Becoming Intercultural: An Integrative Theory of Communication and Cross-Cultural Adaptation

Books

Young Yun Kim

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  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Part I: The Background

    Part II: The Theory

    Part III: Elaboration of the Theory

    Part IV: The Theory and the Reality

  • Dedication

    To my family, the source of my strength to look far and beyond

    Copyright

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    List of Figures and Tables

    Figures
    • Figure 3.1 Communication as a Person-EnvironmentInteraction Process 37
    • Figure 3.2 Organization and Goals of the Theory 42
    • Figure 4.1 Relationships Among Terms Associated With Cross-Cultural Adaptation 53
    • Figure 4.2 Deculturation and Acculturation Over Time 54
    • Figure 4.3 The Stress-Adaptation-Growth Dynamic: A Process Model 57
    • Figure 4.4 Diminishing Stress-Adaptation-Growth Fluctuation Over Time 59
    • Figure 5.1 Factors Influencing Cross-Cultural Adaptation: A Structural Model 87
    • Figure 6.1 Interrelationships Among the Components of Host Communication Competence 118
    • Figure 7.1 Adaptive Change in Personal Network Composition 127
    • Figure 7.2 Adaptive Change in the Strength of Host and Ethnic Ties 129
    • Figure 7.3 Interrelationships Among Communication Constructs 143
    • Figure 8.1 Interrelationships Between Environment and Communication Constructs 161
    • Figure 9.1 Interrelationships Between Predisposition and Communication Constructs 181
    • Figure 10.1 Interrelationships Between Intercultural Transformation and Communication Constructs 185
    Tables

    Preface

    Millions of people change homes each year, crossing cultural boundaries. Immigrants and refugees resettle in search of new lives, side by side with a variety of temporary sojourners—from artists and construction workers seeking employment overseas to diplomats and journalists on foreign assignments for extended periods. In this increasingly integrated world, cross-cultural adaptation is a central and defining theme: The multicultural world is enhanced by the experiences of sojourners, immigrants, and others who successfully make the transition from one culture to another. What challenges do such individuals undergo? How do they overcome those challenges? What internal changes are these individuals likely to experience over time? Why are some more successful than others in attaining a level of “goodness-of-fit” in a new environment? This book, as well as its predecessor, Communication and Cross-Cultural Adaptation: An Integrative Theory (Kim, 1988), addresses these and related issues of cross-cultural adaptation.

    One of the motivations behind this work has been a keen recognition that the field of cross-cultural adaptation continues to be in need of interdisciplinary integration. Couched in various terms, such as acculturation, cross-cultural adjustment, international migration and resettlement, and interethnic/inter group relations, studies of cross-cultural adaptation have been enriched but fractionated by differing perspectives and foci. Researchers examine segments of the adaptation phenomenon specific to their disciplinary and individual interests pertaining to psychological realms on the one hand and to group and societal realms on the other. What is needed is a continuing effort to see cross-cultural adaptation in its entirety, with all its richness and complexity—a dedicated search for a way to connect various probes of limited conceptual domains with one another and to gain some coherent insight into what it means for an individual to adapt to a new and unfamiliar cultural milieu. Such an effort would counterbalance the atomistic method of compartmentalized specialization and would allow a meaningful cross-pollination across disciplines to occur. Indeed, a number of investigators have argued for conceptualizing certain facets of cross-cultural adaptation as a multivariate phenomenon in which societal, community, interpersonal, and intrapersonal levels of factors operate simultaneously. Some notable integrative efforts have been made by social psychologists such as John W. Berry, Richard Y. Bourhis, Richard Clément, Ronald Taft, and Henri Tajfel. Their works are cited throughout this book.

    The present work echoes their concerns and ideas as it moves forward to broaden, refine, and integrate existing models associated with the phenomenon of cross-cultural adaptation. In this volume, I seek to build a system of understanding and explanation at a new height, a “big picture.” This theorizing effort takes a communication approach that links the individual and the surrounding environment in a single, large frame. It is predicated on a set of “open-systems” assumptions, based on which cross-cultural adaptation is conceived of as a case of “organized complexity” and the unfolding of the natural human tendency to struggle for internal equilibrium in the face of often adversarial environmental conditions. Conjoining the individual (the central “figure”) and the environment (the “ground”), this systems-communication approach is a consolidation of previously separate theoretical foci, such as the person, the group, and the society. This approach moves beyond the linear-reductionist assumption underlying most existing models and treats cross-cultural adaptation as neither a “dependent” variable nor an “independent” variable of something. I view the conventional cause-and-effect notion as at least partly responsible for many fragmented and often conflicting knowledge claims that cannot tell us how a number of different factors act together when exposed to a number of different influences at the same time.

    The present approach addresses this problem by elevating the status of cross-cultural adaptation to the level of a universal human phenomenon. The term cross-cultural adaptation is treated not as a specific analytic unit (or variable), but as a complex, dynamic, and evolutionary process an individual undergoes vis-a-vis a new and unfamiliar environment—a process that “moves” with a structure of multidimensional and multifaceted forces operating simultaneously and interactively. Although I do not claim that the theory presented in these pages is either complete or final, I offer it as by far the most broad-based theoretical account of cross-cultural adaptation, bringing together many existing conceptions and clarifying the interrelationships among them.

    My work on this volume has involved a complete rewrite, refinement, and expansion of my 1988 book. I have streamlined and elaborated the theoretical structure and elements so as to achieve a sharper focus, a greater coherence, and an increased depth in the theory's presentation. I have updated the examination and analysis of the pertinent literature to present a wide range of existing approaches to cross-cultural adaptation, and I have documented an extensive array of relevant research findings in the theorizing process. I have made a special effort to bring this theoretical rendition closer to the everyday realities of people through stories made readily available in popular media sources. The stories, testimonials, and insights offered here add to the accessibility of this book for a broader readership.

    I am indebted and thankful to Professor Howard Giles, who originally welcomed my 1988 volume into the Intercommunication Series, which he edited for Multilingual Matters in England. He offered many encouragements and helpful suggestions for that volume as well as for the present one. My own cross-cultural journey in the United States, which began in 1970, when I was a graduate student from South Korea, gives this work a special sense of gratitude and assurance.

    Young YunKim
  • Notes

    1. Introduction

    1. Further discussions of various contexts of cross-cultural adaptation are offered by Berry (1990), Bochner (1982), Furnham (1988), Furnham and Bochner (1986), and Volkan (1993).

    2. Existing Approaches to Cross-Cultural Adaptation

    1. Bentley (1981) and Shibutani and Kwan (1965) present further examples of sociological studies concerning ethnicity and interethnic relations.

    2. Berry (1976, 1980) and De Vos (1990c, 1993) present additional arguments for the integration of environmental and individual factors in cross-cultural adaptation and interethnic relations.

    3. For reviews of studies on sojourner effectiveness, see Church (1982), Furnham (1988), Furnham and Bochner (1986), and Torbiorn (1982).

    4. For additional writings on culture shock and related psychological problems, see Adler (1975), Barna (1983), Furnham (1988), Furnham and Bochner (1986), and Torbiorn (1982, 1988).

    5. Brein and David (1971), Church (1982), and Klineberg and Hull (1979) offer extensive discussions on the U-curve and W-curve processes.

    6. In the interest of avoiding confusion and for greater efficiency, I cite my own work throughout this book using only my last name. Citations to other investigators with the same last name include their initials.

    7. Similar explanations for the overseas effectiveness of sojourners are offered by Coelho (1958), Furnham (1988), Klineberg and Hull (1979), Selltiz, Christ, Havel, and Cook (1963), and Torbiorn (1982, 1988).

    8. Other models for predicting acculturation rates are offered by Nagata (1969), Szalay and Inn (1988), Szapocznik, Scopetta, Kurtines, and Aranalde (1978), and Taft (1988).

    9. Additional multivariate models of psychological adaptation have been proposed by Benson (1978), De Vos (1990c), Padilla (1980a), and Szapocznik et al. (1978), among others.

    10. For detailed historical accounts of ideologies of intercultural/ interethnic relations, see Bentley (1981), Feagin (1984), and Postiglione (1983).

    3. Organizing Principles

    1. For additional information on various uses of these terms, see Amersfoort (1972/1984), Berry and Sam (1997), Dyal and Dyal (1981), and Shibutani and Kwan (1965).

    2. Gudykunst and Kim (1997), Levine (1979/1992), and Rogers (1999) provide recent overviews of the concept of the stranger.

    3. For writings on open systems, see Boulding (1975), Davidson (1983), Laszlo (1972), Rapoport (1986), Ruben (1972, 1975, 1983), and von Bertalanffy (1968). Open-systems approaches to human communication and psychology are presented by Airport (1960), Bateson (1951/1972), Fogel (1993), Ford and Lerner (1992), Grotevant (1993), Ruesch and Bateson (1951/1968), and Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson (1967).

    4. See Strauss and Corbin (1990) for an argument concerning the utilization of information available in nontechnical, nonacademic sources.

    4. The Process of Cross-Cultural Adaptation

    1. Additional sources on intergroup communication and group identity include Tajfel and Turner (1986), Turner (1987), and Turner and Giles (1981).

    2. For additional research data indicating the assimilative trend, see Caselli (1973), Connor (1977), Kincaid, Yum, Woelfel, and Barnett (1983), Namazi (1984), Neidert and Farley (1985), Szalay and Inn (1988), Taft (1966), and Zenner (1991).

    3. Among other fictional and nonfictional first-person accounts and ethnographic essays are the contributions to volumes edited by Friedlander (1988), Kennedy (1991b), and Lewis and Jungman (1986), as well as the writings of Gehl (1984), Karl (1984), and Salzman (1986).

    4. Additional sources that address the phenomenon of psychic integration and transformation include Allport (1955), Atwater (1983), Csikszentmihalyi (1993), Cypser and Cypser (1989), Erikson (1969), Grotevant (1992, 1993), Hettema (1979), Sarter (1988), Slavin and Kriegman (1992), White (1991), and Zurcher (1977).

    5. Other research has further documented the trend of increasing psychological well-being of immigrants and sojourners; see, for example, Deutsch and Won (1963), Kim (1976, 1977, 1978b, 1980, 1989, 1990), and Wong-Rieger (1984, 1987).

    6. The flexibility/complexity of cultural identity has also been addressed by Collier and Thomas (1988), Cupach and Imahori (1993), and Ethier and Deaux (1994).

    5. The Structure of Cross-Cultural Adaptation

    1. Additional arguments for conceptualizing communication competence in terms of cognitive, affective, and operational components are offered by Barker, Barker, and Hauser (1988), Hammer (1989), Imahori and Lanigan (1989), and Kim (1991).

    6. Personal Communication

    1. Additional data indicating a positive association between host language competence and psychological/social adaptation are reported by Chance (1965/1972), Dorais (1987), Graves (1967), Kim (1976, 1977, 1978a, 1978b, 1978c, 1980, 1989, 1990), Price (1968), and Richmond (1967).

    2. For further empirical support for the role of motivation in cross-cultural adaptation, see Kantima (1982), Kim (1976, 1977, 1978b, 1980, 1989, 1990), and Maruyama and Kim (1997).

    7. Social Communication

    1. Discussions on the support functions of relational networks are also presented by Eckenrode and Gore (1981), Gore (1984), Gottlieb (1981), Hirsch (1981), Moos and Mitchell (1982), Pescosolido (1992), Pogrebin (1987), Takai (1991), Terry, Rawle, and Callan (1995), Vaz (1985), and Wellman (1992).

    2. Methods of investigating relational networks are elaborated further by Knoke and Kuklinski (1982), Marsden (1993), Mitchell (1994), Monge and Contractor (1988), Rogers and Kincaid (1981), Scott (1991), van derPoel (1993), Weimann (1983, 1989), and Yum (1988).

    3. Research findings linking host interpersonal contact/relationship to psychological adaptation are also reported by Hong (1976), Kapoor and Williams (1979), J. Kim, Lee, and Jeong (1982), Oehlkers (1991), Walker (1993), and Yang (1981), among others.

    4. Among other researchers who have provided evidence for a positive relationship between indicators of host (out-group) interpersonal involvement and psychological health are Hamers (1994) and Kamali (1987).

    5. Additional findings linking host (out-group) interpersonal ties and indicators of functional fitness (such as socioeconomic status/mobility) are reported by Kim (1976,1977,1978b, 1978c, 1979a, 1980,1989,1990), Kim, Lujan, and Dixon (1998a, 1998b), Oehlkers (1991), Searle and Ward (1990), and Zimmermann (1995).

    6. Other studies of Asian immigrants in the United States, including those conducted byj. Kim (1980), Kim (1976, 1977, 1978a, 1978b, 1979a, 1980, 1989,1990), and Mirowsky and Ross (1983), have also shown the same trend of diminishing involvement in coethnic relationships.

    7. For further elaboration on the centrality of relational ties, see Friedkin (1991) and Kim (1986, 1987).

    8. The correlation between the use of host mass media and other aspects of cross-cultural adaptation has been further observed by Chaffee and Mutz (1988), Dong and Tan (1996), Kim (1976, 1977, 1978b, 1979b, 1980, 1989, 1990), and Lam (1980).

    9. The essentially stereotypical nature of mass-media messages is discussed further by Chaffee and Mutz (1988), Haslett and Alexander (1988), and Lam (1980).

    10. Additional research data and anecdotal evidence for immigrants' reliance on ethnic ties for mental health and the problems associated with such reliance are offered by Chan and Lam (1987a), King (1984), Krause (1978), Mullen (1984), Sherman (1988), Silverman (1979), Snyder (1976), Valdéz (1979), and Yum (1983).

    11. I employ the term ethnic media broadly here to include what Constantakis-Valdés (1992) refers to as “immigrant media.” The role of ethnic media in providing new arrivals with information about the host environment is also noted by Hunter (1960), Jaret (1979), Jeffres and Hur (1981), Marzolf (1979), Park (1922), Subervi-Velez (1986), and Zubrzycki (1958).

    12. More research evidence for a negative association between the extent of ethnic communication and the development of host language competence is offered by the contributors to Ferguson and Heath's (1981) edited volume as well as by Mercer, Mead, and Mears (1979) and Robinson (1985).

    13. Similar patterns of relationships between ethnic/host communication and various other aspects of adaptation have been identified by Chang (1972), Kim (1976, 1977, 1980, 1990, 1991), Kim et al. (1998a, 1998b), Nagata (1969), Pedone (1980), Richmond (1967), Selltiz, Christ, Havel, and Cook (1963), Sewell and Davidsen (1961), Shim (1994), and Yum (1982).

    14. The inverse relationship between ethnic involvement and psychological and communication indicators of cross-cultural adaptation is also reported by Anderson and Christie (1978), J. Kim (1980), Kim (1976, 1977, 1978b, 1978c, 1980, 1989, 1990), Kim et al. (1998a, 1998b), Maruyama (1998), Maruyama and Kim (1997), Ryu (1978), Shah (1991), Subervi-Velez (1986), Walker (1993), and Yang (1988).

    15. Other researchers who have reported a positive association between ethnic media use and ethnicity and a negative association between ethnic media use and participation in host interpersonal and mass communication activities include J. Kim (1980) and Ryu (1978).

    16. Findings on the trend toward increasing self-sufficiency are also reported by Chang (1972), Jeffres and Hur (1981), Kim (1976, 1977, 1980, 1989, 1990), Nagata (1969), Richmond (1967), and Yum (1982).

    8. Environment

    1. Researchers who have documented derogatory and other discriminatory language behaviors directed toward out-groups include Allen (1983), Gadfields, Giles, Bourhis, and Tajfel (1979), Kirkland, Greenberg, and Pysczynski (1987), McConahay and Hough (1976), and van Dijk (1987).

    9. Predisposition

    1. The problem of cultural value conflict has been documented extensively by such researchers as Berry and Sam (1997), Church (1982), Dyal and Dyal (1981), Furnham and Bochner (1986), Goza (1987), Kemnitzer (1973), Lauver and Schram (1988), Ryan (1987), Vaz (1985), and Weinberg (1973).

    10. Intercultural Transformation

    1. Additional personality theorists whose conceptions of identity are dynamic and evolutionary include Allport (1955, 1960), Atwater (1983), Cypser and Cypser (1989), Graafsma, Bosma, Grotevant, and de Levita (1994), Slavin and Kriegman (1992), and Zurcher (1977).

    2. Other researchers who have found positive associations between psychological health and various personal, interpersonal, and mass communication factors include Cho (1982), Church (1982), Deutsch and Won (1963), Kim (1976, 1977, 1978b, 1978c, 1979a, 1980, 1989, 1990), Kim, Lujan, and Dixon (1998a, 1998b), Maruyama (1998), and Maruyama and Kim (1997).

    3. For additional research findings and theoretical discussions concerning the patterns of coping and successful resolution of value conflicts among immigrants and ethnic minorities, see Boekestijn (1988), Earlum (1980), Hutnik (1986), and Hutnik and Bhola (1994).

    4. Such individual stories and testimonials are found in volumes edited by Eddy (1996) and Glad (1990) as well as in the writings of Ainslie (1994), Coffee (1990), Copelman (1993), Davis (1990), Dublin (1993), Hansel (1993), Keene (1994), Miller (1988), Murphy-Shigematsu (1987), O'Halloran (1994), Parks (1992), Rodriguez (1981), and Sheehy (1987), among others.

    11. Research Considerations

    1. Longitudinal research methods are also discussed by Bailar (1989), Lehnen and Koch (1974), Lepkowski (1989), and Little and Su (1989).

    2. On the utilization of cross-sectional analysis to make indirect estimates of the patterns of change in adaptation variables, see also Kim (1976, 1977, 1978b, 1980, 1989, 1990) and Maruyama (1998).

    3. Other advocates of multimethod research include Brewer and Hunter (1989), Cahn and Hanford (1984), Fielding and Fielding (1986), Hall (1986), Jones (1979), and Strauss and Corbin (1990).

    4. Further arguments in support of the use of verbatim quotations in qualitative studies are made by the contributors to Ellis and Flaherty's (1992b) edited volume as well as by Altheide (1987), McCracken (1988), Miles and Huberman (1994), and Strauss and Corbin (1990).

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    About the Author

    Young Yun Kim was born and raised in Seoul, Korea. After receiving her B.A. degree from Seoul National University, she came to the United States in 1970 and completed her M.A. degree in 1972 at the University of Hawaii under the sponsorship of the East-West Center. She continued her graduate study at Northwestern University in Evanston, Illinois, where she received her Ph.D. degree in 1976. She began teaching at Governors State University in Illinois, and since 1988 she has been with the Department of Communication at the University of Oklahoma in Norman. Professor Kim teaches courses and directs doctoral theses in the area of intercultural, international, and interethnic/ interracial communication. Her research has been aimed primarily at explaining the role of communication in the cross-cultural adaptation processes of immigrants, sojourners, and native-born ethnic minorities. She has conducted original research among Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans in the United States, and her work has been published in such journals as Human Communication Research and International Journal of Intercultural Relations as well as in the Communication Yearbook. Professor Kim has authored or edited 10 books, including Interethnic Communication (1986), Current Research in Interethnic Communication (1988, with William B. Gudykunst), Theories in Intercultural Communication (1988, with William B. Gudykunst), Communication and Cross-Cultural Adaptation (1988), and Communicating With Strangers (1997, with William B. Gudykunst). She is an active member of the International Communication Association, the National Communication Association, the International Academy for Intercultural Research, and the International Association of Language and Social Psychology, and she serves on the editorial boards of Communication Research and International Journal of Intercultural Relations.


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