Black Families

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Edited by: Harriette Pipes McAdoo

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  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
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  • Part I: Historical Conceptualizations of Black Families

    Part II: Theoretical Conceptualizations of African American Families

    Part III: Spirituality and Religion in Black Families

    Part IV: Family Patterns

    Part V: Socialization within African American Families

    Part VI: African American Gender Relations

    Part VII: Family Policies and Advocacy

  • Dedication

    This book is dedicated to the great historian John Hope Franklin, Ph.D.

    His writings, actions, and speeches have helped formulate the experiences of Black families.

    Copyright

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    Preface to the Fourth Edition

    Since the first edition of Black Families in 1981, many of the contributors to the book have spent 25 years presenting images of Black families to scholars, students, and laypersons. Although some of those whose work appears here have passed on, and some have joined us for the first time, those of us who have produced this fourth edition have joined together to become as family. All of these have formed a circle of writers who have become friends as well as contributors to Black Families.

    We are many years older and, we hope, wiser than we were at the time of the first edition. During the years in between, babies have been born, marriages have ended, spouses have passed, children have married, Ph.D. degrees have been completed, tenure and professorships have been earned, important awards have been received, jobs have ended, and important professional positions have been assumed. These significant life changes are often reflected in the work of the authors.

    There has been the loss to us of our peers: William Harrison Pipes, John Lewis McAdoo, Marie Ferguson Peters, and John Ogbu.

    There also has been a great infusion of new authors: Darlene Clark Hine, Maulana Karenga and Tiamoyo Karenga, Pamela Martin, LaTrese Adkins, Jonathan Livingston, Karen Williams, and Monica Mouton Sanders. The work of these scholars who join us in exploring our Black families is described below.

    Maulana Karenga and Tiamoyo Karenga, one of the most influential couples in America today, founded Kwanzaa over 45 years ago. Tens of thousands of Americans celebrate the holiday every year, and it has spread all over the world. Their chapter goes into the value of extended families as they detail the components of Kwanzaa.

    Darlene Clark Hine is considered one of the greatest historians in this country. Her work on Black women has been celebrated throughout the world of historians. She shares with us an intimate glimpse of her extended family.

    Pamela Martin and I explore how the Black churches are dynamic institutions within the community. The churches and parents of youth interact to provide racial socialization for these youth. The churches have an important role in providing an orientation for parents looking to learn how to help their children to develop successfully.

    LaTrese Adkins has entered a new field for historians by looking at the funeral practices of Black families over the years. Usually authors of books on Black families only look at children and parents, but we also need to look at rituals and funeral patterns because they are very important family traditions.

    Jonathan Livingston explores how the roles of Black fathers are an important element of Black family life. Few of us are familiar with these interactions because they have not often been written about in the literature. Jonathan has taken John McAdoo's original presentation of Black fathers and presented new dimensions of these fathers' roles.

    Karen Williams shows the importance of extended families in providing support for Black women who are facing breast cancer. Black women are diagnosed later than others, and in less treatable stages, because they are underserved in the health care system. This chapter takes on an important role in the preservation of our families.

    Monica Mouton Sanders explores the openness of Southern middle-class Black families to family therapy. This image of families is one that is almost never seen in the literature, and the author finds that these Black families are open to therapy.

    All of these scholars have joined the older collaborators to produce this edition, of which we are proud.

    Acknowledgments

    Without the help of many persons, such a volume as this one would have been impossible. I first want to thank Jim Brace-Thompson and Karen Ehrmann at Sage for their support. I also want to thank Laurel Hilliker for her tireless work during the compilation of this volume. Pamela Dorton was also helpful in many ways. Elisabeth Johnson, the former editor, will be found in the chapters of the earlier editions. I want to also thank Julia McAdoo for the help that she gave me with the design of the book cover.

    The greatest acknowledgments go to the many contributors in this, the fourth edition. Some have been with me since the first edition, others have joined only on the fourth edition. I want to thank all of you for your great achievements. We have become in essence a family.

    As in any family, deaths have occurred and valued people have been taken away. William Harrison Pipes, my father, died just after going through his chapter and changing every “Negro” to “Black.” He felt proud that his research on religion and Black families would be remembered. There have been few books that have been written about the preachers that Bill Pipes studied, who were often illiterate and did not have seminary training. Bill Pipes, my mother, Anna Russell Pipes, and myself as a three-year-old, went to rural churches in Georgia during the last part of World War II.

    Marie Ferguson Peters, whose writings on socialization have become important historical documents, was my closest friend. Her husband has remained a friend, particularly through the Groves Conference on Families. I still remember the last meal that Marie, my husband John, Pete, and I had at the top of the hotel at the National Conference on Families. We did not mention the coming death, but had a delightful meal and talked about our families.

    John Lewis McAdoo, my husband of 32 years, was the next to die. In addition to being my husband, he was the father of my four children and a person with whom I had a great working and research relationship.

    John Ogbu was someone that I had known for many years. He was a social anthropologist who had the experience of coming to America and analyzing us, as a social anthropologist would, to show us a view that is usually made by Americans going overseas and reporting about the “natives” there. He was writing a new chapter for the fourth edition of Black Families when he died.

    I would like to acknowledge the contributions of all these gifted writers who have increased our knowledge of Black families.

    Introduction

    Never before has it been so obvious that the Black experience involves more than one reality. The title of this book is Black Families, and not The Black Family, precisely because of the diversity of experiences of African Americans, both economic and social. This diversity is increasing every day. Despite policy and media attempts to present us as all of one social class, usually lower, it is important to understand that the common element of African descent does not determine exactly what the life patterns of individuals will be. It does mean, however, that in the present environment it is more difficult to excel than it has been at other times.

    Readers will notice that the terms used to discuss ethnic groups vary from chapter to chapter. Contributors use the terms “African American,” “black,” and “Black.” This diversity of preferences reflects the diversity that is so important to the field, and this is as it should be. Previously, the word “Negro” was used throughout the chapter by my father, William Pipes, but on his deathbed he changed by hand almost every “Negro” to “Black,” and those changes are reflected in how his chapter appears in this volume.

    Families of all statuses and configurations—low-, middle-, high-, and no-income families; single-parent, two-parent, grandparent, and blended families; functional families and less functional families—all are here in the fourth edition of this most enduring book, Black Families. My collaborators and I have attempted to open up to the discerning reader the ways in which African American families exist, survive, overcome adversity, and reach remarkable levels of achievement. The reader will find an appreciation for complexity and diversity of families, as well as searches into what holds Black families together and enables so many families to soar above the odds.

    This edition of Black Families goes to press at a period in which Black families are faced with growing problems: isolation from the economic mainstream, more children being reared in families by women alone, public schools that are becoming even less successful than in the past, increasing violence in our communities, and a growing conservatism on the part of policy makers. When one looks at African American families, it is tempting to focus on these problems, for they are life threatening and seem overwhelming. But families of all groups, particularly those of color in U.S. society today, are facing changes. Babies in all these groups are being conceived outside of marriage, divorce is rampant, and unemployment of parents is becoming a factor in all segments of our society. Imprisonment, a factor in all segments of our society, is becoming more of a possibility for young men and for women, and senseless violence is increasing everywhere.

    Many African Americans are experiencing greater successes in achieving real power and sustained upward mobility. Some families are entering into their seventh and eighth generation of upper- or middle-class status. Yet, even the parents of those families are now faced with the problem of raising children who seem not to be embracing the values of hard work and achievement that motivated them. The hip-hop generation has often been perceived as having a negative influence on youth. Many middle-class parents are facing the reality that their children may not be as successful as they are and may even fall into lower classes, unless the parents' generation supports them. Thwarted mobility and the changing marketplace have made families' upper- and middle-class statuses more unstable. The majority of African American families are neither in dire poverty nor among the affluent. They are not on the nightly news as having been shot, and they are not featured in Jet magazine among the elite families. Most African American parents are hardworking people who go to their jobs every day and are holding onto solid working-class status.

    It is often misunderstood that the members of many families in poverty, especially those headed by single mothers, are working every day. This solid working-class stratum is too often overlooked. People in this stratum may be poor because of wage and job inequities, but they are not on welfare. This is the group from which the next upwardly mobile individuals will come. This is the group that has maintained stability and is under great pressure to remain employed and self-sufficient, without government assistance.

    It is clear that, as a group, Blacks are no longer as essential to the economic survival and productivity of the United States as Blacks were in the period of enslavement. During that time, three centuries of unpaid Black labor built important parts of many cities, such as Wall Street in New York City. The enslaved helped establish major pools of wealth that still exist today. Blacks are also not as essential now as during the period of industrial growth and during the two world wars. As the United States has moved into a global economy, with greater emphasis on technology, and as jobs have become more precious due to industrial reorganization and downsizing, there is less need for large numbers of low-skilled and less-educated people in the workforce. As a group, African Americans, and other people of color, have become less necessary to the world economy. They have become disposable, since the end of enslavement, the automation of production, and the discovery of the profitability of using cheap labor abroad.

    These changes come at the same time that drugs are flowing freely into the Black community, that AIDS and other destructive illnesses are increasing, and that the ganglike behavior of our youth is growing. This may or may not be coincidental. Regardless, the sum experience of the current urban generation of Black youth has been more negative than positive. The crises in which that portion of our community finds itself are probably as great as those faced during enslavement.

    The collaborators on this fourth edition focus on the essential issues of today. The contributors present up-to-date reviews of the literature and explore the dimensions of Black family life from many angles. The chapters are divided into seven major areas: historical conceptualizations, theoretical conceptualizations, spirituality and religion, family patterns, socialization within families, gender relations, and family policies and advocacy.

    A few of the chapters here remain basically as they were in earlier editions, for they have become true classics and it would not do to tamper with them too much. There may be even greater need today than there was in the past to look at the unique experiences in African American history to find the reasons behind many current problems. In this edition, the contributors and I have attempted to do just that. Only by knowing our history, both African and American, will we be able to understand just what is happening in the present society. This edition of Black Families should be very significant both for the knowledge it imparts and for the understanding of and appreciation for African American families to be gained from it.

    Significant changes have occurred in the lives of Black families across the nation over the years. Major policy changes at the federal and local levels have truncated governmental programs that had contributed to decreasing the vulnerability of many of our families and increasing the occupational and educational avenues that are open for members of Black families. While some Blacks have benefited from earlier governmental programs of support and have been upwardly mobile, many others have fallen deeply into despair.

    Governments have become more conservative and apparently less interested in supporting the striving toward stability and equality of family members of color. Verbal assertions of the need of families of color for economic self-sufficiency have run parallel to policy decisions that have limited the opportunities of such families to remove themselves from dependency. In addition, the prevailing preference for white over Black has continued, has intensified, and has led to more overt demonstrations of structural and personal ethnocentrism and racism.

    A period that began with hope has not lived up to expectations. The need is even greater now than it was a generation ago to understand the economic situations, cultural patterns, and socialization practices of Black families. The African American patterns of mutual support and coping strategies that were so effective in the past are more important now than ever.

    This revised volume grew out of the need to bring the content current with ongoing research and literature, to reflect the demographic changes that have occurred over time, and to expand the topic into newly relevant areas. Many of the classic chapters remain as they were. The new authors' chapters reflect the issues that have come to the forefront during the late 1990s and 2000s. These chapters add special insights and depth to the volume. We welcome them to our collective effort. We hope that this Sage Focus Edition will contribute to greater understanding of the lives of Black families and the issues that must be addressed to successfully prepare us for the next generation of African American families.

  • About the Editor

    Harriette Pipes McAdoo, Ph.D., is a Distinguished Professor at Michigan State University, Department of Family and Child Ecology. She has been a professor at Howard University in the School of Social Work and a visiting lecturer at Smith College, the University of Washington, and the University of Minnesota. Dr. McAdoo received her B.A. and M.A. from Michigan State University and her Ph.D. from the University of Michigan, and she has done postdoctoral studies at Harvard University. She has been a national adviser to the White House Conference on Families under President Carter, a director of the Groves Conference on Marriage and the Family, the president and a Board member of the National Council on Family Relations (NCFR), and a member of the Governing Council of the Society for Research in Child Development. She was the first person honored by the NCFR with the Marie Peters Award for Outstanding Scholarship, Leadership, and Service in the Area of Ethnic Minority Families. Dr. McAdoo has published on racial attitudes and self-esteem in young children, Black mobililty patterns, coping strategies of single mothers, professional women in Kenya, and HIV/AIDS in Zimbabwe. She is the editor of the previous three editions of Black Families, in addition to this edition, and of Family Ethnicity: Strength in Diversity (2nd ed.), Black Children: Social, Educational and Parental Environments with John McAdoo, and Young Families: Program Review and Policy Recommendation, and coauthor of Women and Children, Alone and in Poverty. She is the recipient of the 2004 Ernest Burgess Award from the NCFR. She was married to the late John Lewis McAdoo and has four children and five grandsons.

    About the Contributors

    LaTrese Evette Adkins, a Consortium for a Strong Minority Presence (CSMP) postdoctoral fellow at Wellesley College, earned a Ph.D. in comparative black history from Michigan State University in August 2003. Her research focuses on the use of primary source data to construct theories about the influences of cultural differences. She uses theoretically driven, historical descriptions of African Americans' experiences in the United States, from slavery to freedom, to conceptualize various community-based interventions connecting the social and/or cultural histories of African Americans to contemporary research on Black families. Her primary topic of exploration is how the funerary practices of benevolent societies organized by Black communities to facilitate traditional African American funeral rites provide evidence of ethnic identity formation. The University of Illinois Press is publishing her doctoral study, “And Who Has the Body?” The Historical Significance of African American Funerary Display.

    Audrey B. Chapman, an active family therapist in private practice and at the Howard University Counseling Center, Washington, D.C., has conducted training workshops on male-female relations and support groups. She received a B.A. from Goddard College and an M.A. from the University of Bridgeport and is a candidate for a Ph.D. in clinical psychology. She has appeared on several national talk shows and has been widely quoted in major magazines and newspapers. She is the author of Mansharing: Dilemma or Choice? (1986) and Getting Good Loving: How Black Men and Women Can Make Love Work (1996). She is also host of the radio talk show All About Love.

    Jualynne Elizabeth Dodson is Professor of Sociology and African American and African Studies at Michigan State University. She earned her Ph.D. at the University of California, Berkeley, in Sociology. She has written on African American families and on Black women and religion in the United States in the book Engendering Church: Women, Power, and the AME Church. Her forthcoming book is Sacred Spaces: Religious Traditions of Oriente Cuba (2006). She has received wide recognition and awards for her research and teaching.

    Marian Wright Edelman, President and Founder of the Children's Defense Fund, received a B.A. from Spelman College and a Ph.D. from Yale. She has directed the Harvard Center for Law and Education and the Legal Defense and Education Fund of the NAACP. She is the author of Portrait of Inequality: Black and White Children in America and most recently of Families in Peril: An Agenda for Social Change. She is Chair of the Spelman College Board and a MacArthur Foundation Prize Fellow. She is married and the mother of three sons.

    John Hope Franklin holds the James B. Duke Chair Emeritus at Duke University. He graduated from Fisk University and received an M.A. and Ph.D. in history from Harvard University. Formerly John Matthews Manly Distinguished Service Professor and Chair of the Department of History at the University of Chicago, he has been on the faculties of Fisk, St. Augustine's, North Carolina at Durham, Howard University, and Brooklyn College and a visiting professor at Harvard, the University of Wisconsin, the University of California, and Cambridge University in England. He also was a Fulbright Professor in Australia and held both a Rosenwald Fellowship and a Guggenheim Fellowship. In addition, he served as president of the American Historical Studies Association, the Southern Historical Association, the Organization of American Historians, and Phi Beta Kappa. He recently completed 52 years of teaching. Among his books are From Slavery to Freedom: A History of Negro Americans (6th ed., 1987); The Free Negro in North Carolina; The Militant South, 1800–1860; Reconstruction After the Civil War: The Emancipation Proclamation; Southern Odyssey; Racial Equality in America; and My Life and an Era: The Autobiography of Buck Colbert Franklin. He was on the advisory board of One America, The President's Initiative on Race. He has honorary degrees from more than 100 colleges and universities. He is married and has one son.

    Algea Othella Hale is a retired Professor of Psychology at Oakland University in Rochester, Michigan. She received her B.S. from Bluefield State College in Bluefield, West Virginia, and her M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. Her research centers on cross-cultural investigations of adolescents' perceptions of their social networks and HIV prevention techniques with incarcerated female sex workers. Her scholarly activities in developmental psychology have focused on prosocial development among African American children and interrole conflicts among African American women. She is the mother of one child.

    Robert B. Hill is Senior Researcher at Westat, a research firm in Rockville, Maryland. Previously, he was Director of the Institute for Urban Research at Morgan State University and Director of Research at the National Urban League. He received his Ph.D. in sociology from Columbia University. Dr. Hill was formerly Chair of the Census Bureau's Advisory Committee for the African American Population. His research interests are the strengths of families of color and the impact of public policies on Black and low-income families. His publications include The Strengths of Black Families (1972), Informal Adoption Among Black Families (1977), and The Strengths of African American Families: Twenty-Five Years Later (1999). He is married and has two children.

    Darlene Clark Hine is the Board of Trustees Professor of African American Studies and Professor of History at Northwestern University in Evanston. She has been the Avalon Visiting Distinguished Professor in American History at Northwestern University, Evanston; the Harold Washington Visiting Professor at Roosevelt University, Chicago; and the John A. Hannah Professor of History at Michigan State University. She was interim director of the Africana Studies and Research Center at Purdue University. Previously, she was an assistant professor and coordinator of Black studies at South Carolina State College in Orangeburg, South Carolina. She received her B.A. from Roosevelt University in Chicago and her Ph.D. from Kent State University. Dr. Hine has edited and written widely on African American history, particularly on Black women. She is coeditor with Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham and Leon Litwack of The Harvard Guide to African-American History (2001); with Earnestine Jenkins of both editions of A Question of Manhood: A Reader in U.S. Black Men's History and Masculinity (1999, 2001); with Jacqueline McLeod of Crossing Boundaries: Comparative History of Black People in Diaspora (1999); with D. Barry Gaspar of More Than Chattel: Black Women and Slavery in the Americas (1996); with Linda Reed and Wilma King of “We Specialize in the Wholly Impossible: A Reader in Black Women's History” (1995); and with Elsa Barkley Brown and Rosayln Terborg-Penn of the award-winning, two-volume Black Women in America: An Historical Encyclopedia (1993). She is also editor of The State of Afro-American History, Past, Present, and Future (1986). She is coauthor with Stanley Harrold and William Hine of both editions of the two-volume African American history textbook, The African-American Odyssey (2000, 2002) and with Kathleen Thompson of A Shining Thread of Hope: The History of Black Women in America (1998). She is author of Hine Sight: Black Women and the Re-construction of American History (1994); Black Women in White: Racial Conflict and Cooperation in the Nursing Profession, 1890–1950 (1989); and two editions of Black Victory: The Rise and Fall of the White Primary in Texas (1979, 2003). In 1990, her book Black Women in White was named Outstanding Book by the Gustavus Myers Center for the Study of Human Rights, received the Lavinia L. Dock Book Award from the American Association for the History of Nursing, and was awarded the Letitia Woods Brown Book Award from the Association of Black Women Historians. In 2002 she received the Detroit News Michiganian of the Year Award. She is a past president of the Southern Historical Association and the Organization of American Historians. Her forthcoming book is “Freedom Is Our Business”: Black Professionals and the Origins of the Civil Rights Movement, 1890–1955.

    Maulana Karenga is Professor of Black Studies at California State University-Long Beach. An activist-scholar of national and international recognition, Dr. Karenga is one of the most important figures in recent African American history, having played a major role in Black political and intellectual culture since the sixties. He has, along with his Organization Us, played a major role in such movements as Black Power, Black Arts, Black Studies, the Independent Schools, Afrocentricity, ancient Egyptian Studies, the Million Person Marches, and the Reparations Movement. In addition, he has lectured on the life and struggle of African peoples on the major campuses of the United States and in Africa, the People's Republic of China, Cuba, Trinidad, Great Britain, and Canada. He holds two Ph.D. degrees, one in political science from the United States International University and another in social ethics from the University of Southern California, as well as an honorary doctorate from the University of Durban, South Africa. Moreover, he is Chair of the Organization Us and the National Association of Kawaida Organizations. Dr. Karenga is also the author of numerous books, including Introduction to Black Studies; Selections From the Husia: Sacred Wisdom of Ancient Egypt; Kawaida: A Communitarian African Philosophy; Odu Ifa: The Ethical Teachings; and Maat, The Moral Ideal in Ancient Egypt: A Study in Classical African Ethics. He is the creator of the Pan-African cultural holiday Kwanzaa and the Nguzo Saba (Seven Principles) and author of the authoritative book on Kwanzaa, Kwanzaa: A Celebration of Family, Community and Culture. Finally, he is currently cowriting with Tiamoyo Karenga, to whom he has been married for 37 years, a book on the moral texts and moral status of ancient Egyptian women.

    Tiamoyo Karenga is a lecturer the Kawaida Institute of Pan-African Studies, Los Angeles. She is a longtime social activist who has worked in the Black Freedom Movement and in various capacities in the Organization Us since the sixties, serving as chair of its Legal Committee; chair of its Third World Issues Committee; a teacher in its independent school, the Kawaida School of African American Culture; and an editor of the organization's newspaper, Harambee (now Harambee Notes). She is currently serving as archivist, and administrative assistant to its chair, Dr. Maulana Karenga. Moreover, she is a member of the Board of Directors of the African American Cultural Center (Us). She is also a Seba (moral teacher) in the ancient Egyptian tradition of Maat (Kawaida). A close collaborator and adviser of Dr. Karenga, as well as his wife, she has worked with him on national projects such as the National Black Power Conferences, the National Black United Front, the National African American Leadership Summit, and the Million Man March/Day of Absence organizing project and mission statement. In addition, she has accompanied him on trips to Africa (Egypt, Nigeria, Senegal, and South Africa), the People's Republic of China, Cuba, Trinidad, Canada, and Great Britain to work on projects and represent African American people. Deeply concerned with women's issues, she is a member of the Senut Sisterhood of Us, a sisterhood of the world African community, the International Black Women's Congress, and the National Council of Negro Women. She is a graduate student in interdisciplinary studies, with an emphasis in ancient African archaeology and Black studies, at California State University-Long Beach. The title of her thesis is “The Office of the Divine Wife of Amen in the 25th and 26th Dynasties: A Study of Women and Power in Ancient Egypt.” Finally, she is currently cowriting, with Maulana Karenga, a book on the moral texts and moral status of ancient Egyptian women.

    Jonathan N. Livingston is an Assistant Professor of Psychology at North Carolina Central University, Director of Export Outreach at the Julius Chambers Biomedical Bio-technical Research Institute, North Carolina Central University, and the Director of the African American Psychological Well-being Project, North Carolina Central University. Dr. Livingston received his Ph.D. in community psychology from Michigan State University. He received training in African and African American psychology at Florida A&M University. His areas of interest are African American psychological well-being, the cumulative effects of racism and social inequalities on African American mental health, and the health disparities between African Americans and other Americans. Additional areas of interest include African American families, program evaluation, community development, and education reform. Dr. Livingston's current research focuses on social and psychological factors associated with positive mental health outcomes for African Americans. Also, he is currently serving as Director of Outreach for the Export Grant, a project of the Julius Chambers Biomedical Bio-technical Research Institute, evaluating the effectiveness of their efforts to reduce health disparities and educate the African American community about alcohol and substance abuse and cardiovascular disease risk factors. In 2001, he received the Excellence in Teaching Award from Michigan State University. He has authored and coauthored peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, and newspaper articles on race, psychology, mental health, health disparities, and education and has presented his research at a number of national and international conferences.

    Wilhelmina Manns, who has now retired from teaching, was a professor in the School of Social Work at Howard University and has also taught at Case Western Reserve and Cleveland State Universities. She received a B.A. from Ohio State University, an M.S.W. from Case Western Reserve University, and a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in the Human Development Program. She maintains an active clinical social work practice and has participated in the development of national tests for accredited social workers. She has four children and four grandchildren.

    Pamela P. Martin is Assistant Professor of Psychology at North Carolina State University. She earned a B.S. in psychology from the University of South Carolina, an M.A. in psychology from North Carolina Central University, and a Ph.D. in ecological/community psychology and urban studies from Michigan State University. Dr. Martin was a National science Foundation Minority Postdoctoral Fellow at the Programs for Research on Black Americans (PRBA) in the Research Center for Group Dynamics at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan. Influenced by ecological theory, Dr. Martin is interested in examining the person-environment fit between social institutions such as churches and behavioral outcomes. One goal of her research is to formulate and empirically evaluate research questions that clarify how churches influence parental racial socialization practices and how both the church and parents shape adolescents' racial identity. Another goal of her research is to investigate the multiple ways the church supports and maintains families, especially in the areas of academic achievement and faith-based HIV/AIDS prevention. Her research interests examine the social support networks within African American faith communities, faith-based HIV/AIDS prevention, and academic achievement.

    John L. McAdoo, who died on October 25, 1994, was Professor of Family and Child Ecology, Michigan State University. He also served on the faculty of the University of Maryland School of Social Work and Community Planning. He received his B.A. from Eastern Michigan University and M.S.W. and Ph.D. from the University of Michigan. He did postdoctoral study at Harvard University, was a postdoctoral fellow in the Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, and was a summer fellow at the Institute of Survey Research, University of Michigan. He published in the area of parent-child interactions, parenting by Black fathers, and fear of crime among the elderly. He and his wife, Harriette Pipes McAdoo, coedited Black Children: Social, Educational, and Parental Environments, and he served as an editor for and on the planning committee of the Empirical Conference of Black Psychology, which for 20 years mentored young professionals. He received the Lifetime Achievement in Scholarship Award from the Association of Black Psychologists. He is survived by his wife, four children, and five grandchildren.

    Wade W. Nobles received his Ph.D from Stanford University. A former president of the Urban Institute for Human Services, he also was Director of the Black Family Research Project at Westside Community Mental Health Center. He has written widely on the Black family and African American continuities. He is married and the father of five children.

    John U. Ogbu, who died in 2005, was a native of Nigeria. He was a Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Berkeley, where he received a Ph.D. in anthropology. Previously he had been a Research Associate with the Carnegie Council on Children and Distinguished Visiting Professor at the University of Delaware. His major publications include The Next Generation: An Ethnography of Education in an Urban Neighborhood and Minority Education and Caste: The American System in Cross-Cultural Perspective. He published widely on the cultural contexts of the educational achievement of African American children. He was married and had four children.

    Marie Ferguson Peters, who died on January 8, 1984, was on the Faculty of Human Development and Family Relations at the University of Connecticut and principal investigator for Toddler and Infant Experiences Studies. She received a B.A. from Fisk University and a Ph.D. from Harvard University. She served as Secretary of the National Council on Family Relations (NCFR), as Director of the Groves Conference on Marriage and the Family, and as editor of the Journal of Marriage and the Family 1978 special issue on the Black family. She conducted research on socialization, stress, and development of children in Black families, and she has been memorialized by the NCFR with an award named in her honor. Posthumously, she was made a member of the Academy of the Groves Conference on Marriage and the Family. She had a strong influence on the socialization of Blacks and other ethnic minorities into professional organizations and existing networks of the family and child development fields. She was survived by her husband, James Peters, Ph.D., and three children and three grandchildren.

    William Harrison Pipes, who died on August 10, 1981, was Professor Emeritus, American Thought and Language, Michigan State University, and the author of Say Amen, Brother! Is God Dead? and Death of an Uncle Tom. He received a B.A. from Tuskegee Institute, an M.A. from Atlanta University, and a Ph.D from the University of Michigan, and he was the first U.S. Black to obtain a degree in speech. He served as President of Alcorn State University and as Dean of Philander Smith College. He also spent time on the faculties of Southern University, Fort Valley State College, and Wayne State University. He was active in directing college theater productions and debate teams. His recordings of “rural Georgia old-time Negro preachers,” made during World War II, now archived at the University of California, Berkeley, are considered among the few existing remnants of this unique preaching style. He married Anna Howard Russell and had three children, Harriette Ann, Willetta Ada, and William Howard, and six grandchildren, Michael, John, Julia, David, Kahmara, and Paul Russell.

    Monica Mouton Sanders completed her doctoral studies in the Department of Family and Child Ecology at Michigan State University with a specialization in marriage and family therapy. Her research interests include examining attitudes toward family therapy as a help-seeking option among people of color, emphasizing trends among middle-class African Americans. Another area of interest is the assessment of racial socialization processes among African American adults and adolescents as related to help-seeking outcomes. Her publications pertaining to these areas in addition to understanding context-sensitive experiences of Muslim families and adolescent mothers can be found in the Contemporary Family Therapy journal, Human Ecology: An Encyclopedia of Children, Families, Communities, and Environments (Vol. 1), and the second edition of the International Encyclopedia of Marriage and Family (Vol. 2). Monica Mouton Sanders is a member of the American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy and the National Council on Family Relations. In addition to pursuing her research interests, she is currently employed as a therapeutic clinician in Royal Oak, Michigan. She is married and has a daughter.

    Robert Staples is Professor in the Department of Social and Behavioral Science at the University of California, San Francisco. He has previously served on the faculties of Howard University, Fisk University, California State University at Haywood, and Bethune-Cookman College. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota. He is the author of Black Women in America, Introduction to Black Sociology, The Lower Income Negro Family in St. Paul, and The World of Black Singles and editor of The Black Family: Essays and Studies (3rd ed.). A former Director of the National Council on Family Relations, he was the second recipient of its Marie Peters Award for Outstanding Scholarship, Leadership, and Service in the Area of Ethnic Minority Families.

    Niara Sudarkasa (formerly Gloria A. Marshall) is a past President of Lincoln University in Pennsylvania and a former Professor of Anthropology at the University of Michigan, where she also served as Director of the Center for Afro-American and African Studies and Associate Vice President for Academic Affairs. A former Ford Foundation early entrance scholar at Fisk University and Oberlin College, she received her undergraduate degree from Oberlin, and her M.A. and Ph.D. from Columbia University. Sudarkasa is widely published on Yoruba women, families, trade, and migration in West Africa. Her books include Where Women Work (1973) and The Strength of Our Mothers (1996). In addition, she is also well known for her pioneering publications (including the chapters in the present volume) explaining the links between African and African American families. She is widowed and has one son and five grandchildren.

    Karen Patricia Williams, Ph.D., is Assistant Professor in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Biology in the College of Human Medicine at Michigan State University. She attended Lincoln University and received her baccalaureate degree from Temple University and her M.A. and Ph.D. from Michigan State University. She completed a Health Services Research Fellowship with the Association of American Medical Colleges. As a health services researcher, she integrates community-based and family approaches that empower women to take an active role in their health care.


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