Behavior Change in the Human Services: Behavioral and Cognitive Principles and Applications

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Martin Sundel & Sandra S. Sundel

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  • Dedication

    To Dorothy Rish

    and

    to the memory of Marvin A. Rish

    Copyright

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    Preface

    Has this ever happened to you? It's 3:00 a.m., and you are frantically cramming for tomorrow's exam. You are fighting off sleep, trying to fool your body with food and caffeine while trying to keep your mind alert. You have 5 hours to read 10 chapters, and you swear that you will never do this to yourself again. Next term will be different. You will keep up with your reading throughout the class, so next time you will only have to review the night before the final.

    Somehow you get through the night, and you do manage to pass the exam. Then, before long, you find yourself in the exact same situation, in the wee hours of the night before another exam—perhaps for a different class and a different professor—cursing yourself for this self-inflicted torture. You wonder why you allow this to happen repeatedly. What prevents you from making a change in your study habits? If this scenario sounds all too familiar, then you have experienced the power of positive reinforcement. Each passing grade reinforces your current study habits, and the cycle repeats itself with every class. What would happen if you failed the exam? You would probably evaluate what went wrong and do your best to prevent it from happening again. You would make sure that you keep up with the reading and are fully prepared for each lecture.

    Study habits, like other behaviors, can be changed. Also, the changes do not have to involve negative consequences or pain. Whether you are a student with bad study habits or a client seeking professional help with any of a variety of problems, the behavior change approach presented in this book can help you to decrease undesired behaviors and increase desired behaviors. In this book, you will learn about behavior change principles that can be applied to a wide range of problems and situations encountered in the human service professions. In the chapters that follow, we present a problem-solving framework through which you can apply behavior change principles to the real-life situations that you and your clients confront. We present the basic principles of behavior change within a practice context that relates them to assessment, intervention, and evaluation.

    This book continues in the spirit and tradition of the previous four editions of Behavior Change (Modification) in the Human Services. In the period since the first edition was published in 1975, we have witnessed tremendous growth and development in the application of behavior change principles in the human services. This trend continues to the present, and the changes since the fourth edition was published in 1999 attest to the continuing need for students and practitioners to acquire a basic foundation for practice before pursuing advanced study and application in specialized areas. Mastery of the content of this volume requires focus and discipline in acquiring requisite knowledge of principles, procedures, and intervention techniques and relating them to situations encountered in fieldwork, internships, professional practice, and everyday life.

    We believe that we have made several improvements in this new edition, including the introduction of new concepts, suggested activities for each chapter, and updated references. We have integrated the two chapters that appeared in previous editions on positive reinforcement contingencies and schedules of reinforcement into one (Chapter 4) and have combined two chapters from previous editions on behavioral assessment into one more efficient chapter as well (Chapter 13). We have also included goal setting in the intervention and planning chapter (Chapter 14). Finally, we have updated the chapter on intervention techniques and expanded it to include current developments in the field, such as the movement toward evidence-based practice (Chapter 15).

    This book is designed for students and practitioners in social work, psychology, counseling, special education, nursing, and allied health and human service professions. Teachers, clergy, parents, and others will also find the principles, techniques, and examples in this book relevant to situations they encounter. The examples presented are drawn from diverse areas to illustrate the range and versatility of the behavioral approach in an increasingly multicultural society.

    This new edition builds on the strengths of the previous editions and contains a number of features designed to make learning the behavior change approach interesting and rewarding. You need have no prior course work or background in psychology to use this book. Each chapter includes objectives, suggested activities, and a list of references and resources, and chapter pretests and posttests appear in appendixes. The objectives that begin each chapter specify what you can expect to learn from studying that chapter. We present behavioral principles so that the content of each chapter builds on the knowledge and skills covered in the preceding chapters. Charts, graphs, and other illustrations serve as aids in the analysis of case material and examples. The chapter pretests and posttests allow you to evaluate your own ability to apply and integrate the course content. They also enable you to apply the principles discussed in the book to specific case material and to compare how much you know before you study the chapters with your level of knowledge afterward. The suggested activities presented at the end of each chapter allow you to apply concepts covered in the chapter to everyday situations and classroom activities.

    The material in this book has been classroom tested. The course materials included here have been used extensively with many students and practitioners from diverse cultural and educational settings. We have continually revised the content of the materials and the order in which we present them, as well as the test questions and answers, based on the performance and feedback of these students and practitioners.

    Chapters 1 through 12 discuss the basic principles of operant and respondent conditioning, including observational learning. Beginning with Chapter 1, we define behavior to include measures of either overt or covert (cognitive) actions. We address issues and topics related to ethics and cultural diversity throughout the text. The chapters on behavioral assessment (Chapter 13) and intervention planning and evaluation (Chapter 14) are presented after coverage of the basic principles. In the final chapter, on intervention techniques, we discuss additional applications of behavioral and cognitive-behavioral techniques to selected target behaviors. We also address some current issues and trends, including the movement toward empiricism, evidence-based practice, and practice guidelines.

    We have updated the lists of references and suggested readings throughout the text while retaining many of the works included in earlier editions because of their classic contributions to the field. Although psychologists have been prominent in the development and application of behavioral and cognitive principles, many of the important new additions to the “References and Resources” sections reflect the contemporary contributions of researchers in social work, special education, psychiatry, and other helping professions.

    The numerous case examples we present throughout the book are drawn from practice settings. In all case materials and examples, the names of the individuals are fictitious. The case examples are not meant to be complete records. Rather, they are intended to provide basic information that will help you to relate specific principles to real-life situations.

    This book has benefited from the challenging comments and suggestions of our students and colleagues, including those in our courses, workshops, and continuing education programs. We are indebted to our many colleagues, too numerous to mention individually here, who have provided conceptual, empirical, and clinical foundations for the body of knowledge incorporated in this text. Many of their names appear in the lists of references and suggested readings that accompany the chapters.

    Arthur Pomponio, our editor at Sage Publications, and Veronica Novak, editorial assistant, gave support during all phases of preparing this new edition. Diana Axelsen, senior production editor, guided the editing of the book, which included skillful copyediting by Judy Selhorst. Donald Sloane (Washington University) and Frank Sparzo (Ball State University) made valuable comments and suggestions in their reviews of the book. Stephen Wong (Florida International University) provided us with helpful resources and informed perspectives on several issues. Bruce Thyer (Florida State University) and Joseph Himle (University of Michigan) contributed useful reference materials.

    We hope that reading this book will be positively reinforcing for you, and that you will be stimulated to further develop your knowledge and expertise in this exciting field of practice. If you do, we will have achieved our purpose in writing this book.

    To the Student: How to use this Book

    Course Materials

    This book contains the following materials:

    • Case examples: Eight case examples demonstrate the application of behavioral principles to practice problems. We present many of these case examples over the course of the various chapters; they also appear together in Appendix 1 for your convenience.
    • Chapters: This volume's 15 chapters present behavioral and cognitive concepts, principles, and applications. Each chapter begins with a set of specified learning objectives. Chapter pretests and answers to the pretest questions are provided in Appendixes 2 and 3, respectively. Chapter posttests and answers to the posttest questions appear in Appendixes 4 and 5, respectively. You should consider the chapter pre- and posttests to be integral parts of the chapters, as they allow you to assess your mastery of the content. Each chapter builds on content from previous chapters; therefore, we recommend that you work through the chapters in the order in which they are presented.
    • Suggested activities: Suggestions for activities related to chapter content are included at the end of each chapter. These exercises and questions provide you with the opportunity to apply concepts covered in the chapter. Many of the activities require interaction or discussion with others in a classroom or other group setting.
    • References and resources: Each chapter ends with a list of the works cited in the chapter along with other suggested readings.
    • Course posttest: A posttest for the entire text, consisting of 33 questions, appears in Appendix 6 (the answers are provided in Appendix 7).
    • Notational symbols appendix: A summary of the notational symbols and behavioral diagrams used throughout the text is provided in Appendix 8.
    • Glossary: The glossary contains definitions of technical and specialized terms, which are introduced in boldface type in the text.
    Case Examples

    We use eight case examples throughout the text to illustrate applications of the behavioral and cognitive principles. To answer the questions on the course posttest, you will need information found in these case examples. You will also need information from the case examples to answer many of the questions on the chapter pretests and posttests. In all of the case studies and examples presented in this volume, the names of the individuals are fictitious. The case examples are not meant to be complete records. Rather, they are intended to give you basic information that will help you to apply behavioral and cognitive concepts to real-life situations.

    The Chapters

    Objectives are stated at the beginning of each chapter to indicate the results you can achieve after completing the chapter. Chapter pretests (in Appendix 2) will orient you to the chapters, and by scoring the pretests (using the answers provided in Appendix 3), you can assess your familiarity with the content. You are not expected to achieve criterion score on the chapter pretests.

    Taking the chapter pretests will give you practice with the types of questions and answers you will find on the posttests. If you achieve criterion score on a chapter pretest, you can take that chapter's posttest without reading the chapter. If you also achieve criterion score on the chapter posttest, you can skip that chapter and go on to the next chapter pretest. If you achieve less than criterion score on a chapter pretest, you should study that chapter.

    Each chapter covers the content necessary to achieve the listed objectives. After you have studied a chapter, you should take the chapter posttest (in Appendix 4) and score it by comparing your answers with those given in Appendix 5. If you do not achieve criterion score, you should review the chapter and retake the test, repeating this procedure until you achieve criterion score.

    Suggested activities are included at the end of each chapter. These exercises and questions provide you with opportunities to apply the concepts covered in the chapter, to ensure that you have a solid grasp of the material. Some of the activities require interaction or discussion with others in a classroom or other group setting.

    The “References and Resources” section at the end of each chapter includes both the works cited in the text and suggested additional readings. The references, which represent only a small sample of the available literature, have been selected based on their relevance for specific principles or applications. You may want to consult these books and articles—which discuss theoretical foundations, present case studies, and report on empirical research—for further clarification and elaboration of the various concepts and applications presented in this volume.

    The Course Posttest

    You should take the course posttest, which appears in Appendix 6, after you have completed your study of the 15 chapters, and score it using the answers given in Appendix 7. If you do not achieve criterion score, you should review the chapters related to your incorrect answers. When you achieve criterion score on the course posttest, you have demonstrated mastery of the content of this text.

    Scoring the Pre- and Posttests

    Many of the questions in the pre- and posttests ask for examples that demonstrate the application of particular concepts; therefore, a number of different correct answers may be possible for individual questions. For these questions, criteria for correct answers are delineated. If your answer to a given question meets all of the criteria stated, you receive the maximum number of points. If your answer includes two out of three correct parts, for example, you receive two points for the question. If your answer does not meet any of the stated criteria, you receive zero points for that question.

    The tests incorporate many open-ended questions that require you to formulate answers based on your analysis of the content covered. These questions are designed to help you develop skills in applying the principles rather than merely identifying which of two or more answers is correct. Sample answers are given for each open-ended question that meet the criteria specified for a correct answer.

    You can use the following guidelines in scoring certain kinds of questions that appear frequently throughout the tests:

    • When a question asks for a description of a procedure, the answer must list the operations or steps required to carry out that procedure.
    • When a question asks for an example that describes a procedure or technique, the answer must include a specific application of that procedure or technique.
    • When the question asks for a diagram of a procedure or technique, the answer must include the correct symbols and notations. If the question asks for a diagram showing an example, the symbols of the diagram must be drawn correctly and explained in relation to a specific example.
    • When a question asks for a description of the effect of a certain procedure, the answer must describe the expected outcome of using that procedure.
    • When a question asks for an example that describes the effect of a certain procedure, the answer must state the outcome of that procedure in relation to information based on a specific example. When a case example is given, the answer must be stated in relation to information obtained from that example.
    • When a question asks for an evaluation of the effectiveness of a certain procedure or technique, the answer must state a specific criterion for determining whether or not the procedure or technique produced its intended outcome.

    Below we present examples of correct, partially correct, and incorrect answers to the same question to illustrate some of the points noted above:

    • Question: Describe the positive reinforcement procedure and its effect on the strength of a response. (2 points)
    • Correct answer: The presentation of an object or event following a response (procedure) that increases the strength of that response (effect). (2 points)
    • Partially correct answer: Present a positive reinforcer to someone immediately after performance of the target behavior (procedure). Its effect is to modify that behavior. (1 point)
    • Incorrect answer: (a) Indicate reinforcer before desired behavior to entice person to act in desired way. (b) Give positive reinforcer immediately after behavior as a reward. (0 points)

    The point value stated after each question reflects the number of components required for a complete answer. In this example, a total of 2 points is possible for a correct answer: 1 point for the correctly stated procedure and 1 point for the correctly stated effect. The first answer received 2 points. The second answer was only half correct; therefore, it received 1 point. The third answer was incorrect and received 0 points.

    The acceptable score for each test is established as 90% of the questions answered correctly. This is indicated as the criterion score shown at the end of each test.

    Recommendations for Instructor use of this Book

    A variety of instructional formats can be used with this book. The instructor may use the book by itself or in conjunction with supplementary readings. We recommend that the instructor assign chapters in sequential order to be completed by the students prior to class sessions. In some cases, however, instructors may choose to assign chapters in a different order. For example, some instructors prefer to teach negative reinforcement immediately after positive reinforcement. Because negative reinforcement is often a difficult concept for students to learn, we present it in Chapter 10, after other basic principles have been discussed. In our experience, this order provides an effective way of teaching the principles and avoids encouraging the common erroneous conception among students that negative reinforcement is the opposite of positive reinforcement.

    The instructor may use class time to clarify, elaborate, and discuss the content of the chapters and other readings as well as for demonstrations and practice skill sessions that allow students to participate in role plays involving applications of principles and techniques. The instructor may want to employ some of the suggested activities provided at the end of each chapter to help students practice their knowledge of chapter content.

    The instructor may want to have students report their pretest and posttest scores each week and chart them over the period of the course, retaking each deficient posttest until 90% criterion or better is achieved. The course posttest, or selected items from this test, can be used in a final exam for the course, to be taken in class or completed at home.

    In an alternative format, students might be required to complete the chapter pretests and read the chapters outside of class. They then take the chapter posttests in class, scoring their own papers, exchanging papers for scoring, or handing them in for scoring by the instructor.

    The instructor may assign additional readings in both basic and applied research to supplement this book. The lists of suggested readings at the end of each chapter include many classic works in the field as well as current literature related to the topics covered.

  • Appendix 1: Case Examples

    Case Example 1: Behavioral Assessment of Drug Abuse

    Robert is a 13-year-old junior high school student who started drinking beer 6 months ago at a party given by one of his friends. He liked the feeling of acceptance from the older kids at the party and continued his experimentation with other drugs, including crack cocaine. During the past 2 months, Robert has turned in incomplete class assignments, sometimes handing in blank sheets of paper. His midterm report card showed four Fs and one C in an art course. Robert's parents were concerned that he would drop out of school or not pass to the next level. Last week, his mother found crack and some of her diet pills in Robert's desk drawer. When confronted with this evidence, Robert admitted to taking drugs but argued that his drug use did not interfere with his functioning in school or at home.

    Shortly after the midterm grades came out, a teacher referred Robert to the school social worker, describing him as “inattentive in the classroom, poorly motivated, and having low self-esteem.” He was failing most of his classes.

    Robert complained to the school social worker that his parents frequently grounded him, nagged him, withheld his allowance, and denied him privileges such as watching television and going out with his friends. Upon further questioning, Robert said that his parents disciplined him because of his poor grades. Robert admitted that he might flunk out of school but denied that his drug taking was interfering with his studying. When the social worker asked him to describe his use of drugs and alcohol, Robert stated that he drank beer every weekend with his friends and smoked crack once a month. Robert said that when he started studying, his friends often invited him over to listen to music and drink beer and that this happened about three times a week. He also spent an average of three evenings per week at his girlfriend's home, and they usually began these evenings by drinking beer or wine. When he was home alone, Robert typically looked in his notebook for class assignments, took a drink or two before beginning them, and completed only parts of his assignments or none of them at all. The baseline rate of Robert's drug use, including alcohol, was 7 days per week. The baseline rate of Robert's drinking before beginning homework assignments was 4 days per week.

    Case Example 2: Developing Appropriate Conversation

    Bella and Cliff were older adults with memory impairment in a group conducted at a senior center. In social situations, they often asked questions and made comments that were unrelated to the topic being discussed. For example, when several group members were discussing a recent film, Cliff asked the person speaking if he was going grocery shopping that afternoon. The baseline rate of Bella's speaking on topic was zero. In addition, Bella and Cliff were frequently observed talking continuously for 5 minutes or more without pausing for responses from others. These speech patterns resulted in their being ridiculed and excluded from conversations held by other group members.

    The social worker devised a conversational exercise for the six members of a group in which Bella and Cliff participated. The social worker began the exercise by making a statement and then asking each of the group members to add a statement to her introduction. Each new statement was required to bear logical connection to the preceding statement. For example, the social worker began speaking about how to cook dinner for oneself. At first, Bella and Cliff both added inappropriate statements, such as “You should see my grandson. He is so smart,” or “You know, when I was selling cars in New York I always was the top salesman of the month.” On these occasions, they were stopped by the social worker or group members, who asked them to make appropriate statements and complimented or praised them for doing so. Group members prompted Bella and Cliff, offering hints and suggestions for correct statements.

    As they practiced this exercise on subsequent occasions, both Bella and Cliff made fewer inappropriate remarks and increasingly more appropriate ones. The rate of Bella's speaking on topic increased to five times per group meeting after six group sessions. The frequency of Bella's and Cliff's appropriate remarks during conversations outside the group was also observed to increase. Staff members and relatives reinforced Bella's and Cliff's appropriate speech.

    Case Example 3: Decreasing Tantrum Behaviors

    In a parent training group, Carla's mother, Juanita, told the social worker that almost every time she told 5-year-old Carla to put her toys away, Carla screamed. The baseline duration of Carla's screaming averaged 5.5 minutes per episode. Juanita would attempt to placate Carla by promising to buy her new clothes and by putting the toys away herself.

    The social worker suspected that Juanita was positively reinforcing Carla's screaming by putting the toys away and promising to buy Carla new clothes. She showed Juanita how to use extinction to decrease Carla's screaming. The procedure involved withholding the positive reinforcers for Carla's screaming.

    The social worker instructed Juanita to stop making promises, stop putting away the toys, and walk away from Carla when she screamed about putting away her toys. She told Juanita that Carla's screaming might get worse before it got better but that if she held firm, Carla's screaming would gradually decrease. Juanita carried out these instructions and the duration of Carla's screaming gradually decreased, after an increase on the second day of extinction. By the sixth day of the extinction intervention, Carla no longer screamed when told to put her toys away.

    The social worker also instructed Juanita to praise Carla and give her tangible reinforcers, such as gum or cookies, when she put her toys away. Juanita followed these instructions, and Carla began putting her toys away more frequently.

    Case Example 4: Conditioning Verbal Behavior

    Leon is a 59-year-old man who has been a patient in a state psychiatric hospital for 21 years. Hospital staff describe him as mute and withdrawn. Leon spends much of the day sitting in a chair looking at the floor or pacing up and down the halls of the unit. He remains silent when spoken to and does not initiate conversation with other patients or with staff.

    In Leon's treatment, he was placed in a room and a slide projector was used to show him images of animals, people, and landscapes. The psychologist asked Leon to talk about the pictures each time a green light appeared on a panel. When the green light was off, the psychologist spoke about the pictures and Leon was instructed to look at them silently. When the green light was turned on, Leon was instructed to speak. When Leon made any speech sound, he was given a piece of candy. In addition, the psychologist said “Good” immediately after each sound Leon made. An automatic recorder counted each second of speech as one response.

    Leon made no speech sounds during the initial treatment session, 5 responses in the second session, and 48 responses in the fifth session. During the tenth treatment session, Leon said 76 words, including “boy and girl,” “cat,” and “house and yard.” During the next five sessions, the psychologist asked Leon specific questions about the content of the pictures and gave him cues and prompts that facilitated correct responding. In the fifteenth session, Leon appropriately described a slide as follows: “A boy and girl are playing on the swing.” After 15 sessions, unit staff reported that for the first time in many years Leon had spoken to several persons and had made short replies to comments directed to him by staff.

    Case Example 5: Stimulus Control of Marital Interaction

    Pat consulted a marriage counselor about her marital difficulties. Her husband, Dick, refused to see the counselor with her. Pat complained that Dick spent his evenings in front of the television, ignoring her and their children. They rarely went to the movies or to other entertainment, and Pat did all the food shopping by herself. She had stopped making Dick's breakfast as a result of their frequent arguments before he left for work.

    Pat screamed at Dick for going out with his friends, for refusing to help around the house, and for spending little time with her and their children. Dick responded to her criticism by swearing at her and telling her to mind her own business. Pat became so upset during these arguments that she burst into tears, ran into the bedroom, and locked the door, remaining there until Dick left the house. The baseline rate of these episodes was three times per week.

    In her interviews with Pat, the marriage counselor determined that Pat and Dick rarely discussed topics of mutual interest; Pat stated that pleasant conversations occurred about once per week. Their conversations revolved around Pat's complaints and Dick's responses to them. Pat said that she loved her husband and would like to have more satisfying conversations with him. She also wanted their arguments to stop and for him to participate in more activities with her and their children.

    In her assessment, the marriage counselor determined that Dick refused to participate in treatment. The counselor pointed out to Pat that the goal of treatment with Pat alone participating could not directly focus on changing Dick's behaviors. Treatment could focus, however, on changing Pat's behaviors to influence Dick's undesired behaviors.

    To change the focus of the couple's interactions from complaints and arguments to more pleasant conversation, the counselor instructed Pat to make a list of topics to discuss with Dick (List A). These topics included his work, their two children, and camping. Pat made a second list of topics to be avoided (List B), which included complaints about Dick's staying out late at night, watching television at his friends' homes, not taking Pat shopping or to the movies, and not spending time with his family. The counselor also instructed Pat to greet Dick with a kiss when he came home from work and to ask how his day had gone. This strategy was designed to allow Pat to take the initiative in changing her behavior, with the understanding that the intervention plan could produce the results she wanted in her marriage.

    To help Pat focus on topics from List A and reduce the frequency of her talking about topics from List B, role plays were performed in the counselor's office. The counselor told Pat that this procedure would include reinforcement for talking about topics on List A and extinction for talking about topics on List B so that Pat would be more likely to talk with Dick about topics on List A.

    In the role plays, when Pat talked about topics from List A, the counselor praised her and engaged in conversation with her. When Pat talked about topics from List B, the counselor looked away and was silent (withheld reinforcement). Pat began talking about topics on List A more frequently, and her talking about topics on List B decreased in frequency. Pat was then assigned to perform the desired behaviors at home with Dick.

    Pat began talking about topics on List A at home with Dick and avoided talking about topics on List B. She found that their conversations were more pleasant and that Dick started paying more attention to her. Gradually, Pat suggested activities to Dick that they could do together or with the children, such as go to a movie or out to dinner, and Dick usually agreed. As their time together became more pleasant, Pat reported that their unpleasant arguments decreased, Dick was helping out with shopping and other household tasks, and he was spending more time with her and their children.

    Case Example 6: Treating Depression and Anxiety in a Group

    At a group therapy meeting, Bill complained of frequent “anxiety and depression.” He had recently been laid off from his job, was bored, and had no outside interests. He spent most of his time sleeping, eating, or watching television.

    When the therapist asked Bill to specify the behavioral components of his anxiety and depression, he replied that he felt “anxious” in situations in which he was criticized by his employer. He often felt “depressed” after these encounters. In role plays of these situations, Bill perspired heavily, his face turned red, his breathing became rapid, and he rapped his knuckles against each other. His hands trembled, and he made excuses as he replied to the criticism.

    To assess Bill's behavior patterns, other members of the group role-played situations in which Bill's employer criticized him. They also conducted role plays to allow Bill to observe someone else demonstrating his problematic behaviors and their effects on others.

    To model appropriate responses to correction, several group members played the part of Bill in role plays and responded appropriately to criticism. Afterward, Bill played himself in role plays of the situations in which he was criticized. When Bill had difficulty imitating the modeled behaviors, the therapist prompted him until he performed the behaviors appropriately. Bill practiced responding appropriately in role plays and received praise from the therapist and group members as soon as he demonstrated appropriate behaviors. He was then given assignments to perform the practiced behaviors at home. He also learned relaxation exercises to practice at home.

    Similar procedures were used to help Bill prepare for an interview for a new job. Shortly afterward, he completed a successful job interview and was hired as a bus driver.

    To deal with Bill's boredom, the group assigned him to pursue an outside interest or hobby. Bill decided to reestablish his interest in bowling, an activity he had enjoyed in previous years. The therapist instructed Bill to go to a bowling alley, to observe people bowling, and to discuss his experience with two persons. Shortly after Bill had completed this assignment, he and his wife joined a bowling league.

    Case Example 7: The Parent as a Behavior Modifier

    Edward, a single father, complained to a therapist at a counseling center that he found it impossible to discipline Stephen, his 10-year-old son. Stephen frequently hit his younger sister, Dianne, making her cry and inflicting bruises. He sometimes broke her toys during these incidents. When Edward intervened to stop Stephen from hitting Dianne, Stephen cursed and kicked him. Verbal reprimands, threats, and lectures failed to stop Stephen's undesired behaviors.

    The therapist instructed Edward to obtain a baseline of Stephen's hitting and to identify situations in which the hitting occurred. Edward observed his children's behavior for a week and reported to the therapist that Stephen's hitting occurred 12 times during the week and that Dianne teased or made faces at Stephen on 9 of those occasions prior to his hitting her. Edward also indicated that he spent much of his time in the evenings trying to discipline Stephen.

    The therapist instructed Edward to tell Dianne to stop teasing and making faces at Stephen, with the contingency that if she teased or made faces she would lose privileges, such as watching television or having a bedtime snack. On two subsequent occasions, Dianne lost television privileges and a bedtime snack. After these two experiences, Dianne stopped teasing and making faces at Stephen.

    The therapist also instructed Edward to tell Stephen to go to the laundry room whenever he hit Dianne. If he refused to obey, Edward would physically carry or move Stephen to the laundry room, where he was required to remain by himself for 10 minutes. If he kicked or cursed Edward, the time-out was extended 5 minutes. If he screamed or made loud noises while in the room, the time-out was also extended 5 minutes.

    The first time Edward took Stephen to the laundry room, he kicked and cursed. He also screamed while in the room. Stephen remained in the laundry room for a total of 20 minutes—the 10-minute time-out period plus two 5-minute extensions. This also happened the second time. The third time Edward instituted the treatment procedure, Stephen walked with Edward to the laundry room without cursing or kicking. The fourth time the procedure was applied, Stephen went to the laundry room by himself and quietly remained there until his time was up. After the fifth time the procedure was employed, Stephen stopped hitting his sister.

    The therapist also instructed Edward to spend leisure time with Stephen in the evenings. Because Stephen liked to play cards with his father, the therapist told Edward to play cards with Stephen each evening after he finished his homework.

    Case Example 8: Developing Social Skills

    Bruce is a 30-year-old single man who complained about “stress and anxiety.” He said that he was exploited at work and also was unable to establish and maintain satisfying relationships with women. He stated that women find his company unpleasant, and he never knows what to say in their presence. Of the last four women Bruce has taken out, all have refused a second date. He has one male friend with whom he plays tennis each week.

    Bruce is a bookkeeper for an insurance company, where he has worked for the past 9 years. Although he was promised a promotion and raise 2 years ago, he still earns the same salary in the same position as when he started working for the company. Bruce has never discussed his feelings about being treated unfairly with his boss, although other employees in similar circumstances have benefited from doing so.

    The practitioner asked Bruce to describe what happened the last time he went out with a woman. Bruce said that he and the woman were having coffee in a restaurant after seeing a movie, and he could not think of anything interesting to say to her. Bruce concluded that he just “bored her to death” talking about his work. When the therapist asked Bruce to describe the woman's part of the conversation, Bruce said that he could not remember much about what she said because he was so concerned about making a good impression. On one occasion, Bruce said a woman he took out fell asleep while he was trying to explain a complicated bookkeeping procedure. The therapist observed that Bruce kept his head down during the interview and often held his hand in front of his mouth when speaking so that his speech was difficult to understand. He sometimes drifted from one topic to another without waiting for the therapist to respond to what he had said, and he frequently spoke in a monotone.

    The practitioner asked Bruce to describe his most recent conversation with his boss. Bruce related that he was seated in his boss's office, across the desk from his boss, and his boss asked him what he wanted. Bruce mumbled, looked down at the floor, and began to talk about his financial problems. When the boss responded by asking Bruce why he could not manage his finances properly, Bruce stammered and tried to defend his way of managing money. He reported to the practitioner that he felt very anxious. Finally, Bruce mumbled, “I'm sorry,” and walked out of the boss's office without raising the issues of promotion and salary increase.

    On further questioning, Bruce indicated that he often found himself being taken advantage of in situations in which he should have stated his opinions or defended his rights. Bruce said that he hoped to improve this situation through therapy and would cooperate with the therapist's recommendations. The therapist gave Bruce an assignment to record RAC-S data about the situations in which he felt exploited and to rate his anxiety on a subjective units of discomfort scale (SUDS) ranging from 0 to 100.

    Appendix 2: Chapter Pretest Questions

    Chapter 1: Specifying Behavior
    • State two essential criteria for specifying a response.
      • Indicate with a plus sign (+) which of the following statements are written in behaviorally specific terms, and indicate with a minus sign (−) the statements that are vague and require further specification.
      • After completing question 2A, rewrite in specific terms only those statements in which the responses are not described behaviorally.
        • Ted saw three clients today and made four phone calls.
        • Bob is becoming a drug addict.
        • Bruce kissed Sally on the cheek.
        • She acted out her anger toward him.
    • Name the most commonly used measure of response strength.
    Chapter 2: Positive Reinforcement
    • To maximize the effectiveness of a positive reinforcer for a response, when should the positive reinforcer be delivered?
    • Give one example of a conditioned positive reinforcer and one example of an unconditioned positive reinforcer. How do you know that each is a positive reinforcer and not a reward?
    • It has been demonstrated that presentation of a certain event following a behavior can increase the likelihood that the behavior will recur. What is the name of the behavioral principle to which this statement refers?
    • In the example that begins this chapter, what behavior does the social worker positively reinforce? What are the reinforcers?
    Chapter 3: Extinction
    • Renumber the following steps to show the correct order for determining whether a specific stimulus served as a positive reinforcer for a target behavior:
      • Withhold the stimulus each time the target response occurs.
      • Determine the strength of the target behavior.
      • Observe a decrease in strength of the target behavior.
      • Present stimulus after the target behavior occurs and observe an increase in its strength.
    • What are two practical difficulties that you might encounter in applying an extinction procedure to decrease the strength of an undesired response?
    • What is spontaneous recovery?
    • Describe the extinction procedure and its effect.
    Chapter 4: Positive Reinforcement Contingencies
    • Which of the following are statements of positive reinforcement contingencies? (Circle the correct ones.)
      • Finish your math assignment, and you may play outside.
      • If you wash the dishes, I'll give you an ice cream cone.
      • If you fight with your brother, you will get a spanking.
      • He completed his chores in 3 hours.
    • Briefly describe how superstitious behavior is acquired.
    • Intermittent reinforcement makes a well-learned response more resistant to extinction. (Circle one.)
      • True
      • False
    • When is it more appropriate to use continuous reinforcement than to use intermittent reinforcement?
    • Match the following schedules in Column A with their examples in Column B.
    AB
    1. Fixed ratio _____A. Deadlines
    2. Variable ratio _____B. Braking at a stop sign
    3. Fixed interval _____C. Slot machines
    4. Variable interval _____D. Piecework
    5. Fixed duration _____E. Watching a movie
    6. Variable duration _____F. Waiting for a taxi
    Chapter 5: Shaping and Response Differentiation
    • In Case Example 4 (p. 269), the psychologist could help develop Leon's speech by using which of the following techniques? (Circle one.)
      • Extinction
      • Intermittent reinforcement
      • Shaping with successive approximations
      • Differential reinforcement of approximation of incompatible responses
    • To shape a new behavior, you would not use differential reinforcement. (Circle one.)
      • True
      • False
    • For the response class “talking about sports,” name two responses.
    • How are positive reinforcement and extinction involved in differential reinforcement?
    • Give an example of a DRO procedure that could be used to decrease Carla's screaming in Case Example 3 (p. 268).
    Chapter 6: Stimulus Control
    • What is an SD for a response? What is an SΔ?
    • What is the effect of a discrimination training procedure involving two discriminative stimuli (SD and SΔ) and one response?
    • In Case Example 4 (p. 269), what function did the green light serve?
    • In the following examples, identify the discriminative stimulus, the response, and the reinforcer by labeling the SD, R, and Sr+ in the diagrams.
      • Bob sees Joe walking down the street. Bob says, “Hello,” and Joe says, “Good morning.”

      • Shirley hears the ice cream truck and asks her aunt for a dollar; her aunt gives her the dollar.

    • When a response is reinforced in the presence of one SD, it will not occur in the presence of other similar stimuli. (Circle one.)
      • True
      • False
    Chapter 7: Conditioned Reinforcement and Chaining
    • Which is usually more effective, a simple conditioned reinforcer or a generalized conditioned reinforcer? Support your answer.
    • What is the difference between an unconditioned reinforcer and a conditioned reinforcer?
    • Give two examples of generalized conditioned reinforcers and two examples of unconditioned reinforcers.
    • For a neutral stimulus to function as a conditioned reinforcer, a minimum of 100 pairings is necessary. (Circle one.)
      • True
      • False
      • Identify the components of one unit of a stimulus-response chain.
    Chapter 8: Modeling and Imitation
    • Describe how a modeling plus reinforcement procedure can be used to develop a child's imitation of an adult using a fork correctly.
    • For each of the following statements, indicate true (T) or false (F):
      • _____If an individual does not perform a response after observing someone perform it, the individual has not learned it.
      • _____Filmed models are less effective than live models.
      • _____Imitative behavior cannot be conditioned through reinforcement.
    • Using the information in Case Example 6 (p. 271), how could modeling and reinforcement be used to help Bill obtain a new job?
    Chapter 9: Punishment
    • Name the two types of punishment procedures that can be used to suppress a response.
    • Briefly describe a time-out procedure.
    • Briefly describe two disadvantages of punishment procedures.
    • As Mrs. Kelly went out, she asked her daughter Sharon to fold the laundry after it had been washed and dried. When Mrs. Kelly returned, Sharon was talking to a friend on the phone and the laundry had not been folded. What should Mrs. Kelly do in regard to Sharon's behavior to demonstrate her knowledge of the necessary conditions to maximize the effectiveness of punishment?
    Chapter 10: Negative Reinforcement
    • What is a major advantage of avoidance conditioning in maintaining a response?
    • Give an example of the behavioral procedure that produces escape behavior and draw a behavioral diagram to illustrate your example.
    • Give an example of the behavioral procedure that results in avoidance behavior and draw a behavioral diagram to illustrate your example.
    • Give an example of (a) an unconditioned aversive stimulus that could be used as a negative reinforcer and (b) a conditioned aversive stimulus that could be used as a negative reinforcer.
    Chapter 11: Respondent Conditioning
    • Describe a procedure for extinguishing a classically conditioned response.
    • Given the following information, specify operant and respondent behaviors: A man gets in his car and drives home. As he walks through his front door, the aroma of dinner cooking makes his mouth water. He runs to the kitchen, and when he arrives there, panting, he kisses his wife and sits down at the table.
    • Explain the persistence of emotional respondent behavior in the absence of identifiable reinforcing consequences for the individual.
    • What are the two measures of response strength for a classically conditioned response?
    Chapter 12: Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior Change
    • You are treating an alcohol-abusing client. As part of the treatment program to decrease his drinking, you suggest several nondrinking behaviors that would be appropriate in the social situations in which he usually drinks. These behaviors are new to him, but he agrees to try them.
      • What is the most likely obstacle to success for this part of therapy?
      • What can you do to counteract this effect or to plan for this problem?
    • Using the information in Case Example 6 (p. 271), describe how Bill's therapist and group used behavioral rehearsal with Bill to facilitate generalization of appropriate responses to correction.
    • Behavioral assignments are given for which of the following reasons? (Circle the correct answer[s].)
      • To structure the client's activities between therapy sessions
      • To help the client apply in his or her natural environment what he or she has learned in treatment
      • To provide feedback to the client from the therapist based on a specific behavior the client has attempted to perform
      • All of the above
    • It is usually more difficult for a desired behavior to generalize beyond the practice setting when more than one therapist is involved in developing the behavior. (Circle one.)
      • True
      • False
    • Turn to Case Example 4 (p. 269). State three ways in which you could maximize successful generalization of Leon's speech.
    Chapter 13: Behavioral Assessment
    • Rewrite the following sentences so that the strength of the response is stated in measurable terms.
      • Hortense has repeatedly phoned the adoption agency.
      • Roger rarely kisses his wife.
    • In Case Example 2 (p. 268), what were the behavioral excesses shown by Bella and Cliff?
    • What were the negative consequences of Bella and Cliff's behavioral excesses?
    • From the information given in the following paragraph, identify Henry's target responses, the antecedent, and the negative consequences.

      When someone comes over to talk to Henry or ask him a question, he mutters and speaks in a low voice so that the person has difficulty hearing what he is saying. Typically, individuals who approach Henry stop talking and walk away from him soon after he begins to mutter.

    • What are two questions that a practitioner should ask about a client's problems in establishing priorities for treatment?
    • How is behavioral reenactment used in behavioral assessment?
    Chapter 14: Goal Setting, Intervention Planning, and Evaluation
    • What does the term informed consent refer to in the context of a behavioral change program?
    • An intervention plan for teaching an individual with mental retardation self-care skills could include which of the following? (Circle one.)
      • Covert sensitization and modeling
      • Positive reinforcement and systematic desensitization
      • Positive reinforcement, shaping, and chaining
      • None of the above
    • State three ways of evaluating a client's progress.
    • What is the purpose of a treatment contract?
    Chapter 15: Intervention Techniques
    • Which of the following intervention techniques is not used to decrease anxiety? (Circle one.)
      • Systematic desensitization
      • Flooding
      • Covert sensitization
      • In vivo desensitization
    • Covert sensitization is most appropriate for which of the following purposes? (Circle one.)
      • To decrease anxiety to a feared stimulus
      • To treat adolescent panic disorder
      • To develop alternative behaviors to overeating
      • To treat the negative effects of depression
    • Cognitive restructuring is used for which of the following purposes? (Circle one.)
      • To extinguish delinquent behavior among high school dropouts
      • To substitute effective covert behaviors for self-defeating cognitions
      • To shape successive approximations to nondrinking behaviors
      • To reinforce the performance of desired overt behaviors
    • Give two examples of problem behaviors that can be treated with thought stopping.
    • Panic control treatment includes breathing retraining, cognitive therapy, and exposure to physiological components of panic. (Circle one.)
      • True
      • False

    Appendix 3: Chapter Pretest Answers

    Chapter 1: Specifying Behavior
    • State two essential criteria for specifying a response.

      Answers:

      • The response is stated in positive terms.
      • The response is specified in terms of observable or measurable actions.
    • A. Indicate with a plus sign (+) which of the following statements are written in behaviorally specific terms, and indicate with a minus sign (–) statements that are vague and require further specification.
    • After completing question 2A, rewrite in specific terms only those statements in which the responses are not described behaviorally.
      • Ted saw three clients today and made four phone calls.

      • Bob is becoming a drug addict.

        Sample answer: Bob takes sleeping pills at night and amphetamines in the morning.

      • Bruce kissed Sally on the cheek.

      • She acted out her anger toward him.

        Sample answer: She threw his new fishing rod in the garbage.

    • Name the most commonly used measure of response strength.

      Answer: Frequency per time unit or rate

      Scoring: The total point value of this test is 9 (each question's point value appears in parentheses before the question number). Score 1 point for each of the two parts of question 1, score 1 point for each correctly identified statement in question 2A and 1 point for each correctly rewritten statement in question 2B, and score 1 point for a correct answer to Question 3. (For guidelines on scoring your answers, see pp. xix-xx.)

      Criterion score for this test is 8. If your score is at least 8, you may take the posttest for this chapter now. If your score is less than 8, read the chapter before you take the posttest.

    Chapter 2: Positive Reinforcement
    • To maximize the effectiveness of a positive reinforcer for a response, when should the positive reinforcer be delivered?

      Answer: The reinforcer should be delivered immediately after the response is performed.

    • Give one example of a conditioned positive reinforcer and one example of an unconditioned positive reinforcer. How do you know that each is a positive reinforcer and not a reward?

      Criteria for correct examples: Conditioned positive reinforcers increase the strength of a behavior through association with other stimuli; unconditioned positive reinforcers are intrinsically reinforcing.

      Sample answers: Conditioned positive reinforcers include money, points, stars, and attention. Unconditioned positive reinforcers include food, sex, sleep, water, and tactile stimulation.

      A positive reinforcer increases the strength of a response it follows; a reward is a pleasant or desirable event that might or might not act as a reinforcer to increase the strength of a response it follows.

    • It has been demonstrated that presentation of a certain event following a behavior can increase the likelihood that the behavior will recur. What is the name of the behavioral principle to which this statement refers?

      Answer: Positive reinforcement

    • In the example that begins this chapter, what behavior does the social worker positively reinforce? What are the reinforcers?

      Answers: The social worker reinforces the client's arriving late to his appointments. The reinforcers are (a) the social worker's telling the client how glad he is to see him and (b) extra time at the end of the session.

      Criterion score: 7

    Chapter 3: Extinction
    • Renumber the following steps to show the correct order for determining whether a specific stimulus served as a positive reinforcer for a target behavior:

      2 1. Withhold the stimulus each time the target response occurs.

      • Determine the strength of the target behavior.
      • Observe a decrease in strength of the target behavior.
      • Present stimulus after the target behavior occurs and observe an increase in its strength.
    • What are two practical difficulties that you might encounter in applying an extinction procedure to decrease the strength of an undesired response?

      Answers:

      • Difficulty in withholding the reinforcer each time the response occurs

      • Difficulty in making sure that the client is not reinforced for the behavior by someone else

    • What is spontaneous recovery?

      Answer: Spontaneous recovery is the recurrence of an extinguished response at a future time in a situation similar to the one in which the behavior was reinforced.

    • Describe the extinction procedure and its effect.

      Answer: The extinction procedure consists of withholding the positive rein-forcer each time the target response is performed. The effect is a decrease in frequency of the target response to zero or to a prespecified rate.

      Criterion score: 8

    Chapter 4: Positive Reinforcement Contingencies
    • Which of the following are statements of positive reinforcement contingencies? (Circle the correct ones.)

      • Finish your math assignment, and you may play outside.

      • If you wash the dishes, I'll give you an ice cream cone.

      • If you fight with your brother, you will get a spanking.

      • He completed his chores in 3 hours.

    • Briefly describe how superstitious behavior is acquired.

      Answer: Superstitious behavior is the result of an accidental relationship between a behavior and a reinforcer. An individual makes a response that is followed by an unplanned reinforcer that coincidentally strengthens the response.

    • Intermittent reinforcement makes a well-learned response more resistant to extinction. (Circle one.)

      • True

      • False

    • When is it more appropriate to use continuous reinforcement than to use intermittent reinforcement?

      Answer: It is more appropriate to use continuous reinforcement when the purpose is to establish a response or to strengthen a response that occurs with low frequency.

    • Match the following schedules in Column A with their examples in Column B.

      AB
      1. Fixed ratioDA. Deadlines
      2. Variable ratioCB. Braking at a stop sign
      3. Fixed intervalAC. Slot machines
      4. Variable intervalFD. Piecework
      5. Fixed durationEE. Watching a movie
      6. Variable durationBF. Waiting for a taxi

      Criterion score: 12

    Chapter 5: Shaping and Response Differentiation
    • In Case Example 4 (p. 269), the psychologist could help develop Leon's speech by using which of the following techniques? (Circle one.)

      • Extinction

      • Intermittent reinforcement

      • Shaping with successive approximations

      • Differential reinforcement of approximation of incompatible responses

    • To shape a new behavior, you would not use differential reinforcement.

      (Circle one.)

      • True

      • False

    • For the response class “talking about sports,” name two responses.

      Criterion for correct answers: Each member of the response class has the same effect on the environment—for example, reinforcement by conversation.

      Sample answers:

      Discussing players' batting averages

      Talking about the upcoming hockey game

      Discussing football strategy

    • How are positive reinforcement and extinction involved in differential reinforcement?

      Answer: Responses that meet specific criteria are positively reinforced, whereas reinforcement is withheld from other responses—that is, they are extinguished.

    • Give an example of a DRO procedure that could be used to decrease Carla's screaming in Case Example 3 (p. 268).

      Answer: Carla's mother could reinforce any behaviors other than Carla's screaming, such as helping her mother put groceries away, fixing a broken toy, or playing quietly by herself. Reinforcement is thus withheld to extinguish the undesired screaming, and other behaviors are strengthened.

      Criterion score: 7

    Chapter 6: Stimulus Control
    • What is an SD for a response? What is an SΔ?

      Answers: An SD is a discriminative stimulus that signals or sets the occasion for a response made in its presence to be reinforced. An SΔ is a discriminative stimulus that signals or sets the occasion for a response made in its presence not to be followed by a reinforcer.

    • What is the effect of a discrimination training procedure involving two discriminative stimuli (SD and SΔ) and one response?

      Answer: Stimulus control. The response rate in the presence of SD increases, and the response rate in the presence of SΔ decreases.

    • In Case Example 4 (p. 269), what function did the green light serve?

      Answer: When the green light was on, Leon's speech was reinforced; when the green light was off, his speech was not reinforced. The green light's being on thus served as an SD for Leon's speech.

    • In the following examples, identify the discriminative stimulus, the response, and the reinforcer by labeling the SD, R, and Sr+ in the diagrams.

      • Bob sees Joe walking down the street. Bob says, “Hello,” and Joe says, “Good morning.”

      • Shirley hears the ice cream truck and asks her aunt for a dollar; her aunt gives her the dollar.

    • When a response is reinforced in the presence of one SD, it will not occur in the presence of other similar stimuli. (Circle one.)

      • True

      • False

      Criterion score: 10

    Chapter 7: Conditioned Reinforcement and Chaining
    • Which is usually more effective, a simple conditioned reinforcer or a generalized conditioned reinforcer? Support your answer.

      Answer: A generalized conditioned reinforcer is more effective than a simple conditioned reinforcer because it is associated with a wide variety of reinforcers, whereas a simple conditioned reinforcer is associated with just one reinforcer. A generalized conditioned reinforcer is therefore less susceptible to the effects of satiation. If an individual is satiated with regard to one reinforcer, there are usually other reinforcers of which he or she is sufficiently deprived to ensure the effectiveness of the generalized conditioned reinforcer.

    • What is the difference between an unconditioned reinforcer and a conditioned reinforcer?

      Answer: An unconditioned reinforcer increases response strength without requiring prior association with other reinforcers. A conditioned reinforcer is a neutral or nonreinforcing stimulus that becomes a reinforcer through association with a reinforcing stimulus.

    • Give two examples of generalized conditioned reinforcers and two examples of unconditioned reinforcers.

      Criteria for correct answers: Generalized conditioned reinforcers are stimuli or items that can be exchanged for a variety of unconditioned and conditioned reinforcers. Unconditioned reinforcers increase the strength of a response without requiring prior association with other reinforcers.

      Sample answers: Examples of generalized conditioned reinforcers include attention, money, coupons, and tokens. Examples of unconditioned rein-forcers include food, water, sex, warmth, and tactile stimulation.

    • For a neutral stimulus to function as a conditioned reinforcer, a minimum of 100 pairings is necessary. (Circle one.)

      • True

      • False

    • Identify the components of one unit of a stimulus-response chain.

      Answer: The components of one unit of a stimulus-response chain consist of a discriminative stimulus (SD), a response (R), and a conditioned reinforcer (Sr+) that also serves as the SD for the following response in the chain.

      Criterion score: 10

    Chapter 8: Modeling and Imitation
    • Describe how a modeling plus reinforcement procedure can be used to develop a child's imitation of an adult using a fork correctly.

      Answer: The adult models or demonstrates the proper use of a fork. The adult's behaviors serve as the modeled stimulus. When the child imitates the modeled stimulus, the adult provides a positive reinforcer, such as praise.

    • For each of the following statements, indicate true (T) or false (F):

      • F If an individual does not perform a response after observing someone perform it, the individual has not learned it.

      • F Filmed models are less effective than live models.

      • F Imitative behavior cannot be conditioned through reinforcement.

    • Using the information in Case Example 6 (p. 271), how could modeling and reinforcement be used to help Bill obtain a new job?

      Answer: Bill's fellow group members could model appropriate job interview behaviors—for example, speaking clearly and making eye contact—in role plays, which Bill observes. Bill then imitates the modeled behaviors, and the therapist and group members praise Bill for successfully doing so.

      Criterion score: 8

    Chapter 9: Punishment
    • Name the two types of punishment procedures that can be used to suppress a response.

      Answers:

      • Positive punishment

      • Negative punishment

    • Briefly describe a time-out procedure.

      Answer: Time-out consists of removing an individual from a reinforcing situation immediately after performance of an inappropriate behavior and placing him or her in an environment with minimal availability of reinforcement for a fixed, brief period of time.

    • Briefly describe two disadvantages of punishment procedures.

      Answers: Any two of the following are acceptable:

      • The punished response could reappear when the individual administering punishment is not present.

      • Aggression may be directed toward someone or something that is unrelated to delivery of the punisher.

      • Aggression may be directed against the individual administering the punishment.

      • Appropriate behaviors occurring immediately prior to delivery of the punisher may be suppressed.

      • The person administering the punisher may become a conditioned punisher through association with the punisher.

      • The person administering the punisher may be imitated by observers.

      • The intended punisher might in fact serve as an SD for responses that are positively reinforced.

    • As Mrs. Kelly went out, she asked her daughter Sharon to fold the laundry after it had been washed and dried. When Mrs. Kelly returned, Sharon was talking to a friend on the phone and the laundry had not been folded. What should Mrs. Kelly do in regard to Sharon's behavior to demonstrate her knowledge of the necessary conditions to maximize the effectiveness of punishment?

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer should include the following points: (a) delivery of a punisher immediately after performance of the target response, (b) use of a punisher that has sufficient intensity to suppress the target response, (c) specification of an appropriate response, and (d) positive reinforcement for performance of the appropriate response.

      Sample answer: Mrs. Kelly tells Sharon to get off the phone, and immediately after Sharon complies, Mrs. Kelly informs her that she cannot visit her friends that afternoon as she had planned. Mrs. Kelly then tells Sharon to fold the laundry. After Sharon does so, Mrs. Kelly says, “Thank you. You did a really nice job.”

      Criterion score: 8

    Chapter 10: Negative Reinforcement
    • What is a major advantage of avoidance conditioning in maintaining a response?

      Answer: A response that is conditioned through an avoidance procedure is highly resistant to extinction.

    • Give an example of the behavioral procedure that produces escape behavior and draw a behavioral diagram to illustrate your example.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer specifies (a) a negative reinforcer that remains in effect until (b) a response is made that (c) removes or reduces the effect of that stimulus (negative reinforcer).

      Sample answer: Chuck comes home drunk and repeatedly demands that his wife, Brenda, have sex with him. Brenda has sex with him, which removes Chuck's demands.

    • Give an example of the behavioral procedure that results in avoidance behavior and draw a behavior diagram to illustrate your example.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer specifies (a) a conditioned negative reinforcer that is presented as a cue for (b) a response that (c) removes the conditioned negative reinforcer and (d) avoids or prevents the onset of another negative reinforcer.

      Sample answer: Jimmy tells Billy that he will have Billy investigated unless Billy tells Jimmy where he got $10,000. Billy then tells Jimmy that Libby gave him the money.

    • Give an example of (a) an unconditioned aversive stimulus that could be used as a negative reinforcer and (b) a conditioned aversive stimulus that could be used as a negative reinforcer.

      Answers:

      • Examples of unconditioned negative reinforcers include shock, physical attack (e.g., hitting and pinching), and intense light, noise, odor, or temperature. The stimulus does not require prior pairing or association with another stimulus.

      • Examples of conditioned negative reinforcers include threats, fines, demerits, failing grades, and harsh or demeaning words (such as calling someone “stupid”). The stimulus requires pairing or association with another stimulus before it can act as a negative reinforcer.

        Criterion score: 9

    Chapter 11: Respondent Conditioning
    • Describe a procedure for extinguishing a classically conditioned response.

      Answer: Present the conditioned stimulus repeatedly without presenting the unconditioned stimulus until the conditioned stimulus no longer elicits the conditioned response.

    • Given the following information, specify operant and respondent behaviors: A man gets in his car and drives home. As he walks through his front door, the aroma of dinner cooking makes his mouth water. He runs to the kitchen, and when he arrives there, panting, he kisses his wife and sits down at the table.

      Answers:

      Operant behaviors: Gets in his car, drives home, walks into the house, runs to the kitchen, kisses his wife, and sits down

      Respondent behaviors: Mouth waters and panting

    • Explain the persistence of emotional respondent behavior in the absence of identifiable reinforcing consequences for the individual.

      Answer: Respondent behaviors are not controlled by their consequences as are operant behaviors. They are controlled by antecedents and, therefore, persist regardless of consequences, as long as the conditioned stimulus is occasionally paired with the unconditioned stimulus.

    • What are the two measures of response strength for a classically conditioned response?

      Answers:

      • Magnitude

      • Latency

      Criterion score: 11

    Chapter 12: Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior Change
    • You are treating an alcohol-abusing client. As part of the treatment program to decrease his drinking, you suggest several nondrinking behaviors that would be appropriate in the social situations in which he usually drinks. These behaviors are new to him, but he agrees to try them.

      • What is the most likely obstacle to success for this part of therapy?

        Answer: He is unlikely to perform these nondrinking behaviors in social situations either because he has never been reinforced for them or because he does not have the skills required to perform them.

      • What can you do to counteract this effect or to plan for this problem?

        Answer: You can use behavioral rehearsal; that is, you can have the client practice and receive reinforcement for nondrinking behaviors in the treatment setting. You can also use behavioral assignments to maximize successful generalization of the nondrinking behaviors practiced in the treatment setting to the client's natural environment.

    • Using the information in Case Example 6 (p. 271), describe how Bill's therapist and group used behavioral rehearsal with Bill to facilitate generalization of appropriate responses to correction.

      Answer: The therapist and group members showed Bill how to make appropriate responses to criticism by conducting role plays of situations in which Bill was criticized by his employer. The therapist and group members praised Bill for performing appropriately in these role plays.

    • Behavioral assignments are given for which of the following reasons? (Circle the correct answer[s].)

      • To structure the client's activities between therapy sessions

      • To help the client apply in his or her natural environment what he or she has learned in treatment

      • To provide feedback to the client from the therapist based on a specific behavior the client has attempted to perform

      • All of the above

    • It is usually more difficult for a desired behavior to generalize beyond the practice setting when more than one therapist is involved in developing the behavior. (Circle one.)

      • True

      • False

    • Turn to Case Example 4 (p. 269). State three ways in which you could maximize successful generalization of Leon's speech.

      Answers: Any three of the following are acceptable:

      • By providing positive reinforcement to unit staff for reinforcing Leon's speech on the unit

      • By shifting reinforcement for Leon's speech from continuous reinforcement to an intermittent reinforcement schedule

      • By having the therapist reinforce Leon's speech on the unit

      • By using more than one therapist to reinforce Leon's speech in the treatment setting

      • By conducting additional sessions in the treatment setting to maintain Leon's speech at a high level after Leon has achieved criterion performance in speaking about the slides

      • By having unit staff reinforce Leon's speech in the treatment setting

      Criterion score: 7

    Chapter 13: Behavioral Assessment
    • Rewrite the following sentences so that the strength of the response is stated in measurable terms.

      Criteria for correct answers: Each sentence must include information on the frequency/time (rate), duration, or intensity of the response.

      • Hortense has repeatedly phoned the adoption agency.

        Sample answer: Hortense phoned the adoption agency 10 times this month.

      • Roger rarely kisses his wife.

        Sample answer: Roger kissed his wife two times last week.

    • In Case Example 2 (p. 268), what were the behavioral excesses shown by Bella and Cliff?

      Answers:

      • Bella and Cliff asked questions and made comments that were unrelated to the topics being discussed.

      • Bella and Cliff talked continuously for 5 minutes or more without pausing for responses from others.

    • What were the negative consequences of Bella and Cliff's behavioral excesses?

      Answers:

      • Bella and Cliff were ridiculed.

      • Bella and Cliff were excluded from many conversations.

    • From the information given in the following paragraph, identify Henry's target responses, the antecedent, and the negative consequences.

      When someone comes over to talk to Henry or ask him a question, he mutters and speaks in a low voice so that the person has difficulty hearing what he is saying. Typically, individuals who approach Henry stop talking and walk away from him soon after he begins to mutter.

      Answers:

      • Henry's target responses: Henry mutters and speaks in a low voice.

      • Antecedent: Someone starts talking to Henry or asks him a question.

      • Negative consequences: The person stops talking to Henry and walks away.

    • What are two questions that a practitioner should ask about a client's problems in establishing priorities for treatment.

      Answers: The practitioner should ask the following four questions in establishing priorities for problem treatment:

      • Which problem is of immediate concern to the client, significant others, or both?

      • Which problem has the most severe aversive or negative consequences for the client, significant others, or society if not handled immediately?

      • Which problem requires handling before other problems can be treated?

      • Which problem can be corrected most quickly, considering resources and obstacles?

    • How is behavioral reenactment used in behavioral assessment? Answers:

      • It is used in role plays to obtain RAC-S assessment information on the client's target behaviors in the problematic situation.

      • It is especially useful for validating the accuracy of a client's verbal report of the target behaviors and their controlling conditions.

      Criterion score: 12

    Chapter 14: Goal Setting, Intervention Planning, and Evaluation
    • What does the term informed consent refer to in the context of a behavioral change program?

      Answer: Informed consent refers to the client's having received all the information he or she needs to understand the proposed intervention and to the client's voluntary agreement to participate.

    • An intervention plan for teaching an individual with mental retardation self-care skills could include which of the following? (Circle one.)

      • Covert sensitization and modeling

      • Positive reinforcement and systematic desensitization C. Positive reinforcement, shaping, and chaining

      • None of the above

    • State three ways of evaluating a client's progress. Answers: Any three of the following are acceptable:

      • Through observation of behavioral changes in the desired direction from baseline measures

      • Through the client's subjective perceptions of improved circumstances

      • Through reports by significant others of improvement in the client's target behaviors

      • Through the client's report of satisfaction with practitioner services

    • What is the purpose of a treatment contract?

      Answer: The purpose of a treatment contract is to make explicit the client's expectations for service and the practitioner's assessment of what is required of the client and significant others to achieve treatment success.

      Criterion score: 6

    Chapter 15: Intervention Techniques
    • Which of the following intervention techniques is not used to decrease anxiety?

      • Systematic desensitization

      • Flooding

      • Covert sensitization

      • In vivo desensitization

    • Covert sensitization is most appropriate for which one of the following purposes?

      • To decrease anxiety to a feared stimulus

      • To treat adolescent panic disorder

      • To develop alternative behaviors to overeating D. To treat the negative effects of depression

    • Cognitive restructuring is used for which of the following purposes?

      • To extinguish delinquent behavior among high school dropouts B. To substitute effective covert behaviors for self-defeating cognitions

      • To shape successive approximations to nondrinking behaviors

      • To reinforce the performance of desired overt behaviors

    • Give two examples of problem behaviors that can be treated with thought stopping.

      Criteria for correct answers: Correct answers indicate recurring negative or self-defeating thoughts.

      Sample answers:

      “I can't do anything right.”

      “I'll never be attractive to another man.”

      “I'll never find the right job.”

    • Panic control treatment includes breathing retraining, cognitive therapy, and exposure to physiological components of panic. (Circle one.)

      • True

      • False

      Criterion score: 5

    Appendix 4: Chapter Posttest Questions

    Chapter 1: Specifying Behavior
    • A. Indicate with a plus sign (+) which of the following statements are written in behaviorally specific terms, and indicate with a minus sign (–) the statements that are vague and require further specification.

    • After completing question 1A, rewrite in specific terms only those statements in which the responses are not described behaviorally.

      • Eddie took two cans of beer from the refrigerator.

      • Johnny expressed his feelings of inadequacy at the ball game.

      • Norman showed hostile feelings toward his probation officer this week.

      • Mr. Smith asserted his authority over use of the car.

      • He thinks of his girlfriend often.

      • Mr. Foster said, “I can't earn enough money to make you happy.”

    • In Case Example 1 (p. 267), Robert's teacher described him as having “low self-esteem.” Specify a behavior that might have led the teacher to describe Robert in this way.

    • Rewrite the following statement to include a measure of response strength: Dan drinks at the bar.

    Chapter 2: Positive Reinforcement
    • Define the positive reinforcement procedure and its effect on the strength of a response.

    • Give one example of an object or event that you think acts as a positive reinforcer for you. State your proof.

    • Using the information in Case Example 1 (p. 267), draw a diagram showing how positive reinforcement could be used to increase the rate of Robert's completing his class assignments; label each component of your diagram. What evidence could be used to evaluate the effect of this procedure?

    • Rewrite the following statements so that they specify target behaviors and indicate baseline rates:

      • Hank is always annoying his brother.

      • Mary was often depressed.

    • Rewrite the following statements so that they describe situations in which the effectiveness of the positive reinforcers is maximized:

      • Mrs. Jones gave Edward a candy bar and asked him to take her dog for a walk.

      • Harvey washed his father's car, and 3 weeks later his father took him to the movies.

    • Lillian goes shopping immediately after she completes her housework. How could you use baseline data to determine whether going shopping serves as a positive reinforcer for Lillian's doing housework?

    Chapter 3: Extinction
    • Describe the procedure for extinguishing a response and give an example in which you specify the response, its reinforcer, and the effect.

    • After you have observed a mother hugging her son when he cried, what would you do to determine whether the mother's hugging serves as a positive reinforcer for the child's crying?

    • Describe the effects of extinction on the rate of a target response.

    • Using the information in Case Example 3 (p. 268), indicate how positive reinforcement played a part in the following:

      • Increasing the rate of an undesired behavior

      • Increasing the rate of a desired behavior

    • How is spontaneous recovery considered in a treatment plan?

    Chapter 4: Positive Reinforcement Contingencies
    • State a positive reinforcement contingency related to Case Example 1 (p. 267) that you could use to help Robert complete his class assignments. Specify a reinforcer and a response.

    • As described in this chapter, self-control reinforcement contingencies are more desirable than accidental contingencies. What is the difference between an accidental contingency and a self-control reinforcement contingency?

    • Define the Premack Principle and give an example of its use and effect.

    • What evidence indicates that intermittent reinforcement makes a response more resistant to extinction than does continuous reinforcement?

    • Using the information in Case Example 4 (p. 269), how could you schedule reinforcement to maintain Leon's increased vocalizations after session 15?

    Chapter 5: Shaping and Response Differentiation
    • Define a response class and give an example of one, describing two of its members.

    • The seven steps involved in shaping a behavior are listed below. Fill in the specific responses or reinforcers, or both, related to each step, using your own example of shaping a motor (nonverbal) behavior.

      Fill in with examples
      1. Specify the target response.1.
      2. Specify reinforcer(s).2.
      3. Specify initial and intermediate responses.3.
      4. Reinforce initial response each time it is performed until it occurs consistently.4.
      5. Shift criterion for reinforcement to intermediate responses.5.
      6. Continue the procedure of differential reinforcement and shift the criterion for reinforcement to intermediate responses that successively approximate the target response.6.
      7. Reinforce the target response.7.
    • Two second-grade students hit each other whenever they are together in school. Describe how a DRO procedure can be used to decrease the rate of their hitting behavior.

    • Give an example of response differentiation, specifying a response class, the differentiated response, and the reinforcer.

    Chapter 6: Stimulus Control
    • Using the information in Case Example 5 (p. 269), do the following:

      • Describe the discrimination training procedure that was used.

      • Describe how reinforcement and extinction were involved in this procedure.

      • Describe the effects of this procedure.

    • In Case Example 4 (p. 269), what two functions did the green light serve?

    • Describe a procedure for establishing a discrimination. In your example, include one SD, one SΔ, and one response. Specify the reinforcer. How do you know when stimulus control has been achieved?

    • Give an example of stimulus generalization.

    Chapter 7: Conditioned Reinforcement and Chaining
    • A social worker gave Ben, a resident of a skilled nursing facility, some coins to determine whether money would serve as a reinforcer for Ben's performing personal hygiene tasks. Ben dropped one of the coins on the floor and left the rest on the table. The social worker concluded that money did not function as a generalized conditioned reinforcer for Ben in the way that it does for most adults in our society. What could the social worker do to establish money as a generalized conditioned reinforcer for Ben?

    • You are a social worker in a community setting, and adolescents who have had one or two contacts with the police and juvenile authorities are referred to you. You station yourself in the socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood in which these youths live because you plan to engage a group of them in activities that will help them stay out of trouble with the law, improve their academic performance, interview for and successfully hold jobs, and solve various interpersonal and family difficulties. Give two examples that describe how you could establish yourself as a generalized conditioned reinforcer.

    • State two advantages of using generalized conditioned reinforcers rather than primary reinforcers in behavioral change programs.

    • Give an example of a problem that can be analyzed as a stimulus-response chain. Draw the stimulus-response chain; include at least two stimulus-response units and label each component.

    Chapter 8: Modeling and Imitation
    • Give an example of a modeling plus reinforcement procedure to develop and strengthen a response.

    • Give an example of the use of modeling in developing assertive behaviors in a group setting.

    • Describe the use of a modeling procedure with prompts, reinforcement, and fading, given the following information: A social worker is trying to teach a child with mental retardation to answer questions about his family. When the social worker asks the child, “How many brothers do you have?” the child does not answer. The child can talk and can say all the words necessary to answer the question.

    Chapter 9: Punishment
    • Give an example of each of the two types of punishment procedures and indicate how you would evaluate the effectiveness of each procedure.

    • Give an example that compares extinction with negative punishment.

    • Give an example of how a practitioner could maximize the effectiveness of punishment with a child who exhibits self-injurious behavior.

    • Using the information in Case Example 7 (p. 271), name the punishment procedure administered to Stephen by his father. Give an example of an incident that would lead Stephen's father to use this procedure.

    • Give an example of punishment applied in a self-control contingency.

    Chapter 10: Negative Reinforcement
    • Give an example that compares the effects of punishment with the effects of negative reinforcement. Specify relevant responses and stimuli involved in each procedure.

    • Give an example of escape behavior developed by negative reinforcement. Label relevant responses and stimuli.

    • Using the information in Case Example 3 (p. 268), describe the interaction between Carla and her mother (Juanita) in terms of positive and negative reinforcement prior to the social worker's intervention.

    • Sylvia told Harold, “Buy me a new car or I'll leave you.” Harold bought Sylvia a new car, and she stopped threatening to leave him. Draw a diagram that describes the avoidance behavior and label all relevant components.

    Chapter 11: Respondent Conditioning
    • Using the information in Case Example 5 (p. 269), state one operant behavior and two possible respondent behaviors involved in Pat's being “upset.”

    • The following examples include operant and respondent behaviors. Place an O next to those in which the behaviors appearing in italics are operant and an R next to those that are respondent:

      • 1. _____ A teenager in a treatment group swears at another boy.

        2. _____ The second boy's face turns red.

      • 1. _____ You ask a client a question about his brother, and

        2. _____ you observe that his breathing quickens and

        3. _____ perspiration appears on his forehead.

      • 1. _____ You give Janet a piece of candy for completing her assignment.

        2. _____ Carol observes this and starts whining.

    • Draw a diagram showing respondent conditioning of the following phobia: A child is afraid of dentists. When he approaches a dentist's office, he begins to tremble, turns pale, breathes rapidly, and then turns and runs away. This child has dental problems that must be taken care of soon or he may lose many of his teeth.

    • Describe the procedure for extinguishing a classically conditioned response.

    Chapter 12: Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior Change
    • State four obstacles to generalization of desired responses from the practice setting to the client's natural environment.

    • In Case Example 4 (p. 269), Leon's speech was developed in a laboratorylike situation. State one reason his speech might not generalize from the treatment setting to the unit.

    • State four ways in which the therapist could maximize successful generalization of Leon's speech.

    • In Case Example 5 (p. 269), what are two behavioral assignments that the marriage counselor gave to Pat?

    • State two reasons for using behavioral assignments in implementing a behavioral change program.

    • In Case Example 2 (p. 268), how was behavioral rehearsal used to help Bella and Cliff converse appropriately with their peers?

    • What is the rationale for using behavioral rehearsal?

    Chapter 13: Behavioral Assessment
    • Give an example of a behavioral deficit and an example of a behavioral excess.

    • A caseworker tells her supervisor that a client is always late for his appointments.

      • Which of the following questions should the supervisor ask the caseworker to obtain baseline measures of the complaint? (Circle the correct answer[s].)

        • Why do you think the client is always late?

        • How many minutes late is the client?

        • How many times has the client been late this month?

        • What do you think the client's lateness means?

      • Give one hypothetical answer to each of the questions you chose above that would provide baseline data on the target behavior.

    • Using the information about Denice's case in Chapter 13 (p. 203), state two of Denice's target behaviors.

    • Specify one antecedent related to Denice's problematic interaction with her coworkers.

    • State two negative consequences of Denice's target responses.

    • State two possible reinforcers for Denice's target responses.

    • State one hypothesis regarding the conditions that exerted control over Denice's target behaviors.

    • Using the information in Case Example 1 (p. 267), state a possible reinforcer maintaining Robert's drug use.

    Chapter 14: Goal Setting, Intervention Planning, and Evaluation
    • Using the information in Case Example 8 (p. 272), state an intermediate behavioral change goal for Bruce, specifying (a) a desired response, (b) a relevant antecedent, and (c) a possible reinforcer.

    • State one possible resource and one possible obstacle to goal attainment for Bruce, given the following behavioral change goal: Bruce assertively asks his employer for a salary increase.

    • Using information from Chapter 14, develop an intervention plan for teaching Tim how to shave (see p. 223). He has never been observed to shave. Include two behavioral techniques and outline the procedure you would follow to achieve the goal.

    • State three evaluation criteria a practitioner could use to determine whether marital arguments have been treated effectively.

    • Using the information in Case Example 8, describe a method for evaluating the effectiveness of an assertiveness training procedure that could be used with Bruce.

    Chapter 15: Intervention Techniques
    • Describe how covert sensitization can be used in the treatment of a sex offender who targets children.

    • Using the following example, describe how thought stopping can be used to decrease undesired thoughts: Jill's fiancé just broke off their engagement, and Jill is having persistent thoughts of how unattractive she is to men and that she will never marry and have children.

    • Compare the uses of systematic desensitization, in vivo desensitization, and flooding in the treatment of phobias.

    • Stan complains of panic attacks while driving on the freeway and thinks that he will have a heart attack and die in his car. How could a therapist use panic control treatment to decrease the panic attacks Stan has while driving?

    Appendix 5: Chapter Posttest Answers

    Chapter 1: Specifying Behavior
    • A. Indicate with a plus sign (+) which of the following statements are written in behaviorally specific terms, and indicate with a minus sign (–) the statements that are vague and require further specification.

      Criteria for correct answers: Responses describe what the person says or does in positively stated, observable terms. Responses stated negatively are incorrect. Sample answers follow those statements that require further specification.

    • After completing question 1A, rewrite in specific terms only those statements in which the responses are not described behaviorally.

      • Eddie took two cans of beer from the refrigerator.

      • Johnny expressed his feelings of inadequacy at the ball game.

        Sample answer: After striking out, Johnny threw down his bat and ran home.

      • Norman showed hostile feelings toward his probation officer this week.

        Sample answer: Every time Norman's probation officer asked him a question about school, Norman said, “Mind your own business.”

      • Mr. Smith asserted his authority over use of the car.

        Sample answer: Mr. Smith kept both sets of keys to the car in his pocket.

      • He thinks of his girlfriend often.

        Sample answer: Every evening he says to himself, “I wish Linda were here.”

      • Mr. Foster said, “I can't earn enough money to make you happy.”

    • In Case Example 1 (p. 267), Robert's teacher described him as having “low self-esteem.” Specify a behavior that might have led the teacher to describe Robert in this way.

      Criterion for correct answer: A correct answer states a measurable behavior performed by Robert.

      Sample answers:

      Robert says, “I'm not too smart.”

      Robert buys drugs and gives them to his friends.

      Robert tells himself, “No one wants to be my friend.”

    • Rewrite the following statement to include a measure of response strength:

      Dan drinks at the bar.

      Criterion for correct answer: A correct answer states the number of times Dan drank at the bar within a specified time period or the number of drinks Dan drank at the bar within a specified time period.

      Sample answers:

      Dan drank six drinks at the bar in 45 minutes.

      Dan drank one drink at the bar in the past 6 hours.

      Dan finished two drinks in 20 minutes.

    Scoring: The total point value of this test is 12 (each question's point value appears in parentheses before the question number). Score 1 point for each correctly identified statement in question 1A, 1 point for each correctly written statement in question 1B, 1 point for a correct answer to question 2, and 1 point for a correct answer to question 3. (For guidelines on scoring your answers, see pp. xix-xx.)

    Criterion score for this test is 11. If your score is at least 11, you have mastered key concepts in this chapter and can go on to Chapter 2. If your score is less than 11, review the chapter until you can answer the questions correctly.

    Chapter 2: Positive Reinforcement
    • Define the positive reinforcement procedure and its effect on the strength of a response.

      Answer: The positive reinforcement procedure consists of the presentation of a stimulus contingent on performance of a response; the effect of this procedure is an increase in the strength of that response.

    • Give one example of an object or event that you think acts as a positive reinforcer for you. State your proof.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer may specify any object or event as long as evidence is given that the response increases in strength after presentation of the stimulus.

      Sample answer: I go to a new hairstylist to get my hair cut. I am pleased with the results. I now go only to this hairstylist to have my hair cut once a month.

      Response: Going to new hairstylist

      Positive reinforcer: Hair cut the way I like it

      Baseline rate of going to this hair stylist: 0 times/month

      Current rate: Once a month for the past 8 months

    • Using the information in Case Example 1 (p. 267), draw a diagram showing how positive reinforcement could be used to increase the rate of Robert's completing his class assignments; label each component of your diagram. What evidence could be used to evaluate the effect of this procedure?

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer gives the positive reinforcement diagram, specifying the reinforcer used. Each component of the diagram is labeled as shown in the following sample answer. Evidence for the reinforcement effect shows that the rate of the response increased over its baseline rate.

      Sample answer:

      Watching television serves as a positive reinforcer if the rate of Robert's completing his assignments increases over the baseline rate.

    • Rewrite the following statements so that they specify target behaviors and indicate baseline rates:

      Criteria for correct answers: Correct answers specify behaviors in positively stated, measurable terms and include a baseline measure of response rate (frequency/time).

      • Hank is always annoying his brother.

        Sample answer: Three times last week, Hank read the newspaper aloud while his brother practiced the violin.

        Target behavior: Reading the newspaper aloud

        Baseline measure: Three times last week

      • Mary was often depressed.

        Sample answer: Mary cried alone in her room four nights this week.

        Target response: Cried alone in her room

        Baseline measure: Four nights this week

    • Rewrite the following statements so that they describe situations in which the effectiveness of the positive reinforcers is maximized:

      • Mrs. Jones gave Edward a candy bar and asked him to take her dog for a walk.

        Sample answer: As soon as Edward returned from walking her dog, Mrs. Jones gave Edward a candy bar.

      • Harvey washed his father's car, and 3 weeks later his father took him to the movies.

        Sample answer: Harvey washed his father's car, and immediately after he finished his father took him to the movies.

    • Lillian goes shopping immediately after she completes her housework. How could you use baseline data to determine whether going shopping serves as a positive reinforcer for Lillian's doing housework?

      Answer: One could compare the baseline rate of Lillian's doing housework (without going shopping) with the rate of her doing housework and going shopping immediately afterward. If shopping is a positive rein-forcer for housework, Lillian will do housework more frequently than during a baseline period when housework is not followed by going shopping.

    Criterion score: 13

    Chapter 3: Extinction
    • Describe the procedure for extinguishing a response and give an example in which you specify the response, its reinforcer, and the effect.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer states a measurable response and a specific reinforcer and also states that this reinforcer is withheld each time the response is performed.

      Sample answer:

      Response: The client stares at the ceiling while talking to you.

      Positive reinforcer: Attention in the form of conversing with the client, looking at the client, and smiling.

      Extinction procedure: Each time the client stares at the ceiling while talking to you, you remain silent—that is, you withhold your attention (conversing, looking at, smiling).

      Effect: The rate of the client's staring at the ceiling while talking to you decreases.

    • After you have observed a mother hugging her son when he cried, what would you do to determine whether the mother's hugging serves as a positive reinforcer for the child's crying?

      Answer: Take the following steps:

      • Determine the rate of the child's crying.

      • Tell the mother to refrain from hugging the child each time he cries. If the child's crying decreases (even after an initial increase), it is likely that the mother's hugging serves as a positive reinforcer for her son's crying.

      • If it is important to demonstrate that the hugging does reinforce the crying, the mother could reinstate hugging her son when he cries. If the crying increases again, it is likely that the mother's hugging serves as a positive reinforcer for her son's crying.

    • Describe the effects of extinction on the rate of a target response.

      Answer: There is usually an initial increase or burst in the rate of responding and then a gradual decrease in the rate of the target response to its baseline rate or to a prespecified rate.

    • Using the information in Case Example 3 (p. 268), indicate how positive reinforcement played a part in the following:

      • Increasing the rate of an undesired behavior

        Answer: Juanita provided positive reinforcement—she promised to buy new clothes and put the toys away—for Carla's undesired behavior of screaming when told to put her toys away.

      • Increasing the rate of a desired behavior

      Answer: Juanita provided positive reinforcement—praise, gum, and cookies—for the desired behavior of Carla's putting her toys away.

    • How is spontaneous recovery considered in a treatment plan?

      Answer: The behavior modifier can anticipate the possible recurrence of the target response at a later date when the client is in a situation that is similar to the one in which the target response was reinforced. The behavioral practitioner, client, and significant others can then arrange for reinforcement to be withheld consistently should the target behavior recur.

    Criterion score: 9

    Chapter 4: Positive Reinforcement Contingencies
    • State a positive reinforcement contingency related to Case Example 1 (p. 267) that you could use to help Robert complete his class assignments. Specify a reinforcer and a response.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer specifies the amount of schoolwork that Robert must complete to receive a specified positive reinforcer. The answer states the response and reinforcer in positive terms.

      Sample answer: You could tell Robert, “After you complete one of your assignments, you can play your stereo for half an hour.”

    • As described in this chapter, self-control reinforcement contingencies are more desirable than accidental contingencies. What is the difference between an accidental contingency and a self-control reinforcement contingency?

      Answer: In a self-control reinforcement contingency, the individual arranges conditions so that his or her behavior is predictably followed by reinforcement. The reinforcer is made available contingent on performance of the response. In an accidental contingency, an individual makes a response that is followed by a noncontingent reinforcer that coincidentally strengthens the response.

    • Define the Premack Principle and give an example of its use and effect.

      Answer: The Premack Principle states that a response that occurs more frequently (high-probability response) than another response can serve as a reinforcer for the response that occurs less frequently (low-probability response).

      Criteria for correct example: A correct example specifies two responses, one occurring with greater frequency than the other. The high-probability response is made contingent on performance of the low-probability response. The effect is an increase in strength of the low-probability response.

      Sample answer: Lenora frequently invites her friends over for coffee in the morning but rarely makes breakfast for her children. She can increase the rate of making breakfast for her children if inviting her friends over is made contingent on her making breakfast for her children. The effect of using the Premack Principle is an increase in the rate of Lenora's making the children's breakfast.

    • What evidence indicates that intermittent reinforcement makes a response more resistant to extinction than does continuous reinforcement?

      Answer: If a response is maintained on an intermittent reinforcement schedule, an individual will perform a greater number of responses during extinction than if the response had been maintained on a continuous schedule of reinforcement.

    • Using the information in Case Example 4 (p. 269), how could you schedule reinforcement to maintain Leon's increased vocalizations after session 15?

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes the following three points:

      • After a consistent rate is established on a continuous reinforcement schedule, shift to a small fixed-ratio (FR) schedule (e.g., FR 2).

      • Gradually shift from FR 2 to progressively larger schedules, such as FR 3, FR 4, FR 6, and FR 8.

      • Gradually shift from FR to variable-rate (VR) schedules (VR 4, VR 7, VR 10, and so on) to approximate reinforcement availability in the natural environment.

      Criterion score: 10

    Chapter 5: Shaping and Response Differentiation
    • Define a response class and give an example of one, describing two of its members.

      Criterion for correct answer: In a correct answer, members of the response class specified have the same or similar effect on the environment.

      Sample answer:

      Response class: Joe's talking about sports topics

      Effect: Father talks with him about sports.

      Members of response class: For example, explaining a player's batting style and describing a touchdown pass

    • The seven steps involved in shaping a behavior are listed below. Fill in the specific responses or reinforcers, or both, related to each step, using your own example of shaping a motor (nonverbal) behavior.

      Fill in with examples
      1. Specify the target response.1. A child with autism throws a ball.
      2. Specify reinforcer(s).2. Raisins and praise (“Good”) are reinforcers.
      3. Specify initial and intermediate responses.3. Responses include the following: movement toward the ball with any part of the body, touching the ball with the hands, holding the ball in the hands, and moving the ball around in the air.
      4. Reinforce initial response each time it is performed until it occurs consistently.4. Any movement toward the ball with any part of the body was reinforced.
      5. Shift criterion for reinforcement to intermediate responses.5. Reinforcement was given only when the child was touching the ball with her hands.
      6. Continue the procedure of differential reinforcement and shift the criterion for reinforcement to intermediate responses that successively approximate the target response.6. When the child was consistently touching the ball with her hands, the criterion for reinforcement was shifted and given only when the child was holding the ball in her hands. The criterion for reinforcement was again shifted and given only when the child moved the ball around in the air.
      7. Reinforce the target response.7. Give praise and raisins when the child throws the ball.
    • Two second-grade students hit each other whenever they are together in school. Describe how a DRO procedure can be used to decrease the rate of their hitting behavior.

      Answer: Reinforcement is given only when the students are doing something other than hitting. The teacher praises the students and gives them extra privileges for interacting in a positive manner, for doing their schoolwork while sitting next to each other, and for any other behaviors except hitting. The teacher ignores the students when they hit. Thus hitting is extinguished while other appropriate behaviors are strengthened.

    • Give an example of response differentiation, specifying a response class, the differentiated response, and the reinforcer.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes (a) a class of responses whose members can be reinforced, (b) a specific response in the class that has been selectively reinforced compared to the others and is performed at a higher rate, and (c) the specific reinforcer involved.

      Sample answer: When Joe tried to talk to his stepfather about his problems, his stepfather turned on the television and looked away from Joe. When Joe talked about sports, however, his stepfather looked at him, listened to him, and discussed the topic with him.

      Response class: Talking to his stepfather

      Differentiated response: Talking about sports

      Reinforcer: Stepfather's attention—looking at Joe, listening to him, and discussing sports with him

    Criterion score: 14

    Chapter 6: Stimulus Control
    • Using the information in Case Example 5 (p. 269), do the following:

      • Describe the discrimination training procedure that was used.

        Answer: In Case Example 5, the counselor employed a discrimination training procedure with Pat in which List A topics functioned as SDs and List B topics were SΔs.

      • Describe how reinforcement and extinction were involved in this procedure.

      Answer: In role plays in the counselor's office, the counselor reinforced Pat's talking about List A topics with praise. Pat's talking about topics on List B was extinguished by the counselor's looking away and not replying (withholding reinforcement).

    • Describe the effects of this procedure.

      Answer: Pat's rate of talking about topics on List A increased, and her rate of talking about List B topics decreased.

    • In Case Example 4 (p. 269), what two functions did the green light serve?

      Answer: When the green light was on, it served as an SD for Leon's speech, indicating that his speaking during that time would be reinforced. When the green light was off, it served as an SΔ for Leon's speech, indicating that his speaking during that time would be extinguished.

    • Describe a procedure for establishing a discrimination. In your example, include one SD, one SΔ, and one response. Specify the reinforcer. How do you know when stimulus control has been achieved?

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer specifies a response, an SD, an SΔ, and the reinforcer. The procedure consists of reinforcing the response in the presence of the SD and allowing the response to be performed initially in the presence of the SΔ while withholding reinforcement. Stimulus control is achieved when the response is performed in the presence of the SD and not in the presence of the SΔ. An additional characteristic of stimulus control is that the latency between the SD and the response is short.

      Sample answer: The procedure is teaching a small child to call his father “Daddy” and not to call his uncle “Daddy.” The father is the SD for the child's saying “Daddy,” a response that leads to reinforcement, such as the father saying “Good” or hugging the child. The uncle is an SΔ for the child's saying “Daddy.” Reinforcement is withheld when the child says “Daddy” upon seeing the uncle. When the child calls his father (SD) “Daddy” immediately upon seeing him and does not call his uncle (SΔ) “Daddy,” stimulus control has been achieved.

    • Give an example of stimulus generalization.

      Sample answer: Last year, Sue received help for her problems from a female therapist. This year, Sue moved to a different city, where she chose a female therapist as well as a female dentist and a female physician.

    Criterion score: 11

    Chapter 7: Conditioned Reinforcement and Chaining
    • A social worker gave Ben, a resident of a skilled nursing facility, some coins to determine whether money would serve as a reinforcer for Ben's performing personal hygiene tasks. Ben dropped one of the coins on the floor and left the rest on the table. The social worker concluded that money did not function as a generalized conditioned reinforcer for Ben in the way that it does for most adults in our society. What could the social worker do to establish money as a generalized conditioned reinforcer for Ben?

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer describes a procedure in which the social worker pairs money with the delivery of known reinforcers.

      Sample answer: The social worker showed Ben a variety of items placed on a table, including chewing gum, magazines, and cookies. He told Ben to point to an item he would like to have. After Ben pointed to an item, the social worker gave Ben a coin (SD) and asked Ben to hand him the coin (R). The social worker gave Ben the item Ben had pointed out (Sr+) as soon as Ben gave him the coin. The social worker repeated this procedure until Ben took the money each time it was offered and exchanged it for selected items.

    • You are a social worker in a community setting, and adolescents who have had one or two contacts with the police and juvenile authorities are referred to you. You station yourself in the socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood in which these youths live because you plan to engage a group of them in activities that will help them stay out of trouble with the law, improve their academic performance, interview for and successfully hold jobs, and solve various interpersonal and family difficulties. Give two examples that describe how you could establish yourself as a generalized conditioned reinforcer.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes examples that show your arrangement of conditions in which you are associated with a variety of unconditioned and conditioned positive reinforcers.

      Sample answer: You could invite the youths to meetings at which you would provide a variety of refreshments, such as soft drinks, cookies, and popcorn. The only behavior you would require of the youths is attendance at the meetings. You could also take them for rides in the agency's van and to activities such as bowling. Through your association with these reinforcers, you would become a conditioned social reinforcer who can increase the youths' desired behaviors.

    • State two advantages of using generalized conditioned reinforcers rather than primary reinforcers in behavioral change programs.

      Answers:

      • The individual is less likely to satiate on a generalized conditioned reinforcer.

      • Generalized conditioned reinforcers are more abundantly available contingent on appropriate behaviors than primary reinforcers. Generalization of desired behaviors is, therefore, more likely to occur the more similar the reinforcers in the treatment environment are to reinforcers in the client's natural environment.

    • Give an example of a problem that can be analyzed as a stimulus-response chain. Draw the stimulus-response chain; include at least two stimulus-response units and label each component.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes a series of behaviors linked by conditioned reinforcers that also serve as SDs for the responses that follow and a final reinforcer that maintains the chain.

      Sample answer: At parties, Joe is often either drinking or getting himself a drink. Some behaviors in this chain are shown in Figure A.1.

      Criterion score: 10

    Figure A.1 Stimulus-Response Chain of Joe's Drinking

    Chapter 8: Modeling and Imitation
    • Give an example of a modeling plus reinforcement procedure to develop and strengthen a response.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes the following elements: (a) a model who demonstrates the behavior (Sm), (b) a person who performs an imitative response (R), and (c) a reinforcer delivered contingent on appropriate imitation.

      Sample answer: In Case Example 6 (p. 271), Bill observed group members role-playing him and demonstrating appropriate responses to criticism. These models demonstrated responses that served as Sms (modeled stimuli) for Bill to imitate. When Bill imitated these behaviors in role plays, group members and the therapist gave him positive reinforcement in the form of praise and encouragement.

    • Give an example of the use of modeling in developing assertive behaviors ina group setting.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes the following elements: (a) specification of target assertive responses, (b) the use of a group member as a model who demonstrates assertive responses (Sm), (c) performance of an imitative response (R) by the client, and (d) a reinforcer presented by group members contingent on appropriate imitation.

      Sample answer: Neil has a hard time asking women to go out with him. He typically approaches them with statements such as “You wouldn't like to go to the movies Saturday night, would you?” and “I have two tickets to a play, if you wouldn't mind going.” In addition, Neil speaks in a pleading, whining voice. These underassertive behaviors were observed by group members during a behavioral reenactment of Neil's last attempt to get a date. The therapist asked Nick, another group member, to model assertive responses for Neil. Neil imitated the behaviors that Nick demonstrated and gradually learned to perform assertive behaviors in a variety of role plays. Group members reinforced Neil with praise for appropriate imitation.

    • Describe the use of a modeling procedure with prompts, reinforcement, and fading, given the following information: A social worker is trying to teach a child with mental retardation to answer questions about his family. When the social worker asks the child, “How many brothers do you have?” the child does not answer. The child can talk and can say all the words necessary to answer the question.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes the following points: (a) The social worker models the correct response; (b) if the child still does not respond, the social worker models the correct response and prompts the child; (c) a specific reinforcer is given when the child correctly imitates the model; and (d) the prompt is faded out when the child answers on his own.

      Sample answer: The social worker asks the child, “How many brothers do you have?” When the child does not answer, the social worker models the correct response—“I have four brothers.” If the child still does not respond, the social worker models the correct answer again and prompts the child, “Now you say it, Tony.” When the child imitates the model (Sm), the social worker gives the child a raisin and praises him, saying “That's good, Tony.” Gradually, the social worker fades out the prompt by saying it in a softer voice each time until the child says, “I have four brothers” in response to the question “How many brothers do you have?”

      Criterion score: 10

    Chapter 9: Punishment
    • Give an example of each of the two types of punishment procedures and indicate how you would evaluate the effectiveness of each procedure.

      Criteria for correct answer: In a correct answer, one example specifies a punishing stimulus that is presented contingent on performance of a response (positive punishment), and the other example specifies the withdrawal of a positive reinforcer contingent on performance of a response (negative punishment). In both cases, you can evaluate the effectiveness of punishment by observing a decrease in the strength of the punished response.

      Sample answers:

      Example 1: Mrs. Jones said to Mr. Jones, “You spend all your money on booze.” Mr. Jones slapped Mrs. Jones across the face.

      Effect: Mrs. Jones stopped complaining to Mr. Jones about his spending money on liquor.

      Example 2: During the past 2 weeks, Bert came home 30 to 40 minutes late five times. His mother then told him he could not drive the car for 3 days.

      Effect: Since his mother took away his driving privileges, Bert has come home on time.

    • Give an example that compares extinction with negative punishment.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes the following points: (a) Punishment is the removal of a reinforcer other than that which maintains the target response, whereas extinction is the withdrawal of the positive reinforcer maintaining the target response; and (b) punishment results in a rapid decrease or suppression of the target response, whereas extinction results in a gradual decrease in strength of the target response.

      Sample answer: Fred criticized his wife, Sally, for being overweight when she undressed at bedtime.

      Punishment: After Fred criticized Sally, she refused to have sex with him.

      Effect: Fred stopped criticizing Sally about her weight.

      Extinction: When Fred criticized Sally at bedtime, she turned away from him and stopped speaking to him that evening.

      Effect: After three incidents during the past week, Fred stopped criticizing Sally about her weight.

    • Give an example of how a practitioner could maximize the effectiveness of punishment with a child who exhibits self-injurious behavior.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes the following elements: (a) delivery of a punisher immediately after self-injurious behavior, (b) delivery of punisher each time self-injury occurs, (c) punisher of sufficient intensity to suppress self-injury, (d) specification of alternative appropriate behaviors, (e) positive reinforcement of appropriate behaviors, (f) removal of reinforcement for undesired behavior, and (g) arrangement of the punishment contingency so that escape is not possible.

      Sample answer: A child with mental retardation scratched himself so much that his body was covered with sores. Each time he scratched himself, a mild nonharmful electric shock was delivered to the child's hand. The shock suppressed the scratching after three trials and was discontinued. The practitioner then specified appropriate behavior for the child to engage in, such as picking up a puzzle piece and fitting it into a puzzle. When the child responded appropriately to the instructions, he received a piece of cereal and praise (“Good boy!”).

    • Using the information in Case Example 7 (p. 271), name the punishment procedure administered to Stephen by his father. Give an example of an incident that would lead Stephen's father to use this procedure.

      Answers:

      • The procedure used was time-out, a form of negative punishment.

      • Example of an incident that would lead Stephen's father to use this procedure: When Dianne made faces at Stephen and Stephen hit Dianne, the father took Stephen to the laundry room (time-out).

    • Give an example of punishment applied in a self-control contingency.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes self-administered punishment, either presentation of a punishing stimulus (positive punishment) or removal of a positive reinforcer (negative punishment).

      Sample answers:

      If I smoke more than one pack of cigarettes this week, I will send $50 to the American Cancer Society (removal of a positive reinforcer, or negative punishment).

      An individual carries an electronic cigarette case that is set to deliver a slight shock if it is opened at intervals of less than 30 minutes (presentation of a punishing stimulus, or positive punishment).

      Criterion score: 12

    Chapter 10: Negative Reinforcement
    • Give an example that compares the effects of punishment with the effects of negative reinforcement. Specify relevant responses and stimuli involved in each procedure.

      Criteria for correct answers: A correct answer demonstrates the effect of punishment in decreasing the strength of the punished response and the effect of negative reinforcement in increasing the strength of the escape or avoidance response.

      Sample answers:

      Punishment: A program evaluator requested data on client outcomes from treatment staff (R). They told him that they were too busy to get the data for him (Sr-−). The program evaluator stopped asking for the data.

      Negative reinforcement: A program evaluator repeatedly requested data on client outcomes from treatment staff (Sr-−). They finally gave her the data she requested (R), thus terminating the requests (). The likelihood is increased that the staff will comply with similar requests in the future.

    • Give an example of escape behavior developed by negative reinforcement.

      Label relevant responses and stimuli.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes the following elements: (a) presentation of a negative reinforcer; (b) a response that terminates, removes, or reduces its effect; and (c) evidence that the strength of the escape response increases.

      Sample answer: Pat nagged and criticized her husband, Dick (Sr-−). Dick left the house (R) more often, which removed him from the nagging and criticism ().

    • Using the information in Case Example 3 (p. 268), describe the interaction between Carla and her mother (Juanita) in terms of positive and negative reinforcement prior to the social worker's intervention.

      Answers:

      Positive reinforcement for Carla: Juanita put the toys away and promised to buy Carla new clothes.

      Negative reinforcement for Juanita: Carla screamed (SR−) until Juanita put the toys away and promised to buy Carla new clothes (R)—the responses that terminated Carla's screaming ().

    • Sylvia told Harold, “Buy me a new car or I'll leave you.” Harold bought Sylvia a new car, and she stopped threatening to leave him. Draw a diagram that describes the avoidance behavior and label all relevant components.

      Criterion score: 10

    Chapter 11: Respondent Conditioning
    • Using the information in Case Example 5 (p. 269), state one operant behavior and two possible respondent behaviors involved in Pat's being “upset.”

      Answers:

      Operant behaviors: (a) Pat's running into the bedroom and (b) her locking the door.

      Possible respondent behaviors: (a) Pat's hands trembling, (b) her heart rate increasing, and (c) her crying.

    • The following examples include operant and respondent behaviors. Place an O next to those in which the behaviors appearing in italics are operant and an R next to those that are respondent:

      • 1. O A teenager in a treatment group swears at another boy. 2. R The second boy's face turns red.

      • 1. O You ask a client a question about his brother, and

        2. R you observe that his breathing quickens and

        3. R perspiration appears on his forehead.

      • 1. O You give Janet a piece of candy for completing her assignment.

        2. O Carol observes this and starts whining.

    • Draw a diagram showing respondent conditioning of the following phobia: A child is afraid of dentists. When he approaches a dentist's office, he begins to tremble, turns pale, breathes rapidly, and then turns and runs away. This child has dental problems that must be taken care of soon or he may lose many of his teeth.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes a diagram that shows the pairing of a painful stimulus (US) with a previously neutral stimulus (dentist's office) until the neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit anxiety (conditioned response [CR]).

      Sample answer: A diagram showing respondent conditioning of the child's fear of dentists appears as follows:

      • Before conditioning

      • During conditioning

      • After conditioning

    • Describe the procedure for extinguishing a classically conditioned response.

      Answer: Present the conditioned stimulus (CS) repeatedly until it no longer elicits the CR.

      Criterion score: 13

    Chapter 12: Generalization and Maintenance of Behavior Change
    • State four obstacles to generalization of desired responses from the practice setting to the client's natural environment.

      Answers:

      • Lack of similarity between antecedent stimuli (SDs and CSs) in the practice setting and the client's environment

      • Reinforcement of undesired responses in the natural environment

      • Lack of reinforcement for desired responses in the client's environment

      • Insufficient practice of desired responses in the practice setting

    • In Case Example 4 (p. 269), Leon's speech was developed in a laboratory-like situation. State one reason his speech might not generalize from the treatment setting to the unit.

      Answer: Leon's speech might not generalize from the treatment setting to the unit for any of the following reasons:

      • If unit staff do not reinforce Leon's speech, his speaking will be extinguished.

      • SDs for speech on the unit might be different from SDs for speech in the treatment setting (e.g., there is no green light for speaking on the unit).

      • Unit staff might reinforce quiet, inactive patient behaviors performed by Leon.

      • Leon might not have had sufficient practice at speaking in the treatment setting.

    • State four ways in which the therapist could maximize successful generalization of Leon's speech.

      Answers: Any four of the following are acceptable:

      • The therapist could reinforce the unit staff for reinforcing Leon's speech on the unit.

      • The therapist could shift reinforcement for Leon's speech from a continuous to an intermittent schedule.

      • The therapist could reinforce Leon's speech on the unit.

      • More than one therapist could be used to reinforce Leon's speech in the treatment setting.

      • The therapist could conduct additional sessions to maintain Leon's speech at a high level after Leon has achieved criterion performance in speaking about the slides.

      • The therapist could have the unit staff reinforce Leon's speech in the treatment setting.

    • In Case Example 5 (p. 269), what are two behavioral assignments that the marriage counselor gave to Pat?

      Answers: The counselor gave Pat the following behavioral assignments:

      • Make two lists of topics: one to discuss with her husband, Dick (List A), and the other not to discuss with Dick (List B).

      • Kiss Dick when he comes home from work and ask him how his day has gone.

    • State two reasons for using behavioral assignments in implementing a behavioral change program.

      Answers: Any two of the following are acceptable:

      • To give the client opportunities to try out behaviors discussed and rehearsed in the practice setting

      • To direct the client's activities between meetings toward performance of desired behaviors and attainment of behavior change goals

      • To promote generalization of desired responses from the practice setting to the client's natural environment

      • To give the client homework to perform, with the results reported to the practitioner and used to evaluate the client's progress toward goal achievement

    • In Case Example 2 (p. 268), how was behavioral rehearsal used to help Bella and Cliff converse appropriately with their peers?

      Answers: The social worker required Bella and Cliff to make appropriate statements during the group conversation exercise. They were reinforced with praise for doing so, and they were corrected and instructed to try again when they made inappropriate statements.

    • What is the rationale for using behavioral rehearsal?

      Answer: Behavioral rehearsal allows the client to become more skilled in performing appropriate behaviors in a supportive environment. Behavioral rehearsal also promotes generalization of desired responses from the practice setting to the client's natural environment by ensuring that the desired behaviors are first well learned in the practice setting.

      Criterion score: 14

    Chapter 13: Behavioral Assessment
    • Give an example of a behavioral deficit and an example of a behavioral excess.

      Criteria for correct answers: Behavioral deficits refer to the absence or low rates of appropriate behaviors. Behavioral excesses refer to high rates of inappropriate behaviors.

      Sample answers:

      Behavioral deficits:

      When someone compliments Joy, she says, “I don't deserve it” in a very low voice.

      A 10-year-old child with mental retardation speaks only three words.

      Behavioral excesses:

      Bill, a 9-year-old, throws rocks at other children.

      Carol runs away from home when she is disciplined.

    • A caseworker tells her supervisor that a client is always late for his appointments.

      • Which of the following questions should the supervisor ask the caseworker to obtain baseline measures of the complaint? (Circle the correct answer[s].)

        • Why do you think the client is always late?

        • How many minutes late is the client?

        • How many times has the client been late this month?

        • What do you think the client's lateness means?

      • Give one hypothetical answer to each of the questions you chose above that would provide baseline data on the target behavior.

        Criteria for correct answers: Correct answers provide specific data on the rate of the target behavior, the duration of the target behavior, or both.

        Sample answer to question 2: He is 15 minutes late each time.

        Sample answer to question 3: She has been late for three out of four appointments this month.

    • Using the information about Denice's case in Chapter 13 (p. 203), state two of Denice's target behaviors.

      Answers: Any two of the following are acceptable:

      • Shouted

      • Clenched her fists

      • Frowned

      • Moved her arms rapidly up and down

    • Specify one antecedent related to Denice's problematic interaction with her coworkers.

      Answer: Any one of the following is acceptable:

      • The coworker made a suggestion about how Denice could improve her work performance.

      • Denice said to herself, “I don't deserve criticism from my coworker” and “He thinks I can't do my job.”

      • Denice said she felt very anxious about her ability to do her job.

    • State two negative consequences of Denice's target responses.

      Answers: Any two of the following are acceptable:

      • Denice's boss criticized Denice's shouting.

      • Denice's boss warned Denice that she could lose her job.

      • Denice felt anxious.

    • State two possible reinforcers for Denice's target responses. Answers:

      • Denice's coworker stopped giving her suggestions.

      • Denice's coworkers left her alone.

    • State one hypothesis regarding the conditions that exerted control over Denice's target behaviors.

      Answer: Denice's shouting at coworkers was reinforced and maintained by negative reinforcement (Denice's anxiety decreased, her coworker stopped giving her suggestions about how to do her job, and other coworkers left her alone).

    • Using the information in Case Example 1 (p. 267), state a possible reinforcer maintaining Robert's drug use.

      Answer: Any one of the following is acceptable:

      • He listens to music with his friends.

      • He spends time with his girlfriend.

      • He avoids doing his homework.

      • He avoids the nagging of his parents.

      Criterion score: 14

    Chapter 14: Goal Setting, Intervention Planning, and Evaluation
    • Using the information in Case Example 8 (p. 272), state an intermediate behavioral change goal for Bruce, specifying (a) a desired response, (b) a relevant antecedent, and (c) a possible reinforcer.

      Criteria for correct answers: Correct answers indicate that Bruce makes an alternative response in the presence of an antecedent that previously led to nonassertive behaviors. This response is less difficult for Bruce to perform than his target behavior. A reinforcer is delivered after performance of the desired behavior.

      Sample answers:

      Intermediate goal for a date: Bruce talks about a topic of mutual interest with his date.

      Desired response: Bruce speaks to his date in a pleasant tone of voice about a topic of mutual interest, such as a recent movie they have both seen.

      Relevant antecedent: Bruce has coffee in a restaurant with a woman.

      Possible reinforcer: The woman responds favorably to Bruce; she smiles at him and talks with him.

      Intermediate goal with employer: Bruce makes a legitimate request of his employer, such as asking for time off to visit a sick relative.

      Desired response: Bruce looks directly at his employer, speaks in a pleasant tone of voice, and clearly states his request.

      Relevant antecedent: In his employer's office, Bruce sits across the desk from his employer.

      Possible reinforcer: Bruce's employer agrees to Bruce's stated request or acknowledges the legitimacy or reasonableness of the request.

    • State one possible resource and one possible obstacle to goal attainment for Bruce, given the following behavioral change goal: Bruce assertively asks his employer for a salary increase.

      Answers:

      Possible resources: Bruce's stated cooperation and desire to improve his situation, possible support from his male friend, and Bruce's favorable employment record with the company

      Possible obstacles: Bruce's high anxiety in interpersonal situations, Bruce's negative self-statements that have been reinforced by his boss, and Bruce's reluctance to make an appointment to meet with his employer

    • Using information from Chapter 14, develop an intervention plan for teaching Tim how to shave (see p. 223). He has never been observed to shave. Include two behavioral techniques and outline the procedure you would follow to achieve the goal.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes behavior change techniques (selected from those in Table 14.1) that can (a) develop a new response and (b) maintain the response. A correct answer also describes the procedure for implementing the techniques.

      Sample answer: Modeling and positive reinforcement are behavior change techniques that could be used. The staff would demonstrate shaving to Tim and tell him to do it the same way. When Tim picked up the shaver, he would be reinforced with a token. The staff would continue to model each step of shaving and reinforce Tim for correct imitative responses. Shaping could also be used in conjunction with modeling. In this case, Tim would be reinforced for any approximations he made to the modeled stimulus. Standing near the sink, reaching for the shaver, and putting the shaver up to his face are approximations that would be reinforced. The reinforcement would be shifted from one approximation to the next until Tim is shaving himself. Another technique that could be used in conjunction with modeling and positive reinforcement is chaining or backward chaining.

    • State three evaluation criteria a practitioner could use to determine whether marital arguments have been treated effectively.

      Answers: Any three of the following are acceptable:

      • The number of arguments decreases.

      • The duration of arguments decreases.

      • The intensity of arguments decreases.

      • The spouses report greater satisfaction with the marriage.

    • Using the information in Case Example 8, describe a method for evaluating the effectiveness of an assertiveness training procedure that could be used with Bruce.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer describes an evaluation method that includes a measure of the strength of social skills before, during, and after treatment, both in the practice setting and in the client's environment.

      Sample answer: One way to obtain an objective measure of behavior change would be for Bruce to role-play a situation with the therapist. The therapist would observe Bruce's social skills and include those observations in his or her evaluation of the effectiveness of the intervention program. The second source of such information would be data provided by Bruce before, during, and after treatment concerning his rate of performing social skills in his natural environment.

      Criterion score: 13

    Chapter 15: Intervention Techniques
    • Describe how covert sensitization can be used in the treatment of a sex offender who targets children.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes the following: (a) a detailed description of the maladaptive behavior; (b) the client's imagined performance of the maladaptive behavior, which is then paired with highly aversive stimuli that elicit anxiety-conditioned responses; (c) repeated pairings of these two scenes in the client's imagination; and (d) specification of escape and avoidance responses that are negatively reinforced by removal of the imagined aversive stimuli.

      Sample answer: The client has a history of approaching young boys and enticing them into having sex with him. The client is instructed to imagine the following scenario: He approaches a young boy. As he does, he feels nauseated, and an overwhelming urge to vomit overtakes him. He cannot stop it. He vomits all over himself, the young boy, and the street. People are staring at him. The stench is disgusting. As he turns away from the boy, he begins to feel better. He walks away from the boy and continues to feel better. This procedure of imagining the inappropriate sexual partner paired with the nausea and anxiety of vomiting in public is repeated. Covert negative reinforcement (removal of the anxiety and nausea by turning away from young boys) is used to provide appropriate escape and avoidance responses.

    • Using the following example, describe how thought stopping can be used to decrease undesired thoughts: Jill's fiancé just broke off their engagement, and Jill is having persistent thoughts of how unattractive she is to men and that she will never marry and have children.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes specification of the negative thoughts and a description of the procedure in which (a) as the client verbalizes the thoughts, the therapist shouts “Stop!” to block the undesired thoughts and redirect the client's attention; (b) the client concentrates on the thoughts and signals the therapist when they begin; (c) the therapist shouts “Stop!” to disrupt the thoughts; (d) the therapist gradually fades out the shouting of “Stop!” as the client takes over saying “Stop!” first aloud and then to him- or herself; and (e) the client redirects his or her thoughts to positive, self-reinforcing self-statements incompatible with the unwanted thoughts.

      Sample answer: The following are Jill's negative thoughts: “I'm unattractive to men. I'll never have a good relationship, and I'll never find anyone to marry me.” As she begins to speak these thoughts aloud, the therapist loudly shouts “Stop!” The therapist then instructs Jill to think the negative thoughts and to signal the therapist by raising her finger when they begin. When Jill raises her finger, the therapist shouts “Stop!” and discusses with Jill the effect of the shout in disrupting the thought. This procedure is repeated, with the therapist fading out shouting “Stop!” as Jill takes over saying “Stop!” first aloud and then to herself. When the undesired cognition has been disrupted, Jill redirects her thoughts to positive ones, such as “I have a lot of friends who like to spend time with me.”

    • Compare the uses of systematic desensitization, in vivo desensitization, and flooding in the treatment of phobias.

      Answer: All three are exposure techniques used for treating phobias. Systematic desensitization uses an imaginal graduated hierarchy of anxiety-evoking stimuli. In vivo desensitization is a graduated exposure technique that is used to treat phobias in the actual problematic situations. Flooding is a technique that uses intense, prolonged exposure, either imaginally or in actual problematic situations.

    • Stan complains of panic attacks while driving on the freeway and thinks that he will have a heart attack and die in his car. How could a therapist use panic control treatment to decrease the panic attacks Stan has while driving?

      Answer: Stan's treatment would include the following components: (a) breathing retraining, relaxation training, or both; (b) cognitive therapy to restructure Stan's belief that he will have a heart attack and die while driving; and (c) interoceptive exposure in which the therapist exposes Stan to physical sensations (e.g., dizziness, heart racing) that elicit or trigger the panic symptoms. The therapist would remain in the situation with Stan until his panic symptoms decrease or extinguish.

      Criterion score: 14

    Appendix 6: Course Posttest Questions

    Questions for Case Example 1 (p. 267)
    • Specify three antecedents to Robert's drug and alcohol consumption.

    • State two negative consequences related to Robert's drug and alcohol consumption.

    • State four negative consequences of Robert's failing grades.

    • Specify two measures that could be used to evaluate movement toward Robert's behavior change goals.

    • State three possible reinforcers (positive or negative) maintaining Robert's drug and alcohol consumption.

    Questions for Case Example 2 (p. 268)
    • Specify the target behaviors and their negative consequences for Bella and Cliff.

    • State three measurable goals of the procedure carried out by the social worker.

    • Describe two behavioral techniques that the social worker could use to help Bella and Cliff generalize appropriate verbal behavior outside the group.

    • Describe (a) a reinforcer that was given in the group to Bella and Cliff contingent on appropriate speech and (b) a possible reinforcer that could maintain Bella's and Cliff's appropriate speech outside the group.

    Questions for Case Example 3 (p. 268)
    • Specify the two measures used to determine movement toward behavior change goals.

    • Describe the interactions between Carla and Juanita in terms of positive reinforcement and in terms of negative reinforcement. Draw diagrams of the interactions and label each component.

    • Name the operant procedure used to decrease Carla's screaming when she was asked to put her toys away. Describe how it was implemented—that is, to which of Juanita's actions does the procedure refer?

    • What was the social worker's rationale for instructing Juanita to praise Carla for putting her toys away?

    Questions for Case Example 4 (p. 269)
    • In this case example, no goal is explicitly stated for treatment. State a possible behavior change goal for Leon and specify a measure that could be used to determine whether it was achieved.

    • What data should Leon's therapist collect before implementing the intervention described in the case example?

    • Describe the function of the green light. Name and briefly state the purpose of the operant procedure involving the green light.

    • Apply the concept of conditioned reinforcement to explain how Leon's speech could have generalized to the unit from the treatment setting even though the unconditioned reinforcer (candy) was not given to him on the unit. What specifically did the psychologist do to promote the generalization of Leon's speech to the unit?

    Questions for Case Example 5 (p. 269)
    • State four possible desired behaviors that could be included in treatment goals for Pat, and indicate what measures could be used to evaluate movement toward those goals.

    • In behavioral terms, describe the rationale for the procedure of having Pat draw up two lists of topics.

    • State two measures that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the discrimination training procedure employed by the counselor.

    • How was Dick's leaving the house negatively reinforced?

    Questions for Case Example 6 (p. 271)
    • What inappropriate behaviors did Bill emit during criticism?

    • How could a modeling plus reinforcement procedure have been used to help Bill obtain a new job?

    • What reinforcement was arranged for Bill in the treatment situation, and what were the conditions for its delivery?

    • List Bill's respondent behaviors elicited by criticism.

    • Identify the behavioral procedures that were used to promote generalization of desired behavior change from the group treatment setting to Bill's natural environment.

    Questions for Case Example 7 (p. 271)
    • List five contingencies that Edward carried out with Stephen and Dianne.

    • Name the behavioral principle that was the basis for the punishment administered to Stephen and Dianne. Name the reinforcers involved for Stephen and Dianne.

    • The therapist told Edward to spend time with Stephen in the evenings and to play cards with him. The goal was to increase social behaviors performed by father and son that would be positively reinforced by each other. Describe two possible situations that would indicate that this goal was being achieved.

    • Describe a shaping procedure that Edward could have used to establish cooperative play behaviors between Stephen and Dianne.

    Questions for Case Example 8 (p. 272)
    • State two desired behaviors that could be included in behavior change goals related to Bruce's problem of nonassertiveness.

    • Describe two role-playing techniques that could be used as part of Bruce's treatment if he were participating in group therapy.

    • Describe a procedure that Bruce could use to establish himself as a conditioned reinforcer for his dates.

    Appendix 7: Course Posttest Answers

    Answers for Case Example 1 (p. 267)
    • Specify three antecedents to Robert's drug and alcohol consumption.

      Answers:

      • Friends invite Robert over to listen to music and drink beer.

      • Robert is with his girlfriend at her home.

      • Robert is home alone and looks in his notebook for his assignments. (Chapter 13)

    • State two negative consequences related to Robert's drug and alcohol consumption.

      Answers: Any two of the following are acceptable:

      • He fails to complete class assignments.

      • He is unprepared for class.

      • He receives failing grades. (Chapter 13)

    • State four negative consequences of Robert's failing grades.

      Answers:

      • He is grounded by his parents.

      • His parents nag him.

      • He is denied certain privileges, such as watching television and going out with his friends.

      • His parents withhold his allowance. (Chapter 13)

      Note: The chapter numbers in parentheses following the answers in this appendix indicate the chapters in which the preceding material is discussed.

    • Specify two measures that could be used to evaluate movement toward Robert's behavior change goals.

      Answers: Any two of the following are acceptable:

      • Robert turns in an increased number of complete assignments.

      • Robert decreases the frequency of his drug consumption, his alcohol consumption, or both.

      • Robert decreases the amount of his drug consumption, his alcohol consumption, or both. (Chapter 13)

    • State three possible reinforcers (positive or negative) maintaining Robert's drug and alcohol consumption.

      Answers: Any three of the following are acceptable:

      • He spends time with his girlfriend (positive reinforcer).

      • He avoids doing his homework (negative reinforcer).

      • He escapes the nagging of his parents (negative reinforcer).

      • He listens to music and spends time with his friends (positive reinforcer). (Chapters 10 and 13)

    Answers for Case Example 2 (p. 268)
    • Specify the target behaviors and their negative consequences for Bella and Cliff.

      Answers:

      Target behaviors: (a) asking questions unrelated to topics being discussed, (b) making comments unrelated to topics being discussed, and (c) talking continuously for 5 minutes or more without pausing for others to respond.

      Negative consequences: (a) ridicule and (b) exclusion from conversations held by other group members. (Chapter 13)

    • State three measurable goals of the procedure carried out by the social worker.

      Answers: Any three of the following are acceptable:

      • To decrease inappropriate questions and comments

      • To increase Bella's and Cliff's appropriate speech during conversations

      • To decrease the amount of time each spoke without a pause

      • To increase Bella's and Cliff's participation in appropriate conversations with staff and others. (Chapter 13)

    • Describe two behavioral techniques that the social worker could use to help Bella and Cliff generalize appropriate verbal behavior outside the group.

      Answers: The social worker could give Bella and Cliff behavioral assignments in which they would be required to practice the desired verbal behaviors outside the group setting; behavioral rehearsal could also be used in the group setting to allow Bella and Cliff to practice appropriate verbal behavior with reinforcement. (Chapter 12)

    • Describe (a) a reinforcer that was given in the group to Bella and Cliff contingent on appropriate speech and (b) a possible reinforcer that could maintain Bella's and Cliff's appropriate speech outside the group.

      Answers:

      • The social worker and group members complimented and praised Bella and Cliff when they made appropriate statements during the conversation exercise.

      • Reinforcers outside the group could include other persons involving Bella and Cliff in their conversations and staff or relatives reinforcing appropriate speech with praise, attention, and interest. (Chapters 2 and 12)

    Answers for Case Example 3 (p. 268)
    • Specify the two measures used to determine movement toward behavior change goals.

      Answers:

      • The decrease in the duration of Carla's screaming when told to put her toys away

      • The increase in the rate of Carla's putting her toys away. (Chapter 14)

    • Describe the interactions between Carla and Juanita in terms of positive reinforcement and in terms of negative reinforcement. Draw diagrams of the interactions and label each component.

      Answers: Carla's screaming was positively reinforced by Juanita's putting the toys away and promising to buy Carla new clothes. Juanita's responses of putting the toys away and promising to buy Carla new clothes were negatively reinforced by the removal of Carla's screaming. (Chapters 2 and 10)

    • Name the operant procedure used to decrease Carla's screaming when she was asked to put her toys away. Describe how it was implemented—that is, to which of Juanita's actions does the procedure refer?

      Answers: Juanita used an extinction procedure to decrease Carla's screaming. When Carla screamed about putting her toys away, Juanita walked away from her. Juanita also refrained from making promises to buy Carla new clothes and from putting Carla's toys away herself. (Chapter 3)

    • What was the social worker's rationale for instructing Juanita to praise Carla for putting her toys away?

      Answer: In situations in which undesired behaviors are decreased, it is important to establish and increase desired behaviors that are incompatible with the undesired behaviors. Therefore the social worker instructed Juanita to praise and reinforce Carla when she put her toys away. (Chapter 3)

    Answers for Case Example 4 (p. 269)
    • In this case example, no goal is explicitly stated for treatment. State a possible behavior change goal for Leon and specify a measure that could be used to determine whether it was achieved.

      Criterion for correct answer: The behavior change goal indicates that Leon speaks according to a specific, measurable criterion.

      Sample answers: The following are possible behavior change goals: (a) Leon speaks five complete sentences during a 30-minute session, and (b) Leon responds to five of six questions asked of him by the psychologist during a 20-minute session. (Chapter 5)

    • What data should Leon's therapist collect before implementing the intervention described in the case example?

      Answer: The therapist should obtain a baseline indicating the rate of Leon's speech in the treatment setting and on the unit. (Chapter 1)

    • Describe the function of the green light. Name and briefly state the purpose of the operant procedure involving the green light.

      Answers: When on, the green light served as an SD for verbal responses that would be reinforced. When the green light was off, it served as an SΔ during which time speech was not reinforced. The psychologist used the discrimination training procedure to teach Leon to speak only when the green light was on. (Chapter 6)

    • Apply the concept of conditioned reinforcement to explain how Leon's speech could have generalized to the unit from the treatment setting even though the unconditioned reinforcer (candy) was not given to him on the unit. What specifically did the psychologist do to promote the generalization of Leon's speech to the unit?

      Answers: Leon's speech was probably maintained by conditioned reinforcers on the unit, such as people responding to his speech, staff praising him for speaking, and other residents commenting favorably on his speech. By saying “Good,” the psychologist was using a conditioned reinforcer (praise) with the primary reinforcer (candy) to promote the shifting from unconditioned to conditioned reinforcers more readily available in Leon's natural environment. (Chapters 7 and 12)

    Answers for Case Example 5 (p. 269)
    • State four possible desired behaviors that could be included in treatment goals for Pat, and indicate what measures could be used to evaluate movement toward those goals.

      Answers: Any four of the following are acceptable:

      • An increase in frequency of Pat's making breakfast for Dick

      • A decrease in frequency of Dick's going out with his friends

      • An increase in the frequency of Pat and Dick's going to movies or other entertainment together

      • An increase in the frequency of Dick's accompanying Pat on shopping trips

      • A decrease in the intensity of arguments between Pat and Dick

      • A decrease in the frequency of arguments between Pat and Dick

      • An increase in the frequency of pleasant conversation between Pat and Dick

      • An increase in the amount of time Dick spends with Pat and the children watching television, going on trips, or talking with one another. (Chapters 13 and 14)

    • In behavioral terms, describe the rationale for the procedure of having Pat draw up two lists of topics.

      Answer: Pat made a list of topics to discuss with Dick (SD) and a list of topics not to discuss with Dick (SΔ). Items on the SD list (List A) were SDs for Pat's speaking that were reinforced by the counselor in role-play situations. Pat's speaking about items on the SΔ list (List B) was not reinforced by the counselor. The counselor used a discrimination training procedure to teach Pat to talk only about SD topics to increase the frequency of pleasant conversation with Dick and to decrease the frequency of arguments involving List B topics. (Chapter 6)

    • What are two measures that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the discrimination training procedure employed by the counselor?

      Answers:

      • An increase in frequency of Pat's speaking about List A topics

      • A decrease in frequency of Pat's speaking about List B topics. (Chapters 6 and 14)

    • How was Dick's leaving the house negatively reinforced?

      Answer: By leaving the house, Dick removed Pat's nagging and criticizing. Thus his response of leaving the house was negatively reinforced. (Chapter 10)

    Answers for Case Example 6 (p. 271)
    • What inappropriate behaviors did Bill emit during criticism?

      Answers: Bill (a) rapped his knuckles against each other and (b) made excuses. (Note: The other behaviors were elicited from Bill, not emitted by him.) (Chapters 1 and 11)

    • How could a modeling plus reinforcement procedure have been used to help Bill obtain a new job?

      Answer: Group members could have modeled appropriate behaviors for Bill in role plays of job interviews. When Bill imitated these appropriate behaviors in role plays, the group members and therapist would give him positive reinforcement in the form of praise. (Chapter 8)

    • What reinforcement was arranged for Bill in the treatment situation and what were the conditions for its delivery?

      Answer: The therapist and group members praised Bill as soon as he responded appropriately in role plays. (Chapter 2)

    • List Bill's respondent behaviors elicited by criticism.

      Answers:

      • His hands trembled.

      • His breathing became rapid.

      • He perspired heavily.

      • His face turned red. (Chapter 11)

    • Identify the behavioral procedures that were used to promote generalization of desired behavior change from the group treatment setting to Bill's natural environment.

      Answers:

      • Behavioral rehearsal was used in the group treatment setting to provide Bill with an opportunity to become more skillful in performing appropriate behaviors.

      • Behavioral assignments were given to Bill so that he would practice appropriate behaviors that he learned in the group in his natural environment. (Chapter 12)

    Answers for Case Example 7 (p. 271)
    • List five contingencies that Edward carried out with Stephen and Dianne.

      Answers:

      • If Dianne teased or made faces at Stephen, she would lose privileges, such as watching television and having a bedtime snack.

      • If Stephen hit Dianne, he was told to go to the laundry room.

      • If Stephen refused to go to the laundry room, Edward would physically move Stephen to the laundry room, where he was to remain for 10 minutes.

      • If Stephen kicked or cursed Edward, his time in the laundry room was extended by 5 minutes.

      • If Stephen screamed or made loud noises while in the laundry room, his time there was extended by 5 minutes. (Chapters 4 and 9)

    • Name the behavioral principle that was the basis for the punishment administered to Stephen and Dianne. Name the reinforcers involved for Stephen and Dianne.

      Answers: Both procedures involved negative punishment (response cost). The positive reinforcers for Stephen were Edward's attention and Dianne's crying when Stephen hit her. The positive reinforcers for Dianne were privileges such as television and bedtime snacks. (Chapter 9)

    • The therapist told Edward to spend time with Stephen in the evenings and to play cards with him. The goal was to increase social behaviors performed by father and son that would be positively reinforced by each other. Describe two possible situations that would indicate that this goal was being achieved.

      Criteria for correct answers: Correct answers include information that some behaviors related to time spent together by Edward and Stephen have increased compared with their previous rate. The behaviors should be positive or rewarding, in contrast to the verbal reprimands and physical punishment by Edward and the cursing and kicking by Stephen that characterized their past interactions.

      Sample answers:

      Edward reports that Stephen is telling him many things about his school activities that he never talked about before. Stephen asks Edward to read to him.

      Edward reports speaking in a mild tone of voice to Stephen more often. Edward reports that he puts his arm around Stephen more often. (Chapter 9)

    • Describe a shaping procedure that Edward could have used to establish cooperative play behaviors between Stephen and Dianne.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer includes the following steps of a shaping procedure: (a) specification of the target behavior, (b) specification of reinforcers, (c) specification of initial and intermediate responses, (d) reinforcement for performance of initial response until it is performed consistently, (e) shifting criteria for reinforcement to next intermediate response, (f) continued reinforcement of one response during shifting of criteria to next intermediate response until the target behavior is achieved, and (g) reinforcement of the target behavior.

      Sample answers: The target behavior is that Stephen and Dianne play a game together for 15 minutes without physical or verbal attacks. Reinforcers are pennies and gumdrops. The initial response is Stephen and Dianne sitting in the same room engaged in separate activities. Intermediate responses include their sitting next to each other playing different games, one of them asking to play a game together, and both of them agreeing to play a game. Initially, Edward would reinforce Stephen and Dianne when they were both in the same room doing different things. When these responses occurred consistently, Edward would shift the criterion for reinforcement to the next intermediate response. This procedure of reinforcing one response until it occurs consistently and then shifting the criterion for reinforcement to the next intermediate response would continue until the target behavior is performed. The target behavior would then be reinforced. (Edward could also model appropriate behaviors or use verbal instructions in conjunction with the shaping procedure.) (Chapter 5)

    Answers for Case Example 8 (p. 272)
    • State two desired behaviors that could be included in behavioral change goals related to Bruce's problem of nonassertiveness.

      Answers: Any two of the following are acceptable:

      • Bruce asks his boss for a raise.

      • Bruce states his opinion to his boss.

      • Bruce speaks to his boss in a clear, firm voice, with his hands at his sides.

      • Bruce speaks to a woman in a clear, firm voice, with his hands at his sides.

      • Bruce appropriately defends his rights in a conversation with his boss. (Chapter 13)

    • Describe two role-playing techniques that could be used as part of Bruce's treatment if he were participating in group therapy.

      Answers: Any two of the following are acceptable:

      • Modeling: A group member demonstrates appropriate behaviors in role plays of problematic situations; Bruce appropriately imitates the modeled behaviors and is positively reinforced.

      • Role reversal: Bruce plays the part of his boss, for example, and another group member plays Bruce to demonstrate appropriate behaviors and to demonstrate how Bruce's nonassertive behaviors serve as antecedents for his boss's responses.

      • Behavioral rehearsal: Bruce practices appropriate social skills in role plays of problematic situations and is reinforced by the therapist and group members for appropriate performance. (Chapter 8)

    • Describe a procedure that Bruce could use to establish himself as a conditioned reinforcer for his dates.

      Criteria for correct answer: A correct answer shows Bruce's arrangement of conditions so that he is associated with a variety of unconditioned and conditioned positive reinforcers delivered noncontingently to his dates.

      Sample answer: Bruce could invite a woman out for dinner, bring her flowers or candy, talk about her interests during the meal, and take her dancing afterward. He does these things noncontingently—that is, the woman does not have to perform any specific behaviors to obtain these things other than accepting them from Bruce. As these items appear to be reinforcing to the woman, Bruce becomes associated with their delivery. Bruce thus begins to acquire reinforcing value for the woman. (Chapter 7)

    Total possible points: 87

    Criterion score: 78

    Appendix 8: Notational Symbols and Diagrams

    Notational Symbols

    Behavioral Diagrams
    • Procedure: Positive reinforcement

      Effect: Increase in strength of R

    • Procedure: Extinction

      Effect: Decrease in strength of R

    • Procedure: Discrimination training

      Effect: Increase in strength of R in the presence of SD; decrease in strength of R in the presence of SΔ

    • Procedure: Stimulus generalization

      Effect: Increase in strength of R1 in the presence of SD1; increase in the likelihood of R1 occurring in the presence of SD2, SD3, and SD4

    • Procedure: Positive punishment

      Effect: Decrease in strength of R

    • Procedure: Negative punishment; response cost

      Effect: Decrease in strength of R

    • Procedure: Negative reinforcement; escape conditioning

      Effect: Increase in strength of the escape response, R

    • Procedure: Negative reinforcement; avoidance conditioning

      Effect: Neutral stimulus, S, becomes a conditioned negative reinforcer; increase in strength of the avoidance response, R

      Step 1: Escape condition

      Step 2: Avoidance condition

    • Procedure: Respondent conditioning

      Effect: Neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus capable of eliciting a conditioned response

      • Before conditioning

      • During conditioning

      • After conditioning

    Glossary

    ABAB design; reversal design A single-subject research design (SSRD) used to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention in producing behavior change. The first A refers to baseline, the first B indicates introduction of an intervention, the second A indicates return to baseline, and the second B refers to reintroduction of the intervention. The baseline and treatment phases are alternated to demonstrate that the intervention was responsible for the behavior change.

    Accidental reinforcement contingency A coincidental relationship between a response and a reinforcer. The response is strengthened by an unplanned or noncontingent reinforcer. The likelihood that the response will recur under similar conditions is increased. Superstitious behavior is established under this contingency.

    Antecedent An event that precedes or accompanies a response and could influence its occurrence.

    Anxiety An intense emotional response frequently characterized by physiological changes such as increased heart rate, perspiration, rapid breathing, and subjective statements of unease or fear. Anxiety may generate escape or avoidance behaviors.

    Assertiveness training A behavioral change procedure for teaching individuals how to state and express their opinions and rights without abusing the rights of others. This usually involves instructions, role playing, modeling, behavioral rehearsal, behavioral assignments, and reinforcement. Relaxation training techniques may also be used to decrease anxiety related to underassertive or overassertive behaviors. Assertiveness training can help an individual decrease behaviors such as mumbling, looking at the floor when conversing, and inappropriately agreeing with someone as well as increase appropriate behaviors such as speaking in a clear voice, looking at the person to whom one is speaking, and stating divergent views or opinions.

    Aversion therapy An intervention technique used to treat behavioral excesses, such as drug addiction, alcoholism, and sexual deviations. An aversive stimulus (US/CS) is presented that competes with the inappropriate stimulus to inhibit the undesired response (UR/CR). Operant escape and avoidance responses are also developed to negatively reinforce desired behaviors.

    Aversive stimulus An object or event identified as unpleasant, annoying, or painful; when given the opportunity, the individual will usually escape or avoid such a stimulus. Aversive stimuli can be used as punishers, negative reinforcers, conditioned stimuli, and unconditioned stimuli.

    Avoidance behavior A behavior that results in removal or reduction of a negative reinforcer and prevents the onset of a second established negative reinforcer.

    Backward chaining A behavioral change technique used to teach a complex series or sequence of behaviors. The last stimulus-response unit of the chain is established first, and the other units are added in reverse order until the desired chain is complete.

    Baseline data Measures of response strength recorded prior to intervention, including rate, duration, intensity, latency, and magnitude. Response rate or frequency per time unit is the most common measure recorded.

    Baseline rate; baseline level The strength of a behavior prior to intervention or modification as measured by rate, duration, intensity, latency, or magnitude.

    Behavior; response Any observable or measurable movement or activity of an individual. The terms behavior and response are used interchangeably throughout this text. Covert behaviors are unobservable but can be reported as self-statements or measured with instrumentation.

    Behavior change approach; behavior modification The application of principles and techniques derived from the experimental analysis of behavior to human problems. This approach emphasizes the methods of applied behavior analysis, the principles of operant and respondent conditioning, and observational learning. The goals of the approach are to improve the human condition and to advance the scientific knowledge base concerning human behavior. Basic features of the approach include (a) specificity in describing problems, goals, and interventions; and (b) systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation of interventions and behavior change programs.

    Behavior therapy The provision of behavior modification services to individuals in a client-therapist setting. This term is generally used synonymously with behavior change approach and behavior modification. Historically, the term behavior therapy has been used to refer to treatment methods based primarily on classical conditioning.

    Behavioral assessment The method used to analyze a client's problem or circumstances; provides the basis for the formulation of behavior change goals and the development of an appropriate intervention plan.

    Behavioral assignment A specific task involving behaviors to be performed by the client outside the practice setting between treatment sessions.

    Behavioral contingency A statement that specifies the behaviors to be performed for certain consequences to follow.

    Behavioral contract An agreement between two or more individuals in which the expected behaviors of each are specified along with the consequences for their performance and nonperformance.

    Behavioral deficit The absence or low frequency of appropriate behaviors.

    Behavioral diagram A stimulus-response model using notational symbols to depict relationships between stimuli and responses.

    Behavioral excess High frequency of inappropriate behaviors.

    Behavioral medicine An interdisciplinary field that applies behavioral analysis and technology to problems of physical health, such as asthma, headaches, insomnia, and hypertension.

    Behavioral reenactment A role-playing technique used to obtain RAC-S information regarding the client's behaviors in the problematic situation by observing him or her role-play an incident that simulates the problem.

    Behavioral rehearsal A role-playing technique in which the client practices desired behaviors that have been suggested or demonstrated by the therapist or by the client's fellow group members in a structured situation with feedback.

    Behavioral trap Naturally occurring reinforcers in a client's environment that maintain behaviors developed through a behavior change program.

    Biofeedback A process that allows an individual to monitor and influence his or her physiological responses using auditory, visual, or other sensory feedback regarding physiological states, such as heart rate, muscle tension, brain waves, and skin temperature. Biofeedback is used in the operant control of autonomic functions and is often applied in conjunction with self-control procedures and relaxation training techniques.

    Chains See Stimulus-response chains.

    Classical conditioning; respondent conditioning The development or establishment of a response through the pairing of a neutral stimulus (S) with an unconditioned stimulus (US) until the neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a conditioned response (CR).

    Cognitions See Covert responses.

    Cognitive behavior therapy; cognitive behavior modification A behavior change approach that attempts to modify private events or cognitions (covert behaviors) as well as overt behavior.

    Cognitive behavior rehearsal A covert intervention technique to facilitate the client's transfer of instructional control from overt external instructions to covert self-instructions by saying the instructions aloud and then covertly.

    Cognitive restructuring An intervention technique that identifies self-defeating thoughts and negative self-statements and substitutes positive, adaptive self-statements and coping thoughts.

    Conditioned aversive stimulus An unpleasant, annoying, or painful stimulus that has acquired these properties through pairing or association with an established aversive stimulus. When given the opportunity, the individual will usually escape or avoid such a stimulus.

    Conditioned negative reinforcer A stimulus that signals an escape or avoidance response that removes or reduces the effect of the stimulus. The removal of the stimulus increases the likelihood that the escape or avoidance response will be performed again. The conditioned negative reinforcer acts in this way through pairing or association with an established negative reinforcer.

    Conditioned positive reinforcer A stimulus that increases the strength of a response it follows because of its association with other positive reinforcers.

    Conditioned punisher A stimulus that decreases the strength of a response it follows because of its association with other punishers.

    Conditioned response (CR) In respondent conditioning, a measurable activity elicited by a conditioned stimulus (CS). The CR is similar to the unconditioned response (UR).

    Conditioned stimulus (CS) In respondent conditioning, a previously neutral event that acquires the ability to elicit a conditioned response through pairing with an unconditioned stimulus (US).

    Consequence A stimulus that follows a behavior and can influence the future likelihood of the behavior. Consequences can be reinforcing, punishing, or neutral.

    Contingency See Behavioral contingency.

    Contingency contracting The practice of establishing behavioral contingencies or contracts between individuals.

    Continuous reinforcement (CRF) schedule A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered each time the response is performed.

    Covert responses Private or unobservable events that can be cognitive, emotional, or physiological. Cognitive behaviors include thoughts, perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs.

    Covert sensitization An anxiety-eliciting intervention technique that employs respondent pairing of imagined aversive stimuli with behavioral excesses to weaken the behavioral excesses. The client is often instructed to make appropriate escape and avoidance responses that can be negatively reinforced by termination of the imagined aversive stimuli.

    Deprivation A condition in which a reinforcer has not been available to or experienced by an individual for an extended period of time. A reinforcer is most effective in increasing the strength of a response when a high level of deprivation exists.

    Differential reinforcement A procedure in which one response is reinforced while reinforcement is withheld from other responses. When the reinforced response occurs frequently, to the exclusion of responses from which reinforcement is withheld, the response has become differentiated.

    Discrimination training A behavioral procedure in which a response is reinforced in the presence of the SD and extinguished in the presence of the SΔ. Results in stimulus control; the response occurs during SD and never or rarely during SΔ.

    Discriminative stimulus, SD An antecedent stimulus that signals or sets the occasion for a response made in its presence to be followed by a reinforcer.

    Discriminative stimulus, SΔ An antecedent stimulus signaling that a response made in its presence will not be followed by a reinforcer.

    DRA Differential reinforcement of alternative behaviors. Decreases the rate of a target behavior by reinforcing behaviors that are alternatives to the target response.

    DRI Differential reinforcement of incompatible behaviors. Decreases the rate of a target behavior by reinforcing behaviors that interfere with performance of the target response.

    DRO Differential reinforcement of behaviors other than the target behavior. Used to decrease the rate of a target behavior by reinforcing any behavior other than the target response.

    Duration A measure of response strength; the length of time a response occurs.

    Escape behavior Behavior that results in the removal or reduction of a negative reinforcer. Removal of the negative reinforcer increases the strength of this behavior.

    Ess-dee (SD) See Discriminative stimulus, SD.

    Ess-delta (S) See Discriminative stimulus, SΔ.

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) Mental health practice based on the best scientific evidence available in providing efficacious and effective interventions for clients.

    ExtinctionOperant extinction: The positive reinforcer for a response is withheld each time the response occurs until the response decreases in strength to zero or a prespecified rate. Respondent extinction: The conditioned stimulus is presented repeatedly, without the unconditioned stimulus, until the conditioned stimulus no longer elicits the conditioned response.

    Fading See Stimulus fading.

    Fixed-duration (FD) schedule An intermittent reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is presented after a response has occurred continuously for a specified period of time.

    Fixed-interval (FI) schedule An intermittent reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement becomes available when a response is made after the passage of a specified period of time.

    Fixed-ratio (FR) schedule An intermittent reinforcement schedule in which a prescribed number of responses must be performed for a reinforcer to be presented.

    Flooding An intense, prolonged exposure technique for treating phobias by extinction of avoidance responses. Flooding consists of exposing the individual—directly or in imagination—to the phobic stimulus for a prolonged period of time while preventing any escape or avoidance responses.

    Frequency The number of times a response is performed. Frequency per time interval or time unit (response rate) is the most common measure used in recording response strength.

    Functional analysis; functional assessment A method for analyzing a client's problem or circumstances by identifying controlling antecedents and consequences. Functional analysis has also been defined as the manipulation of antecedents and consequences to determine their role in maintaining the target response.

    Functional communication training A DRA procedure in which a client is taught to obtain a reinforcer by performing a desired behavior instead of the undesired behavior that produced the reinforcer.

    Generalized conditioned reinforcer A previously neutral or nonreinforcing stimulus that has acquired the ability to increase response strength through association with established reinforcers; usually an object that can be exchanged for a variety of conditioned or unconditioned reinforcers, such as money.

    Imitative response A response an individual performs after observing a modeled stimulus. The imitative response is physically similar to the modeled stimulus with regard to an observable property, such as form, position, or movement.

    Intensity A measure of response strength that is expressed in units such as grams, pounds, or decibels; indicates the severity of an operant response.

    Intermittent reinforcement Any schedule of reinforcement that is less than continuous. A response is reinforced on some occasions, and reinforcement for that response is withheld on other occasions.

    Intervention plan; treatment plan The product of intervention planning; delineates the behavior change program and specifies the behavioral and cognitive interventions and procedures to be applied in the behavior change program.

    Intervention planning; treatment planning The process of developing a strategy to formulate a behavior change program based on the behavioral assessment and behavior change goals.

    In vivo desensitization An intervention technique for treating phobic behaviors; similar to systematic desensitization except that the client progresses through the hierarchy in real-life situations rather than in imagination.

    Latency A measure of response strength of a classically conditioned response; the interval between presentation of the US or CS and elicitation of the UR or CR, respectively. In operant conditioning, a measure of stimulus control; the interval between presentation of a stimulus and performance of the response.

    Magnitude A measure of the strength of a classically conditioned response; usually obtained through the measurement of secretion of a gland or contraction of a muscle or blood vessel.

    Matching law A law that states that individuals will perform concurrently available responses according to the relative frequency of reinforcement for each response. The reinforcement schedule can be altered to increase the likelihood of performance of a desired response over an undesired response.

    Model An individual whose behavior is imitated.

    Modeled stimulus (Sm) The behavior of a model presented to influence performance of an imitative response.

    Modeling procedure; model presentation The presentation of a modeled stimulus to influence performance of an imitative response. The imitative response is similar to the modeled stimulus.

    Natural environment The physical and social surroundings in which the target behavior was reinforced and in which behavioral changes are designed to be performed and maintained.

    Negative reinforcement The strengthening of a response through escape or avoidance conditioning. Escape conditioning: A procedure in which a response that removes or reduces the effect of an aversive stimulus is strengthened. Avoidance conditioning: A procedure in which a response is strengthened when it removes or reduces the effect of a conditioned negative reinforcer and prevents the onset of a second negative reinforcer.

    Negative reinforcement contingency A statement that specifies the response that must be performed to remove or reduce the effect of an aversive stimulus.

    Negative reinforcer An aversive stimulus whose removal or reduction increases the strength of an escape or avoidance response.

    Neutral stimulusOperant conditioning: A stimulus that neither increases nor decreases the strength of a response it follows. Respondent conditioning: An antecedent stimulus that does not elicit a UR or a CR.

    Operant behavior Behavior that is controlled by its consequences.

    Operant conditioning The individual operates or acts on the environment to produce consequences that influence the strength of a response.

    Overcorrection A punishment procedure used to decrease undesired behaviors while at the same time providing SDs and reinforcers for desired behaviors. Restitutional overcorrection: Restoring the environment to its condition before the inappropriate act was committed and then improving it even further. Positive practice overcorrection: Instructing the individual to perform desired behaviors that are incompatible with undesired behaviors and to practice them repeatedly.

    Phobia Maladaptive anxiety or fear attached to a specific object; involves a conditioned avoidance response.

    Positive reinforcement A procedure to increase the strength of a response by presenting a reinforcer contingent on performance of the response.

    Positive reinforcement contingency A statement or condition indicating the behavior that must be performed for a positive reinforcer to be delivered.

    Positive reinforcer A stimulus presented after a response that increases the strength of that response and the likelihood that it will be performed again.

    Premack Principle A positive reinforcement contingency, named for its originator, that states that a higher-probability behavior can reinforce a lower-probability behavior. That is, a behavior occurring more frequently than another behavior can serve as a reinforcer for the behavior that occurs less frequently.

    Primary aversive stimulus See Unconditioned aversive stimulus.

    Primary negative reinforcer See Unconditioned negative reinforcer.

    Primary positive reinforcer See Unconditioned positive reinforcer.

    Primary punisher See Unconditioned punisher.

    Prompt A discriminative stimulus that helps initiate a response. Verbal cues, instructions, physical guidance, and gestures can serve as prompts to increase the likelihood that a response will be performed.

    Punisher; punishing stimulus A stimulus presented after a response that suppresses or decreases the strength of the response. Removal of a positive reinforcer contingent on a response is also referred to as a punisher or punishing stimulus.

    Punishment Procedures applied to suppress or decrease the strength of behaviors. Positive punishment: Response-contingent presentation of a punisher. Negative punishment: Response-contingent removal of a positive reinforcer. See Response cost.

    Punishment contingency A statement or condition indicating the response that must be performed for positive or negative punishment to be delivered.

    RAC-S Acronym for response, antecedents, consequences, strength; the framework for behavioral assessment used in this book.

    Rate The most common measure of response strength; response frequency per time unit.

    Reinforcer A stimulus whose presentation or removal contingent on a response increases the strength of that response and the likelihood that it will be performed again. See Positive reinforcer; Negative reinforcer.

    Reinforcer sampling Giving an individual a small amount of a reinforcer to encourage further consumption of that reinforcer, such as free samples of a product.

    Resistance to extinction The number of responses performed after reinforcement has been discontinued. The greater the number, the higher the resistance.

    Respondent behavior Behavior that is elicited by a preceding or antecedent stimulus.

    Respondent conditioning; classical conditioning Development or establishment of a response by pairing a neutral stimulus (S) with an unconditioned stimulus (US) until the neutral stimulus acquires the ability to elicit a conditioned response (CR).

    Response; behavior Any observable or measurable movement or activity of an individual.

    Response class A group of behaviors of which each member or response produces the same or similar effect on its environment.

    Response cost The punishment technique of removing or withdrawing a positive reinforcer contingent on performance of the target response. Also called negative punishment.

    Response differentiation The refinement of a response or the narrowing of a response class through differential reinforcement.

    Response priming A technique used to help initiate early responses in a chain, when the responses have a low probability of performance.

    Response rate See Frequency.

    Response strength For operant behavior, measured by (a) frequency per time unit (rate), (b) duration, and (c) intensity. For respondent behavior, measured by (a) latency and (b) magnitude.

    Reversal design See ABAB design.

    Reward An object or event that is identified as pleasant, satisfying, or desirable, or one that an individual will seek out or approach. A reward may or may not act as a positive reinforcer.

    Role reversal A role-play technique in which the client role-plays the part of another person while the therapist or one of the client's fellow group members role-plays the client's part.

    Satiation A condition in which an individual has consumed or experienced a reinforcer until it has lost its reinforcing effect.

    Schedule of reinforcement A contingency that specifies the conditions under which reinforcement is delivered for a response. Types of reinforcement schedules include continuous, fixed interval, fixed ratio, variable interval, variable ratio, fixed duration, and variable duration.

    S-dee (SD) See Discriminative stimulus, SD.

    S-delta (SΔ) See Discriminative stimulus, S.

    Secondary aversive stimulus See Conditioned aversive stimulus.

    Secondary negative reinforcer See Conditioned negative reinforcer.

    Secondary positive reinforcer See Conditioned positive reinforcer.

    Secondary punisher See Conditioned punisher.

    Self-control reinforcement contingency A situation in which an individual arranges conditions so that the desired response is followed by self-administered reinforcement.

    Self-instruction training A cognitive-behavioral intervention technique that teaches individuals how to give themselves instructions to cope effectively with difficult situations.

    Self-statements Statements that individuals say to themselves, either aloud or covertly.

    Shaping with successive approximations A behavioral procedure used to develop a new behavior or one that rarely occurs. Differential reinforcement is used to strengthen members of one response class. When these responses are performed consistently, the criterion for reinforcement is shifted to the next response class. Each successive response class more closely approximates the desired target response until the target response is performed and reinforced.

    Simple conditioned reinforcer A previously neutral or nonreinforcing stimulus that has acquired the ability to increase response strength through pairing or association with one particular established reinforcer.

    Social reinforcer A reinforcing stimulus that becomes available through interaction with another individual; examples include attention, praise, and approval.

    Social skills training A behavioral procedure for teaching individuals effective ways of interacting in social situations; includes model presentation, behavioral rehearsal, coaching and prompting, behavioral assignments, and positive reinforcement.

    Social validity Evaluation of the social significance of behavior change programs by the program's consumers; includes evaluation of training objectives, training procedures, and treatment outcomes.

    Spontaneous recovery The recurrence of an extinguished response when stimulus conditions are similar to those in which the response was reinforced.

    Stimulus (plural, stimuli) Any measurable object or event. Stimuli can include physical features of the environment, an individual's behavior, or the behavior of others and may be discriminative, eliciting, reinforcing, punishing, or neutral.

    Stimulus control A condition in which a response occurs in the presence of SD and never or rarely in the presence of SΔ. In addition, the interval between presentation of the SD and the occurrence of the response (latency) is short.

    Stimulus fading A procedure used to transfer stimulus control of a behavior from an original SD to a novel stimulus. The SD is gradually altered along one dimension (e.g., size, form) until it resembles the new stimulus. The individual responds appropriately and is reinforced in the presence of SD throughout its changes with no errors or responses to SΔ.

    Stimulus generalization A response reinforced in the presence of one stimulus—SD, US, or CS—is subsequently performed or elicited in the presence of other similar stimuli.

    Stimulus-response chains Units of stimuli and responses that constitute complex sequences or patterns of behavior. Each unit consists of an SD, a response, and a conditioned reinforcer that also serves as the SD for the next response. The chain terminates with delivery of a reinforcer that maintains the entire chain.

    Straining the ratio A phenomenon that occurs when a fixed-ratio schedule of reinforcement is increased too rapidly. A response will extinguish if the number of responses required for reinforcement is increased too rapidly.

    Stress inoculation training A technique for teaching physical and cognitive coping skills in response to stressful situations by rehearsing the skills in the presence of stressors.

    Superstitious behavior The result of an accidental contingency. Behavior is strengthened by a noncontingent reinforcer that follows it. See Accidental reinforcement contingency.

    Systematic desensitization A respondent procedure for treating phobias that involves systematic and gradual pairing of relaxation stimuli in the client's imagination with phobic stimuli until the phobic stimuli no longer elicit anxiety. A hierarchy of items related to the feared stimulus is constructed, and the client is presented with the items on the hierarchy, from the least anxiety-eliciting item to the most anxiety-producing item, until no or minimal anxiety is elicited.

    Target behavior; target response The behavior or response to be observed and measured; the behavior selected for analysis or modification.

    Time-out A form of negative punishment in which the individual is removed from the reinforcing situation immediately after the target behavior is performed and placed for a brief period in an environment with minimal availability of reinforcement.

    Token economy A planned reinforcement program in which individuals earn tokens or points for performing desired behaviors. The tokens or points can be exchanged for a variety of objects or privileges that serve as backup reinforcers for the tokens.

    Transfer of behavior change The generalization of behavior change from the practice setting to the client's natural environment.

    Treatment contract A written or verbal statement of commitment between the practitioner and client that defines the roles of the client and practitioner so that each agrees to perform certain activities that can lead to attainment of the client's goals.

    Treatment planning See Intervention planning.

    Unconditioned aversive stimulus A stimulus that is identified as unpleasant, annoying, or painful. Pairing or association with another stimulus is not required for the stimulus to possess these properties. When given the opportunity, the individual will usually escape or avoid the stimulus.

    Unconditioned negative reinforcer A stimulus that signals an escape or avoidance response that removes or reduces the effect of the stimulus. The removal of this stimulus increases the likelihood that the escape or avoidance response will be performed again. The unconditioned negative reinforcer acts this way without requiring prior pairing or association with another negative reinforcer.

    Unconditioned positive reinforcer A stimulus whose presentation contingent on a response increases the strength of that response without requiring prior pairing or association with another reinforcing stimulus.

    Unconditioned punisher A stimulus whose presentation contingent on a response suppresses or decreases the strength of that response without requiring prior pairing or association with another punishing stimulus.

    Unconditioned response (UR) In respondent conditioning, the response that is elicited by an unconditioned stimulus.

    Unconditioned stimulus (US) In respondent conditioning, an object or event that elicits an unconditioned response without requiring prior pairing or association with another stimulus.

    Variable-duration (VD) schedule An intermittent reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is presented after a response has occurred continuously for an amount of time that is varied around a mean.

    Variable-interval (VI) schedule An intermittent reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is presented contingent on performance of a response after an average (mean) amount of time has passed. The interval is randomly varied around a given time value.

    Variable-ratio (VR) schedule An intermittent reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered after an average number of responses is performed. The ratio is randomly varied around a given value.

    Author Index

    About the Authors

    Martin Sundel, President of Sundel Consulting Group, is a behavior change consultant and practitioner. He is a Charter Clinical Fellow of the Behavior Therapy and Research Society. He was the Dulak Professor of Social Work at the University of Texas at Arlington, and also served on the faculties of the University of Michigan, the University of Louisville, and Florida International University. He holds professional degrees in social work and psychology from the University of Michigan and was a postdoctoral fellow at the Laboratory of Community Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. He has published extensively on the application of behavioral science knowledge to the helping professions. His publications include Assessing Health and Human Service Needs, Be Assertive, Individual Change Through Small Groups (2nd edition), Midlife Myths, and Women at Midlife.

    Sandra S. Sundel is Executive Director of Jewish Family Service of Broward County, Florida. She was formerly a professor of social work at Florida Atlantic University. She has taught courses in social work practice, behavior therapy, interpersonal communication, and group work, and has conducted numerous workshops and seminars on these topics. She has consulted with corporations, government agencies, and nonprofit organizations on organizational behavior management and interpersonal communication in the workplace. She is coauthor of Be Assertive and Women at Midlife and has published many book chapters and journal articles. She specializes in behavior therapy with women and families.


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