Careers Education: Contesting Policy and Practice

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Suzy Harris

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    Dedication

    For I.F.

    Acknowledgements

    I am indebted to the careers teachers and careers advisers who have, over the years, given so much of their time and shared with me their professional and life experiences, and whose accounts were central to this book's conception. I would never have completed this work, however, without the encouragement and moral support of a number of very special colleagues and friends who helped me through what was a difficult, prolonged and at times lonely task of writing. A huge thanks is reserved for Len Barton and Peter Gilroy who read through draft manuscripts and, in their own inimitable way which I have come to know and respect greatly, presented me with a range of challenging questions and issues. I hope I have done justice to their thoughts. A particular thanks to Peter for reading more than one draft, as well as introducing me to philosophical approaches to educational issues, which as a sociologist, I found quite interesting! Thanks also to Peter Clough and Cathy Nutbrown who read the first draft of Chapter l. I'm indebted to Tina Cartwright who has been so important throughout my research career and has transcribed endless tapes, got to grips with qualitative software packages, and proofread this book. I'm also grateful to Inge Bates who shared her detailed knowledge and understanding of the curriculum politics involved in the Schools Council Careers Education and Guidance Project. As always Felicity Armstrong, with her enthusiasm and interest in the creation of this book, helped me throughout, interspersed along the way with lots of laughter. And finally, thanks to Pat, my sister, for our long telephone calls, which left me smiling and, most importantly, kept this work in perspective.

    I am grateful to the International Studies in Sociology of Education, and to the editors, Gill Helsby and Gary McCulloch, Teachers and the National Curriculum, Cassell, London (1997) for allowing some material from these published papers to be reworked and presented in this book.

    Pseudonyms have been used for all individuals and schools mentioned in the book.

    SuzyHarris

    Glossary of Terms Used

    ACOArea Careers Officer
    CBIConfederation of British Industry
    CCCSCentre for Contemporary Cultural Studies
    COICCareers and Occupational Information Centre
    CRACCareers Research Advisory Council
    DEDepartment of Employment
    DESDepartment of Education and Science
    DFEDepartment for Education
    DfEEDepartment for Education and Employment
    ERAEducation Reform Act 1988
    GCSEGeneral Certificate of Secondary Education
    GCEGeneral Certificate of Education
    CEGCareers Education and Guidance
    GESTGrants for Education Support and Training
    GNVQGeneral National Vocational Qualification
    ICGInstitute of Careers Guidance
    ICOInstitute of Careers Officers
    INSETIn-service Training
    LEALocal Education Authority
    LECLocal Enterprise Council
    MSCManpower Services Commission
    NACTNational Association of Careers Teachers
    NACGTNational Association of Careers and Guidance Teachers
    NCCNational Curriculum Council
    NICECNational Institute for Careers Education and Counselling
    NVQNational Vocational Qualification
    NUTNational Union of Teachers
    OECDOrganisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
    OFSTEDOffice for Standards in Education
    PCOPrincipal Careers Officer
    PSEPersonal and Social Education
    QAAQuality Assurance Agency
    QADUQuality Assurance and Development Unit
    ROSLARaising of the School Leaving Age
    SCAASchool Curriculum and Assessment Authority
    SCIPSchools Council Industry Project
    SCOSenior Careers Officer
    SEACSchools Examinations and Assessment Council
    SENCOSpecial Educational Needs Co-ordinator
    TECTraining and Enterprise Council
    TESTimes Educational Supplement
    ITATeacher Training Agency
    TUCTrades Union Congress
    TVEITechnical and Vocational Education Initiative
    UBIUnderstanding British Industry
    WEAWorkers' Educational Association
    YESYouth Employment Service
    YOPYouth Opportunities Programme
    YTSYouth Training Scheme
  • Key Dates in Careers Education and Guidance

    1909Labour Exchanges Act (sets up Juvenile Employment Bureaux)
    1910Choices of Employment Act
    1945The Ince Report
    1948Employment and Training Act (Youth Employment Service established)
    1950Diploma in Vocational Guidance (but not obligatory)
    1961Institute of Youth Employment Officers (IYEO)
    1969National Association of Careers Teachers (NACT)
    Youth Employment Officers renamed Careers Officers
    IYEO becomes Institute of Careers Officers (ICO)
    1971–7Schools Council Careers Education and Guidance Project
    1972Schools Council, Working Paper 40, Careers Education in the 1970s
    1973Employment & Training Act (statutory obligation on LEAs to provide a Careers Service)
    National Institute for Careers Education and Guidance (NICEC)
    NACT renamed National Association of Careers and Guidance Teachers (NACGT)
    1974Careers and Occupational Information Centre (COIC) established
    Diploma in Vocational Guidance becomes obligatory
    Prime Minister James Callaghan's Ruskin Speech
    Manpower Services Commission set up
    1979Conservatives win general election under Margaret Thatcher
    1982TVEI launched
    1986Working Together – Education and Training. (DES)
    1987Working Together for a Better Future. (DES/DE)
    The National Curriculum 5–16: a Consultative Document (DES)
    Survey of Careers Education and Guidance in British Schools by the NACGT
    1988Education Reform Act
    1989The National Curriculum: From Policy to Practice. (DES)
    1991Education and Training for the Twenty-First Century (DES)
    1992Conservatives win general election under John Major
    1993Trade Union Reform and Employments Right Act (Careers Service taken out of LEA control)
    1994White Paper, Competitiveness: Helping Business to Win (DTI).
    CEG Initiative for Years 9 and 10 (£87 million over 3 years)
    Better Choices (update of Working Together documents) 16 to 19 Guidance, FEFC/OFSTED
    National Advisory Council for Careers and Educational Guidance (NACCEG) set up
    Pathfinder Careers Services (13) following a process of competitive tendering
    1995White Paper, Competitiveness: Forging Ahead (DfEE).
    Grant for Education and Support and Training (GEST) for CEG
    Looking Forward: Careers Education and Guidance in the Curriculum (SCAA)
    OFSTED Survey of Career Education and Guidance in Schools
    CEG, Proposed Legislation: A Consultation Document (DfE/DE)
    1997Election of a Labour government under Tony Blair
    Education Act – CEG becomes mandatory for Years 9–11
    DfEE circular, 5/97, Careers Education and Guidance in Schools: Effective Partnerships with Careers Services
    1998DfEE circular, 5/98, Careers Education in Schools: Provision for Years 9–11
    OFSTED Survey of Careers Education and Guidance
    NACGT Survey of Careers Education and Guidance

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