Big City Politics in Transition
Publication Year: 1991
“Big City Politics in Transition is a good reference volume packed with much important and up-to-date information.” --Environment and Planning “A timely book that revisits the field so well described by Edward Banfield (Big City Politics, 1965) as of the early 1960s but which has changed greatly since then. … Each profile shows a high level of research, and the notes provide a thorough bibliography of the literature. A tremendously useful book for readers at all levels.” --Choice “This book was inspired by Edward Banfield's Big City Politics of 1965. [In Big City Politics in Transition] the introduction amply justifies the need for a new volume.… This multiauthored volume examines thirteen cities: Boston, Philadelphia, Chicago, Detroit, Saint Louis, Atlanta, Miami, New Orleans, Denver, Houston, Los ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Introduction: Big City Politics, Then and Now
- Chapter 2: Boston: The Incomplete Transformation
- Chapter 3: Philadelphia: The Slide toward Municipal Bankruptcy
- Chapter 4: Chicago: Power, Race, and Reform
- Chapter 5: Detroit: From Motor City to Service Hub
- Chapter 6: St. Louis: Racial Transition and Economic Development
- Chapter 7: Atlanta: Urban Coalitions in a Suburban Sea
- Chapter 8: Miami: Minority Empowerment and Regime Change
- Chapter 9: New Orleans: The Ambivalent City
- Chapter 10: Denver: Boosterism versus Growth
- Chapter 11: Houston: Administration by Economic Elites
- Chapter 12: Los Angeles: Transformation of a Governing Coalition
- Chapter 13: San Francisco: Postmaterialist Populism in a Global City
- Chapter 14: Seattle: Grassroots Politics Shaping the Environment
- Chapter 15: Conclusion: End of the Millennium Big City Politics
International Editorial Advisory Board[Page ii]
ROBERT B. ALFORD,University of California, Santa Cruz
HOWARD S. BECKER,Northwestern University
BRIAN J.L. BERRY,Carnegie Mellon University
ASA BRIGGS,Worcester College, Oxford University
SPERIDIAO FAISSOL,Rio de Janero State University
JEAN GOTTMANN,Oxford University
SCOTT GREER,University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee
BERTRAM M. GROSS,St. Mary's College of California
PETER HALL,University of Reading, England, and University of California, Berkeley
ROBERT J. HAVIGHURST,University of Chicago
EIICHI ISOMURA,Tokyo University
ELIZABETH LICHTENBERGER,University of Vienna
M.I. LOGAN,Monash University
WILLIAM C. LORING,Center for Disease Control, Atlanta
AKIN L. MABOGUNJE,Ibadan, Nigeria
MARTIN MEYERSON,University of Pennsylvania
EDUARDO NEIRA – ALVA,CEPAL, Mexico City
ELINOR OSTROM,Indiana University
P.J.O. SELF,London School of Economics and Political Science
Copyright © 1991 by Sage Publications, Inc.
All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.
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Printed in the United States of America
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Main entry under title:
Big city politics in transition / [edited by] H. V. Savitch, John Clayton Thomas.
p. cm. — (Urban affairs annual reviews; v. 38)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8039-4030-0 (c). — ISBN 0-8039-4031-9 (p)
1. Municipal government—United States—Case Studies.
I. Savitch, H. V. II. Thomas, John Clayton. III. Series.
HT108.U7 vol. 38
92 93 94 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3
Sage Production Editor: Judith L. Hunter
To my wife, Marilyn, for the love she has given me and for sharing my love of big cities.JCT[Page vi]
To my sons, Adam and Jonathan, whose souls were nurtured in great cities.HVS
This book is equally the product of the two of us. It belongs, however, to the scholars of urban politics. This book was inspired by a slim volume edited by pioneering urban scholar Edward Banfield 25 years ago, and was conceived at a cocktail party among contemporary urban scholars at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association just two years ago. Most of our contributors are members of the APSA's Urban Politics Section and/or the Urban Affairs Association. Not the least, the book's substance reflects decades of scholarly research and discussion by scholars affiliated with the APSA and the UAA. Two panels, one at the UAA 1991 Annual Meeting (Vancouver, B.C.), and the other at the APSA 1991 Annual Meeting (in Washington, D.C.), are enabling us to take stock of this work. We hope we have done intellectual justice to our professional associations and to our colleagues.
On a more personal note, we thank Dennis Judd and Clarence Stone for their encouragement, their good words, and their good works. At Sage Publications, Blaise Donnelly provided us with ideas for the book's readership, with editorial support, and most especially, with a panoramic view of San Francisco from atop the Hilton Hotel to inspire a brainstorming session with the book's contributors.
At the University of Louisville, Hank Savitch wishes to thank the faculties of the Ph.D. and MPA programs as well as friends in Political Science. Hank is personally grateful to Landis Jones for his support, patience, and good fellowship. Ron Vogel, who co-taught a graduate seminar with Hank, offered the right kind of skepticism at the perfect moment—just as Hank thought he was going to convince students of a dubious point. Two graduate research assistants, David Collins and Dan Sanders, did wonderful work in gathering data, editing material, and offering valuable critiques.
At the University of Missouri-Kansas City, John Thomas wishes to thank the faculty of the L. P. Cookingham Institute of Public Affairs in the Henry W. Bloch School of Business and Public Administration. Bill Eddy, Dean of the Bloch School, deserves special thanks for his support of John's effort to prepare this book while also holding administrative appointment as Director [Page x]of the Cookingham Institute. Graduate assistant Dan Hoxworth also helped with library research, as well as by offering an occasional contrasting perspective on the complexities of big city politics. Finally, Lauretha Cobb, secretary to the Cookingham Institute, provided invaluable assistance—often on short notice—on many parts of the manuscript's preparation.
About the Contributors[Page 257]
CAROLYN TEICH ADAMS has been a member of the faculty at Temple University for 15 years, teaching courses in urban public policy, economic development, housing, and program evaluation. She has authored numerous articles and books, including an award-winning cross-national study, Comparative Public Policy: The Politics of Social Choice in Europe and America, now in its third edition. In 1988 she published The Politics of Capital Investment, a study of Philadelphia's pattern of investment in public facilities and the impact of those facilities on the city's neighborhoods. Her other work on Philadelphia includes a coauthored book on the city's political and economic history since World War II, published in 1991 in the Temple University Press Comparative Cities Series.
PHILLIP L. CLAY is a distinguished scholar of the American city. An undergraduate honors graduate of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, he holds a Ph.D. in City Planning from MIT, where he now teaches courses on housing, urban demographics, and community development. From 1980 to 1984, he served as Assistant Director of the MIT-Harvard Joint Center of Urban Studies. He has lectured widely and made presentations to professional and community groups. He is author of Neighborhood Renewal (1979) and (with Robert Hollister) Neighborhood Planning and Politics (1983).
RICHARD E. DeLEON is Professor of Political Science, Urban Studies, and Public Administration at San Francisco State University. His work focuses on urban social movements and growth control politics in U.S. cities. He is writing a book on San Francisco politics.
JOE R. FEAGIN received his Ph.D. from Harvard University and recently became Graduate Research Professor in Sociology at the University of Florida, Gainesville. His research interests include urban sociology, racial and ethnic relations, social problems, and public policy. He is the author or [Page 258]coauthor of more than 90 research articles and monographs and more than 20 books, including Free Enterprise City: Houston in Political and Economic Perspective (1988). Feagin's Ghetto Revolts was nominated for a Pulitzer Prize. Presently, he is at work on a book with Mel Sikes, featuring hundreds of in-depth interviews with African Americans, demonstrating the continuing significance of race in American society.
BARBARA FERMAN is Associate Professor of Political Science at Illinois Institute of Technology. She was a Visiting Assistant Professor at Barnard College, Columbia University. From 1983 to 1985, she was director of research for the New York City Community Development Agency. She is author of Governing the Ungovernable City: Political Skill, Leadership and the Modern Mayor (1985) and coauthor of The Political Hand: Policy Implementation and Youth Employment Programs (1985). She is author of numerous articles and papers on urban politics, public policy, and implementation. She is currently writing a book on growth machine politics and political change in Pittsburgh and Chicago. Ferman is a member of the editorial boards of Urban Affairs Quarterly and Policy and Politics. She holds a Ph.D. in political science from Brandeis University (1983).
ARNOLD FLEISCHMANN is Associate Professor of Political Science at the University of Georgia. He received his Ph.D. from The University of Texas. His research has concentrated on the politics of urban development and has appeared in the Journal of Politics, Public Administration Review, Social Science Quarterly, Urban Affairs Quarterly, and other journals.
ANDREW D. GLASSBERG is Associate Professor of Political Science and Public Policy Administration at the University of Missouri-St. Louis. He holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from Yale University. His main research interest is in urban administration. Together with colleagues at the University of Missouri-Columbia and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, he serves as editor of the American Review of Public Administration. His research involves both American and comparative urban administration. He has studied local governments and their response to budgetary problems in the United States and United Kingdom. He is the author of Representation and Urban Community, a study of neighborhood government in London, and Public Administration Review articles on urban fiscal crises in the United States. He is currently studying the utilization of citizen evaluation of public services by the City of St. Louis and administrative responses to privatization in British local government.
[Page 259]MARGARET T. GORDON is Dean and Professor at the Graduate School of Public Affairs at the University of Washington. Before assuming the deanship in 1988, she was Director of the Center for Urban Affairs and Policy Research and Professor of Journalism and Sociology at Northwestern University. She coedited Urban Affairs Quarterly from 1981 to 1985. In 1989 she published The Female Fear with her colleague Stephanie Riger. The book, which focuses attention on the role of society's institutions in women's fear as it relates to rape, was selected by the American Library Association as one of the most important books of 1989. It will be published in paperback in 1991. Her other research examines the relationship of the news media to public policy. In addition to studying the impacts of news coverage of violent crime, including rape, Gordon and her colleagues have done an extensive study of news investigations and their influence on public policy. Their work has appeared in several scholarly journals and will be published in 1991 as The Journalism of Outrage. She received her Ph.D. from Northwestern University.
DENNIS JUDD is Professor and Chair in the Department of Political Science, University of Missouri-St. Louis. He has published extensively on urban political economy, urban revitalization, and public policy. Recent books include The Politics of American Cities; The Development of American Public Policy (with David Brian Robertson); Regenerating the Cities (coedited with Michael Parkinson and Bernard Foley); Leadership and Urban Regeneration (coedited with Michael Parkinson); and The Democratic Facade (with Daniel Hellinger). He is coeditor of the Urban Affairs Quarterly. He now is working on a book dealing with enclosed spaces and the new forms of segregation.
HUBERT G. LOCKE is Professor, Graduate School of Public Affairs, University of Washington. He served as Dean of the School from 1982–1988. A native of Detroit, he served as Administrative Assistant to the city's Commissioner of Police from 1966–1967, on the staff of the Wayne County Planning Commission, and the research staff of the Metropolitan Fund. From 1972–1976, he was Dean of the College of Public Affairs and Associate Professor of Urban Studies at the University of Nebraska at Omaha. He is the author of The Detroit Riot of 1967 and of numerous articles and essays on urban policing in America.
LAURIE McCUTCHEON is president of McCutcheon Demographic Research, a firm she began in 1986. The firm's focus is on applying sociodemographic and economic information to issues important to the [Page 260]public and private sectors. McCutcheon conducts research on demographic issues as they relate to such areas as labor force shortages, migration, education, health care, housing, and growth. She is currently completing a study of the causes and consequences of declining homeownership in the Seattle area in order to help design private-sector initiatives to respond to the decline in affordable housing. Previously, she has conducted research on the changing family in Washington State and changes in the labor force in the area. She is affiliated with the Graduate School of Public Affairs, Institute for Public Policy and Management at the University of Washington. She received her Ph.D. in Sociology with a specialty in demography from Brown University in 1977.
ROBERT E. PARKER received his Ph.D. from The University of Texas and is Assistant Professor of Sociology at the University of Nevada, Las Vegas. His research interests include urban sociology, the sociology of work, and race and ethnic relations. Recently, he co-authored Building American Cities (1990) with Joe R. Feagin. He has authored several other chapters on Houston dealing with such aspects as political change and economic restructuring. He is currently engaged in an analysis of the social costs stemming from rapid urbanization in southern Nevada, and is working on a manuscript on the temporary help industry and its workers.
WILBUR RICH received his Ph.D. in Political Science from the University of Illinois. Before coming to Wayne State, he held positions with the Illinois Department of Mental Health, Connecticut Department of Mental Health, and Columbia University. He has taught at the University of Illinois, University of Michigan, and University of Wisconsin. He has acted as consultant, researcher, and program evaluator for a variety of public-sector agencies and local governments. His primary areas of research are municipal personnel policy, urban politics, and school politics. He is the author of The Politics of Urban Personnel Policy: Reformers, Politicians, and Bureaucrats (1982) and Coleman Young and Detroit Politics: From Social Activist to Power Broker (1989). In addition, he has published several articles and reports concerning local government administrative problems. He currently serves on the editorial board of Wayne State University Press and three academic journals. Professor Rich was also one of the winners of Wayne State University's Career Development Chair Award for the academic year 1989–1990.
ALAN L. SALTZSTEIN is Professor of Political Science and Coordinator of Public Administration programs at California State University, Fullerton. He [Page 261]holds a Ph.D. in Political Science from UCLA. He is the author of Public Employees and Policymaking and several articles dealing with urban politics and personnel policymaking in cities. His recent research has included an analysis of the effect of Proposition 13 on budgetary decision making, and he has authored several articles with Raphael Sonenshein on Los Angeles city politics.
H. V. SAVITCH is Professor of Urban Policy at the College of Urban and Public Affairs, University of Louisville. He has authored books and written scholarly articles in urban affairs. His books include Urban Policy and the Exterior City (Pergamon, 1979) and Post Industrial Cities (Princeton, 1988). He has directed federally sponsored projects on the planning and administration of urban communities and has been a consultant to the current mayor of New York City, David Dinkins. This former Fulbright Scholar has lectured and been a resident researcher at the University of Paris, the Ecole Normale Superieur, the Institute of Urban and Physical Planning (Warsaw Polytechnic), and the London School of Economics.
RAPHAEL J. SONENSHEIN is an Associate Professor of Political Science at California State University, Fullerton. His writings on interracial politics have appeared in the Western Political Quarterly, the Political Science Quarterly, and in several book chapters. He has coauthored several studies about Los Angeles politics and government with Alan Saltzstein and is currently completing a book on biracial coalition politics in Los Angeles.
WILLIAM B. STAFFORD is the Executive Director of the Trade Development Alliance of Greater Seattle. Between 1971 and 1990, he was with the City of Seattle in a number of positions, including Deputy Mayor to Charles Royer and Director of the Office of Intergovernmental Relations. He was responsible for the national, state, regional, and international relations of the city. He is a graduate of Colorado College and has an MBA from Columbia University. He is an Adjunct Assistant Professor at the Graduate School of Public Administration of the University of Washington. He has been involved in a number of national, state, and regional urban advisory committees, chairing the National Urban Consortium among the big cities on urban research in 1980. He was chosen by the Seattle-King County Municipal League as outstanding public official in 1986.
GENIE N. L. STOWERS is Assistant Professor of Political Science and Public Affairs at the University of Alabama at Birmingham. She has done extensive research on ethnic politics and ethnic groups' ability to influence urban [Page 262]politics; much of this work has focused upon Cuban-Americans in Miami. She also works, within an urban context, on the financing and delivering of human services.
JOHN CLAYTON THOMAS is Professor of Public Administration and Director of the L. P. Cookingham Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Missouri Kansas City. His work has appeared in Public Administration Review, Urban Affairs Quarterly, the American Journal of Political Science, the Journal of Urban Affairs, and other journals. He is also the author of Between Citizen and City: Neighborhood Organizations and Urban Politics in Cincinnati.
RONALD K. VOGEL is an assistant professor of political science at the University of Louisville. His articles have appeared in Urban Affairs Quarterly, the Journal of Urban Affairs, and Economic Development Quarterly. He is author of a forthcoming book on local political economy. His research focuses on the dynamics of business-government relations in the community and how this affects the quality of life.
ROBERT K. WHELAN is Professor and Associate Dean in the College of Urban and Public Affairs at the University of New Orleans. He is coauthor of Urban Policy and Politics in a Bureaucratic Age, and he has authored (or coauthored) numerous articles, book chapters, and papers. His current research interests center on the politics of urban economic development in New Orleans and in Canadian cities.
CARTER WHITSON is a doctoral candidate in the Political Science Department of the University of Missouri-St. Louis. His scholarly interest is in urban political economy and policy. “Denver: Boosterism Versus Growth” is his first published work.
ALMA H. YOUNG is Professor of Urban and Regional Planning and Director of the Ph.D. Program in Urban Studies, College of Urban and Public Affairs at the University of New Orleans. She has been actively involved in planning initiatives and other civic activities in the City of New Orleans. Her research areas include the political economy of urban development, women and development, and Caribbean political developments. She is a former president of the Caribbean Studies Association and the coeditor of Militarization in the Non-Hispanic Caribbean./ (1986).