Barbie Culture


Mary F. Rogers

  • Citations
  • Add to My List
  • Text Size

  • Chapters
  • Front Matter
  • Back Matter
  • Subject Index
  • Core Cultural Icons

    SERIES EDITOR: George Ritzer, Professor of Sociology, University of Maryland – College Park

    Core Cultural Icons aims to combine theoretical and practical analysis. The series, edited by the author of The McDonaldization of Society, George Ritzer, focuses on key icons in contemporary consumer culture and analyzes them using the latest cultural theories. In this way, the series seeks to further our understanding of contemporary culture and to make theoretical issues more accessible to students who complain that theory is often too forbidding or daunting. Core Cultural Icons offers a route map for understanding contemporary culture and the leading cultural theories of today.


    View Copyright Page



    Don Eisman


    To all the people who participated in this research I owe an enormous debt. Without their stories and insights this study would have lacked life and vibrancy. While most of these research participants must remain unnamed as part of the agreement I made with them, the help of a few individuals need not remain anonymous, let alone confidential. Among them are Rae-Ellen Koenig and Jane Koenig of The Doll Express, Inc. in Stevens, Pennsylvania. Both agreed to share their experiences with me under busy circumstances when they were tired and ready for a long day to end. Similarly helpful was one of the coowners of Diamonds and Dolls.

    I thank Phillip Lott for sending me many clippings about Barbie. I am also indebted to Shawn Lang for downloading material about Barbie from the Internet. Similarly, I thank Christy Stillman for getting seven Barbie collectors online to participate in this research by sharing some of their experiences. I also thank Ira Cohen for his steadfast friendship and collegiality. His is always a receptive ear as well as a critical, insightful one. Then, too, I thank Gloria Mattingly for reading several chapters at a crucial juncture in this work. Her feedback not only encouraged me but also helped me clarify my thinking on several key matters. Christy Garrett steadily helped me in similar ways, even when her schedule barely allowed her to keep pace with her own projects and commitments. Her unflagging generosity, support, and intellectual companionship helped keep me going. I also appreciate the contributions of John Rogers, who took notes when I was nearly overwhelmed by the wealth of material on Barbie. John and I also had several conversations where his own thoughts pried open my consciousness in crucial ways. Above all, the pleasure of his company as my own energies were running low made all the difference in the world.

    I dedicate this book to Don Eisman whose contributions to this research are considerable, though mostly invisible. His technical assistance and witticisms were crucial from beginning to end, as were his patience, his skills at keeping a household running on an even keel, and his steadfastness in making a home with a prodigal researcher.

  • Appendix: Data for this Study

    The data for this study derive primarily from books, magazines, newspapers, and scholarly journals as well as field observations at a Barbie doll auction and a Barbie doll show. The most crucial data, however, come from the written statements about Barbie that a number of people sent to me. Equally crucial data derive from e-mail statements by and interviews of Barbie doll collectors.

    The single biggest set (N=87) of written statements comes from Marsden Middle School students. A friend of mine from undergraduate days teaches at Marsden and got permission from the school's principal to invite her social studies students to participate in the study. During class the students were asked to write about their experiences with and feelings toward Barbie. A few students (less than 10 per cent) chose, as they were informed they could, not to participate. Those who did write about their experiences provided diverse, colorful statements that often reflected intense feelings.

    The next biggest set of written statements came from a class of introductory sociology students at Midwest State University. Midwest State University is a state-funded comprehensive university. Like the Marsden students, the Midwest State students were invited by their sociology instructor (a friend and colleague of mine) to write during class about their experiences with and feelings toward Barbie. Twenty-nine students submitted statements.

    Another set of statements came from a nonrandom sample of faculty, librarians, staff, and administrative personnel at a state-funded comprehensive university in the southeastern United States. Twenty-four people (or 43 per cent) of the sample (N=56) responded to my written invitation to share their thoughts on Barbie. More than half (N=14) of those respondents were faculty members, nine of whom were women.

    Additional written statements care from five of the eight family members and friends whom I wrote in hopes that they, too, would share their experiences with and perceptions of Barbie. Four additional statements core from a nonrandom sample of ten parents of children in a Montessori preschool located in a small city in the southeastern United States.

    Cyberspatial data care to me through the auspices of Christy Stillman, a co-worker at the university where I teach. She invited the members of her Barbie collectors' group on Prodigy, an Internet access provider, to share their experiences and thoughts with me. Seven collectors did that. The other previously unpublished data on collectors derive from interviews with collectors that I conducted at a Barbie doll auction near Lancaster, Pennsylvania, in April 1997 and at a Barbie d011 show and sale in Philadelphia in June 1997. I interviewed a total of seven collectors, with the interviews ranging from about fifteen minutes to about one hour each.


    “All Dolled Up” (1994) The Economist330 (February 5): 66.
    “Alleged Barbie Doll Thief Denies Guilt” (1992) Los Angeles Times San Diego County Edition, 21 November: 8; Metro section.
    “Another Battle Over Barbie” (1997) Newsweek 19 May: 14.
    “Barbie's Birthday” (1980) The New Yorker, 26 May: 30.
    “It's Not the Doll, It's the Clothes” (1961) Business Week 16 December 16: 48–52.
    “The 1996 Out 100” (1997) Out, December/January: 95–104.
    Abraham, Kitty G. and EvelynLieberman (1985) “Should Barbie Go to Preschool?”, Young Children40 (2): 12–14.
    Adams, Alice E. (1994) Reproducing the Womb: Images of Childbirth in Science, Feminist Theory, and Literature. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
    Ang, Ien (1985) Watching Dallas: Soap Opera and the Melodramatic Imagination (trans. DellaCouling). London and New York: Methuen.
    Apter, Emily (1993) “Introduction”, in EmilyApter and WilliamPietz (eds), Fetishism As Cultural Discourse. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. pp. 1–9.
    Arend, Scott (1995) “Beautiful Designs by Ivan Burton”, Barbie Bazaar7 (6): 30–3.
    Arend, Scott (1994) “Review ofMondo Barbie”, Barbie Bazaar6 (2): 51.
    Augustyniak, J. Michael (1996a) “Hispanic Barbie and Ken Dolls”, Barbie Bazaar8 (1): 40–3.
    Augustyniak, J. Michael (1996b) “Totally Teresa”, Barbie Bazaar8 (2): 40–2.
    Bailey, Peter (1990) “Parasexuality and Glamour: The Victorian Barmaid as Cultural Prototype”, Gender & History2 (2): 148–72.
    Balsamo, Anne (1995) “Forms of Technological Embodiment: Reading the Body in Contemporary Culture”, in MikeFeatherstone and RogerBurrows (eds), Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment. London: Sage Publications. pp. 215–37.
    Balsamo, Anne (1996) Technologies of the Gendered Body: Reading Cyborg Women. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Barenholtz, Bernard and InezMcClintock (1990) American Antique Toys, 1830–1900. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc.
    Barry, Dave (1994) “Blading Barbie Sparks Up Hell on Wheels”, Colorado Springs Gazette Telegraph 17 July.
    Barthes, Roland (1990) The Fashion System (trans. MatthewWard and RichardHoward) Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Bartky, Sandra Lee (1991) Feminity and Domination: Studies in the Phenomenology of Oppression. New York: Routledge.
    Baudrillard, Jean (1981) For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign (trans. CharlesLevin) St Louis, MO: Telos Press.
    Beauchamp, Marc (1988) “Barbie at 30”, Forbes142 (11): 248–9.
    Beaumont, Jeanne (1993) “Playing with Barbie”, in LucindaEbersole and RichardPeabody (eds), Mondo Barbie. New York: St Martin's. pp. 32–3.
    Bego, Mark (1992) Madonna: Blond Ambition. New York: Harmony Books.
    Belk, Russell W. (1995) Collecting in a Consumer Society. London and New York: Routledge.
    Bell, Quentin (1978) On Human Finery,
    2nd edn.
    New York: Schocken Books.
    Berger, Joe (1997) “Meet the Amazing Living Doll! — ‘I've Spent Over $100G Turning Myself into Barbie!’”Weekly World News 20 May: 14–15.
    Berger, Peter L. and ThomasLuckmann (1967) The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise on the Sociology of Knowledge. New York: Anchor Books.
    Berrett, Jesse (1996) “The Sex Revolts: Reading Gender and Identity in Mass Culture”, Radical History Review66 (Fall): 210–19.
    BillyBoy (1987) Barbie: Her Life & Times. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.
    Blitman, Joe (1996/7) “Forbidden Photos”, Miller's Magazine3 (4): 80–4.
    Bordo, Susan (1993) Unbearable Weight: Feminism, Western Culture, and the Body. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Breckinridge, Carol A., ArjunAppadurai, and Serena ShankenSkwersky (1989) “Editors' Comment: On Toying with Terror”, Public Culture2 (1): i-iii.
    Brown, Helen Gurley (1963) Sex and the Single Girl. New York: Avon Books (orig. 1962).
    Brown, Rebecca (1993) “Barbie Comes Out”, in LucindaEbersole and RichardPeabody (eds), Mondo Barbie. New York: St Martin's. pp. 152–65.
    Brownell, Kelly D. and Melissa A.Napolitano (1995) “Distorting Reality for Children: Body Size Proportions of Barbie and Ken Dolls”, International Journal of Eating Disorders18 (3): 295–98.;2-R
    Brumberg, Joan Jacobs (1997) The Body Project: An Intimate History of American Girls. New York: Random House.
    Caputi, Jane (1983) “One Size Does Not Fit All: Being Beautiful Thin and Female in America”, in Christopher D.Geist and JackNachbar (eds), The Popular Culture Reader,
    3rd edn.
    Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press. pp. 186–204.
    Carlsson-Paige, Nancy and Diane E.Levin (1990) Who's Calling the Shots? How to Repond Effectively to Children's Fascination with War Play and War Toys. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers.
    Caviale, Karen (1994) “A Letter from the Editor”, Barbie Bazaar6 (2): 8.
    Caviale, Karen (1997) “A Letter from the Editor”, Barbie Bazaar9 (4): 26.
    Clark, Cindy Dell (1995) Flights of Fancy, Leaps of Faith: Children's Myths in Contemporary America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Clark, Gary A. (1997) “Monday Memo”, St Louis Post-Dispatch 6 January 4; Business Section.
    Cline, Sally (1990) Just Desserts: Women and Food. London: Andre Deutsch Ltd.
    Cole, Patrick E. (1989) “Mattel Is Putting Its Dollhouse in Order”, Business Week3121 (28 August): 66–7.
    Coleman, Dorothy S., ElizabethA., and EvelynJ. (1968) The Collector's Encyclopedia of Dolls. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc.
    Collins, Patricia Hill (1991) Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment. New York: Routledge.
    Connell, R.W. (1987) Gender and Power. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.
    Corbett, Christopher (1994) “Stranger in a Strange Orlando”, Washington Post 31 August: C9.
    Corbett, Susan M. (1994) “Teaching in the Twilight Zone — A Child-Sensitive Approach to Politically Incorrect Activities”, Young Children49 (4): 54–8.
    Cordes, Helen (1992) “What a Doll! Barbie: Materialistic Bimbo or Feminist Trailblazer?”, Utne Reader50 (Marchi April): 46, 50.
    Cox, Don Richard (1977) “Barbie and Her Playmates”, Journal of Popular Culture11 (2): 303–7.
    Danet, Brenda and TamarKatriel (1989) “No Two Alike: Play and Aesthetics in Collecting”, Play & Culture2 (3): 253–77.
    Davis, Fred (1992) Fashion, Culture, and Identity. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Davis, Kathy (1995) Reshaping the Female Body: The Dilemma of Cosmetic Surgery. New York: Routledge.
    Dickey, Susan J. (1991) ‘“We Girls Can Do Anything — Right, Barbie!’: A Survey of Barbie Doll Fashions”, in Patricia A.Cunningham and Susan VosoLab (eds), Dress and Popular Culture. Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press. pp. 19–30.
    Dixon, Bob (1990) Playing Them False: A Study of Children's Toys, Games and Puzzles. Stoke-on-Trent, UK: Trentham Books.
    duCille, Ann (1996) Skin Trade. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    duCille, Ann (1994) “Dyes and Dolls: Multicultural Barbie and the Merchandising of Difference”, differences6 (1): 46–68.
    Dull, Diana and CandaceWest (1991) “Accounting for Cosmetic Surgery: The Accomplishment of Gender”, Social Problems38 (1): 54–70.
    Eder, Donna with Catherine Colleen Evans and Stephen Parker (1995) School Talk: Gender and Adolescent Culture. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Ellis-Simons, Pamela (1985) “At 25, Barbie Decides to Change Her Image and Dress for Success”, Marketing and Media Decisions 20 (Spring, special issue): 79–83.
    Erikson, Kai T. (1976) Everything in Its Path: Destruction of Community in the Buffalo Creek Flood. New York: Simon and Schuster.
    Falk, Pasi (1994) The Consuming Body. London: Sage Publications.
    Featherstone, Mike (1991) “The Body in Consumer Culture”, in MikeFeatherstone, MikeHepworth, and Bryan S.Turner (eds), The Body: Social Process and Cultural Theory. London: Sage Publications. pp. 170–96.
    Featherstone, Mike and RogerBurrows (1995) “Cultures of Technological Embodiment: An Introduction”, in MikeFeatherstone and RogerBurrows (eds), Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment. London: Sage Publications. pp. 1–19.
    Fennick, Janine (1996) The Collectible Barbie Doll: An Illustrated Guide to Her Dreamy World. Philadelphia: Courage Books.
    Filipovic, Ziata (1994) Zlata's Diary: A Child's Life in Sarajevo (trans. ChristinaPribichevich-Zoric). New York: Penguin Books.
    Fine, Michelle (1992) Disruptive Voices: The Possibilities of Feminist Research. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    Firat, A. Fuat (1994) “Gender and Consumption: Transcending the Feminine?”, in Janeen ArnoldCosta (ed.), Gender Issues and Consumer Behavior. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 205–28.
    Fischer-Mirkin, Toby (1995) Dress Code: Understanding the Hidden Meanings of Women's Clothes. New York: Clarkson Potter Publishers.
    Fitzgerald, Kate (1996) “Barbie: Diana Troup”, Advertising Age67 (26): S32.
    Fitzgerald, Sean M. (1997) “Barbie Talks Back”, The Humanist57 (4): 29–30.
    Foek, Anton (1997a) “Sweatshop Barbie: Exploitation of Third World Labor”, The Humanist57 (1): 9–13.
    Foek, Anton (1997b) “A Reply to Mattel”, The Humanist57 (4): 30–1.
    Foerder, Michelle (1997) Who's the Boss?Racine, WI: Golden Books Publishing Company.
    Formanek-Brunell, Miriam (1992) “Sugar and Spite: The Politics of Doll Play in Nineteenth-Century America”, in ElliottWest and PaulaPetrik (eds), Small Worlds: Children & Adolescents in America, 1850–1950. Lawrence: University Press of Kansas. pp. 107–24.
    Formanek-Brunell, Miriam (1993) Made to Play House: Dolls and the Commercialization of American Girlhood, 1830–1930. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    Fraad, Harriet (1994) “Anorexia As Crisis Embodied: A Marxist-Feminist Analysis of the Household”, in HarrietFraad, StephenResnick, and RichardWolff (eds), Bringing It All Back Home: Class, Gender and Power in the Modern Household. London: Pluto Press. pp. 112–31.
    Friedan, Betty (1963) The Feminine Mystique. New York: W.W. Norton.
    Fuentes, Annette and BarbaraEhrenreich (1984) Women in the Global Factory. Boston, MA: South End Press
    Fulkerson, Jennifer (1995) “Don'! Play with These Barbie Dolls”, American Demographics17 (5): 17–18.
    Gardner, Bob (1994) “Carol Spencer's Holiday Barbie Doll”, Barbie Bazaar6 (6): 48–9.
    Gellene, Denise (1989) “After 30 Years, Barbie Has More Clothes, Friends and Fans Than Ever”, Los Angeles Times 19 January: 1, Part 4.
    Gergen, Kenneth J. (1991) The Saturated Self: Dilemmas of Identity in Contemporary Life. New York: Basic Books.
    Giambanco, Jacqueline (1987) “When Toys Mean Business”, Working Woman (May): 133–4, 136.
    Gibbs, Nancy R. (1988) “What Do You Want from Santa?”, Time132 (24): 79–80.
    Goffman, Erving (1959) The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
    Goffman, Erving (1967) Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
    Goldsen, Rose K. (1976) “Toys and the Imagination of Children”, Human Behavior5 (12): 16–23.
    Goodman, Marcene (1996) “Culture, Cohort, and Cosmetic Surgery”, Journal of Women & Aging8 (2): 55–73.
    Grayson, Richard (1993) “Twelve-Step Barbie”, in LucindaEbersole and RichardPeabody (eds), Mondo Barbie. New York: St Martin's Press. pp. 48–54.
    de Grazia, Victoria (1996) “Introduction”, in Victoriade Grazia with EllenFurlough (eds), The Sex of Things: Gender and Consumption in Historical Perspective. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 1–10.
    Greenwald, John (1996) “Barbie Boots Up”, Time148 (22): 48–50.
    Griffin, Christine (1997) “Troubled Teens: Managing Disorders of Transition and Consumption”, Feminist Review55 (Spring): 4–21.
    Groves, David (1994) “A Doll's Life”, LosAngeles Times (December 15): 8.
    Haddock, Vicki (1996) “Fans Go Wild for ‘Anti-Barbie’”, San Francisco Examiner (December 26): A14.
    Handler, Ruth, with JacquelineShannon (1994) Dream Doll: The Ruth Handler Story. Stamford, CT: Longmeadow Press.
    Haraway, Donna (1990) “A Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism in the 1980s”, in LindaNicholson (ed.), Feminism/Postmodernism. New York: Routledge. pp. 190–233.
    Hayes, John R. (1996) “Rip Van Hasbro”, Forbes158 (6): 66, 70, 72.
    Hegeman, Susan (1991) “Shopping for Identities: ‘A Nation of Nations’ and the Weak Ethnicity of Objects”, Public Culture3 (2): 71–92.
    Herbert, Richard (1997) “Barbie Price Increases Suggest Investment Potential”, Barbie Bazaar9 (2): 97–8.
    Hesse-Biber, Sharlene (1996) Am I Thin Enough Yet? The Cult of Thinness and the Commercialization of Identity. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Hirschman, Elizabeth C. (1992) “The Consciousness of Addiction: Toward a General Theory of Compulsive Consumption”, Journal of Consumer Research 19 (September): 155–79.
    Hite, Cynthia Fraser and RobertHite (1995) “Reliance on Brand by Young Children”, Journal of the Market Research Society37 (2): 185–92.
    Hoffmann, Frank W. and William G.Bailey (1994) Fashion & Merchandising Fads. New York: Harrington Park Press.
    Hume, Ivor Noel (1974) All the Best Rubbish. New York: Harper & Row.
    Hunt, James M, Jerome B.Kerman, and Deborah J.Mitchell (1996) “Materialism as Social Cognition: People, Possessions, and Perception”, Journal of Consumer Psychology5 (1): 65–83.
    Izod, John (1993) “Madonna as Trickster”, in FranLloyd (ed.), Deconstructing Madonna. London: B.T. Batsford. pp. 49–59.
    Jones, Patti (1995) “Viva La Barbie”, Barbie Bazaar7 (6): 63–7.
    K., Mari (1991) “Japanese Barbie Dolls”, in JoannFaungJeanLee (ed.), Asian American Experiences in the United States: Oral Histories of First to Fourth Generation Americans from China, the Phillipines, Japan, India, the Pacific Islands, Vietnam and Cambodia. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc. pp. 19–23.
    Kantrowitz, Barbara (1989) “Hot Date: Barbie and G.!. Joe”, NewsweekCXIII (8): 59.
    Kellner, Douglas (1994) “Madonna, Fashion, and Identity”, in ShariBenstock and SuzanneFerriss (eds), On Fashion. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. pp. 159–82.
    Kellner, Douglas (1995) Media Culture: Cultural Studies, Identity and Politics between the Modern and the Postmodern. London: Routledge.
    King, Jennifer (1990) “Eco-Barbie: Barbie's Latest Accessory Is a Social Conscience”, Utne Reader39 (May/June): 112.
    King, Norman (1991) Madonna: The Book. New York: William Morrow and Company.
    Kingwell, Mark (1996) Dreams of Millennium: Report from a Culture on the Brink. Boston, MA: Faber and Faber.
    Kline, Stephen (1993) Out of the Garden: Toys, TV, and Children's Culture in the Age of Marketing. London: Verso.
    Kroeber, Karl (1988) Romantic Fantasy and Science Fiction. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
    de Lauretis, Teresa (1987) Technologies of Gender: Essays on Theory, Film, and Fiction. Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press.
    Laver, James (1995) Costume and Fashion: A Concise History. London: Thames and Hudson.
    Leavy, Jane (1979) “Is There a Barbie Doll in Your Past?”, Ms. VIII (3): 102.
    Lemert, Charles (1997) Postmodernism Is Not What You Think. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishers.
    Leo, John (1992) “The Indignation of Barbie”, U.S. News & World Report113 (14): 25.
    Levy, Richard C. and Ronald O.Weingartner (1990) Inside Santa's Workshop. New York: Henry Holt and Company.
    Long, Mary M. and Leon G.Schiffman (1997) “Swatch Fever: An Allegory for Understanding the Paradox of Collecting”, Psychology & Marketing14 (5): 495–509.;2-3
    Lord, M.G. (1994) Forever Barbie: The Unauthorized Biography of a Real Doll. New York: Avon Books.
    Lupton, Cookie (1993) “Barbie Meets the Scariest Fatso Yet”, in LucindaEbersole and RichardPeabody (eds), Mondo Barbie. New York: St Martin's. p.72.
    Lurie, Alison (1983) The Language of Clothes. New York: Vintage Books.
    Mandeville, A. Glenn (1996) “Foreign Faces of Barbie”, Barbie Bazaar8 (1): 32–5.
    Marcuse, Herbert (1974) Eros and Civilization. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.
    Marty, Martin E. (1981) “Baby in Toyland”, Christian Century98 (42): 1351.
    Marx, Karl (1964) Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts, in T.B.Bottomore (ed. and trans.), Karl Marx: Early Writings. New York: McGraw-Hill.
    Masciola, Carol (1992a) “Doll Heist: Arsons Fail to Hide Theft of San Diego Man's $1-Million Collection of Barbies”, Los Angeles Times 14 October: A9.
    Masciola, Carol (1992b) “Goodbye, Dollies as Collector's Treasure Is Lost”, Los Angeles Times, San Diego County Edition, 14 October: 1, Metro section.
    McCaskill, Molly (n.d.) “A Feminist Perspective on the Barbie Doll”, unpublished paper, submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Social Theory with Professor Keith Doubt, Truman State University, Kirksville, MO.
    McCorkle, Jill (1994) “Introduction”, in CraigYoe (ed.), The Art of Barbie. New York: Workman Publishing.
    McDowell, Colin (1992) Dressed to Kill: Sex, Power & Clothes. London: Hutchinson.
    Meadow, Rosalyn M. and LillieWeiss (1992) Women's Conflicts about Eating and Sexuality: The Relationship Between Food and Sex. New York: Harrington Park Press.
    Miller, Cyndee (1996) “New Line of Barbie Dolls Targets Big, Rich Kids”, Marketing News30 (13): 6.
    Millman, Marcia (1980) Such a Pretty Face: Being Fat in America. New York: W.W. Norton & Company.
    Millum, Trevor (1975) Images of Woman: Advertising in Women's Magazines. Totowa, NJ: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Mitchell, Claudia and JacquelineReid-Walsh (1995) “And I Want to Thank You Barbie: Barbie as a Site for Cultural Interrogation”, Review of Education/Pedagogy/Cultural Studies17 (2): 143–55.
    Modleski, Tania (1982) Loving with a Vengeance: Mass-Produced Fantasies for Women. Hamden, CT: Archon Books.
    Molnar, Alex (1996) Giving Kids the Business: The Commercialization of America's Schools. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
    Morgenson, Gretchen (1991) “Barbie Does Budapest”, Forbes147 (1): 66, 68–9.
    Motz, Marilyn Ferris (1983) ‘“I Want to Be a Barbie Doll When I Grow Up’: The Cultural Significance of the Barbie Doll”, in Christopher D.Geist and JackNachbar (eds), The Popular Culture Reader,
    3rd edn.
    Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green University Popular Press. pp. 122–36.
    Murray, Sarah E. (1994) “Dragon Ladies, Draggin' Men: Some Reflections on Gender, Drag and Homosexual Communities”, Public Culture6 (2): 343–63.
    Norton, Kevin I., TimothyS. aids, ScottOlive, and StephenDank (1996) “Ken and Barbie at Life Size”, Sex Roles34 (3/4): 287–94.
    Nygren, Edward J. (1995) In Celebration of Collecting: Selected Works from the Collections of Friends of the Huntington. San Marino, CA: The Huntington Library.
    O'Neal, Sean (1996) Elvis Inc. — The Fall and Rise of the Presley Empire. Rocklin, CA: Prima Publishing.
    O'Sickey, Ingeborg Majer (1994) “Barbie Magazine and the Aesthetic Commodification of Girls' Bodies”, in ShariBenstock and SuzanneFerriss (eds), On Fashion. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. pp. 21–40.
    Owen, David (1986) “Where Toys Core From”, The Atlantic258 (4): 64–78.
    Owens, Beth (1996/7) “135 Things for Barbie Collectors to Be Happy About”, Miller's3 (4): 22–3.
    Paley, Vivian Gussin (1984) Boys and Girls: Superheroes in the Doll Corner. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Pearce, Susan M. (1995) On Collecting: An Investigation into Collecting in the European Tradition. London and New York: Routledge.
    Peiss, Kathy (1996) “Making Up, Making Over: Cosmetics, Consumer Culture, and Women's Identity”, in Victoriade Grazia with EllenFurlough (eds), The Sex of Things: Gender and Consumption in Historical Perspective. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 311–36.
    Pitz, Marylynne (1996) “Mutilation of Doll Called Satanic”, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette 24 September: B6.
    Press, Eyal (1996) “Barbie's Betrayal: The Toy Industry's Broken Workers”, The Nation263 (22): 10–12, 14, 16.
    Pruzinsky, Thomas (1996) “Cosmetic Plastic Surgery and Body Image: Critical Factors in Patient Assessment”, in J. KevinThompson (ed.), Body Image, Eating Disorders, and Obesity: An Integrative Guide for Assessment and Treatment. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 109–27.
    Radway, Janice (1984) Reading the Romance: Women, Patriarchy, and Popular Literature. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
    Rana, Margo (1996) Barbie Exclusives: Identification & Values. Paducah, KY: Collector Books.
    Rana, Margo (1997) Barbie Exclusively for Timeless Creations, 1986–1996. Grantsville, MD: Hobby House Press.
    Rand, Erica (1995) Barbie's Queer Accessories. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Reda, Susan (1995) “Barbie & Board Games”, Stores77 (2): 34–6.
    Rettenmund, Matthew (1995) Encyclopedia Madonnica. New York: St Martin's Press.
    Riviere, Joan (1986) “Womanliness as a Masquerade”, in VictorBurgin, JamesDonald and CoraKaplan (eds), Formations of Fantasy. London and New York: Methuen (orig. 1929; International Journal of Psychoanalysis). pp. 35–44.
    Roach, Joseph (1995) “Bodies of Doctrine: Headshots, Jane Austen, and the Black Indians of Mardi Gras”, in Susan LeighFoster (ed.), Choreographing History. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. pp. 149–61.
    Robb, Inez (1959) “How to Stay Married”, Vogue 1 March: 150–51, 171.
    Robertson, Pamela (1996) Guilty Pleasures: Feminist Camp from Mae West to Madonna. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
    Robins, Kevin (1995) “Cyberspace and the World We Live In”, in MikeFeatherstone and RogerBurrows (eds), Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment. London: Sage Publications. pp. 135–55.
    Rojek, Chris (1994) Ways of Escape: Modern Transformations in Leisure and Travel. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
    Rojek, Chris (1995) Decentring Leisure: Rethinking Leisure Theory. London: Sage Publications.
    Rupp, Rebecca Ann (1996) Treasury of Barbie Doll Accessories, 1961–1995. Grantsville, MD: Hobby House Press.
    Ruppert, Joan Tortorici (1994) “Birmingham: A First-Timer's Diary”, Barbie Bazaar6 (6): 63–7.
    Sarasohn-Kahn, Jane (1996) Contemporary Barbie: Barbie Dolls 1980 and Beyond. Dubuque, IA: Antique Trader Books.
    Shouten, John W. (1991) “Selves in Transition: Symbolic Consumption in Personal Rites of Passage and Identity Reconstruction”, Journal of Consumer Research 17 (March): 412–25.
    Shroeder, Ken (1992) “Barbie Doesn't Add Up”, Education Digest58 (4): 72–4.
    Shroeder, Ralph (1994) “Cyberculture, Cyborg Post-Modernism and the Sociology of Virtual Reality Technologies: Surfing the Soul in the Information Age”, Futures: The Journal of Forecasting, Planning and Policy26 (5): 519–28.
    Shudson, Michael (1989) “How Culture Works: Perspectives from Media Studies on the Efficacy of Symbols”, Theory and Society18 (2): 153–80.
    Shudson, Michael (1997) “Paper Tigers: A Sociologist Follows Cultural Studies into the Wilderness”, Lingua Franca7 (6): 49–56.
    Schulz, Margie (1994) “Just Crazy about Critters”, Barbie Bazaar6 (3): 56–8, 68.
    Schwarz, Richard (1994) “Thoughts of a Barbie Husband”, Barbie Bazaar6 (3): 26.
    Sciolino, Elaine (1997) “The Chanel Under the Chador”, The New York Times Magazine 4 May: 46–51.
    Seligman, Jean with MarkKirchmeier (1983) “Barbie at 24: A Curse — or Blessing?”NewsweekCII (11: 12 September: 10–11.
    Shands, Kerstin W. (1996) “Review of Reshaping the Female Body: The Dilemma of Cosmetic Surgery by Kathy Davis”, Sociological Inquiry66 (3): 379–82.
    Shapiro, Walter (1997) “Wheelchair Barbie Still Lives in Malibu Dreamworld”, USA Today 23 May: 2A.
    Shibano, Keiko Kimura (1994) Barbie in Japan. Kenosha, WI: Murat Caviale Inc.
    Silverman, Kaja (1994) “Fragments of a Fashionable Discourse”, in ShariBenstock and SuzanneFerriss (eds), On Fashion. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. pp. 183–96.
    Silverstein, Brett and DeborahPerlick (1995) The Cost of Competence: Why Inequality Causes Depression, Eating Disorders, and Illness in Women. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Smith, Dorothy E. (1990) Texts, Facts, and Femininity: Exploring the Relations of Ruling. London and New York: Routledge.
    Solomon-Godeau (1996) “The Other Side of Venus: The Visual Economy of Feminine Display”, in Victoriade Grazia with EllenFurlough (eds), The Sex of Things: Gender and Consumption in Historical Perspective. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. pp. 113–50.
    Spayde, Jon (1997) “A Way Out of Wonderland: Is the Real Life Possible Anymore?”, Utne Reader July-August: 48–54.
    Spitzack, Carole (1990) Confessing Excess: Women and the Politics of Body Reduction. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
    Springer, Claudia (1996) Electronic Eros: Bodies and Desire in the Postindustrial Age. Austin: University of Texas Press.
    Stacey, Jackie (1995) Star Gazing: Hollywood Cinema and Female Spectatorship. London and New York: Routledge.
    Steele, Valerie (1996) Fetish: Fashion, Sex and Power. New York: Oxford University Press.
    Stem, Barbara and Morris B.Holbrook (1994) “Gender and Genre in the Interpretation of Advertising Text”, in Janeen ArnoldCosta (ed.), Gender Issues and Consumer Behavior. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. pp. 11–41.
    Stem, Sydney Ladensohn and TedSchoenhaus (1990) Toyland: The High-Stakes Game of the Toy Industry. Chicago: Contemporary Books.
    Stratton, Jon (1996) The Desirable Body: Cultural Fetishism and the Erotics of Consumption. New York: Manchester University Press/St Martin's Press.
    Sturgill, Barry (1996a) “Bogue's Vogues”, Barbie Bazaar8 (1): 47–51.
    Sturgill, Barry (1996b) “Barbie Takes the High Road: Along the Information Superhighway at Seattle's Cyberventon ‘95”, Barbie Bazaar8 (2): 44–6.
    Sturgill, Barry (1997) “Love That Bob”, Barbie Bazaar9 (2): 30–3.
    Sutton-Smith, Brian (1986) Toys As Culture. New York: Gardner Press, Inc.
    Synnott, Anthony (1993) The Body Social: Symbolism, Self and Society. London: Routledge.
    Thompson, Craig J. and Diana L.Haytko (1997) “Speaking of Fashion: Consumers’ Uses of Fashion Discourses and the Appropriation of Countervailing Cultural Meanings”, Journal of Consumer Research, 24: 15–42.
    Thompson, J. Kevin (1990) Body Image Disturbance: Assessment and Treatment. New York: Pergamon Press.
    Toy Manufacturers of America (1994) Toy Industry Fact Book 1993/1994. New York: Toy Manufacturers of America.
    Traub, Valerie (1991) “The Ambiguities of ‘Lesbian’ Viewing Pleasure: The (Dis)Articulations of Black Widow”, in JuliaEpstein and KristinaStraub (eds), Body Guards: The Cultural Politics of Gender Ambiguity. New York: Routledge. pp. 305–28.
    Turner, Kay (1993) I Dream of Madonna: Women's Dreams of the Goddess of Pop. San Francisco: Collins Publishers.
    Vazquez, Carmen (1997) “Spirit and Passion”, in SusanRaffo (ed.), Queerly Classed. Boston, MA: South End Press. pp. 121–34.
    Von Boehn, Max (1966) Dolls and Puppets (trans. JosephineNicoll). New York: Cooper Square Publishers, Inc.
    Walcher, Ann (1995) “Skip the Scotch Tape and Avoid Shopping Snafus Too!”, Barbie Bazaar7 (6): 22–3.
    Walcher, Ann (1996) “Savvy Shopping Tips, Collector Cravings, & More”, Barbie Bazaar8 (1): 22–3.
    Walcher, Ann (1997) “The Need to Know: A Guide for New Collectors & New Doll Commentary”, Barbie Bazaar9 (1): 58.
    Walkerdine, Valerie (1990) Schoolgirl Fictions. London and New York: Verso.
    Washburn, Jim (1994) “The Man Who Would Be Ken”, Los Angeles Times 2 August: 1; Life & Style Section.
    Wessel, Lydia (1997) “Barbie Is Alive and Living in My House”, Barbie Bazaar9 (1): 30.
    West, Elliott (1996) Growing Up in Twentieth-Century America: A History and Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
    White, Edmund (1989) “Billy Boy in Paris: The Jewelry Designer's Crush on Shiaparelli — and Barbie”, Architectural Digest September: 94, 98, 100.
    White, Gretchen (1966) European and American Dolls and Their Marks and Patents. London: B.T. Batsford.
    Whitley, M.T. (1929) “Children's Interest in Collecting”, Journal of Educational Psychology20 (4): 249–61.
    Williams, Patricia J. (1995) The Rooster's Egg. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Willis, Susan (1991) A Primer for Daily Life. London: Routledge.
    Wilson, Elizabeth (1987) Adorned in Dreams: Fashion and Modernity. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    Wilson, Robert Rawdon (1995) “Cyber(body)parts: Prosthetic Consciousness”, in MikeFeatherstone and RogerBurrows (eds), Cyberspace/Cyberbodies/Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment. London: Sage Publications. pp. 239–59.
    Wilson, William Julius (1978) The Declining Significance of Race: Blacks and Changing American Institutions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
    Witty, Paul A. and Harvey C.Lehman (1930) “Further Studies of Children's Interest in Collecting”, Journal of Educational Psychology21 (2): 112–27.
    Wolf, Naomi (1992) The Beauty Myth: How Images of Beauty Are Used Against Women. New York: Anchor Books.
    Young, Iris Marion (1994) “Women Recovering Our Clothes”, in ShariBenstock and SuzanneFerriss (eds), On Fashion. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. pp. 197–210.
    Zimmerman, Bonnie (1991) “Seeing, Reading, Knowing: The Lesbian Appropriation of Literature”, in Joan E.Hartman and EllenMesser-Davidow (eds), (En)Gendering Knowledge: Feminists in Academe. Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press. pp. 92–7.
    Zimmerman, Jill S. (1997) “An Image to Heal”, The Humanist57 (1): 20–5.

    • Loading...
Back to Top

Copy and paste the following HTML into your website