Being an Effective Headteacher
Assisting first-time headteachers make the transition to formal leadership, this resource provides essential support and encouragement to help them fulfill their potential as educational leaders.
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
© Trevor Male 2006
First published 2006
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted, in any form or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Inquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
Paul Chapman Publishing
A SAGE Publications Company
1 Oliver's Yard
London EC1Y 1SP
SAGE Publications Inc
2455 Teller Road
Thousand Oaks, California 91320
SAGE Publications India Pvt Ltd
B-42, Panchsheel Enclave
Post Box 4109
New Delhi 110 017
Library of Congress Control Number: 2006901999
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library
ISBN 10 1-4129-1997-5 ISBN 13 978-1-4129-1997-5
ISBN 10 1-4129-1998-3 ISBN 13 978-1-4129-1998-2 (pbk)
Typeset by Dorwyn Ltd, Wells, Somerset
Printed in Great Britain by Athenaeum Press, Gateshead, Tyne & Wear
Printed on paper from sustainable resources
To my son, Oliver. May he always enjoy effective headteachers.
Trevor Male[Page vi]
Trevor is a Senior Lecturer within the Centre for Educational Studies at the University of Hull where he is Director for the masters and doctoral programmes in educational leadership. He leads the university's provision for headteacher development and has worked as a trainer, assessor and consultant on National College for School Leadership (NCSL) programmes. Earlier in his career he served for eleven years as a teacher, for eight years as an LEA officer and was also a tutor/counsellor for the Open University for several years.
Trevor was awarded a PhD in Educational Leadership by the University of Lincoln in 2004 for his thesis on the personal, organizational and occupational dimensions of the transition to headship experienced by headteachers. His research interests are in the nature of school leadership and in the role of the headteacher in particular, where he has an extensive track record of research, publications and consultancy.
His work has been published widely in books and journals within the UK, the USA and elsewhere and he is a regular contributor to national and international conferences. He has established an excellent reputation both as a consultant and presenter on in-service activities both on a regional and national basis. In recent years he has been a Visiting Lecturer in the USA where he has strong links with colleagues from the universities of Northern Colorado, San Diego and Texas.
CPD Continuing Professional Development DfES Department for Education and Skills EI Emotional Intelligence EQ Emotional Quotient GTC General Teaching Council HE Higher Education HEI Higher Education Institution HEADLAMP Headteacher Leadership and Management Programme HIP Headteacher Induction Programme HMI Her Majesty's Inspectorate INSET In-service Education of Teachers IPH International Placement for Headteachers ISLLC Interstate School Leaders Licensure Consortium ITE Initial Teacher Education LEA Local Education Authority LftM Leading from the Middle LPSH Leadership Programme for Serving Headteachers NAHT National Association of Headteachers NASSP National Association of Secondary School Principals NCSL National College for School Leadership NEAC National Education Assessment Centre NLE National Leader of Education NPQH National Professional Qualification for Headship OTTO One Term Training Opportunities PIL Partnerships In Leadership SHA Secondary Headeachers Association SMTF School Management Task Force TDA Training and Development Agency TTA Teacher Training Agency USP Unique Selling Point
This book is primarily based on the model of headship in England whereby each school has it own, unique, identity and serves a community which is usually geographically defined. The role of headteacher has evolved since the inception of a compulsory education system for the nation's children in the latter stages of the nineteenth century and is posited on the notion that not only should there be a formal head of the school but also that that person should be both responsible for and directly involved in the teaching and student learning taking place within.
The unique nature of headship in England does not mean, however, that the book is not relevant to those who operate in other school systems, as the theory bases explored in demonstrating the nature of headship will be significant to those responsible for developing school leaders at a local, national or international level and to scholars in the field of school leadership. As formal leaders of the school, headteachers and principals are central to organized education systems and are commonly seen as the most influential figure in the success of their student body. Coming to terms with the demands of the job really involves reconciling a range of personal values and beliefs with the demands of the system and feeling comfortable in that position. This is a reciprocal process with both the individual and the system exerting influence on each other. Comfort is achieved when the personal value system of the headteacher correlates closely with the actual and perceived demands of the school and the society it serves. Effective headteachers, therefore, meet the learning needs of the student body and do so within a moral code that is acceptable to all stakeholders within the school community to which they are appointed.
Headship in England is established within a matrix of governance and management systems that tend to distinguish the job from other, similar, positions held in other school systems. Whilst the regulations relating to maintained schools and the position of headteacher are shared with Wales, there are fundamental cultural differences that separate the two countries [Page x]in terms of headship. Meanwhile structural differences and local political factors determine the task of formal school leadership in England generally to be different elsewhere in the United Kingdom and the rest of the world, with the exception of the nation's independent schools which tend to conform to similar social mores as those observed in the maintained sector.
There is an English factor which influences the model of headship explored here, therefore, with the consequence that the book is of direct relevance to anyone aspiring to headship and to newly appointed head-teachers in England, particularly those who are in the early stages of the transition to their new role. The contents will also be of interest to serving headteachers, however, who are seeking to achieve new understandings of their position and to re-shape their practice.
To complicate matters, this book is published at a juncture in the history of headship which may bring about significant changes to the nature of the job. At the time of writing there are significant problems with recruitment and retention nationally to this key school leadership post and to similar positions internationally. In England over 1500 headteacher jobs remained vacant at the beginning of 2006, with around 10 per cent of the nation's schools advertising for a new headteacher annually and re-advertisements reaching record levels. Conventional wisdom suggests that the challenges of the job have proved to be such that the post is no longer an attractive proposition for prospective headteachers. There is the distinct possibility that the traditional model of one headteacher for every school, which has been prevalent for most of the last century, is now compromised in the first instance by an absence of suitable candidates.
The demands on headteachers are also increasing with emphasis being placed on schools in England to widen their remit through the five point policy of ‘Every Child Matters’, which represents a more socially focused approach to child development than the more traditional academic expectations. The aim of central government is for every child, whatever their background or their circumstances, to have the support they need to be healthy, stay safe, enjoy and achieve, to make a positive contribution and achieve economic well-being. Consequently we have seen schools begin to offer a wider range of services and extend their provision. We can expect those demands to continue growing as the policy is underpinned by notions of multi-agency work being channelled through schools.
The twin factors of headteacher shortage and widening remit have led to a widespread expectation that the future success of the school system will be established through federating schools and developing system leadership as mechanisms for enhancing the quality of education. That discourse has reached policy levels, with the Secretary of State for Education indicating in her remit letter to the National College for School Leadership (NCSL) in December, 2005, that one the college's priorities for the next two years [Page xi]was to develop a register of potential executive headteachers, whose leadership skills could be used to enhance the wider school system and to investigate ways in which to accredit them as National Leaders of Education (NLEs). The possible ramifications of such a move could mean that either we will see a radical transformation of school systems or of school leadership. A government-sponsored encouragement to federate schools, run by executive headteachers, could answer a number of endemic issues within the maintained sector, including a reduction in the number of surplus school places in the nation (estimated to be a million) and a concomitant reduction in the number of headteachers required. The deployment of NLEs to become an effective source of advice and guidance to schools nationally would thus supplement their emerging local role as executive headteachers, appointed to take charge of multiple school sites.
Those prospects are still in the early stages of evolution, however, and could well remain as either fanciful imaginings or manifest themselves in other ways. Certainly a high degree of political activity is evident at the national level in this debate and the ambitions for ‘system leadership’ may yet founder on the rock of educational conservatism. At this stage, therefore, it is unlikely that the demands on the majority of serving or prospective headteachers will be radically altered during the next five years. The headteacher will remain the key professional figure capable of effecting change and improvement for their designated school. Consequently this book is about preparing for and entering headship, focusing on the quest to become effective in that job at the earliest opportunity.
The evidence for my conclusions is drawn from a variety of sources including a wide experience of instrumental working relationships with national, local and institutional leadership development activities, assimilation in the theoretical basis of effective school leadership and an extensive record of empirical research in the field, nationally and internationally. I have been closely associated with most initiatives in leadership and management development for headteachers since the mid-1980s, having served as an LEA officer responsible for professional development, as a liaison officer to a central government task force for school management, as an accredited trainer and assessor for the National Professional Qualification for Headship (NPQH) and as a provider on the nationally funded entry to headship programmes of the Headteacher Leadership and Management Programme (HEADLAMP) and Headteacher Induction Programme (HIP). Throughout this time I have accumulated a wealth of unpublished documentary evidence through engagement with the development of these initiatives.
Meanwhile, in my day job, I have been responsible for devising and running programmes in educational leadership and management at doctoral and masters levels in three universities in the UK, have been accorded Visiting Lecturer status in several overseas universities, and have also run [Page xii]many non-accredited programmes for hundreds of aspirant and serving headteachers, each of whom has provided me with fresh insights into the most challenging leadership position in the school system. My specialist research interest is in the field of formal school leadership, particularly headteachers and other similar positions world wide, and I have accumulated a wealth of data from surveys and field-based investigations. A range of publications has appeared in academic and professional journals as a result of this research record and I have been a regular contributor to national and international research conferences on headteacher and principal development. I would claim, therefore, a knowledge of school leadership in action that allows me to make recommendations as to how to become effective in such posts.
Nationally and internationally there have been moves in the last decade of the twentieth century to ensure the quality of formal school leaders through the provision of licensure schemes, underwritten by standards derived from the examination of successful leadership practice in a variety of occupations. Although there is evidence to suggest that the quality of school leadership has improved overall, my investigations into the transition to formal school leadership would suggest that beginning headteachers and principals are not fully prepared for their new job (Male, 1996; Daresh and Male, 2000; Male and Merchant, 2000), with these findings being reflected in similar, contemporary studies (for example, Dunning, 1996; Draper and McMichael, 1998). For first-time headteachers the consensus was that only about one in six felt they were adequately prepared for the challenges of headship (Earley et al., 2003).
My analysis of those findings and other relevant literature leads me to conclude that the transition to successful formal leadership encompasses development along three dimensions before the newly appointed leader really feels able to exhibit mastery of the associated tasks and to be the major influence in terms of organizational function. I have classified the three dimensions as personal, organizational and occupational and would argue that the emphasis within licensure schemes has been on developing the occupational dimension, leaving the other two dimensions to form part of a process of natural adaptation by the incumbent.
This ‘sink or swim’ approach to leadership development is clearly inadequate in school systems that require the new leader to be effective almost immediately. Typically we can see newly appointed school leaders going through several stages of development before feeling competent and confident in their new role, with the prospect of that process lasting several years without adequate learning experiences before appointment and the provision of appropriate support mechanisms through the transition period. This book aims to explore the learning needs and challenges presented along each of the three dimensions in order to help reach that position [Page xiii]more quickly. This general approach is then applied to the specific nature of headship in maintained and independent schools in England, seeking to aid individuals in their quest to become an effective headteacher.
At this stage I have chosen not to explore differences in headteacher style and behaviour that have been influenced by the gender, ethnicity or religion of the incumbent, preferring instead to focus on the nature of a job which still seeks common definition. As a nation we do not have a commonly accepted theory of headship and have tended to draw on theory and practice from other occupations or systems when identifying development opportunities. I believe we need such a theory in place before seeking to differentiate further. In time we could then establish dimensions of headship that are not only relevant to gender, ethnicity and religion, but also to the type, phase and context of individual schools. Those are tasks not to be taken lightly and ones that will not be undertaken in this edition of my work. Instead I have employed an asexual, amorphous model of headship with the intention that each reader will undertake the task of applying my conclusions to their circumstance.
The book is organized into seven chapters that focus on a career transition to that point where you feel comfortable, confident and competent in your new job, whether this is your first, second or multiple headship position. Chapters 1 and 2 establish the context and theory that underpin headship, with the remaining chapters charting the course to effective headship.
This book seeks to guide you through to effectiveness and is organized accordingly. Firstly we will explore the transition to formal leadership, in this case to the point where a headteacher feels competent and confident in role. To achieve that state, where you feel you have consolidated yourself within the job and the school, you will have explored: relevant literature and theory associated with the transition (Chapter 2); how to prepare for headship (Chapter 3); the content and value of the national standards for headteachers (Chapter 4); and how best to set about applying for and entering headship (Chapters 5 and 6). The final chapter aims to help you in your quest to reach the highest level, to become an effective headteacher. Chapter 7 will thus explore the consolidation and extension of headship whilst remembering that the first six chapters are essential to that level in much the same way that sound foundations are important to a good building and proper preparation leads to a better finish when decorating the house.
I still continue to investigate headship in the search for establishing effective theories for action and I would be delighted to hear from you if you think you could help me with this continuing research agenda. You can reach me by email at firstname.lastname@example.org. I look forward to hearing your responses.
The author and publisher would like to thank the following for giving permission to use the following:
Daresh, J. (1988) The pre-service preparation of American educational administrators: Retrospect and prospect. Paper presented at the Research Meeting of the British Educational Management and Administration Society (BEMAS), Cardiff, Wales, April.
Figure 4.1 from:
Boyzatsis, R. (1982) The Competent Manager: A model for effective performance. New York: John Wiley.
Figure 7.1 from:
Sawatzki, M. (1997) ‘Leading and managing staff for high performance’, in B. Davies and L. Ellison (eds), School Leadership for the 21st Century. London: Routledge.
Figure 7.2 from:
Wilson, J., George, J., Wellins, R. and Byman, W. (1994) Leadership Trapeze: Strategies for Leadership in Team-Based Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Reprinted with permission of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
References[Page 118][Page 124]1974) Theory in Practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.and (2005) Executive Headship: A study of heads who are leading two or more secondary or special schools. Nottingham: National College for School Leadership., , and (2001, March) The Professional Induction of Beginning Principals in Colorado. Paper presented to the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Seattle, USA.(Bass, B. (ed.) (1981) Stodgill's Handbook of Leadership. New York: Free Press.1964) ‘Personal change in adult life’, Sociometry, 27 (March): 40–53. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2785801(Bentley, T. and Wilsden, J. (eds) (2003) The Adaptive State. London: Demos.1997) ‘Management development for headteachers: Retrospect and prospect’, Educational Management & Administration, 25 (3): 265–83. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X97253004(2004) ‘Reflections on the NCSL from a historical perspective’, Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 32 (3): 251–67. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741143204044415(1993) National Evaluation of the Headteacher Mentoring Pilot Schemes: A report for the Department for Education. London: HMSO., , and (1992) The Ethics of Educational Management. London: Cassell.(2000) Education, Policy and Ethics. London: Continuum.(1982) The Competent Manager: A model for effective performance. New York: John Wiley.(1994) Socialization and Education: Essays in conceptual criticism. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.(2001) ‘The development of school leadership programmes in England and the USA: A comparative analysis’, Educational Management & Administration, 29 (2): 229–45. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X010292007(1998) ‘The National Professional Qualification for Headship: The key to effective school leadership?’, School Leadership & Management, 18 (3): 321–23. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632439869529(1996) ‘Barriers to career progress for women in education: The perception of female headteachers’, Educational Research, 38 (3): 317–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0013188960380305(2005) Gender and Headship in the Twenty-first Century. Nottingham: National College for School Leadership.(2001) Leadership Programme for Serving Headteachers: A review. Nottingham: National College for School Leadership.([Page 119]2001) Good to Great. London: Random House.(1992) The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. London: Simon & Schuster.(2003) School Leader Preparation: A short review of the knowledge base. Nottingham: National College for School Leadership.(1988) ‘A century's quest for a knowledge base’, in S.Boyan and J.Norman (eds), Handbook of Research: Educational Administration. New York: Longman.(1988) The pre-service preparation of American educational administrators: Retrospect and prospect. Paper presented at the Research Meeting of the British Educational Management and Administration Society (BEMAS), Cardiff, Wales, April.(1995) Alternative career formation perspectives: Lessons for educational leadership from law, medicine and training for the priesthood. Paper presented to the annual meeting of the University Council for Educational Administration, Salt Lake City, USA, October.(2000) ‘Crossing the border into school leadership: Experiences of newly appointed British headteachers and American principals’, Educational Management & Administration, 28 (1): 89–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X000281013and (1996) ‘Development and disenchantment in the professional lives of headteachers’, in I.Goodison and A.Hargreaves (eds), Teachers' Professional Lives. London: Falmer.and (1999) Shaping School Culture: The heart of leadership. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass.and (Department for Education and Employment (1999) Quinquennial Review of the Teacher Training Agency. Annesley: DfEE Publications.Department of Education and Science (1977) Ten Good Schools: A secondary school enquiry. London: HMSO.Department for Education and Skills (2004) National Standards for Headteachers. Annesley: DfES Publications.Department for Education and Skills (2005) What are federations? DfES web-site: http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/federations. Accessed October, 2005.Donmoyer, R., Imber, M. and Scheurich, J. (1995) (eds) The Knowledge Base in Educational Administration: Multiple perspectives. New York: SUNY Press.1998) ‘Making sense of primary headship: The surprises awaiting new heads’, School Leadership & Management, 18 (2): 197–211. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632439869646and (1987) School Leadership and Instructional Improvement. New York: Random House.(1996) ‘Management problems for new primary headteachers’, School Organisation, 16 (1): 111–28.(2000) The Competency Profile. London: Hay McBer.and (1994) Leadership: A Question of Culture. Berkhamstead: Ashridge College.(1992) The School Management Competencies Project. Crawley: School Management South.(2002) Research report 336: Establishing the current state of school leadership in England. Norwich: HMSO., , , and (1994) Developing Professional Knowledge and Competence. London: Falmer.([Page 120]1993) Change Forces. London: Falmer.(1987) The Dynamics of Taking Charge. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.(1997) Extraordinary Minds. London: Weidenfield & Nicholson.(1977) ‘Adminstrative candidacy: A process of new role learning – Part 2’, Journal of Educational Administration, 15 (2): 170–93.(1985) ‘The moral socialization of school administrators: Informal role learning outcomes’, Education Administration Quarterly, 21 (4): 99–119. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0013161X85021004007(1993) Psychobiography on the couch: character, biography and the comparative study of leaders. Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 29 (3): 14–32. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0021886393293005(Hay Group (2002) Breakthrough Leadership that Transforms Schools: An exploratory study. London: Hay Group Management Ltd.1966) Work and the Nature of Man. New York: Staple Press.(2003) Issues for Early Headship: Problems and support strategies. Nottingham: National College for School Leadership., , , and (1991) Educational Leadership: The moral art. Albany, NY: SUNY.(1980) Culture's Consequences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.(1994) Culture and Organisations: Software of the mind. London: HarperCollins.(2001) School Improvement for Real. London: Routledge Falmer. http://dx.doi.org/10.4324/9780203165799(House of Commons Select Committee on Education and Employment (1998) Ninth report: The role of headteachers. London: HMSO.2005) Annual Survey of Senior Staff Appointments in England and Wales. Oxford: Educational Data Surveys.(1969) ‘National character: The study of modal personality and sociocultural systems’, in G.Lindsey and E.Aronson (eds), The Handbook of Social Psychology (and (4th Edition). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.1996) The Competent Head: A job analysis of heads’ tasks and personality factors. London: Falmer.and (1986) ‘Socialization tactics, self-efficacy, and newcomers' adjustments to organizations’, Academy of Management Journal, 29: 262–79. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/256188(1988) Student Achievement through Staff Development. London: Longman.and (1994) The Wisdom of Teams: Creating the high performance organisation. Singapore: McGraw-Hill.and (1980) A Study of the Manager's Orientation towards the Transition from Work to Retirement. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Leeds.(1980) The Assessment of Occupational Competence. Cited in Boyzatsis (1982) Report to the National Institute of Education, Washington, DC.(1994) Developing Expert Leadership for Future Schools. London: Falmer., and (1999) Changing Leadership for Changing Times. Buckingham: Open University Press., and (2004) How Leadership Influences Student Learning: Review of research. New York: Wallace Foundation., , and (1975) Schoolteacher. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.([Page 121]1995) ‘Concepts or competence?’, Education, 17 November, 7–15.(2005) To What Extent Does Second Headship Offer a Way Forward in Meeting the Needs of Continuing Career Development for Secondary School Leaders? Unpublished MBA dissertation, University of Hull.(2004) Principled Headship: A teacher's guide to the galaxy. Camarthen: Crown House Publishing.(1996) ‘Making time to manage’, Management in Education, 10 (5): 15–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089202069601000506(1998) The impact of national culture on school leadership in England. Paper presented to the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA, USA, April.(2000) ‘LPSH – some comments and observations’, Management in Education, 14 (2): 6–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089202060001400202(2001) Is the National Professional Qualification for Headship making a difference?School Leadership & Management, 21 (4): 463–77. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632430120108961(2004) Preparing for and entering headship in England: A study of career transition. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Lincoln.(2001) ‘Special school headteachers' perception of role readiness’, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 16 (2): 149–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08856250110041081and (2000) ‘Chief executive or lead professional?’, in K.Stott and V.Trafford (eds), Partnerships: Shaping the future of education. London: Middlesex University Press.and (1976) Ambiguity and Choice in Organisations. Bergen: Bergen Universitetsforlaget.and (1973) ‘Testing for competence rather than for “intelligence”’, American Psychologist, 28 (1): 1–4. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0034092(1968) Social Theory and Social Structure ((3rd ed.). New York: Free Press.1983) The Selection of Secondary School Headteachers. Buckingham: Open University Press., and (National College for School Leadership (2004) The Impact of Participation in the National Professional Qualification for Headship. Nottingham: National College for School Leadership.National Policy Board for Educational Administration (1989) Improving the Preparation of School Administrators: An agenda for reform. Charlottesville, VA: NPBEA.1989) ‘Teaching and self, in M.Holly and C.McLoughlin (eds), Perspectives on Teacher Professional Development. London: Falmer Press.(Office for Standards in Education (2002) Leadership and Management Training for Headteachers: Report by HMI. London: Ofsted Publications.Office for Standards in Education (2005) Annual Report of the Chief Inspector of Schools. London: Ofsted Publications.1988) ‘Women in educational administration’, in N.Boyan (ed.), Handbook of Research on Educational Administration. New York: Longman.and (1992) Becoming a Principal. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.and (Peters, R. S. (ed.) (1976) The Role of the Head. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.1982) In Search of Excellence. London: Harper & Row.and (2004) School Federation: Research project for Academies Division, Department for Education and Skills. London: Department for Education and Skills.([Page 122]Pricewaterhouse Coopers (2001) Teacher Workload Study. London: Pricewater-house Coopers.1989) Writers on Organizations (and (4th ed.) Harmondsworth: Penguin.1998) ‘The school leader's view’, in: J.MacBeath (ed.), Effective School Leadership. London: Paul Chapman Publishing/Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781446252086, and (1971) School is Dead: An essay on alternatives in education. London: Penguin.(1997) ‘Heads on deputy headship: Impossible roles for invisible role holders?’, Educational Management & Administration, 25 (3): 295–308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X97253006(1997) ‘The way we were’, Guardian, 15 August, 2–3.(1997) ‘Leading and managing staff for high performance’, in B.Davies and L.Ellison (eds), School Leadership for the 21st Century. London: Routledge.(1988) ‘Organizational socialization and the profession of management’, Sloan Management Review, 53–65.(1995) ‘The knowledge base in educational administration: Post-posivitist reflections’, in R.Donmoyer, M.Imber and J.Scheurich (eds), The Knowledge Base in Educational Administration: Multiple perspectives. New York: SUNY Press.(1987) Educating the Reflective Practitioner. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(School Management Task Force (1990) Developing School Management: The way forward. London: HMSO.1990) The Fifth Discipline: The art and practice of the learning organization. New York: Doubleday.(1992) Moral Leadership: Getting to the heart of school improvement. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.(1998) ‘Deputy headteachers and the NPQH’, Management in Education, 12 (3): 7–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089202069801200307and (2000) School leadership in English schools at the close of the twentieth century: Puzzles, problems and cultural insights. Paper presented to the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association, New Orleans, USA, April.(2002) ‘Instructional leadership in schools: Reflections and empirical evidence’, School Leadership & Management, 22 (1): 73–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632430220143042(2004) ‘A response from the National College for School Leadership’, Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 32 (3): 339–54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1741143204044421(1993) Competence at Work: Models for superior performance. New York: John Wiley.and (1968) ‘Training the head’, in B.Allen (ed.), Headship in the 1970s. Oxford: Blackwell.(Teacher Training Agency (1996) Consultation Paper on Training for Serving Head-teachers. London: Teacher Training Agency.Teacher Training Agency (1997) National Standards for Headteachers. London: Teacher Training Agency.Teacher Training Agency (1998a) Leadership Programme for Serving Headteachers: Handbook for participants. London: Teacher Training Agency.[Page 123]Teacher Training Agency (1998b) National Standards for Headteachers. London: Teacher Training Agency.1998) ‘Training school principals, educating school governors’, International Journal of Educational Management, 12 (50): 232–39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/09513549810225943(1989) The Reality of School Management. Oxford: Blackwell.and (1997) Riding the Waves of Culture: Understanding cultural diversity in business. London: Nicholas Brealey.and (1980) ‘Promotion socialization: The informal process in large urban districts and its adverse effects on non-whites and women’, Journal of Educational Equity and Leadership, 1: 26–46.(1978) ‘People processing: Major strategies of organizational socialization and their consequences’, in U.Paap (ed.), New Directions in Human Resource Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.(1978) ‘Toward a theory of organization socialization’, in B.Staw (ed.), Research in Organizational Behavior. Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.and (1993) Principal Succession: Establishing leadership in schools. Albany, NJ: SUNY Press.(2000) Stages of headship: A longitudinal study of the principalship. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans, USA, April.(2003) Leadership Development in Practice: Trends and innovations. Nottingham: National College for School Leadership.(1987) Secondary Headship: The first years. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.and (1996) ‘Promoting reflection on headship through the mentoring mirror’, Educational Management & Administration, 24 (2): 175–91. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0263211X96242006and (1998) Leadership and Professional Development in Schools. London: Pitman.and (1994) Leadership Trapeze: Strategies for Leadership in Team-Based Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass., , and (