Autism and Early Years Practice
Publication Year: 2010
Praise for the First Edition
“A remarkable reference resource. It is, without a doubt, the most absorbing and easily absorbed book we have seen, setting out the most comprehensive survey of the history, definitions, needs of carers and sufferers, issues of diagnosis, and much, much more.” - Nurturing Potential
This new edition of the leading book in autism and early years practice continues to provide excellent guidance for all early childhood students and practitioners on how to work with young children who have autism, or who appear on the autistic spectrum.
Kate Wall's wise words will resonate with all, as she sets out clear and realistic suggestions for ways to include young children with autism in mainstream settings, supporting her advice with case studies based on her own ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Chapter 1: Definitions of Autism, Common Features and Relevant Legislation
- Developments in Special Needs
- Developments in Early Years Provision
- Legislation and Guidance
- Timeline of Significant Legislation, Reports and Guidance since 2000
- Chapter 2: Families of Children with Autism
- Children and Families
- Families of Children with Special Needs
- Families of Children with Autism
- Parents of Children with Autism
- Siblings of Children with Autism
- Issues for Practitioners
- Chapter 3: Issues of Diagnosis and Assessment
- Why Diagnose?
- Delays in the Diagnostic Process
- Difficulties with Diagnoses
- Who Diagnoses?
- Components of a Diagnostic Assessment
- Diagnostic Instruments
- Components of Diagnosis
- After the Diagnosis
- Statutory Assessment
- Chapter 4: Understanding the World of the Child with Autism
- Key Areas of Difficulty
- Social Interaction
- Social Communication
- Other Difficulties
- Sensory Difficulties
- Chapter 5: Programmes of Intervention
- Early Intervention
- Specific Programmes
- Choosing a Programme of Intervention
- Common Features of Effective Programmes of Intervention
- Contact Details for Specific Programmes
- Chapter 6: Providing for Young Children with Autism
- Key Areas of Difficulty
- Good Practice for Supporting Children with Autism
- Early Intervention
- Devising Appropriate Support
- Adaptations to the Learning Environment
- Strategies for Developing Social Interaction
- Strategies for Developing Social Communication
- Strategies for Developing Imaginative Skills
- The Importance of Developing Play Skills
- Strategies for Dealing with Obsessive, Repetitive and Difficult Behaviours
- Linking with the Early Years Foundation Stage and the National Curriculum
- Individual Education Plans
- Chapter 7: Mainstream or Special? Issues of Inclusion
- Historical Developments in Inclusive Education
- Definitions of Inclusion
- Current Provision for Children with Autism
- Issues of Inclusion
- Chapter 8: Key Issues and Suggestions for the Future
- Key Issues
- Suggestions for the Future
© Kate Wall 2004, 2010
First edition published 2004
Reprinted 2006, 2008
Second edition published 2010
Apart from any fair dealing for the purposes of research or private study, or criticism or review, as permitted under the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act, 1988, this publication may be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, or by any means, only with the prior permission in writing of the publishers, or in the case of reprographic reproduction, in accordance with the terms of licences issued by the Copyright Licensing Agency. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside those terms should be sent to the publishers.
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In the five years since the first edition of Kate Wall's Autism and Early Years Practice: A Guide for Early Years Professionals, Teachers and Parents, there have been many further developments in the field of Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) and Kate has once again provided a scholarly and academically rigorous text which includes research information and practical knowledge, rooted in her own extensive experience. That first edition of Kate's book was not only welcomed and applauded by practitioners it received warm recognition by fellow academics and reviewers.
As Kate argues, the field of ECEC is one in which practitioners are highly committed, dedicated and willing to learn. Generally, they aim to do their very best for the children with whom they work. Young children whose learning needs may demand more of staff are hopefully benefiting from better levels of training, especially from reading and reflecting on books such as this and Kate's earlier publications.
As I pointed out in the Foreword to the first edition, it is in their earliest years that children usually begin to gain important knowledge about how other people and their worlds ‘work’. For example, by around 18 months old, most children start to comprehend that those with whom they share their lives, both adults and other children, have different minds from their own, different likes and dislikes, different desires. Along with that comes the ability to understand others' emotions, feelings, meanings and imaginative play. For children with autism such understandings are far more difficult to grasp, which makes family and ECEC group life a greater challenge. As one wonderful parent explained to me many years ago, ‘It's like setting off for a holiday in Spain but the plane lands in Switzerland. You've mugged up on the wrong language, among other things, but you still have a wonderful time and visit some beautiful places’. Parents of young children with autism will have experienced fewer ‘rewards’, such as mutual smiles and protoconversations (early singsong ‘chats’) with their babies. As [Page viii]a result, they are likely to welcome proficient, discerning early years practitioners who can share their responsibilities and help them see the rewards that their children do offer.
Autism and Early Years Practice is already established as an important book for both trainees and existing staff in the ECEC field, whatever their professional backgrounds and titles. As a role model, Kate always demonstrates how to be an extended professional – those professionals who are committed, compassionate, reflective and informed workers, who strive constantly for greater awareness of children, parents, policy and of themselves, through observation, theory, research and practice. What is particularly compelling about such professionals is their strong desire to share their own learning with others in the field, in order to improve provision for all our young children.Emeritus Professor of Education, Canterbury Christ Church University and Honorary Emeritus Professor of Early Childhood Education, University of Sheffield. May 2009
ABC Autism Behaviour Checklist ADI Autism Diagnostic Interview ADOS Autism Diagnostic Observational Schedule AS Asperger's syndrome ASD Autistic spectrum disorder BAECE British Association for Early Childhood Education BOS Behaviour Observation Scale for Autism BSE Behaviour Summarized Evaluation CARS Childhood Autism Rating Scale CD Creative development CHAT Checklist for Autism in Toddlers CLL Communication language and literacy CPD Continuing Professional Development DCSF Department for Children, Schools and Families DfES Department for Education and Skills DISCO Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders DoH Department of Health DRC Disability Rights Commission DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (Version 4) ECM Every Child Matters ESP Early Support Programme EYFS Early Years Foundation Stage GP General practitioner HIBS Handicaps and Behaviour Schedule IBSE Infant Behavioural Summarized Evaluation ICD-10 International Classification of Diseases (Version 10) ICT Information and communications technology IDP Inclusion Development Programme IEP Individual education plan IPSEA Independent Panel for Special Educational Advice [Page x] KUW Knowledge and understanding of the world LEA Local education authority LGA Local Government Association MD Mathematical development MRC Medical Research Council NAS National Autistic Society NASEN National Association for Special Educational Needs NC National Curriculum NFER National Foundation for Educational Research NIH National Institute of Health Ofsted Office for Standards in Education PD Physical development PDD Pervasive developmental disorder PDD-NOS Pervasive developmental disorder – not otherwise specified PECS Picture Exchange Communication System PL-ADOS Pre-Linguistic Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule PLA Pre-school Learning Alliance PPA Pre-school Playgroups Association PSE Personal, social and emotional development PWS Prader-Willi Syndrome SEN Special educational needs SENCO Special educational needs co-ordinator SENDA Special Educational Needs and Disability Discrimination Act SN Special needs TEACCH Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication-handicapped CHildren WHO World Health Organization
For the purposes of clarity the following terminology will be used throughout this book:
Early years/young children will be considered as aged 0–8 years, but this book will focus predominantly on the under-5s or pre-school children as there is a plethora of information available on children of statutory school age.
Early years provider/provision/setting will refer to any practitioner or establishment providing opportunities and/or support to 0–5–year-old children. This will include pre-school groups, nurseries, nursery classes, child-minders, day-care, special needs units/classes/schools and educare groups.
Parents will refer to any person, parent or otherwise, assuming ‘parental responsibility’ for the child.
Professionals/practitioners refers to any person working with children in any setting, whether or not they hold professional qualifications.
Special educational needs (SEN) will be considered as any difficulties experienced by a child requiring additional or different educational provision to be made.
Special needs (SN) will be considered as those difficulties experienced by a child that do not necessarily result in a special educational need.
My thanks are extended to everyone who has supported me over the years, for their motivation, patience and support. Tricia David, who has always inspired me, continues to be a key motivator, and for that I will always be very grateful. Special thanks must go to those closest to me who have given their personal support and encouragement, namely Michael, Sam and Tracy, without whom I would not have completed this work, and to Jude who makes sure I stay on track.
This book is dedicated, as always, to mum.
About the Author[Page xiii]
Kate Wall is Principal Lecturer and Childhood Studies: Early Years Programme Leader at the University of Chichester. She has worked extensively as a practitioner in early years mainstream and special settings. This was initially within primary schools in areas experiencing deprivation, but later in early years provision spanning pre-school playgroups, family centres and early years special units. Her current work involves teaching undergraduate students as well as leading professional development courses for early years practitioners.
Her knowledge, expertise and skills are further utilised in her work as an author. Kate has published articles in early years journals, chapters in edited works and, of course, her other successful books: Special Needs and Early Years (2006, 2nd edn) and Education and Care for Adolescents and Adults with Autism (2007). She has also presented at international conferences.[Page xiv]
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