Behavior and Sequential Analyses: Principles and Practice
“Sharpe and Koperwas provide a methodological framework that objectifies the complexity of behavior. This book's quantitative and multiple-event approach to data collection and analysis is essential for effective descriptions and explanations of the behavior of humans and nonhumans. Of particular note is the multidisciplinary applicability of the methodology and that the methods can be used by basic, applied, and clinical researchers. Human service providers are being increasingly pressured to take objective measures; practitioners should find much in this book to help them satisfactorily meet these demands. The authors' sensitivity to clarity of presentation makes the book an excellent primary or supplementary text for any course in behavior methodology.”
-- Dennis J. Delprato, Eastern Michigan University
“I think the author did a very thoughtful, informed analysis and presentation ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: History and Evolution
- Terms and Study Guide
- A Brief History of Behavior Analysis
- Science as a Direct Observation, Descriptive Enterprise
- Toward a Multiple Research Method Compatibility Theory
- Some Myths About Behavior Analysis Debunked
- Overview of Behavior Analysis Principles and Practice
- Chapter 2: A Behavior and Sequential Analyses Primer
- Terms and Study Guide
- Some Introductory Terms
- Behavior Analysis Unpacked
- The Foundations of Field Systems and Sequential Analysis
- Behavior Analysis as a Descriptive/Explanatory Enterprise
- How Behavior Analysis Conceptualizes Mental Events
- Chapter 3: An Interbehavioral Multi-Event Perspective
- Terms and Study Guide
- From Science to Technology
- Differences in Assessment: Modeling an Interbehavioral Lens
- Multi-Event Theory in the Applied Sciences
- The Implications of Computer Technology
- Some Assumptions and Limitations
- A Preface to Behavior Analysis Methodology
- Chapter 4: Constructing a Coding Scheme
- Terms and Study Guide
- A Preface to Category System Construction
- Defining Purposes
- Determining Observation System Characteristics
- Recording Physical versus Social Coding Schemes
- Constructing Operational Definitions
- Chapter 5: Interdisciplinary Examples and Illustrations
- Terms and Study Guide
- A General Framework for Developing a Coding Scheme
- Examples from Teacher Education
- Examples from School Psychology
- Examples from Special Education
- An Illustration from Clinical Psychology
- A Systems Code from Ethology
- Chapter 6: Reliability and Staff Training
- Terms and Study Guide
- The Purposes of Assessment
- The Issue of Data Accuracy
- A Recommended Three-Step Reliability Process
- Treatment Fidelity
- Reliability Formula Summaries
- Summary and Foreground for Part III
- Chapter 7: Approaches to Recording Direct Observational Data
- Terms and Study Guide
- Measurement Options
- Traditional Recording Methods
- Recording in Real Time
- Chapter 8: Constructing an Appropriate Research Design
- Terms and Study Guide
- Validity Issues
- The Simplest Case: An ABAB Design
- The Multiple Baseline Design
- Additional Design Options
- Design Choice Summary
- Chapter 9: Analyzing Observational Data
- Terms and Study Guide
- Preparing a Graph
- Visual Inspection
- The Challenge of Statistical Analyses
- Some Recommendations Regarding Statistical Analyses
- Sequential Analyses
- An Endnote on Sequential Data
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Sharpe, Tom, 1956-
Behavior and sequential analyses : principles and practice / Tom Sharpe, John Koperwas.
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-7619-2560-0 (pbk.)
1. Behavioral assessment. I. Koperwas, John. II. Title.
03 04 05 06 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
Acquiring Editor: Jim Brace-Thompson
Editorial Assistant: Karen Ehrmann
Production Editor: Sanford Robinson
Indexer: Molly Hall
Cover Designer: Janet Foulger
[Page v]First and foremost I would like to thank my wonderful family, who have always supported my professional efforts in academe and who have always been the main source of joy in my life. I dedicate this text to them. I would also like to dedicate this text to my professional family of graduate students and faculty colleagues who have contributed over the years to my tinkering with and packaging of the methods contained in this text, particularly those who have either been so gracious as to have allowed examples and illustrations of their efforts to be contained in this book, or who have endured my interminable cajoling interactions over a variety of thesis, dissertation, and research projects.—
I would like to dedicate my contribution to this text to my wife, Natalie, whose patience and continuous support offered me the opportunity to spend countless hours working on software development and design and some of the related information contained in this book.—[Page vi]
Foreword by Tom Sharpe[Page xi]
Few truly original ideas come to pass in contemporary academe. Most of what passes for invention is merely existing ideas repackaged in appealing ways. But it is the repackaging which often moves science forward in important and insightful ways.— Delprato (1999, personal communication)
Applied behavior analysis methods have provided a foundation for my professional efforts from the time I entered the education profession as a teacher and a coach. Before being introduced to the academic discipline in graduate school, I intuitively held the view that the most important variables to the improvement (or, in contrast, deterioration) of most educational situations were the daily practices that teachers and students, or coaches and athletes, were engaged in and how their verbal and nonverbal behaviors affected one another's actions. By chance, and based on my decision to return to graduate school at West Virginia University to supposedly enhance my professional marketability, I fell into what was considered one of the more prominent graduate programs in education and behavior analysis. I was directed to take most of my coursework in the psychology and educational psychology departments that included at that time a veritable hotbed of behavior analytic scholars. In agreement with the methodological proclivities of my physical education faculty mentor (Hawkins, 1992), I became completely at home with defining educational and social science phenomena behaviorally, with the construction of observational category systems for conducting data collection and analysis efforts, and with the methods of data presentation promoted by traditional behavioral methods. What began to plague me, however, were the challenges of describing and analyzing in comprehensive and inclusive ways what I saw as a highly complex and multi-event configuration of behavior [Page xii]interactions in educational settings. As I observed and analyzed many highly interactive settings, I found myself missing out on the documentation of potentially important behavioral events when using the traditionally accepted paper-and-pencil plus stopwatch recording methods coupled with partial interval or momentary time sampling recording techniques. In addition, I found the traditional method of observing only a few behaviors in isolation and using only a single measure of those behaviors extremely limiting to an accurate characterization of the educational settings I was interested in studying.
If I analyze my past experiences with the proper level of scrutiny and reflection, I can look back on a series of seemingly chaotic and randomly ordered professional activities and find a few events that can be seen as definitive in my movement toward what has become my present situation—that is, enthusiastically attempting to organize and package the data collection and analysis methods contained in this book. During the struggle and questioning stage of my dissertation activities, I was cajoled by a variety of faculty to go to the Association for Behavior Analysis (ABA) National Convention for the usual reasons of gaining some professional insight, interacting with other like-minded faculty and graduate students, and seeing what there was to see on the research and development horizon in my areas of supposed interest. At the conference, I happened into a meeting for the Interbehaviorists in ABA special interest group. Completely naïve as to the conceptual, epistemological, and methodological interests and related political stature of the group, I sat in on a discussion of the work of J. R. Kantor by Ed Morris, Paul Mountjoy, Roger Ray, Dennis Delprato, and a variety of other Kantorian scholars. I have gone over this initial experience in my mind as I have written this text, for while I did not realize it at the time, that discussion provided a rich encapsulation of just the challenges I was beginning to articulate and attempt to navigate as a neophyte methodologist, and what I heard that day sent me on the professional road I have been traveling ever since.
These gentlemen were conceptualizing an evolutionary pathway for behavior analysis to meet the description and analysis challenges of multiple organisms engaging in multiple behaviors in the context of multiple ecological event changes. Although most of the terminology and much of the methodological points made at that time simply washed over me, the idea of adding to the primarily linear Stimulus®Response®Consequence (S®R®C) model of B. F. Skinner to look at applied situations as a more complex system of events that oftentimes [Page xiii]occur concurrently and affect one another in various degree turned a lightbulb on inside me. While gentlemen such as Ed Morris and Paul Mountjoy waxed long about the philosophical issues inherent to a more systems- and temporally oriented approach to studying behavior in complex and highly interactive settings, what intrigued me most were the contributions to the discussion by Roger Ray. Ray provided a technologically supported methodological position for inclusively describing and documenting behavior occurrences in all their complexity, including both more traditional measures of the characteristics of individual behavioral events (e.g., number, duration, rate, percentage, etc.) and time-based measures designed to explicitly characterize the interactions among those events (e.g., use of multilevel structural and functional categories, kinematic analyses, conditional probability relationships among multi-event occurrences, etc.).
To this day, I come back to the enthusiasm Roger displayed for his work and the explanation and direction Roger provided me with at the end of that meeting. He explained just what he was working toward methodologically. He provided me with a host of materials to read designed to enhance my understanding. Through intermittent interactions, he has helped me to understand complex interactive behavior “in its complexity,” as my original mentor articulated (Hawkins, 1992, p. 1) and to express that understanding in my work. And from then to now I have been involved in just that, articulating ways in which behavioral data may be more inclusively and completely documented, described, and analyzed in applied settings in which multiple individuals exhibit multiple behaviors concurrently and in which the interactions among these behaviors have multiple potential functional relationships. What has equally stimulated my activities in this area over the years, and added in substantial ways to the stimulation of the culminating efforts that this book represents, has been my ongoing relationship with John Koperwas. John may be considered one of those few genuinely inquisitive and inventive minds in the contemporary field of software development who has provided a wealth of insight into what is methodologically possible through ever-advancing software programming capabilities. It is in this latter regard that his contributions to this text, and to the software applications referenced in the back of this text that are designed to support thoroughgoing implementation of the methodologies we recommend, have been invaluable.
We have tried to remain true to the important foundations that those coming before us have provided in terms of a rigorous and [Page xiv]thoroughgoing scientific method for the study of behavior in applied settings. Some of the most important influences on these text materials are those of Alan Kazdin (Kazdin, 1982), for his clear and concise representation of introductory behavior analytic and single case principles, and John Gottman (Bakeman & Gottman, 1986), who stipulated in a text referred to me by Roger Ray, and whose stipulation I find even more true today in the mainstream of education and social sciences, that
A small percentage of current research employs observational measurement of any sort. This is true despite the recent increased availability of new technologies such as electronic notepads and videotape recording. It may always be the case because it is more costly to observe than to use other methods such as questionnaires. (p. xiv).
What continues to surprise me is the limited impact of and support for behavior analysis activity in the education, social, and psychological sciences. In addition, many important methodology texts are not updated nor do they go into a new edition; nor do experienced behavior analysts tend to provide either new text materials or packaged data collection and analysis tools for the research and evaluation community that continues to be involved in this type of work.
In relation to the opening quotation by Dennis Delprato, this book is our effort to compile and package in large part the work of others who have either come before us professionally, or who have made important individual methodological contributions to the applied analysis of behavior as an important research methodology. Although not all information related to behavior analysis is included here, and the finer points of some of the information contained in this text may be debated, this text does include all the information that we feel is important to students and faculty with an interest in behavior analysis methods. This text is also an outgrowth of discussions with many colleagues who have wished for such a text as they put together a series of isolated papers and reprints year after year when teaching courses in applied behavior analysis methods. Finally, this is a text designed to be compatible with the software tools described in the back of this book, which have been designed to collect, analyze, and visually represent data and to perform the many reliability, procedural fidelity, and other methodological functions that this book recommends.[Page xv]Overview
To accomplish the purposes of this text, four general sections are provided. The first, Behavior Analysis: A History and Introduction, provides an important summary of the historical evolution of applied behavior analysis and related single-subject research methods in the context of how the method may be compatible with others and helpful to the knowledge generation process in the education, social, and psychological sciences. The methods under the applied behavior analysis umbrella are summarized and a compatibility approach is postulated with respect to the many different methodological perspectives that currently exist in the mainstream scientific literature.
Part II of this text, Constructing Observational Systems, provides a detailed procedural primer for constructing a coding or category system for particular research or assessment purposes, including the many assumptions and limitations that should be taken into consideration when conducting behavior analysis research. Reliability and treatment fidelity issues and procedures are discussed in detail, with close attention paid to the steps of criterion standard development, staff training, interobserver reliability, and treatment implementation accuracy. A series of category system illustrations are also provided and taken from a variety of education, social science, and psychology disciplines to provide the reader with hands-on familiarity with how behavior analysis efforts in these respective areas have been implemented with success.
Part III of this text, Recording Tactics, Design Types, and Data Analyses, presents a variety of generally accepted techniques in the areas of collecting, analyzing, and visually representing data. Application procedure detail and potential advantages are provided regarding recording in real time, overcoming validity challenges through more sophisticated research design types, and issues related to graph preparation and the use of statistical analysis support for behavior data.
The last part of this text, Application Illustrations and a Window to the Future, provides recommendations as to how applied behavior analysis methods may be used to enhance a variety of research and development, professional or clinical assessment, and instructional applications across a variety of education, social science, and psychological activities. Included are detailed illustrations of field-based professional evaluation activities, research and development opportunities [Page xvi]designed to uncover information not previously available to other research methodologies, and laboratory simulation activities heretofore unavailable through other methods and without the aid of computer technology-supported behavior analysis.Exercises and Presentation Structure
In order to achieve the objective of helping students and faculty understand and apply the principles set forth in this text, we have ordered the materials in the 10 chapters according to the logical steps one would undertake in actually conducting a research project. Each chapter includes a set of terms and definitions and a study guide to help the readers summarize and apply their understanding of the main points. These materials lead readers through the step-by-step procedures for designing and implementing behavioral research projects. For those readers interested in greater detail on a topic contained in a particular chapter, references are cited in the chapters and a list of references is provided at the end of the text. We also encourage readers who are already quite familiar with behavior analytic research practice and sophisticated behavior analysts to consult the reference materials provided for a more detailed treatment of the material herein. In addition, as this book was designed to be used as an introductory to intermediate text on behavior analysis research principles, readers will find information in select publications that provides important theoretical and applied complements to the materials here.Core Feature
A core feature of this text is the importance of a return to the quantitative counting of behavior and event occurrences in a single-subject orientation as an accepted methodological practice. The creation of this text stems from our personal methodological interest and the current lack of a readily accessible text to articulate many points of information at an introductory to intermediate level. In addition, this book is intended as a response to mainstream researchers in the education, social, and psychological sciences who are outspoken in their recommendations to simply do away with behavior analysis as a legitimate method of inquiry due to its emphasis on mechanistic causal assumptions or [Page xvii]its inability to more completely and accurately describe and analyze multiple occurrences of interactive behavior in inclusive and meaningful ways. In our view, these researchers have incorrectly perceived behavior analysis, its nature, and what it can and cannot do, to the point of requiring response. This text is also a response to cognitive methodologists who espouse internal explanatory mechanisms to account for behavioral complexity and contextual dependency and who eschew other methodological procedures outside of mainstream cognitive research as somehow inferior. Finally, it is a response to those scientists who have abandoned traditional views of scientific practice for a more existential approach in which investigation revolves around responses to questionnaires that investigate the subjective meanings ascribed to certain events as described by the participants operating within those events.
Through the many professional influences of my early faculty mentors when I was in graduate school, and of the experienced and savvy faculty colleagues I have met in behavior research circles along my professional travels, as well as my own work, I have, with my coauthor, created this text. Through this text, I hope we have packaged in appealing ways a means for doing what Hawkins (1992) has described as not “abandoning behavior analysis but [succeeding in] taking it to another level” (p. 1). Therefore, this text provides what we hope is a compatible summary of traditional and contemporary applied behavior analysis methods that does justice to the principles and practice of applied behavior analysis and serves as an effective introduction to the many systems and sequential methodologies that have begun to frequent the contemporary behavior analysis literature.[Page xviii]
Appendix A: Sequential Analysis Formulae[Page 317]
As this text has illustrated, the types of data recording and data analysis methods advocated by direct quantitative observation of multiple behaviors and events, and their multiple characteristics as they interact with one another in time, are activities that are not only facilitated but in many cases made feasible by the use of computer-based recording and analysis tools. This is particularly the case with the sequential analysis of behavior-event data. This appendix provides a summary of terms often used when describing a mathematical equation construction and related sequential analysis process, as well as an introduction to the type of equations recommended for use in such an analysis. These equations are based on the important sequential analysis methodological work of Bakeman and Gottman (1986, 1997) and thus we only summarize them here. For a detailed discussion of the theoretical constructs on which mathematical modeling of sequential data are founded, and for a representative set of illustrations of the variety of equations that should be implemented in particular analysis activities, consult Bakeman and Gottman's (1986, 1997) foundational Observing Interaction: An Introduction to Sequential Analysis texts or Gottman and Roy's (1990) more advanced textbook materials on the subject. For a user-friendly and sophisticated computer-based sequential analysis tool, we recommend that the reader request a demonstration copy of the BEST software tools advertised in the flyer that accompanies this [Page 318]text and also available through Scolari/Sage Publications at http://www.scolari.com or (805) 499–1325 for dedicated customer service.
The reader may find it useful if we first define some terms that are specific to how we characterize a data record in relation to how we characterize events when analyzing how they tend to follow one another in time. Quantitative behavior-event data generated and analyzed by using the methods recommended throughout this text are defined as a set of observable events that have quantifiable start and stop times of occurrence. In other words, each behavior or event contained within a particular data record is typically represented by an alphanumeric type number1 and time stamp2 indicator for start and stop time parameters for particular behavior or event occurrences. Therefore, while separate behaviors or events may have the same type numbers, their time stamps are always different.3 A data record that is collected with a view toward analyzing behavior and event occurrences sequentially must necessarily include an ascending order of start time stamps for all recorded behaviors and events that when taken together form a chronological sequence.
Any two behaviors or events that immediately follow one another in start time chronological sequence are considered to be linked. It is also important to note here that although two behaviors or events may be linked, the second behavior or event may begin prior to the first event's ending time stamp, allowing for an overlapping behavior-event occurrence record. The first of two linked behaviors or events is termed the predecessor and the second the successor. Linked behaviors and events are termed consecutive if no third data event's start time occurs chronologically between the start times of the linked events. Therefore, any behavior or event may be linked with many successors or predecessors but is consecutive with only one predecessor and one successor. Behaviors and events that are not immediately linked are termed proximate to any other event that follows each behavior or event and has a time stamp that isn't beyond a predefined lag time. Again, any behavior or event is immediately linked to at most one other event but may be proximately linked to many within a specified lag time preceding or following the start time of that particular behavior or event.
The consecutive type numbers of a sequence of linked behaviors and events form a chain or sequence. As only type numbers and not time stamps are considered in the description of a particular chain or sequence, a chain may occur any number of times within a data set. The number of occurrences of a chain is termed the frequency of that [Page 319]chain. A set or list of different chains with some common behaviors and events forms a chain pattern. Probabilities of a particular chain occurring are defined as relative, or conditional, to a chain pattern within which it may be contained. In other words, a probability number is based on the ratio of the frequency of a particular chain of interest to the combined frequency of all of the chains within a given pattern.4
When analyzing chain patterns, frequencies of chains of exactly two behaviors or events may also be searched to represent a matrix of succeeding and preceding events for all of the behaviors and events contained within a particular data set. If this procedure is implemented, the row index of the alphanumeric indicator within a matrix is the type number of the predecessor in the corresponding chain and the column index is the type number of the successor. The respective probability (and statistical) indices are then relative, or conditional, to the chain pattern consisting of all two-event chains.
The sequential analysis applications described in this text, and contained in the software program described at the end of this text, are based on the specific mathematical equations in Bakeman and Gottman (1986) and on the theoretical summary information contained in portions of Gottman and Roy (1990). As this type of analysis is fairly complex in theoretical and methodological structure, we provide only a simplistic overview in this appendix of what we feel to be the most important points in relation to mathematical modeling of the sequential character of a behavior-event data set. We hope that the summary contained here will prove helpful to those incorporating this type of analysis into their direct observational activities, and that the source materials that we have referenced will provide an additional link to more complete mathematical discussion.
To begin, complex mathematical modeling of just how each behavior in an observation system interacts with others in sequence comprises a complete sequential analysis. In a sense, a sequential analysis focuses first on the characteristics of particular behaviors within a data set but, most important, on the characteristics of the interactions or transactions among those behaviors as they present themselves over time. In the complete mathematical equations used to represent these behavior-event interactions, such representations are not limited to the effects of other immediately preceding and succeeding behaviors and events but, instead, may be analyzed as more complex patterns of interactive activity—patterns that a computer-based sequential analysis is well capable of uncovering and that many research literatures [Page 320]have begun hypothesizing as potential characteristics of optimally effective human interaction.
As a mathematical model, sequential analysis focuses on the problem of identifying and quantifying immediate and more distant interactional relationships of particular behaviors and events in sequence. It provides a means for determining in a situation-specific manner the probable effects one behavior may have on another based on their repeatedly close appearances together in time. When implementing this type of analytic model, a first step is to compute the unconditional probability of occurrence of each of the behaviors and events in a particular data set by dividing the frequency of occurrence of a particular behavior or event by the total number of occurrences of all other behaviors and events in that data set. Next, the conditional probability of each possible behavior and event (including itself) is calculated as a function of the successive lags (or steps) of each event from each possible event with which it could have possibly occurred before. This is akin to counting the number of times each behavior or event follows each of the other events occurring within a data file. Included in this count are the number of times a behavior or event immediately follows another (termed lag-1), the number of times an event occurs one event away (termed lag-2), and so forth up to the largest sequential step of interest. The lag probabilities are computed by dividing the frequency of occurrence of each event at lag-n by the number of times the interactive event under analysis occurred.
Sequential chains of interest in a sequentially ordered behavior-event data record are defined in terms of suffixes and prefixes (i.e., succeeding and preceding events). The suffix of a chain is defined as the last behavioral event appearing in it, and the prefix of the chain is the subchain obtained by omitting the suffix. Referring to our education example in Chapter 3, the behaviors of “instruction-engagement” may be a prefix and the behaviors of “feedback” a suffix in the behavior sequence instruction-engagement-feedback. A statistical Z-score transformation is then computed to determine the meaningfulness (or significance; meaningfulness is a term coined by Bakeman & Gottman, 1986) of a particular chain within a larger sequential data record.
The meaningfulness of a particular behavior-event chain in a particular sequential data record is calculated by analyzing the conditional probabilities of all prefixes and suffixes permitted by the universe of chains in the data set. In other words, a particular behavior chain of interest is determined meaningful as a function of the larger [Page 321]sequential structure of a particular data file and as a function of of the number of total event occurrences within that data record.
For those interested in an overview of mathematical modeling with respect to a sequential analysis of behavior-event chain prefixes and suffixes, the following summary may be helpful. Again, the suffix of a chain is defined as the last event number appearing in it, and the prefix of an event chain is the subchain obtained by omitting this suffix. For instance, events designated by 9–6 characterize a prefix and event 5 the suffix of the chain 9–6–5. The Z-score and related meaningfulness of this chain are calculated with respect to all prefixes and suffixes permitted by the universe of chains in the larger data file from which 9–6–5 originates. Consider, for example, a matrix “M” having rows indexed by the distinct prefixes permitted by the behaviors and events in a data record, and columns by the distinct suffixes contained in that same data record. Let M(i, j) be the frequency of the chain having prefix i and suffix j.
The probability of an event chain having prefix i and suffix j is then calculated using
The Z-score of the chain having prefix i and suffix j is calculated using
and its corresponding meaningfulness is computed as
[Page 322]If a behavior or event chain consists of a single event, it has no prefix and the formulas stated become undefined. When this is the case, f is the frequency of the given event, x is the number of the one-event chains that occur in the data file, n is the combined frequency of these chains, and
The probability of the given chain then is then:
and its corresponding Z-score is:
Its meaningfulness is then:
Analyzing behavior and event occurrences in interactive settings as a function of their relationships among one another in time provides for a wealth of additional information with respect to the study of interaction in the education, social, and psychological sciences. For example, preceding or succeeding matrices of dual chains may be built giving frequency, conditional probability, and statistical significance data cell by cell. Rates of responding across multiple stimulus events may thus be discerned. Using computer-based data analysis tools, the level of complexity of a sequential analysis is only limited by investigative interest and the original alphanumeric coding scheme used to collect the data file. When data collection is synchronized to a videotape record, multiple data collection files may be merged and arranged temporally in constructing a very complex overlapping event record, furthering the fine interactive discrimination capabilities such as that offered by the BEST software advertised in the flyer accompanying this text. Given that a sequential analysis application is based on the start times of behaviors and events that are recorded by a particular data collection program platform, and given the time sensitivity of the data [Page 323]collection mechanism that is made available by computer-based recording methods, sequential analyses of rapid and multiple occurrences of multiple overlapping events can be readily undertaken within a host of complex interactive situations.Notes
1. When using amenable computer tools such as BEST software, the type number is typically an integer between 1 and 36. Each type number indicates a particular behavior or event. On a computer keyboard that is used for data collection, the keys 1 to 9 represent themselves, 0 represents the number 10, A represents the number 11, B represents 12, and so forth, with Z representing 36. As most source code programming only recognizes numerical notations, while you may record letters with the computer keyboard, the actual data set and related sequential analysis representations use numbers to represent the letters used for recording.
2. Each time stamp is typically represented by a positive integer measuring the time of the event from a particular onset or start time to a particular termination or end time in a specified time unit (e.g., seconds, etc.). Time measurement in a particular data record begins at time zero with the start-up of the data recording apparatus and continues in ticks (i.e., time units) in which in most computer-based programs approximately 51.2 ticks equals 1 second, and a time conversion application must also be included in the software program application.
3. Although in principle the recording of two or more behaviors or events may be simultaneous with regard to start times, in practice each start time stamp is necessarily recorded as distinct, due to a computer-based data recorder's inability to register more than one event during the exact same time tick.
4. This is typically termed a conditional probability (see Bakeman & Gottman, 1986, 1997, and Gottman & Roy, 1990, for a detailed discussion of this issue). To ascertain the unconditional probability of a given chain, a wider chain search that encompasses all possible patterns of a particular behavior-event length is typically implemented.[Page 324]
Appendix B: Behavior Evaluation Strategy and Taxonomy (BEST) Software: Data Collection and Analysis Application[Page 325]
Over the past decade, advances in computer technology development have facilitated the design and implementation of a variety of software-based applications for behavioral research. The Implications of Computer Technology section in Chapter 3 makes clear that computer hardware and software advances have provided a variety of appealing tools for the collection and analysis of real-time observational data. According to Kahng and Iwata (1998), using computer-based software tools is appealing due to their ability to significantly enhance the reliability and accuracy of recording in relation to the more traditional paper-and-pencil and stopwatch recording methods. Additional activities, such as data graphing, training staff according to a data collection criterion, and more sophisticated statistical and mathematical modeling of behavioral data, are also made feasible through computer-based tool use.
As we have established throughout many of the chapters in this book, as computer-based tools continue to develop the capacity for more inclusive and varied alternatives, direct observation activities continues to improve and/or become available. It remains, however, as [Page 326]Kahng and Iwata stipulated 5 years ago, that computer-based tools for direct observation are not widely known to the professional communities that would benefit most from using them, and that they are difficult to access due to limited marketing and information sharing among professionals. This appendix, therefore, summarizes one commercially marketed computer-based data collection and analysis tool, Behavior Evaluation Strategy and Taxonomy (BEST) software, which was developed by the authors of this textbook. Although there are other, similar tools on the market and in the literature, the BEST tool summarized here (and advertised in the flyer included with this text) provides a representative example of one of the few tools that is marketed commercially and made available in a packaged and user-friendly format to professional and scientific communities. In addition, the BEST tool described in this appendix is representative of the majority of systems in that it is based on compatibility with IBM Windows operating platforms, and it includes a variety of features (e.g., interrater reliability, data file merging, data graphing, and sequential analysis applications) that may not be provided by other computer-based tools.Best Software Capability Summary
The BEST software platforms are divided into two separate and distinct data collection and data analysis applications. Both are completely compatible with Windows 95, 98, 200, NT, and XP, and they operate identically in terms of menu structure, with similar user-friendly features. Data collection applications facilitate the construction of observation systems by defining alphanumeric keys on a computer keyboard. Up to 36 different behaviors and events may be recorded during a session, and each key may also be notated numerically and narratively for additional behavior and event subcategorization. A variety of recording methods are made available within the application and multiple occurrences of simultaneous or overlapping events may be recorded using this application. By generating a time-based data record with quantitatively measured start and stop times of each recorded event, response frequency, duration, intervals (variable duration), average duration and standard deviations, rate, latency, inter-response time, percentage of observational time; and time-based measures (such as first, last, span, longest, shortest, etc.) may be extracted using the data analysis program. Due to the time-based [Page 327]nature of the data file generated, a sophisticated sequential analysis application is also made readily available. A numerical and text notation feature also allows the recording of notes for unique or atypical event occurrences in the time-based sequence in which they occurred. In addition, pause and other data management features are available that permit the interruption and restarting of observational sessions as the need arises, and entry errors made while recording may be immediately edited.
The data analysis program provides a variety of user-friendly options including the calculating of response frequency (total number and rate), duration, latency, interresponse time, percentage of observation time and related subintervals, percentage of trials, and conditional probabilities of sequentially based behavior and event relationships. The analysis application also allows the compartmentalizing of subgroups of behaviors and events to analyze as a logically grouped data file. Options also include the calculation of mean and median data, variability in relation to range and frequency distributions, and statistical significance data in relation to sequential analyses. Reliability programs with simple frequency, point-by-point, and Cohen's kappa options are also included to facilitate staff training and interrater reliability check procedures. Graphic analyses include tables, pie charts, temporal records, sequential analysis tables, and traditional time-series graphs. Statistical applications such as mean, standard deviation, and line of best fit are included to complement the standard graphic applications. All of BEST software's graphing applications are exportable to most commercial graphics programs, such as Windows Paint, Powerpoint, and Delta Graph.
The BEST programs require an IBM-compatible desktop or laptop computer with a minimum 386 processor running a Windows operating platform. The applications have minimal RAM and hard disk requirements. Data collection applications for handheld PCs are available, as are digital video synchronization applications for the data collection platform and remote data collection apparatus for those who desire direct hookup to laboratory applications (e.g., bar press, lights, temperature switches, pellet containers, etc.) that obviate the constant presence of a human data collector. Fully functional demonstration copies are available on request (see the Scolari/Sage Publications flyer that accompanies this text or contact the developers at http://www.skware.com). Included in the CD-ROM contained in the software package are example observation systems, example data files, a complete and illustrated users guide in PDF format, and a PDF format summary version [Page 328]of the materials contained this textbook. A complete software tutorial in movie and sound format is also included to provide an initial overview of the software programs’ many capabilities and applications. The latter materials require an Adobe Acrobat reader and a QuickTime movie player (but for those without these applications an Internet connect is provided on the CD-ROM to locate and download the appropriate free software for viewing these materials).
Appealing advantages of BEST software include
- behavioral, quantitative, and qualitative data collection with a push of a button
- a wide range of sophisticated analyses, including descriptive and predictive statistics, qualitative memo-noting, and a variety of graphic and sequential analysis representations
- complete compatibility with a wide variety of statistical and graphics packages
- user customizability to specific data collection and analysis needs
- immediate data-based feedback capability in field settings or as an ongoing evaluation tool
- built-in reliability application for staff training and interobserver comparisons
- data file merging and sorting functions for compiling purposes
Its general features include
- allowing the you, the user, to create your own category system to meet your specific observational needs
- storing multiple observation systems storage for particular applications
- recording the start and stop times of multiple events as they naturally occur, providing a variety of descriptive statistics
- recording narrative fieldnotes in concert with behavioral and quantitative data
- recording information live or synchronized with videotape at almost any location[Page 329]
- qualitatively, quantitatively, and sequentially representing and analyzing observational data
- providing staff training and ensure reliability of data collection
- interfacing with other software programs for multitasking and remote site use
- being compatible with a range of hardware, including Windows CE hand-held computers for data collection in the field
The specific data collection capabilities of BEST software incude
- recording and categorizing data using complex multiple event observation systems
- using numerical and narrative notations to further delineate event types
- recording multiple events simultaneously as they actually occur in time
- taking advantage of a user-friendly screen representation when collecting data
- facilitating the data collection process with multiple means of recording, including press and hold keys, toggle keys for turning on and off, and remote key access
- pause feature for entering and exiting the same data collection episode at time of exit
- editing data collection efforts on the fly and viewing data records as they are collected
- automatic recording of response frequency, rates, percentage of total experimental time, shortest and longest event occurrences, event occurrence spans, duration, intervals, time samples, latency, inter-response time, and discrete trials
- multitasking when collecting data by assigning keys to perform additional functions, such as starting another software application
- taking advantage of MicroSoft CE hand-held compatibility when collecting data in particular field settings
[Page 330]Its specific data analysis applications include
- identifying frequency, total and mean duration, standard deviations, rate, and experimental time percentages of each category system event in tabular and graphic formats
- identifying time-based information for each category system event, including first and last event occurrence, time-spans between events, longest and shortest event occurrences, and related means and standard deviations
- searching for keywords and memos in narrative notations and represent narrative data within and across data files
- processing and comparing multiple data files across one another, and across multiple recorded events and measurement types
- conducting a variety of reliability analysis functions among data files including simple frequency, point-by-point, and Cohen's kappa
- conducting sequential analyses of the time-based connections among events documented in terms of frequency, conditional probability, and statistical significance (Z-score transformations)
- merging and time-sorting multiple data files enabling comprehensive observational description from videotape
- performing event subgrouping routines to allow a separate analysis of subgroups of events within all program applications
- representing data with a host of sophisticated graphing applications for individual data files and for multiple data files across event and measurement type
- graphically analyzing mean, standard deviation, and regression across multiple data files and multiple events and measures
- printing, saving, and clipboard/pasting data representations into other statistical analysis and graphics editing software packages
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About the Authors[Page 359]
Tom Sharpe is an Associate Professor and Program Coordinator in the Department of Educational Leadership in the College of Education at the University of Nevada–Las Vegas. He draws from a wealth of varied professional experiences and activities in public and private school, coaching, and university teaching settings and from a long education and social science research career in a variety of graduate programs at different universities. Trained by many of the leading applied and experimental behavior analysts in the profession at West Virginia University, Tom has pursued academic work largely in the education and social science application of observational methodologies and in related computer-based tool development. He has authored over 100 refereed articles and book chapters and is a regular contributor to the principles and practice of applied behavior analysis through conference and workshop presentations and a variety of consulting activities.
John Koperwas has been a practicing software developer for the past 20 years. After developing a variety of direct observation software and hardware systems, he went into a research and development collaboration with Tom Sharpe through Educational Consulting, Inc. John currently serves clients worldwide ranging from teacher education programs to medical rehabilitation clinics to public school districts and special education and activity-based outreach centers—all interested in the continuing development and use of the direct observation computer tools and related information offered through Educational Consulting. You may visit the company website at http://www.skware.com for more information on the authors’ background, experience, and current software development efforts.