Biological Psychology

Books

Minna Lyons, Neil Harrison, Gayle Brewer, Sarita Robinson, Rob Sanders & Dominic Upton

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    Series Editor's Introduction

    Studying Psychology at Degree Level

    Being a student of psychology is an exciting experience – the study of mind and behaviour is a fascinating and sprawling journey of discovery. Yet studying psychology at degree level brings with it new experiences, skills and knowledge. This book, one in a comprehensive series, brings you this psychological knowledge, but importantly brings with it directions and guidance on the skills and experiences you should also be developing during your studies.

    Psychology is a growing discipline – in scope, in breadth and in numbers. It is one of the fastest growing subjects to study at GCSE and A level, and the number of students studying the subject at university has grown considerably over the past decade. Indeed, psychology is now one of the most popular subjects in UK higher education, with the most recent data suggesting that there are some 45,000 full-time students currently enrolled on such programmes (compiled from Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) statistics available at www.HESA.ac.uk) and it is likely that this number has not yet peaked.

    The popularity of psychology is related to a number of reasons, not the least of which is its scope and breadth – psychology is a sprawling discipline that seeks to analyse the human mind and behaviour, which is fascinating in its own right. Furthermore, psychology aims to develop other skills – numeracy, communication and critical analysis, to name but a few. For these reasons, many employers seek out psychology graduates – they bring a whole host of skills to the workplace and any activities they may be involved in. This book brings together the knowledge base associated with psychology along with these critical skills. By reading this book, and engaging with the exercises, you will develop these skills and, in this way, will do two things: excel in your studies and your assessments, and put yourself at the front of the queue of psychology graduates when it comes to demonstrating these skills to potential employers.

    Developing Higher-level Skills

    Only about 15–20 per cent of psychology graduates end up working as professional psychologists. The subject is a useful platform for many other careers because of the skills it helps you to develop. It is useful to employers because of its subject-specific skills – knowing how people act is pertinent in almost any job and is particularly relevant to those that involve working directly with people. Psychology also develops a number of generic and transferable skills that are both essential to effective undergraduate study and valuable to employers. These include higher-level intellectual skills such as critical and creative thinking, reflection, evaluation and analysis, and other skills such as communication, problem solving, understanding and using data, decision making, organisational skills, teamworking and IT skills.

    The Quality Assurance Agency in Higher Education (QAA) subject benchmarks for psychology (www.qaa.ac.uk/Publications/InformationAndGuidance/Pages/Subject-benchmark-statement—Psychology.aspx), which set out the expectations of a psychology degree programme, highlight the sorts of skills that your degree should equip you with. The British Psychological Society (BPS), which accredits your degree course, acknowledges that graduate employability is an important area of focus for universities and expects that opportunities for skills development should be well embedded within your programme of study. Indeed, this is a major focus of your study – interesting as psychology is, you will need and want employment at the end of your degree.

    The activities in this book have been designed to help you build the underpinning skills that you need in order to become independent and lifelong learners, and to meet the relevant requirements of your programme of study, the QAA benchmarks and the needs of you and your potential employer.

    Many students find it a challenge to develop these skills, often learning them out of context of their study of the core knowledge domains of psychology. The activities in this book aim to help you to learn these skills at the same time as developing your core psychology knowledge, giving you opportunities continuously to practise skills so that they become second nature to you. The tasks provide guidance on what the skill is, how to develop basic competence in it and how to progress to further expertise. At the same time, development of these skills will enable you to better understand and retain the core content of your course – being able to evaluate, analyse and interpret content is the key to deepening understanding.

    The skills that the activities in this book will help you to develop are as presented in Table 0.1.

    In addition to review and essay questions, each chapter in this book will contain novel learning activities. Your responses will be guided through these activities and you will then be able to apply these skills within the context of biological psychology.

    Features in this book

    At the start of each chapter there will be learning outcomes. These are a set of bullet points that highlight the outcomes you should achieve – both skills and knowledge – if you read and engage with the chapter. This will mean at the outset of the chapter that we try to orientate you, the reader, and demonstrate the relevance of the topic.

    Table 0.1: Skills Developed in this Book
    Generic skillsTransferable skills
    • critical and creative thinking• communication: oral, visual and written
    • reflection• problem solving
    • analysing and evaluating• understanding and using data
    • decision making
    • organisational skills
    • teamwork
    • information technology
    • independent learning

    We have also included learning features throughout the individual chapters in order to demonstrate key points and promote your learning.

    • Bulleted lists are used within the chapter to convey key content messages.
    • Case studies are included as part of a critical thinking activity.
    • Tasks are a series of short review questions on the topic that will help you assess yourself and your current level of knowledge – use these to see if you can move on or whether you need to reread and review the material.
    • Critical thinking activities allow for the review of the text by encouraging key critical and creative thinking of the psychology material presented, and provide development of the generic skills. Each of these activities is followed by a Critical thinking review, which unpicks the activity for you, showing how it should have been tackled, the main skill it develops and other skills you may have used in completing the activity.
    • Skill builder activities use the psychology material presented in the text but focus on one particular transferable skill as outlined in Table 0.1. Each of these activities is followed by a Skill builder review, which may provide further hints and which makes explicit the skills it helps to develop and the benefits of completing the activity.

    At the end of the chapter there will also be some pedagogic features that you will find useful in developing your abilities.

    • Assignments In order to assess your awareness and understanding of the topic, we have also produced a series of questions for you to discuss and debate with your colleagues. You can also use these questions as revision materials.
    • Summary: what you have learned At the end of each chapter we present a summary of the chapter as a series of bullet points. We hope that these will match the learning outcomes presented at the outset of the chapter.
    • Further reading We have included items that will provide additional information – some of these are in journals and some are full texts. For each we have provided the rationale for suggesting the additional reading and we hope that these will direct you accordingly.
    • Glossary entries are highlighted in bold in the text on their first appearance in a chapter.
    • Finally, there is a full set of references to support all of the material presented in this text.

    We hope you enjoy this text, which is part of a series of textbooks covering the complete knowledge base of psychology.

    Professor Dominic UptonMarch 2014
  • Glossary

    acetylcholine

    the first neurotransmitter to have been discovered – it is produced by cholinergic neurons and found in both the central and peripheral nervous systems.

    acuity

    the precision or sharpness of vision.

    adrenal glands

    glands found directly above the kidneys in the human body; responsible for the release of certain hormones into the blood supply.

    adrenaline

    also known as epinephrine – a hormone and a neurotransmitter. Adrenaline is released when people are in stressful situations, and it prepares the body to deal with threats.

    afferent

    carrying information towards the central nervous system.

    agonist

    a chemical that triggers responses in a cell by binding to a receptor of the cell.

    alexithymia

    the inability to consciously experience emotion.

    allostatic load

    the physiological wear and tear caused by repeated activation of the body's stress responses.

    amino acid

    an organic compound that is a building block for protein.

    amygdala

    an almond-shaped area of the brain within the temporal lobe that is believed to govern emotional processing.

    anorexia nervosa

    an eating disorder most commonly occurring in girls and women, associated with food restriction and a distorted body image.

    antagonist

    a chemical that blocks a response in the cell caused by an agonist.

    anterior insular cortex (AI)

    part of the cerebral cortex, located deep in the lateral sulcus.

    anterograde amnesia

    a loss in the ability to encode new memories, most likely to be caused by disease or brain surgery that affects the hippocampus.

    anticonvulsant

    a drug treatment designed to prevent or treat seizures associated with conditions such as epilepsy.

    arcuate fasciculus

    bundle of nerve fibres that connects language areas to each other.

    attachment

    an emotional bond between individuals.

    autonomic nervous system (ANS)

    involuntary nervous system, controlling visceral functions.

    axial section

    also called transverse, horizontal, or transaxial plane – divides the brain into superior and inferior parts.

    blastocyst

    a mass of cells that forms early during development.

    bottom-up

    a theory that claims that perception relies only on the information contained in the stimulus. This is in contrast to a top-down approach to perception.

    Broca's area

    language area in the frontal lobe of left hemisphere that is active in producing speech.

    bulimia nervosa

    an eating disorder most commonly occurring in women, associated with binge eating and purging.

    burnout

    normally related to exhaustion as a result of work pressure, and can lead to problems in both work and home life.

    central nervous system (CNS)

    the brain and the spinal cord – integrates and coordinates information received from the rest of the body.

    cerebral blood flow

    the distribution of blood to areas of the brain.

    chromatin structure

    a combination of DNA and proteins that form the contents of a cell nucleus.

    chromosome

    a structure made up of DNA and proteins that contain genes and are found in the nucleus of every cell; humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs).

    cochlear coding

    the arrangement of the cochlea whereby low frequency sounds produce maximal stimulation towards the tip of the cochlea, and high frequency sounds produce maximal stimulation towards its base.

    concept map

    a visual representation of the relationship between two or more key concepts.

    contralateral

    situated on the opposite side.

    convergence

    an organisation principle in the retina, where information from more than one receptor cell converges onto one ganglion cell.

    convergent evolution

    evolutionary processes that independently produce similarities between distant species (e.g. the wings of birds and insects).

    coronal section

    also known as the frontal plane – divides the brain into ventral and dorsal (or front and back) sections.

    cortex

    the layered, folded structure of neural tissue, forming the outermost part of the brain – known as the ‘thinking’ part of the brain.

    cortisol

    a hormone released by the adrenal glands when the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is triggered due to exposure to threat.

    CT scan

    a computerised tomography scan – a series of X-rays showing the structure of parts of the brain or body

    dementia

    a marked loss of cognitive ability and memory caused by various disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.

    diploid cell

    a cell that contains two sets of chromosomes (one from each parent).

    DNA

    deoxyribonucleic acid – a molecule that contains genetic instructions for proteins needed in the development and growth of an organism.

    DNA methylation

    within the field of epigenetics this refers to the attachment or substitution of a methyl group to DNA.

    dopamine

    a neurotransmitter associated with motivation and pleasure.

    dopaminergic system

    areas that use dopamine as their synaptic transmitter.

    duplexity theory of vision

    vision is mediated by rod cells at low light levels (e.g. at night), and by cones at higher levels of light (e.g. in the day).

    ECG

    electrocardiography – the measurement of the electrical activity of the heart, recorded by sensors placed on the skin

    EEG

    electroencephalography – the recording of brain electrical activity using electrodes placed on the surface of the scalp.

    efferent

    carrying information away from the central nervous system.

    electrophysiology

    the study of the electrical activity of the nervous system.

    EMG

    electromyography – the recording of the electrical activity associated with muscular movements.

    emotional stimulus

    an object or event that can produce a strong emotional reaction.

    endocrine system

    cells, tissues and glands that release hormones directly into the bloodstream.

    endogenous

    substances that are created from within the organism.

    enteric nervous system

    sub-division of the autonomic nervous system, controlling gastrointestinal processes.

    EOG

    electrooculography – the recording of the electrical activity associated with eye movements.

    epidemiological study

    a study that focuses on disease frequencies and potential causes within the human population.

    epilepsy

    a set of chronic neurologically based medical conditions that cause seizures in the sufferer.

    ERP

    event-related potential – an analysis technique used with EEG data to measure the timing of brain activity in relation to an external event.

    estradiol

    the primary form of oestrogen produced by the ovary.

    evolutionary fitness

    ability to survive and reproduce, passing on genes to the next generation.

    exteroceptive

    a sensory system that reacts to stimuli from outside the body.

    fast adaptors

    mechanoreceptors that show adaptation.

    fight or flight response

    a physiological reaction to danger that prepares the body either to stay and fight or to flee from the threat.

    fMRI

    functional magnetic resonance imaging – a brain imaging technique used to measure neural activity.

    fovea

    the area at the centre of the retina that allows for vision of high precision in the centre of the visual field

    FOXP2 gene

    a gene-encoding protein that is important in speech production.

    free-rider

    an individual who reaps benefits without paying costs.

    function

    reason why a trait has evolved; the evolutionary benefits of a trait.

    gamete

    a sex cell (egg or sperm).

    gene

    a segment of DNA that is located on a chromosome. Genes act as a set of instructions that allow characteristics to be passed from parents to their offspring.

    genetic marker

    a sequence of DNA that indicates an increased likelihood of a specific characteristic, trait or event occurring.

    genotype

    the underlying genetic composition of an individual.

    Geschwind's territory

    language-related area in the parietal lobule, connecting other brain areas.

    glial cell

    a cell that maintains the nervous system.

    glucocorticoids

    a group of corticosteroids (such as cortisol or dexamethasone) produced by the adrenal glands and involved mainly in the metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat.

    glycogen

    a complex carbohydrate used for short-term energy storage.

    grey matter

    neural tissue found in the brain and spinal cord that contains nerve-cell bodies and nerve fibres. The matter is grey in colour as it does not contain myelin, which gives other areas of neural tissue a white colour.

    gyrus

    a ridge on the surface of the brain, often surrounded by sulci (see sulcus).

    haploid cell

    a cell that contains one complete set of chromosomes.

    hyoid bone

    horseshoe-shaped bone in the mid-anterior neck, allowing for speech.

    hypothalamic–pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis

    part of the neuroendocrine system that regulates bodily functions such as temperature, immune function and energy use. The HPA axis also plays a major role in helping the body to maintain a response to threat.

    hypothalamus

    located in the middle of the brain below the thalamus. This cortical area is responsible for the regulation and coordination of many key body functions including the body's response to threat.

    inferior parietal lobule

    see Geschwind's territory.

    interoceptive

    reacting to stimuli from our internal environments.

    interoceptive awareness

    awareness of one's bodily states (such as heartbeat, gut sensations).

    larynx

    the ‘voice box’, an organ in the neck that is active in breathing and sound production.

    lateral sulcus

    a fissure that divides frontal and parietal lobes from the temporal lobe.

    lip smacking

    sound produced by pressing lips together fast, a form of communication used by many primates.

    lymph

    a clear fluid that contains white blood cells and circulates throughout the lymphatic system. Lymph removes bacteria and some proteins from the tissues and delivers mature lymphocytes into blood system.

    macroglia

    a constellation of several types of glial cells that maintain the nervous system.

    maladaptive behaviour

    behaviour that is unhelpful and often counterproductive, whereas adaptive behaviour refers to useful and appropriate behaviour.

    mechanoreceptor

    a neuron that fires an action potential in response to physical movement.

    MEG

    magnetoencephalography – recording of the magnetic fields produced by the brain, using sensors placed next to the scalp.

    memory

    the process of encoding information from the short-term store into long-

    consolidation

    term store.

    microglia

    small glial cells that dispose parts of dead neurons.

    microorganism

    any organism that is too small to see with the naked eye and so must be viewed under a microscope.

    mirror neuron system

    neuronal system that ‘mirrors’ the behaviour of others.

    modality

    a type of physical energy that can be sensed.

    monoamine

    a group of neurotransmitters that includes serotonin and dopamine.

    MRI

    magnetic resonance imaging – a technique to produce detailed pictures of the structure of the brain.

    multisensory integration

    the study of how signals from the different senses are combined by the brain.

    multi-store model of memory

    a theoretical model of memory processing suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. It comprises three different memory stores: sensory memory, short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM).

    neurotrophin

    protein that regulates the development and maintenance of the nervous system.

    nociceptor

    somatosensory receptor for pain – free nerve ending that initiates action potentials in the presence of stimuli that cause tissue damage.

    non-clinical population

    member of the general public who is not suffering from a specific medical condition – whereas a clinical population is a group of people who are suffering from a certain medical condition and are being studied.

    obesogenic environment

    an environment characterised by widespread availability of inexpensive unhealthy food that contributes to the prevalence of obesity.

    occupational strain

    a negative physical and/or emotional response to job pressures such as increased workloads or hostile work environments, which can result in physical problems such as hypertension or insomnia.

    oxytocin

    a neurotransmitter associated with social relationships and bonding.

    parasympathetic autonomic nervous system (pANS)

    responsible for activities that occur when body is at rest (sexual arousal, tears, digestion, etc).

    pathogen

    any agent that has the ability to cause disease. The term may relate to viruses, bacteria or fungi.

    peripheral nervous system (PNS)

    part of the nervous system; consists of nerves from outside of the central nervous system, and connects the central nervous system to other parts of the body.

    PET

    positron emission tomography. This traces the movement of a radioactive substance in the nervous system, producing detailed pictures about the functional processes in the brain.

    phenotype

    the expressed, observable physical and behavioural characteristics of an individual, which are part of the underlying genotype.

    phonology

    branch of linguistics dealing with how sounds are organised in different languages.

    phonetics

    study of the structural properties of speech sounds.

    phylogeny

    an evolutionary history of a species.

    Prader Willi syndrome

    a condition characterised by a constant desire to eat food and motivated by a permanent feeling of hunger.

    prospective study

    a study that starts at the present time and observes changes within the chosen population over time. Prospective studies within the health psychology field are normally designed to observe who and why healthy people in a population become ill.

    proximate explanation

    an explanation that looks at HOW something works. In biological psychology, proximate explanations are often dealing with genes, the brain, neurotransmitters and hormones. Proximate explanations are about things that happen in the lifetime of an individual, often within the body of an individual.

    psychosocial factors

    psychological and social influences that can affect how a person functions.

    psychotherapeutic interventions

    a set of non-medication-based treatments that use psychological techniques in order to treat mental health disorders.

    qualia

    the subjective, felt aspects of our mental lives.

    receptive field

    the region of space in which stimulation will change the firing rate of a neuron.

    receptor organ

    an organ that contains receptor cells that respond to stimulation (for example, the eyes, the ears).

    recursive grammar

    the embedding of clauses within sentences.

    reticular formation

    region of neural networks in the brainstem.

    rodent model

    research on a rodent, often using invasive techniques that could not be used in humans. The results are used in speculating the causes for human behaviour.

    sagittal section

    vertical plane that divides the brain into left and right halves.

    SCR

    skin conductance response – the recording of the electrical activity of the skin, which varies in its moisture level, providing a measure of sympathetic nervous system activity.

    semantics

    branch of linguistics interested in the meaning of words.

    sensory modality

    a way of sensing associated with sound, vision, touch, smell or taste.

    serotonin

    a neurotransmitter with a wide range of functions.

    severe language impairment (SLI)

    difficulties in understanding, processing and producing language.

    sex hormones

    a set of hormones such as oestrogen and testosterone that are responsible for the growth or maintenance of the reproductive organs, the development of secondary sex characteristics, and sexual behaviour.

    sign language

    language that is produced with signs, but still follows a grammatical rule.

    single-unit recording

    the recording of the electrical activity of a single neuron in the brain, using a microelectrode.

    slow adaptors

    mechanoreceptors that show no adaptation.

    social cognition

    processes involved in the encoding, storage and retrieval of social information.

    somatic nervous system (SNS)

    voluntary nervous system that controls, for example, movements of the body.

    spatial resolution

    the precision with which a spatial position can measured.

    stressor

    a stimulus, such as an event or situation, that induces a physiological stress response.

    sulcus

    a depression, or a furrow, on the surface of the brain.

    Sylvian fissure

    see lateral sulcus.

    sympathetic autonomic nervous system (sANS)

    prepares the body for ‘fight or flight’ action.

    syntax

    the specific structuring of words and sentences.

    temporal resolution

    the precision with which the time that an event happened can be measured.

    testosterone

    a sex hormone that exerts both organisational and activational effects.

    thalamocortical system

    reciprocal connections between thalamus and cortex.

    theory of mind

    the ability to understand other individuals as intentional creatures.

    top-down

    an approach to perception that emphasises the importance of contextual factors (expectations, goals, knowledge) in the process of perception, in contrast to a bottom-up approach.

    topographic mapping

    the ordered projection of cells from the receptor organ to the brain.

    transduction

    the process of converting a physical stimulus into neural signals.

    traumatic memory

    emotional memories for life events that have been traumatic, such as car accidents or exposure to natural disasters.

    ultimate question

    a question that deals with the evolutionary functions of a trait or a behaviour. What reproductive/survival advantages did the trait have for ancestral humans?

    vasopressin

    a hormone associated with reabsorption of water and blood pressure.

    visual agnosia

    an impairment in object recognition.

    Wernicke's area

    language area in the left cerebral cortex that is active in understanding speech.

    working memory model

    a theoretical model of short-term memory suggested by Baddeley and Hitch (1974).

    zygote

    two gametes (sperm and egg) joining together to form an initial cell during sexual reproduction.

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