- Subject index
Focusing on universal public health issues, this book explores what can be done and what the future holds. It introduces students and practitioners to behavior -change theories and applications. It details experiences of successful programs for the prevention and control of the world's biggest killers: malnutrition; respiratory infections; diarrhea; HIV//AIDS; and health problems arising from tobacco consumption and lack of access to family planning. The book explores health communication and social marketing strategies, learning theory, media advocacy, and community development. These behavior-change strategies are presented in terms of how the theory relates specifically to a particular health or disease issue.
Chapter 6: HIV/AIDS
The role of human behavior in the transmission of infectious diseases has never been clearer than since the outbreak of the AIDS epidemic two decades ago. Initially thinking that AIDS affected male homosexual communities almost exclusively,1 epidemiologists zeroed in on the role of specific high-risk behaviors, such as frequent changes of sexual partners and unprotected anal intercourse (Anderson, 1992). Initially, it was even assumed that HIV infections would remain contained within the gay community. The epidemic, however, soon came to affect people of all ages and sexual orientations. Today, HIV infections worldwide result primarily from heterosexual contact, injection drug use (IDU), and mother-to-infant (vertical) transmission (Fauci, 1999; UNAIDS/WHO, 1999), although this varies substantially by region and nation. For example, South Africa estimates that 79% ...