds.), Handbook of career theory (pp. 313–328). New York: Cambridge University Press.
    Weiss, J. W., Skelley, M. F., Hall, D. T., & Haughey, J. C. (2001, March 9). Vocational calling, new careers, and spirituality: An integrated perspective for organizational leaders and professionals. Paper presented at the conference, “Bridging the gap: Spirituality and business,” Institute for Spirituality and Organizational Leadership, Santa Clara University, Santa Clara, CA. 334 CAREERS IN AND OUT OF ORGANIZATIONS.
    Wellbank, H. L., Hall, D. T., Morgan, M. A., & Hamner, W. C. (1978, March/April). Planning job progression for effective career development and human resources management. Personnel, 54–64.
    Whetten, D. A., & Godfrey, P. A. (Eds.). (1998). Identity in organizations: Building theory through conversations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    White, R. W. (1952). Lives in progress. New York: Dryden.
    White, R. W. (1959). Motivation reconsidered: The concept of competence. Psychological Review, 66,297–323.
    Williams, C. P., & Savickas, M. L. (1990). Developmental tasks of career maintenance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 36, 166–175.
    Williams, M., & Etzion, D. (1995). Crossover of stress, strain and resources from one spouse to another. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 169–181.
    Wilson, G. (1991). Old age and change in home and neighbourhood: Personal adaptability by frail older people in response to the legacies of social and economic policies. Housing Studies, 6(4), 263–272.
    Witchel, A. (1994). By way of Canarsie, one large hot cup of business strategy. New York Times, pp. C1,C8.
    Wright, T. A., & Cropanzano, R. (1997). Well-being, satisfaction and job performance: Another look at the happy/productive worker thesis. In Academy of Management best paper proceedings (pp. 364–368). Boston: Academy of Management.
    Yan, A., Hall, D. T., & Zhu, G. (2000). International assignments for career building: Agency relationships and psychological contracts (Working paper). Boston: Boston University School of Management.
    Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    About the Author

    Douglas T. (Tim) Hall is Professor of Organizational Behavior and Director of the Executive Development Roundtable in the School of Management at Boston University. He is a recipient of the American Psychological Association's James McKeen Cattell Award (now called the Ghiselli Award) for research design. His research and consulting activities have dealt with career development, the new employer-employee contract, executive succession, management of diversity, and work/life issues. He is a fellow of the Academy of Management and the American Psychological Association and is currently serving on the board of governors of the Center for Creative Leadership. He is author of Careers in Organizations (1976) and Career Development (1994); coauthor of Organizational Climates and Careers (1973), The Two Career Couple (1979), Experiences in Management and Organizational Behavior (4th ed., 1997), Human Resource Management (1986), Career Development in Organizations (1986), Turbulencein the American Workplace (1991), and The Career is DeadLong Live the Career (1996); and coeditor of Handbook of Career Theory (1989). His research interests include work/life balance, career planning and development, leadership development and executive succession, and managing diversity. In 2001, he won the Everett Cherrington Hughes Award from the Academy of Management for his research on careers. He will hold an Erskine Visiting Fellowship at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 2002.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website