Career Counseling: A Narrative Approach
Publication Year: 1997
`This book should be viewed as essential reading for anyone interested in developing their understanding of the field of career counselling and developing their own approach. Practitioners will find much they might want to consider incorporating into their own work' - British Journal of Guidance and Counselling `As a career counsellor working with clients of all ages and situations, I found Larry Cochran's new work both pragmatic and intellectually stimulating... [he] provides fresh insight into the essence of career counselling, examining the past to be able to understand the present in order to plan for the future. Written in an accessible style... this book is certainly something which encourages further re
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: The Narrative Basis of Career Counseling
- Rhetoric of the Future
- Narration and Meaning
- Decisions as Narrative Constructions
- Adopting a Career Narrative
- Conditions for Adoption
- Optimal Standards for Adoption
- Practical Wisdom
- Sense of Agency
- Chapter 2: Elaborating a Career Problem
- Nature of a Career Problem
- What a Career Problem is Not
- Filling in the Middle
- Techniques of Elaboration
- Chapter 3: Composing a Life History
- Life History as Information
- Matching versus Emplotment
- Toward a Unifying Plot
- Straightening the Story
- Techniques for Empowering Narration
- Chapter 4: Founding a Future Narrative
- Eliciting a Future Narrative
- Portraying a Future Narrative
- Interpretive Issues
- Development and Narrative Change
- Chapter 5: Actualizing Narrative
- Reality Construction
- Changing a Life Structure
- Enacting a Role
- Cyclic Phases of Episodes
- Crystallizing a Decision
- Chapter 6: The Storied Ecology of Career Development
- Cultural Narratives
- Coherence Systems
- Career Perspective
- Agency and Action
- Narrative Restoration
Copyright © 1997 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
SAGE Publications, Inc.
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications Ltd.
6 Bonhill Street
London EC2A 4PU
SAGE Publications India Pvt. Ltd.
Greater Kailash I
New Delhi 110 048 India
Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Career counseling: a narrative approach / author, Larry Cochran.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-0441-7 (acid-free paper). — ISBN 0-7619-0442-5 (pbk.: acid-free paper)
1. Vocational guidance. I. Title.
158.6—dc21 97-4594 CIP
97 98 99 00 01 02 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Jim Nageotte
Editorial Assistant: Kathleen Derby
Production Editor: Michele Lingre
Production Assistant: Karen Wiley
Typesetter/Designer: Yang-hee Syn Maresca/Rebecca Evans
Cover Designer: Lesa Valdez
The twentieth century enterprise of vocational guidance emphasizes objectivity in helping individuals select and succeed in occupations. As an applied science, guidance uses rational decision making to logically match individuals to fitting occupations. Guidance personnel make the match by comparing an objective picture of the individual's talents, interests, and goals to the ability and personality requirements of jobs. Preeminent vocational psychologists such as Holland and Super have characterized guidance as a translation service in which the counselor portrays a client's vocational identity and then translates that identity into viable occupational roles. The translation from “psychological talk” to “occupational talk” can even be made without a counselor. For example, in responding to the Strong Interest Inventory, an individual portrays his or her identity when answering the questions, the scoring keys contain the occupational requirements, and the computer matches the two using “true reasoning” as recommended by Parsons. This same translation process can be conducted without a computer, although human scoring errors can reduce the accuracy of counselor-free interventions such as the Self-Directed Search.
[Page vi]In providing vocational guidance, counselors do more than just translate vocational identities into occupational possibilities. They also represent the community to the client as they try to enhance world-of-work knowledge and increase choice realism. As a representative of the community's common sense, a counselor uses normative data from tests and occupational information from pamphlets to educate clients about occupational realities and their possible and probable options. What has all too often been absent in guidance interventions is counseling that focuses on a client's private sense. Guidance, with its reliance on the scientific techniques devised by applied psychologists, overemphasizes the objective dimension of career development. Although traits provide a convincing basis for making actuarial predictions, they do not comprehend human purpose and passion
The subjective dimension of career development involves the private meaning of work and occupational choice. While publicly wanting to be a career counselor to help people, an individual can privately want to be a counselor because her parents could never obtain good jobs or because he cannot decide what he wants to do with his own life. By augmenting techniques that are objective, public, rational, and scientific with methods that are subjective, private, emotional, and literary, the counselor can deal with the person as well as with traits. The wholeness embodied by simultaneously examining public reasons and private yearnings transforms vocational guidance into career counseling.
As long as there has been vocational guidance, there have been a small number of guidance workers who perform career counseling. They attend to the whole person: both objective identity and subjective self-concept. Generally, these career counselors have been of two types. Following in the tradition of William James, Gordon Allport, and Henry Murray, the first type uses autobiographical and personological approaches to facilitate life choices. They have often been criticized for taking too long and for lacking valid evidence for their techniques. The second type follows the psychodynamic tradition. They ease decision making by using depth psychology constructs and psychoanalytic insights. They are criticized for emphasizing psychopathology and for being too intimate. Today, 90 years after the founding of objective vocational guidance, counselors are still struggling to devise time-efficient and cost-effective models and methods for making vocational guidance more personal and career counseling more easily learned. Enter Cochran.
[Page vii]In Career Counseling: A Narrative Approach, Professor Cochran proposes and proves that the subjective dimension of career development can be addressed by literary models and constructivist methods. Furthermore, he shows counselors how to do it with innovative materials that are efficient and effective. He sagaciously asserts that guidance workers should add innovative subjective methods to their traditional objective techniques, not abandon interest inventories, aptitude tests, and occupational information.
In explaining his model, methods, and materials, Cochran provides one of the first books on career counseling. Yes, we have numerous books with “career counseling” in the title, but these books are really about vocational guidance or applying career development theories to the practice of career intervention. In this book, Cochran is the first to elaborate in such fine detail a career counseling theory—one that invites counselors to make career interventions more personal. After reading this book, I remain ready to help my clients match their vocational identities to fitting occupations, yet I am now better prepared to also help them emplot their identities into the greatest story they will ever tell—their own lives.Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine
Traditionally, the practice of career counseling has emphasized an objective perspective. Through assessment of the person and exploration of occupations, an objective portrait of the person is matched to critical factors of work. If the match is good—if interests, values, and abilities are congruent with the demands of a chosen line of work—the person is expected to have a more stable, productive, and satisfying career. Drawing on an increasingly sophisticated reserve of tests, workbooks, computer programs, and occupational information, the objective approach is direct, sensible, and beneficial. Yet it is quite limited, and inevitably so, because it neglects the subjective perspective that a person lives. To appreciate what is neglected, consider another view of career decision, extrapolated from William James (1892/1963).
Career counseling is concerned with the kind of main character to be lived out in a career plot. Suitable employment is not only about matching, but also about the proper vehicle through which a certain character can be enacted in a certain kind of drama. From the multitude of possible selves that might be actualized in work, a person must settle on but one or one small set. Otherwise, living out one character would soon conflict with another character. A person might want to become a [Page ix]wealthy entrepreneur, a sports star, a renowned academic, an adventurer, a missionary, and so on; but the ideals and strengths of one would preclude or confound the ideals and strengths of others. “To make any one of them actual, the rest must more or less be suppressed. So the seeker of his truest, strongest, deepest self must review the list carefully, and pick out one on which to stake his salvation. All other selves thereupon become unreal, but the fortunes of this self are real. Its failures are real failures, its triumphs real triumphs, carrying shame and gladness with them” (James, 1892/1963, p. 174).
Hovering in indecision preserves potential, preserves the multitude of possible selves, but at the expense of any distinctive and enduring actualization of character. Yet in exploring the occupational possibilities for actualizing a character, some are confining, some distorting, and some too compromising. To decide too quickly or carelessly might yield an actualization of character that a person could not avow, resulting in a deformation of envisioned potentials. However, a person must not hover too long, or potential might become wasted potential. A person might avoid failure, for one does not fail in projects one has not tried or adopted as one's own; but a person does not succeed either. Rather, the opportunity to actualize a possible self, a possible life, dwindles in suspension.
The central problem of this book is not matching, but emplotment; that is, how a person can be cast as the main character in a career narrative that is meaningful, productive, and fulfilling. For some time, scholars have been dissatisfied with the limits of the objective tradition, but have had no way to offer an adequate alternative. There are many fine theories that might provide a basis for a richer, deeper form of career counseling, but these theories are typically quite difficult to translate into a viable practice. For example, personal identity might be noted as an important influence on career development, but it is conspicuously absent in practical recommendations. The purpose of this book, then, is to describe a subjective approach to career counseling that emphasizes meaning and meaning-making while retaining the merits of the traditional, objective approach.
Described in chapter 1, the basis for making meaning in career is narrative. As Howard (1989) noted, “People tell themselves stories that infuse certain parts of their lives and actions with great meaning and de-emphasize other aspects. But had any of them chosen to tell himself or herself a somewhat different story, the resulting pattern of more-meaningful and less-meaningful aspects of his or her life would have been [Page x]quite different” (p. 168). The task of career counseling is to help people construct and enact more meaningful career narratives. Accomplishing this task requires an understanding of narrative resources for making meaning, criteria for adopting a narrative as one's own, and the relationship between narrative construction and enaction, between the reflective spectator on life and the active participant in life.
Chapters 2 through 5 are concerned with practical ways to implement a narrative perspective. Seven episodes of career counseling are described. An episode is a unified set of events that stand out from other events as of distinctive significance. Episodes can be arranged sequentially as steps, cyclically as phases, or contemporaneously as waves. They are viewed as basic units of career counseling that can be flexibly applied in any given case. The first three episodes involve ways to construct a career narrative. The next three episodes involve patterns of action that enact or actualize narrative. The last episode, crystallizing a decision, is a bridge between construction and enaction.
The final chapter broadens the context of counseling to include cultural narratives that guide or misguide individuals. In particular, attention is given to the way career situations are narrated and to how career counselors might revise or restore workable narratives. Although career counseling requires a larger perspective of a course of life, the realities of everyday life demand a specific focus on situations in which the larger vision is worked out.
This book was written for scholars and professionals who are concerned with career development. Specifically, it is directed toward career counselors and advanced students in the field. More generally, it is intended for scholars who have been concerned with shortcomings in meaning that are experienced in working. In a striking image, Klapp (1969) likened the social system to a play or theatrical performance, asking: What if we are defective in role casting? Then the social system becomes a disenchanting play in which “most of the actors are dissatisfied with their parts; or, worse, extras standing around with no parts at all” (p. 14). Career counseling is an established profession of “role casting,” one of the social system's ways of assuring a more enchanting play. It is toward this end that a new theoretical approach and practice was developed.
References[Page 153]1956). The individual psychology of Alfred Adler. (AnsbacherH. & Ansbacher, R. Eds.). New York: Basic Books.(1955). Becoming: Basic considerations for a psychology of personality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.(1961). Pattern and growth in personality. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.(1992). What counselors should know about the use and interpretation of psychological tests. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 610–615. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1992.tb01670.x(1978). The life of the mind: Thinking. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.(Aristotle. (1980). The Nichomachean ethics. (Ross, D. Trans.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.1962). Story sequence analysis. New York: Columbia University Press.(1980). Job club counselor's manual. Baltimore: University Park Press.& (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.84.2.191(1989). Human agency in social cognitive theory. American Psychologist, 44, 1175–1184. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1175(1989). Careers, identities and institutions: The legacy of the Chicago School of Sociology. In Arthur, M.Hall, D. & LawrenceB. (Eds.), Handbook of career theory (pp. 41–65). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625459.005(1979). Mind and nature. New York: E. P. Dutton.(1964). Human capital. New York: Columbia University Press.(1990). Image theory: Decision making in personal and organizational contexts. New York: John Wiley.(1989). People as sculptors versus sculpture: The roles of personality and personal control in organizations. In Arthur, M.Hall, D. & Lawrence, B.Handbook of career theory (pp. 232–251). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511625459.014& ([Page 154]1992). Applying current theory and research in career exploration to practice. Career Development Quarterly, 41, 174–178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1992.tb00368.x(1979). The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 16, 252–260. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0085885(1978). Expressed and inventoried interests revisited: Perspicacity in the person. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 25, 536–543. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0220.127.116.116& (1932). Biography and the human heart. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.(1994). Job shift. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.(1994). Dealing with people you can't stand. New York: McGraw-Hill.& (1970). Language and learning. Baltimore, MD: Penguin.(1979). The ecology of human development. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1986). Ethnography as narrative. In TurnerV. & BrunerE. (Eds.), The anthropology of experience (pp. 139–155). Chicago: University of Illinois Press.(1986). Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1987). Life as narrative. Social Research, 54, 11–32.(1957). The philosophy of literary form. New York: Vintage.(1969). A rhetoric of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press.(1963). A counseling evaluation with a better control group. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 10, 334–339. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0041797(1965). A cross-sectional and longitudinal study of scholastic abilities over 25 years. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 12, 55–61. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0021954(1988). Meaning-making: Therapeutic process in adult development. New York: Norton.(1986). Time, narrative and history. Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.(1984). Meaning and myth in the study of lives. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.(1989). The meaning of career change from the perspective of family roles and dramas. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 36, 34–41. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-018.104.22.168& (1983). Seven measures of the ways that deciders frame their career decisions. Measurement and Evaluation in Guidance, 16, 67–77.(1985). Position and the nature of personhood. Westport, CT: Greenwood.(1990). The sense of vocation. Albany: State University of New York Press.(1991). Life-shaping decisions. New York: Peter Lang.(1992). The career project. Journal of Career Development, 18, 187–197.([Page 155]1994). What is a career problem?The Career Development Quarterly, 42, 204–215. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1994.tb00935.x(1994). Becoming an agent. New York: State University of New York Press.& (1975). Beyond boredom and anxiety. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.(1990). Flow: The psychology of optimal experience. New York: Harper & Row.(1979). Life themes: A theoretical and empirical exploration of their origins and effects. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 19, 45–63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/002216787901900105& (1989). The lotus and the pool. Boston: Shambhala.(1985). Narration and knowledge. New York: Columbia University Press.(1984). A psychological theory of work adjustment. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.& (1976). Enhancing motivation. New York: Irvington.(1987). The burden of motivation. In MaehrM. & KleiberD. (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement: Enhancing motivation (pp. 1–21). London: JAI.(1975). Intrinsic motivation. New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4613-4446-9(1967). An adaptation of the Tyler Vocational Card Sort. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 45, 916–920. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-4918.1967.tb04811.x(1988). Enabling and empowering families. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books., , & (1973). Will there really be a morning?New York: Dell.(1989). The quick job search. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works.(1984). Narration as a human communication paradigm: The case of public moral argument. Communication Monographs, 51, 1–21. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758409390180(1985). The narrative paradigm: An elaboration. Communication Monographs, 52, 347–367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03637758509376117(1987). Humans as self-constructing living systems: A development perspective on behavior and personality. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.(1971). Freedom of the will and the concept of a person. Journal of Philosophy, 67, 5–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2024717(1984). Proactive behaviour in unemployment: Findings and implications. Leisure Studies, 3, 271–295. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02614368400390231& (1966). Vocational choice as a focus of the identity search. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 13, 89–92. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0023075& (1973). The interpretation of cultures. New York: Basic Books.(1991). Creative decision making. Los Altos, CA: Crisp Publications.(1955). The creative process. New York: Mentor.(1992). Qualitative assessment: An approach for counselors. Journal of Counseling and Development, 70, 616–621. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1992.tb01671.x([Page 156]1990). A longitudinal test of the influence of congruence: Job satisfaction, competency utilization, and counterproductive behavior. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 37, 389–398. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-022.214.171.1249& (1983). Cognitive processes and emotional disorders. New York: Guilford.& (1987). Career counseling. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.& (1974). Career satisfaction and success: A guide to job freedom. New York: Amacom.(1937). The role of the onlooker. Scrutiny, 6, 247–258.(1966). Philosophy of natural science. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1965). Effects of test information upon self-evaluation in brief educational-vocational counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 12, 275–281. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0022596& (1965). The change of personal constructs from the viewpoint of a theory of implications. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University.(1985). Making vocational choices. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1987). The self-directed search. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.(1994). The self-directed search technical manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources., , & (1979). Counseling for effective decision making. North Scituate, MA: Duxbury Press.(1989). A tale of two stories. Notre Dame, IN: Academic Publications.(1958). Men and their work. Glencoe, IL: Free Press.(1986). Cognitive ability, cognitive aptitudes, job knowledge and job performance. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 29, 340–362. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791%2886%2990013-8(1964). The spiritual exercises of St. Ignatius. (Mottola, A. Trans.). Garden City, NY: Image Books.(1963). Psychology: A briefer course. New York: Fawcett. (Original work published 1892).(1977). Decision-making: A psychological analysis of conflict, choice, and commitment. New York: Free Press.& (1990). Developmental career counseling. In WalshW. & OsipowS. (Eds.), Career counseling: Contemporary topics in vocational psychology (pp. 117–158). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.(1994). The thematic-extrapolation method: Incorporating career patterns into career counseling. The Career Development Quarterly, 43, 43–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1994.tb00845.x(1965). Memories, dreams, reflections. New York: Vintage.(1990). Healthy work: Stress, productivity, and the reconstruction of working life. New York: Basic Books.& ([Page 157]1955). The psychology of personal constructs. New York: Norton.(1969). Collective search for identity. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.(1990). Daydreaming. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher.(1979). Stressful life events, personality and health: An inquiry into hardiness. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37, 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199(1983). Work and personality. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.& (1989). Modern madness. New York: Touchstone.(1991). Scripts in cognitive therapy: The systemic perspective. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 5, 291–303.(1988). Migration problems of Chinese women. Canadian Journal of Counseling, 22, 202–210.& (1994). The relationship between self-efficacy beliefs and inventoried vocational interests. Career Development Quarterly, 42, 302–313. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1994.tb00514.x& (1987). Career self-efficacy: Empirical status and future directions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 30, 347–382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0001-8791%2887%2990010-8& (1978). The seasons of a man's life. New York: Ballantine.(1993). Life stories. New York: Oxford University Press.(1983). Personal projects: A rationale and method of investigation. Environment and Behavior, 15, 273–309. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013916583153002(1991). Essentials of person environment correspondence counseling. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.& (1976). The gamesman. New York: Simon & Schuster.(1988). Work as enactment of family drama. Career Development Quarterly, 37, 137–148. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1988.tb00815.x& (1980). Epistemological crises, dramatic narratives, and the philosophy of science. In GuttinG. (Ed.), Paradigms and revolutions (pp. 54–73). Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.(1984). After virtue. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.(1980). Personality theories: A comparative analysis. Homewood, IL: Dorsey Press.(1988). On the problem of facticity and pursuing possibility. In Messer, S.Sass, L. & Woolfolk, R.Hermeneutics and psychological theory (pp. 182–209). New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.(1984). Stories, scripts and scenes: Aspects of a schema theory. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.(1982). The future autobiography: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of College Student Personnel, 23, 3–6.(1983). Eureka skills inventory manual. Richmond, CA: Eureka Corporation.(1991). The enhanced guide for occupational exploration. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works.& (1993). The stories we live by. New York: William Morrow.([Page 158]1975). Blackberry winter: My earlier years. New York: Pocket Books.(1969). Autobiography and other writings (Stillinger, J. Ed.). Boston: Houghton Mifflin.(1978). Narrative form as cognitive instrument. In CanaryR. & KozickiH. (Eds.), The writing of history: Literary form and historical understanding (pp. 129–149). Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.(1986). Research interviewing: Context and narrative. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1993). Gender differences in career paths in banking. Career Development Quarterly, 41, 375–382. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1993.tb00411.x, , & (1938). Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford University Press.(1943). Thematic apperception test. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.(1989). Applications of repertory grid technique in vocational assessment. Journal of Counseling and Development, 67, 585–589. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1989.tb01336.x(1987). An orientation to personal construct therapy. In NeimeyerR. & NeimeyerG. (Eds.), Personal Construct therapy casebook (pp. 3–19). New York: Springer.(1986). Psychology of work and unemployment. New York: John Wiley.(1980). Holding on and letting go. New York: Free Press.(1969). Hermeneutics. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.(1975). Self-identification of talents: First step to finding career directions. The Vocational Guidance Quarterly, 24, 20–26. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2164-585X.1975.tb02228.x(1986). Evidence evaluation in complex decision making. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 242–258. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.52& (1988). Explanation-based decision-making: Effects of memory structure on judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 14, 521–533. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-73184.108.40.2061& (1991). Career development and services: A cognitive approach. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole., , & (1966). The tacit dimension. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.(1988). Narrative knowing and the human sciences. Albany: University of New York Press.(Pyong Gap Min (1988). Ethnic business enterprises: Korean small business in Atlanta. New York: Center for Migration Studies.1988). Optimal experience and the family context. In CsikszentmihayiM. & CsikszentmihalyiI. (Eds.), Optimal experience (pp. 342–363). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.(1993). The experience of interest. In MaehrM. & PietrichP. (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (pp. 59–98). Greenwich, CT: JAI.(1982). Motivation, career striving, and aging. New York: Hemisphere.& ([Page 159]1984). Time and narrative (Vol. 1). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.(1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 43, 56–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0076301(1979). Life history correlates of vocational needs for a female adult sample. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 26, 487–496. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-0220.127.116.117, , & (1990). From trait-and-factor to person-environment fit counseling: Theory and process. In WalshW. & OsipovS. (Eds.), Career counseling: Contemporary topics in vocational psychology (pp. 1–44). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.& (1991). Narrative in views of humanity, science, and action: Lessons for cognitive therapy. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 5, 241–256.(1992). Changing narrative schemes in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy, 29344–354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0088536& (1986). Narrative psychology. New York: Praeger.(1966). Being and nothingness. (Barnes, H. Trans.). New York: Pocket Books.(1989). Career-style assessment and counseling. In SweeneyT. (Ed.), Adlerian counseling: A practical approach for a new decade (pp. 289–320). Muncie, IN: Accelerated Development Press.(1991). Improving career time perspective. In BrownD. & BrooksL. (Eds.), Career counseling techniques (pp. 236–249). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.(1993). Career counseling in the postmodern era. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 7, 205–215.(1995). Examining the personal meaning of inventoried interests during career counseling. Journal of Career Assessment, 3, 188–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/106907279500300206(1971). Aesthetics: An introduction. Garden City, NY: Doubleday.(1990). Tell me a story: A new look at real and artificial memory. New York: Scribner.(1991). Learned optimism. New York: Knopf.(1986). Explanatory style as a predictor of performance as a life insurance agent. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 832–838. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1682& (1989). Mental imagery in career counseling and life planning: A review of research and intervention methods. Journal of Counseling and Development, 67, 287–292. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.1556-6676.1989.tb02604.x, , & (1987). Deciding: Self-deception in life choices. New York: Methuen.(1980). Aristotle on the role of intellect in virtue. In RortyA. (Ed.), Essays on Aristotle's Ethics (pp. 201–220). Berkeley: University of California Press.(1994). Race and culture: A world view. New York: Basic Books.(1931). The autobiography of Lincoln Steffens. New York: Harcourt, Brace.(1986). Dynamics of job-seeking behavior. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.([Page 160]1954). Career patterns as a basis for vocational counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 1, 12–20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0061989(1957). The psychology of careers. New York: Harper & Row.(1977). What is human agency? In MischelT. (Ed.), The self: Psychological and philosophical issues (pp. 103–135). Totowa, NJ: Rowman and Littlefield.(1985). Human agency and language. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139173483(1984). Career decision making: An individual's perspective. In BrownD. & BrooksL. (Eds.), Career Choice and development (pp. 281–310). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.& (1963). Career development: Choice and adjustment. New York: College Entrance Examination Board.& (1974). Drama, fields, and metaphor. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.(1961). Research explorations in the realm of choice. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 8, 195–201. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0041019(1986). Career development: A life-span developmental approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum., , & (1990). Psychodynamic career counseling. In WalshW. & OsipowS. (Eds.), Career topics: Contemporary topics in vocational psychology (pp. 79–116). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.& (1989). Work in the new economy. Indianapolis, IN: JIST Works., , & (1967). Man and his values. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.(1970). Form in literature: A theory of technique and construction. Edinburgh: Edinburgh Press.(1980). The value of narrativity in the representation of reality. Critical Inquiry, 7, 5–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/448086(1990). Narrative means to therapeutic ends. New York: Norton.& (1993). The story of life: Therapeutic perspectives on the relationship between narrative and life history. In JosselsonR. & LieblichA. (Eds.), The narrative study of lives (Vol. 1, pp. 1–20). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.(1980). Deliberation and practical reason. In RortyA. (Ed.), Essays on Aristotle's ethics (pp. 221–240). Berkeley: University of California Press.(1962). Changes in self and other perceptions following brief educational-vocational counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 9, 18–28. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0043833(1962). More on brief educational-vocational counseling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 9, 366–368. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0039745& (1939). How to counsel students: A manual of techniques for clinical counselors. New York: McGraw-Hill. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/13902-000(1949). Counseling adolescents. New York: McGraw-Hill.([Page 161]1965). Vocational counseling: Trait-factor theory. In SteffireB. (Ed.), Theories of counseling (pp. 193–214). New York: McGraw-Hill.(1940). Evaluating counseling by means of a control-group experiment. School and Society, 52, 434–440.& (1994). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1994). Helping adolescents with career development: The active role of parents. Career Development Quarterly, 42, 195–203. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/j.2161-0045.1994.tb00934.x(1988). Activities and interpersonal relations as dimensions of behavior in the career development of adolescents. Youth and Society, 20, 29–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0044118X88020001002, , & (
About the Author[Page 166]
Larry Cochran is a Professor in the Department of Counseling Psychology, University of British Columbia. Author of six previous books, his most recent works involve studies of major life decisions, a sense of vocation in career, and the ways in which individuals become more potent agents in shaping a life. He is a frequent contributor to scholarly journals concerned with career counseling and development.