Bridging Differences: Effective Intergroup Communication

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William B. Gudykunst

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    Preface

    I became involved in studying intercultural communication in the United States Navy when I served as an Intercultural Relations Specialist in Japan. My job was to design and conduct training to help naval personnel and their families adjust to living in Japan. While conducting intercultural training in Japan, I thought intercultural communication (i.e., communication between people from different cultures) was different from intracultural communication (i.e., communication with members of our own cultures).

    After getting out of the Navy, I went to the University of Minnesota to work on my Ph.D. While completing my Ph.D., I continued to see intercultural communication as different from intracultural communication and retained my interest in training. After accepting a position as an assistant professor, I initially focused on conducting research, and eventually turned to developing a theory to explain intercultural communication effectiveness.

    In trying to develop a theory to explain communication between people from different cultures, I came to two conclusions. The first conclusion was that the processes operating when we communicate with people from other cultures (and races, ethnic groups, social classes, etc.) are the same as the processes operating when we communicate with people from our own cultures (and races, ethnic groups, social classes, etc.). To illustrate, our stereotypes affect our communication when we communicate on automatic pilot. Stereotypes, however, lead to ineffective communication when the person with whom we are communicating comes from another culture more than when the person comes from our own culture. One reason for this is that our stereotypes of groups in our cultures tend to be more accurate and favorable than our stereotypes of other cultures. Inaccurate and unfavorable stereotypes of other cultures and ethnic groups cause us to misinterpret the messages we receive from members of those cultures and ethnic groups. The second conclusion I reached was that a theory of intercultural communication must have direct application. To apply a theory there must be a focus on an applied “outcome” of our communication. I chose the effectiveness (i.e., minimizing misunderstandings) of our communication and adapting to new cultural environments as the foci of my work.

    Given that the underlying process of communication is the same in intercultural (intergroup) and intracultural (intragroup) encounters, we need a way to refer to this common underlying process. I use “communicating with strangers” (Gudykunst, 1983b) to refer to this common process. Strangers, as I use the term, are members of outgroups approaching an ingroup. I write the book from the perspective of the ingroup members who are communicating with strangers, but virtually everything I say also applies to strangers' communication with ingroup members. Where there are differences due to the position of the ingroups strangers are approaching and strangers' groups in terms of power or numbers (e.g., “majority” and “minority” groups), I discuss these issues. I also discuss issues revolving around strangers having more experience communicating with ingroup members than ingroup members have communicating with strangers.

    I have drawn on the work of Harry Triandis, Henri Tajfel, Howie Giles, Chuck Berger, Ellen Langer, Walter Stephan, Cookie Stephan, Edward T. Hall, and others to develop anxiety/uncertainty management (AUM) theory (Gudykunst, 1988, 1993, 1995, in press) to explain effective interpersonal and intergroup communication (intercultural communication is one type of intergroup communication; other types of intergroup communication include, but are not limited to, interracial communication, interethnic communication, intergenerational communication, disabled-nondisabled communication). I apply AUM theory to improving intergroup communication effectiveness in this book. I do not present the actual theory, but use it as a guide to material presented in the book. My emphasis is on improving communication effectiveness between people from different groups (e.g., culture, ethnicity, gender, disability, age, social class). The ideas presented, however, can be applied to communication with people from our own groups as well.

    This edition of Bridging Differences is longer than the previous edition. In writing this edition, my goal was to provide sufficient content for the current edition to be used as a standalone text in courses or training programs designed to help participants improve their intergroup communication effectiveness. I have made several changes in this edition. First, I updated the research presented throughout the book. Second, I expanded the discussion of several topics: namely, changing intergroup expectations, cultural differences in attribution processes, cultural and ethnic differences in conflict, cultural differences in indirect messages, cultural differences in uncertainty management, empathy, ethnic and cultural identities, face and its relationship to conflict management, intergroup communication effectiveness, intergroup conflict, ingroup biases, negotiating meanings, perceptual processes, and prejudice. Third, I added new material on civic engagement, community in public life, diversity and community, the content of stereotypes, communication in romantic relationships, cultural differences in effective communication, and theoretical explanations for prejudice. Fourth, I have added study questions at the end of each chapter. Fifth, I added new self-assessment questionnaires (e.g., self construals, face-concerns). Sixth, I have added open-ended questions at the beginning of some sections to stimulate readers to think about their implicit theories. Seventh, I have added written skill exercises to increase readers' skill development.

    The content of this edition reflects the state-of-the-art in our knowledge about intergroup communication. This edition also has a stronger focus on skills than previous editions. If readers complete the open-ended questions in many of the sections it will help them understand their implicit theories of communication. Understanding our implicit theories is necessary for us to improve the effectiveness of our communication and change how we behave on automatic pilot. If readers complete the self-assessment questionnaires, the written skill exercises, and the applications at the end of each chapter, it will help them improve their intercultural communication skills. While this edition has a strong skills focus, instructors do not have to emphasize skills to use this book. Answering the open-ended questions, completing the self-assessment questionnaires, and completing the written skill exercises also help readers understand the content of the book.

    In addition to those people named earlier whose work has influenced the development of AUM theory, there are numerous people who have contributed, either directly or indirectly, to my thinking about communication and to this book. Exposure to Kurt Lewin's writing early in my graduate career convinced me that theories must have practical application. Tsukasa Nishida and I became friends as graduate students and we continue to work together today. Tsukasa and Gao Ge have worked with me on the vast majority of the cross-cultural studies of AUM theory, and have been constant sources of support. Stella Ting-Toomey served as a sounding board for AUM theory and its application, read drafts of earlier editions, and suggested the title. Harry Triandis and Michael Bond have provided valuable feedback on my work over the years (including earlier versions of this book) that I have incorporated in this edition. Participants in the “Applications of Intercultural Communication” course I teach at California State University, Fullerton tested many of the ideas presented in intergroup training programs they designed and implemented.

    The book would not have been written without the gentle prodding and support of Ann West, my editor at Sage for the first edition. Sophy Craze facilitated the production of the second edition at Sage. Margaret Seawell, the current communication editor at Sage, provided support in the writing of the third edition. Margaret and Todd Armstrong, the interpersonal communication editor, arranged for this edition. Astrid Virding did excellent work overseeing the production of all editions. Sanford Robinson has done an outstanding job overseeing the production of this edition of the book. Finally, I want to thank Kristin Bergstad for her careful copyediting of this and the previous edition of the manuscript.

    BillGudykunstLaguna Beach, CA

    Dedication

    Greetings! I am pleased

    to see that we are different.

    May we together become greater

    than the sum of both of us.

    Vulcan Greeting (Star Trek)

    See at a distance an undesirable person;

    See close at hand a desirable person;

    Come closer to the undesirable person;

    Move away from the desirable person.

    Coming close and moving apart,

    how interesting life is!

    Gensho Ogura
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    About the Author

    William B. Gudykunst is a professor of speech communication and Asian American Studies at California State University, Fullerton. He became interested in intercultural communication while working as an Intercultural Relations Specialist with the U.S. Navy in Yokosuka, Japan. His work focuses on developing a theory of interpersonal and intergroup effectiveness (anxiety/uncertainty management theory) that can be applied to improving the quality of communication and helping people adjust to new cultural environments, as well as explaining similarities and differences in communication in Japan and the United States.

    He is the author of Asian American Ethnicity and Communication, and coauthor of Culture and Interpersonal Communication (with Stella Ting-Toomey), Communicating With Strangers (with Young Yun Kim), Bridging Japanese / North American Differences (with Tsukasa Nishida), and Ibunkakan Komyunikeishon Myumon: Nichibei Kanno Sougorikai Notameri (Introduction to Intercultural Communication: Developing Mutual Understanding Between Japanese and North Americans, with Tsukasa Nishida), among others. He also has edited or coedited numerous books including Communication in Japan and the United States, Intergroup Communication, Theorizing About Culture and Communication, and Handbook of International and Intercultural Communication (with Bella Mody), among others. He is a past editor of the International and Intercultural Communication Annual and Communication Yearbook, and a Fellow of the International Communication Association.


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