Behavior and Classroom Management in the Multicultural Classroom: Proactive, Active, and Reactive Strategies

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Terry L. Shepherd & Diana Linn

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  • Back Matter
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  • Copyright

    Acknowledgements

    I would like to dedicate this book to the memory of my sister, Lisa Shepherd Scott (1959–2013). She was an education paraprofessional, and we had a number of conversations about behavior and intervention strategies. Her love for others will transcend time.

    Terry L. Shepherd

    I dedicate this book to my parents, Bernice and Theodore Linn, and to my children, Máximo and Sandra.

    Diana Linn

    Preface

    Purpose of This Book

    Behavior and classroom management has been a critical issue facing teachers for nearly 40 years. With the increasing numbers of culturally and linguistically diverse students in our schools, teachers often do not feel prepared to handle many of the behavioral problems they face in their classrooms today. The purpose of this book is to provide teachers with the knowledge, skills, and strategies they need to create learning environments that will benefit children from all backgrounds and experiences.

    This book is designed differently from many other textbooks. It introduces the concept of a universal design for classroom management, which is a proactive approach to developing a behavior and classroom management plan that considers the needs of students with disabilities, culturally and linguistically diverse students, struggling learners, and students of all ability levels. As part of the universal design for classroom management, behavior and classroom management programs must include proactive, active, and reactive interventions to be successful in the classroom. This book addresses all facets of these interventions: basic classroom management plans, functional behavioral analysis, functional behavioral assessments, behavior intervention plans, response-to-intervention, and school-wide positive behavior support. The book also provides overviews of developmental theories of behavior and the legal issues related to behavior management. The inclusion of developmental theories is especially crucial: These theories provide teachers with some understanding of behavior and serve as a basis for practical applications.

    Additionally, this book goes beyond traditional classroom management strategies and behavior interventions, including chapters on teacher collaboration with students’ parents and other family members, the role of the teacher in developing and implementing behavior strategies, and social skills training. The book also explores the effects that culture and language have on the behaviors of children from diverse backgrounds and how these might influence the strategies teachers use when implementing behavior and classroom management interventions. The overall goal of the book is to provide information on the major facets of behavior and classroom management that will help teachers create safe and secure environments that promote the learning of all students.

    This book is designed for undergraduate and graduate courses in classroom management, behavior management, and applied behavior management. It can also be used by general education teachers, elementary education teachers, secondary education teachers, special education teachers, school administrators, school counselors, and education paraprofessionals.

    Features

    Several pedagogical features are incorporated in the content of this textbook:

    • Objectives at the beginning of every chapter highlight the important issues in the chapter.
    • Review questions and activities at the end of each chapter test students’ understanding of the content and concepts of the chapter.
    • In a tribute to the Dick and Jane stories from our youth, we include in each chapter a case study involving Ricardo, Jane, Kale, or Timothy. Each case study emphasizes an important issue covered in the chapter.
    • “What Would You Do?” vignettes are included in all chapters to encourage readers to formulate responses to classroom situations.
    • Contemporary educational issues are discussed, including the needs of culturally and linguistically diverse students, at-risk students, and students with disabilities.
    • Practical applications of research-based practices are offered, such as social skills instruction and teacher collaboration with diverse families.
    • A glossary provides definitions of key terms, each of which appears in the text in boldface type on its first substantive mention.
    Ancillaries
    Instructor Teaching Site

    A password-protected site, available at www.sagepub.com/shepherd, features resources that have been designed to help instructors plan and teach their courses. These resources include an extensive test bank in Word and Respondus formats, chapter-specific PowerPoint presentations, and links to SAGE journal articles and web resources.

    Student Study Site

    A web-based study site is available at www.sagepub.com/shepherd. This site provides access to several study tools including mobile-friendly eFlashcards and web quizzes as well as links to SAGE journal articles and web resources.

    Acknowledgments

    As with the creation of any textbook, a number of individuals have given a lot of personal and professional time in the completion of this book. We would like to thank Theresa Accomazzo and Reid Hester for their patience, constructive criticism, and emotional support. We would also like to thank our families, who allowed us to spend an inordinate amount of time at home staring at the computer.

    Terry would like to thank his wife, Melanie, who read through every draft without complaint and offered a number of valuable edits and suggestions. He would also like to acknowledge his children, Shaun, Bessie, Tony, Patty, Jared, and Samuel. Again, he promises not to engage in another major project for at least 3 months.

    Diana would like to thank her family, friends, and colleagues who supported her during the writing of this book. She would also like to acknowledge Clarissa Riojas, graduate assistant, for her help with the research for the book.

    We and SAGE would like to gratefully acknowledge the following peer reviewers for their editorial insight and guidance:

    • Christopher B. Denning, University of Massachusetts–Boston
    • Mike F. Desiderio, Texas A&M University–Kingsville
    • Maryann Gromoll, Daytona State College
    • Andrew Knight, University of North Dakota
    • Cynthia Miller, Fort Hays State University
    • Arnold Nyarambi, East Tennessee State University
    • Christine R. Ogilvie, University of West Florida
    • Jessica A. Scher Lisa, St. Joseph’s College
    • Karen Schmalz, Geneva College
    • Judy Stuart, Furman University
  • Glossary

    ABC analysis:

    A behavioral observation method that focuses on the antecedent to a behavior (A), the behavior (B), and the consequence of the behavior (C).

    AB design:

    A basic single-subject design that uses one set of baseline data (Condition A) and one set of intervention data (Condition B).

    Academic optimism:

    A teacher’s belief that he or she can make a difference in the academic performance of students, academic emphasis, and trust between the teacher and students’ families.

    Acculturation:

    The process through which an individual adapts to and adopts the values, beliefs, and traditions of another culture.

    Activity reinforcers:

    Any preferred activities presented to a student after a behavior occurs, resulting in an increase of the behavior.

    Alternating treatment design (ABAC):

    A single-subject design in which the AB design is extended through the addition of a second, different intervention (Condition C).

    Antecedent-based interventions:

    Modifications of the environment that prevent or decrease the occurrence of inappropriate behaviors and increase the probability of appropriate behaviors.

    Baseline data:

    Information collected on a student’s target behavior prior to any intervention.

    Behavioral hypothesis:

    A proposed explanation of the factors that elicit inappropriate behaviors based on data obtained from behavioral observations.

    Behavior intervention plan:

    A written plan that describes the interventions, strategies, and supports that will be implemented to address the social, emotional, and behavior needs of a student.

    Behaviorism:

    A developmental theory based on the measurement of observable behaviors and reactions and the exclusion of the emotional and mental states of individuals.

    Changing criterion design:

    A single-subject design in which a behavior is progressively increased or decreased in stepwise changes through manipulation of the conditions of the intervention; used to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention strategy.

    Classical conditioning:

    The repeated pairing of a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus to produce a conditioned response.

    Cognitive behavior management:

    The use of intervention strategies designed to teach students to control their own behaviors.

    Condition change line:

    The line in a graph that separates baseline data from intervention data.

    Condition labels:

    Labels on a graph that identify the baseline data and the intervention data.

    Contingency contract:

    A formal, written agreement between the student and teacher that addresses the behavioral, academic, and social goals of the student and the reinforcers the student is to receive after achieving these goals.

    Contingent praise:

    An affirmative statement that immediately follows the completion of appropriate academic or social behaviors.

    Continuous progress monitoring:

    A procedure in which teachers gather information on students’ behaviors following behavior management interventions to determine whether the interventions have been effective in modifying inappropriate behaviors.

    Continuous reinforcement:

    A reinforcement schedule in which each instance of the desired behavior is reinforced.

    Data point:

    An indicator of a frequency count on a graph or single-subject design; may be denoted by a circle, triangle, or square.

    Depersonalization:

    A detached attitude that teachers feel toward their job, students, and other teachers due to stress and burnout.

    Differential reinforcement:

    An operant procedure that is used to increase the frequency of an appropriate behavior while decreasing an inappropriate behavior.

    Differential reinforcement of alternative behavior (DRA):

    Reinforcement of a specific alternative behavior in lieu of an inappropriate behavior.

    Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior (DRI):

    Reinforcement of an appropriate behavior that is incompatible with a problem behavior and therefore cannot occur at the same time.

    Differential reinforcement of lower rates (DRL):

    Reinforcement that reduces an inappropriate behavior through the provision of reinforcers after the frequency of the behavior in a specific period of time is less than a set limit.

    Differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO):

    Reinforcement of any appropriate behavior when a problem behavior has not been displayed for a period of time.

    Discrepancy model:

    A model used in the identification of students with specific learning disabilities, in which a student’s potential (measured by IQ) is compared with his or her achievement (measured by average score on standardized achievement tests).

    Duration of a behavior:

    The length of time a student displays a specified behavior.

    Duration per episode:

    The length of time a student engages in a behavior during one episode.

    Duration recording:

    The measurement of the length of time a student engages in a behavior.

    Ecological systems theory:

    A developmental theory that explains how interrelated environments affect the development of a child.

    Enculturation:

    The process of acquiring and maintaining cultural norms and values.

    Event-based recording:

    A behavioral observation recording method used to measure the frequency of behaviors.

    Exclusion time-out:

    Time-out in which the student is removed from a reinforcing activity or setting for a specified period of time.

    Extinction:

    The reduction of a target behavior through the withholding of the reinforcer that maintains the behavior.

    Family cohesion:

    The emotional bonding or closeness that family members have toward each other.

    Family communication:

    The talking, listening, and understanding skills that family members use in facilitating levels of family cohesion and flexibility.

    Family engagement:

    Reciprocal communication between teachers and students’ families that actively encourages parents’ input into their children’s academic and behavior needs.

    Family flexibility:

    The amount or degree of change that takes place in family leadership, role relationships, and relationship rules.

    Family functions:

    The routines, tasks, and activities individual family members perform to meet the members’ diverse needs as well as those of the family as a unit.

    Family involvement:

    Mostly one-sided communication from teachers to students’ parents, informing them how they can contribute to fulfilling their children’s academic and behavior needs.

    Family life cycle:

    The set of developmental stages that families pass through, from childhood to retirement.

    Family systems model:

    A model that views the family as an interrelated and interactive social system in which the events and experiences of each member of the family unit affect other members of the family.

    Fixed-ratio schedule:

    A reinforcement schedule in which reinforcers are delivered after certain fixed numbers of responses.

    Frequency:

    How often a behavior occurs in a specific period of time.

    Frequency count:

    The number of times a behavior occurs during an observation period.

    Functional behavioral assessment:

    A problem-solving process for addressing a student’s inappropriate behavior by identifying the characteristics of the behavior through behavioral observation.

    Functional behavior analysis:

    A method of analysis used to identify the function, or purpose, of an inappropriate behavior.

    Functional communication training:

    A systematic technique for replacing an inappropriate behavior with an appropriate communication response as a means to obtain reinforcement.

    Goal setting:

    The establishment of objectives for academic or behavioral performance.

    Inclusion time-out:

    Time-out in which the student remains in his or her seat and observes classroom instruction but does not have the opportunity to participate or receive reinforcements.

    Individualized interventions:

    Interventions that constitute Tier 3 of school-wide positive behavior support, providing strategies for the 5–10% of students who do not respond to either Tier 1 or Tier 2 supports.

    Intensity of a behavior:

    The amount of force with which a student exhibits a behavior.

    Intermittent reinforcement:

    A reinforcement schedule in which only some incidents of the behavior are reinforced.

    Interrater reliability (or interobserver reliability):

    The level of reliability obtained when two observers who view the same behavior during the same observation period come to a consensus regarding the rate of the behavior.

    Interval-based recording:

    A behavioral observation recording method in which the observation period is divided into equal time intervals.

    Interval schedules:

    Reinforcement schedules based on the passage of time since the last reinforcer was delivered.

    Intervention data:

    Data collected on an observed behavior under an intervention strategy.

    Latency of a behavior:

    The amount of time between an environmental event and the behavior.

    Latency recording:

    A method of measuring how long it takes for a student to respond to an environmental event, such as instructions or redirection.

    Level:

    The average rate of a behavior during a condition phase of a single-subject design.

    Moral development theory:

    A child development theory concerned with systems of beliefs, values, and fundamental judgments about human behavior and how it relates to societal expectations.

    Multiple-baseline design:

    An extension of the AB design that enables examination of the effectiveness of intervention strategies across students, behaviors, and settings.

    Negative punishment:

    The withdrawal of a desired reinforcement after an inappropriate behavior is displayed, resulting in decreased probability that the behavior will be repeated.

    Negative reinforcement:

    The removal of an adverse stimulus after a desired behavior has been exhibited, resulting in increased probability that the behavior will be repeated.

    Observational learning:

    Learning that occurs through an individual’s observation of the behavior of another person and how the consequences of the behavior are reinforced.

    Operant conditioning:

    A method of learning in which the probability that an individual’s behavior will increase or decrease is manipulated through the use of reinforcements that are pleasurable or not pleasurable.

    Overcorrection:

    A negative punishment that uses repetitive behavior as a consequence for exhibiting inappropriate behaviors.

    Partial-interval recording:

    An interval-based behavioral observation recording method in which the target behavior is recorded when it occurs at any time during an interval.

    Performance deficit:

    The failure to perform appropriate behaviors or skills despite having the ability to do so.

    Planned ignoring:

    A procedure designed to decrease or eliminate an inappropriate behavior by abruptly withdrawing the reinforcer that is maintaining the behavior.

    Point-time sampling:

    An interval-based behavioral observation recording method in which a behavior is recorded if it occurs at the end of an interval.

    Positive-practice overcorrection:

    A negative punishment in which the student displaying an inappropriate behavior must repeatedly perform an appropriate behavior.

    Positive punishment:

    The provision of an aversive consequence immediately following a behavior, resulting in decreased probability that the behavior will be repeated.

    Positive reinforcement:

    The provision of a preferred consequence following a behavior, resulting in increased probability that the behavior will be repeated.

    Preventive discipline:

    Strategies and interventions implemented before problems arise to prevent or minimize misbehavior.

    Primary reinforcers:

    Reinforcers that are of biological importance to a person, including food, water, sleep, and sex.

    Professional self-esteem:

    An individual’s belief in his or her worth and acceptance in a work-related position.

    Proximity control:

    A nonverbal strategy that alters behavioral responses through the physical presence of an authority figure.

    Punishment:

    A consequence following a behavior that decreases the probability that the behavior will be repeated; may be either positive or negative.

    Rate of a behavior:

    The number of times a behavior occurs divided by the amount of time over which the behavior was observed.

    Ratio schedules:

    Reinforcement schedules that are based on numbers of correct responses; may be fixed or variable.

    Reduced personal accomplishments:

    A state experienced by teachers who feel they cannot accomplish anything, believe they cannot make a difference in the lives of their students, and feel incompetent.

    Reinforcement:

    The attainment or avoidance of a consequence following a behavior, resulting in increased probability that the behavior will occur in the future.

    Relaxation:

    A quiet, calm state of being with low psychological and physiological tension.

    Replacement behavior training (RBT):

    A social skills strategy in which competing problem behaviors are replaced by prosocial behaviors that serve the same functions.

    Replication:

    The repeating of an intervention strategy, or independent variable, to determine the likelihood that a change in the behavior was not due to external variables.

    Response cost:

    A negative punishment in which the positive reinforcer is removed contingent on an inappropriate behavior.

    Response-to-intervention (RTI):

    A multitiered approach to providing interventions and services at increasing levels of intensity for students with academic and behavior problems.

    Restitutional overcorrection:

    Overcorrection in which the student displaying an inappropriate behavior must restore and improve the environment, leaving it in a better state than it was in before the inappropriate behavior.

    Routines:

    Well-defined procedures that help to create an orderly environment in the classroom.

    Rules:

    Prescribed modes of conduct that serve as guidelines for student behavior.

    School culture:

    The beliefs, values, traditions, attitudes, and behaviors that characterize a school.

    School-wide positive behavior support (SWPBS):

    A proactive strategy designed to promote acceptable behavioral expectations for all students within a school and establish a safe school environment in which learning can take place.

    Seclusion time-out:

    Time-out in which the student is removed from the classroom to a designated place, a secluded area or a time-out room, for a specified period of time.

    Secondary reinforcers:

    Reinforcers whose value is learned or conditioned.

    Self-efficacy:

    An individual’s belief in his or her abilities to perform specific tasks despite difficulties, obstacles, and initial failures.

    Self-evaluation:

    A self-management strategy in which students compare their own performance to a set criterion.

    Self-instruction:

    A self-management strategy in which self-talk is used to help regulate behaviors.

    Self-management:

    Individuals’ control of their own behaviors.

    Self-monitoring:

    A self-management technique in which students observe their own behaviors and record whether they are exhibiting particular behaviors.

    Self-reinforcement:

    A self-management technique in which students manage their own behaviors by rewarding themselves when they successfully complete self-prescribed activities.

    Shared vision:

    Agreement among many parties—such as administrators, teachers, and school support staff—regarding the core components of an innovation, the implementation of those components, and the desired outcomes for the innovation.

    Skill deficit:

    The inability to perform appropriate behaviors or skills.

    Social cognitive theory:

    A social learning theory that states that behavior is learned through the process of observational learning.

    Social competency:

    The degree to which an individual performs a social task competently.

    Social skills:

    Specific behaviors related to the competent performance of social tasks.

    Social skills training:

    An intervention used to increase the social skills and social competencies of students with behavior difficulties.

    Social stories:

    Short scenarios written for students to teach them appropriate behaviors in specific social situations.

    Stable baseline:

    A baseline that shows no descending or ascending trend, with data points that fall within a small range of values.

    Stimulus:

    An external event that affects an individual’s behavior or response.

    Supportive discipline:

    Strategies that help students use self-control to stay on task.

    Tangible reinforcers:

    Preferred items presented after a behavior occurs, resulting in an increase of the behavior.

    Target behavior:

    A student behavior identified to be assessed and modified; must be observable, measurable, and repeatable.

    Targeted interventions:

    Interventions that make up Tier 2 of school-wide positive behavior support, providing support for the 10–15% of students who do not respond to Tier 1 supports.

    Time-out:

    A behavior modification strategy in which a student displaying inappropriate behaviors is removed from a reinforcing environment to an austere environment for a specified period of time.

    Token economy:

    A contingency management system that allows students to earn tokens that can be exchanged for predetermined reinforcers.

    Total duration per observation:

    The cumulative amount of time a student engages in a behavior during an observation period.

    Transitions:

    Intervals of time during which students move from one lesson or activity to another.

    Trend:

    A consistent one-direction change (increasing or decreasing) in the rate of a behavior during a condition phase of a single-subject design.

    Unconditioned response:

    A naturally occurring reaction to a stimulus.

    Unconditioned stimulus:

    A stimulus that triggers an unconditioned response.

    Universal design for classroom management (UDCM):

    A proactive approach to developing behavior and classroom management plans that meet the academic, behavioral, emotional, and social needs of students with disabilities, culturally and linguistically diverse students, struggling learners, and students of all ability levels.

    Universal interventions:

    Interventions that fall within Tier 1 of school-wide positive behavior support, providing support for all students within the school and generally effective with 80% of the student population.

    Variability:

    Fluctuation in the rate of a behavior during a condition phase of a single-subject design.

    Variable-interval schedule:

    A reinforcement schedule that involves unspecified and changing amounts of time.

    Variable-ratio schedule:

    A reinforcement schedule in which behavior is reinforced after an average number of instances of the target behavior.

    Whole-interval recording:

    An interval-based behavioral observation recording method in which a behavior is recorded only if it is displayed during an entire interval.

    Withdrawal design (or ABAB design):

    An extension of the AB design in which a second baseline is added after the intervention strategy and the intervention strategy is reintroduced after the second baseline.

    Wraparound services:

    The components of a team-based intervention that provides the necessary planning and implementation of care services for students with emotional and behavioral difficulties and their families.

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    Photo Credits

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    About the Authors

    Terry L. Shepherd has been a department head and associate professor of special education at Indiana University South Bend since 2007. Prior to that, he was an associate professor of special education at Texas A&M International University, a teacher for children with emotional and behavior disorders in the public schools, and a teacher at a residential treatment center for troubled teenagers. He received his EdD in special education at Ball State University. He has published numerous professional papers in emotional and behavior disorders, international special education, and teacher education. He is the author of Working with Students with Emotional and Behavior Disorders: Characteristics and Teaching Strategies (Pearson-Merrill, 2010), and “Enthusiasm, Humor, and Optimism” in R. L. Smith & D. Skarbek (Eds.), Professional Teacher Dispositions: Additions to the Mainstream, (R & L Education, 2013). He has been a member of the Council for Exceptional Children since 1998. His hobbies include songwriting, model building, genealogy, and American history.

    Diana Linn is associate professor of special education and department chair at Texas A&M International University in Laredo, Texas. Prior to that, she was a teacher in general education and special education classrooms in Mexico and South Texas. Dr. Linn received her PhD from Texas A&M University-College Station. She has several published articles concerning the disproportionality of English language learners in special education and the use of cultural autobiographies in preservice teacher education programs. She is a member of the American Educational Research Association, the Council for Exceptional Children and the National Association for Multicultural Education.


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