Assessing Woman Battering in Mental Health Services

Books

Edward W. Gondolf

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  • Books under the General Editorship of Jon R. Conte

    Hate Crimes: Confronting Violence Against Lesbians and Gay Men edited by Gregory M. Herek and Kevin T. Berrill

    Legal Responses to Wife Assault: Current Trends and Evaluation edited by N. Zoe Hilton

    The Male Survivor: The Impact of Sexual Abuse by Matthew Parynik Mendel

    The Child Sexual Abuse Custody Dispute Annotated Bibliography by Wendy Deaton, Suzanne Long, Holly A. Magana, and Julie Robbins

    The Survivor's Guide by Sharice Lee

    Psychotherapy and Mandated Reporting of Child Maltreatment by Murray Levine and Howard J. Doueck

    Sexual Abuse in Nine North American Cultures: Treatment and Prevention edited by Lisa Aronson Fontes

    The Role of Social Support in Preventing Child Maltreatment by Ross A. Thompson

    Intimate Betrayal: Understanding and Responding to the Trauma of Acquaintance Rape by Vernon R. Wiehe and Ann L. Richards

    Violence Against Women Research: Methodological and Personal Perspectives edited by Martin D. Schwartz

    Sibling Abuse: Hidden Physical, Emotional, and Sexual Trauma by Vernon R. Wiehe

    Children Acting Sexually Aggressively: Coming to Understand Them by Sharon K. Araji

    Assessing Woman Battering in Mental Health Services by Edward W. Gondolf

    Copyright

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    Acknowledgments

    This book represents the collective effort of a variety of individuals and agencies. The National Resource Center on Domestic Violence (NRC) sponsored the development of the book through a grant from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Anne Menard, the director of NRC, helped coordinate and guide the project. Susan Schechter, of the University of Iowa and a consultant to NRC, assisted in formulating the issues and offering extensive comments and editing. In collaboration with NRC, Susan also devised and conducted a survey of battered women's advocates that focused on and illustrated the issues.

    Carole Warshaw, a practicing psychiatrist in Chicago, offered advice and knowledge on the perspective and practice of mental health clinicians. The work of Angela Browne, a psychologist known for her study of battered women, forms the basis of the discussion of battered women's strengths. Beth Richie, a professor at Hunter College with expertise in gender and race, provided comments and suggestions for Chapter 6, “Appreciating Diversity Among Battered Women.” Many other advocates and mental health practitioners indirectly contributed their experience and efforts through conferences, writings, and personal conversations.

    Staff and graduate students at the Mid-Atlantic Addiction Training Institute helped collect research articles, proofread drafts, and make corrections in the text: Crystal Deemer, Jewel Lee Douherty, Alicia Dohn, and Patty Pierson.

    I am immensely grateful to all these individuals for their assistance and support. I feel fortunate to have had the opportunity to work with and learn from such a collection of thoughtful, dedicated, and insightful people. I thank especially the NRC for its foresight in conceiving of this important project and for helping to make it a reality.

    Introduction

    Purpose

    The need for collaboration between mental health clinicians and battered women's advocates is increasingly apparent. The number of battered women who appear in mental health settings is very high, a result of the psychological effect of battering on women. The response to these women's mental health problems is not always appropriate or safe, however. Mental health clinicians may not identify and address the battering, or they may misdiagnose and mistreat a woman because they do not fully grasp the nature of the abuse.

    Part of the difficulty lies in applying the conventional perspective and practices of clinical psychology to what battered women's advocates have long argued is a deep-seated social problem. Men who batter often escalate their abuse in response to a woman's seeking help. A battered woman who seeks help may be subjected to additional condemnation, threats, retaliation, stalking, custody problems, and financial loss that may further her psychological distress, as well as endanger her physically.

    In recent years, advocates and clinicians alike have been working to develop a response to battered women that considers both their psychological needs and their immediate social circumstances.1 The National Resource Center on Domestic Violence (NRC) commissioned this book as part of this ongoing effort. The objective of the book is to enhance the response of mental health clinicians to woman battering.2 The primary aim is to increase the identification and assessment of battered women in mental health services, and as a result increase the prospects for referral to battered women's programs or mental health treatment specific to battered women's needs. The broader purpose is to raise awareness of the clinical issues associated with woman battering and to advance collaboration that should help address those issues.

    This book represents a compilation of much of the expertise and innovation devised by the woman-battering field to work with battered women safely and judiciously. More specifically, it examines the following:

    • The differences in perspective and the structural obstacles that have limited the exchange between mental health clinicians and battered women's advocates
    • Specific tools, instruments, procedures, and cautions designed to increase the identification and improve the assessment of woman battering in mental health services
    • Additional considerations and complications involved in assessing woman battering, such as racial differences and substance abuse

    This book is an important but preliminary step in improving the response of mental health services to woman battering. Ultimately, cross-training, professional directives, collaborative treatments, policy changes, and specialized research that draws on the experience and expertise of battered women's advocates need to be expanded.

    Perspective
    Advocates’ Expertise

    The perspective of this book is primarily from the vantage point of battered women's advocates. The book attempts to bring the lessons, experience, and knowledge from the woman battering field to those working in mental health services. Nearly 20 years of work with battered women has led to established practices and considerations that are increasingly useful to other fields. Safety planning, for instance, has grown out of an understanding of battered women's lives and the practical experience of attempting to help them. The growing body of research on woman battering is referred to in the book to help substantiate and elaborate this practical expertise.

    The mental health field has also contributed to this growing body of knowledge. Several clinical psychologists and psychiatrists have worked extensively with battered women and served these women as advocates as well as therapists. In the process, they have substantially contributed to the understanding of the effect of battering and abuse on women and to the development of mental health interventions for these women. These practitioners have also assisted professional associations in the mental health field to establish protocols and policies dealing with woman battering.

    Battered women's advocates, in collaboration with domestic violence researchers and clinicians, have developed a number of practical innovations useful to the mental health field. The most prominent of these are

    • Screening techniques and procedures
    • Identification of various types of abuse
    • Safety planning for battered women
    • Alternative diagnoses and descriptors
    • Recognition of the strengths of battered women
    • “Empowering” interactions and counseling
    • Collaborative interventions and treatment of women

    This book offers procedures and examples of these important contributions.

    Advocates and Clinicians

    The book attempts to build a bridge between battered women's advocates and mental health clinicians. Battered women's advocates refers here to individuals who work to provide services, resources, and counseling to the women victims of battering and to improve the community's response to all abused women. Advocates not only are involved in direct service delivery such as maintaining residential shelters, they also are active in prompting more effective and comprehensive responses from other agencies, such as the police, the courts, and hospitals. They may work as shelter staff, group counselors, court liaisons, or professional trainers.

    Mental health clinicians refers to those who provide mental health services in the form of intake and assessment, diagnoses and treatment, and referral and casework for those with emotional, psychiatric, or relational problems. They primarily include psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, nurse clinicians, trained counselors, and social workers. The settings for their work vary widely: mental health clinics, psychiatric hospitals, family service centers, group homes, and private offices or centers. Treatment also may include drug therapy, individual counseling, couples or family counseling, and group counseling in an inpatient or outpatient facility. Variations exist across payment systems as well: privately funded versus publicly funded facilities, health management organizations versus treatment options supported by public assistance.

    This book attempts to focus on advocates’ and mental health clinicians’ needs to illustrate the major issues in dealing with woman battering. The range of mental health settings raises a diversity of needs and interventions. What is done in a psychiatric emergency room to assess woman battering may be very different from what is done in a family counseling session. What is presented in the book will, therefore, need to be adapted to the various settings and functions of mental health clinicians and to their experience with and knowledge of woman battering.

    Contents
    Overview

    The book is organized into three parts: one addressing issues that underlie inappropriate assessment, a second dealing with assessment procedures, and a third examining broader considerations needed in assessing different situations and circumstances. The overall thesis is that a woman battering protocol, attending to the social circumstances of battered women, should be implemented within a process of organizational development that builds toward collaboration and change.

    Part I, “Underlying Issues Facing Assessment,” discusses problems that contribute to inappropriate or inadequate assessment of battered women. This part includes two chapters:

    • Chapter 1, “Addressing Differences and Barriers,” examines the major differences between the medical perspective that influences mental health clinicians and the victim-perpetrator image held by the majority of battered women's advocates. It also considers the aspects of the evaluation process and the organization of mental health services that often retraumatize battered women or overlook their abusive situations. This chapter concludes with the possibility of a new model emerging from the mutual interest in the effect of trauma on women and by posing a battered women protocol that helps ensure the identification and assessment of battered women.
    • Chapter 2, “Moving Toward Collaboration,” discusses some of the existing cooperative efforts between battered women's programs and mental health services. It also recommends strategies for developing more extensive collaboration that helps implement and maintain a battered women protocol. Collaboration would also help to develop new joint treatment ventures that serve battered women in the community more effectively.

    Part II presents specific tools, instruments, guides, and procedures to improve the identification and assessment of battered women in mental health services.

    • Chapter 3, “Case Studies of Mental Health Evaluations,” analyzes three mental health evaluations of battered women from the perspective of both mental health clinicians and battered women's advocates. These case studies point out opportunities for negotiating or resolving differences and obstacles.
    • Chapter 4, “Procedures for Assessing Woman Battering,” introduces screening questions, assessment scales, a history inventory, safety planning procedures, diagnostic options, and record-keeping guidelines that might be incorporated into the mental health evaluation process.
    • Chapter 5, “Recognizing the Strengths of Battered Women,” provides a rationale for shifting the focus from psychopathology to survivor strengths, and it provides questions and procedures for conducting an assessment of strengths.

    Part III raises additional considerations involved in improving the assessment of woman battering.

    • Chapter 6, “Appreciating Racial Diversity Among Battered Women,” points out special considerations in assessing women from different racial backgrounds and other influential social or personal situations. African American and Hispanic women, for instance, may warrant different clinical responses and different strategies in safety planning because of their unique social circumstances.
    • Chapter 7, “Identifying and Assessing Men Who Batter,” reviews purported characteristics of batterers, batterers’ minimization and justifications of abuse, and the need to hold such men accountable for their actions. It also reviews the issues associated with contacting the battered women involved and assisting with their safety.

    A recommended bibliography of additional research and clinical articles concludes the book. The articles might be useful for mental health clinicians for their own reading after a training conference, or to help answer inquiries and requests for further information about responding to woman battering in mental health services.

    A Note about Treatment

    The actual treatment of battered women in mental health services is beyond the scope of this book, which focuses primarily on the initial assessment. Treatment, however, raises many issues that need to be addressed.

    • How do women differ in their response to abuse and their need for treatment?
    • How is a woman's safety to be addressed while in treatment?
    • What is the role of battered women's programs in mental health treatment?
    • What kind and how much medication is appropriate for a battered woman?
    • What kind of referral to and consultation with battered women's programs are necessary?
    • What is the role of battered women's support groups, advocacy, and shelter residences in treatment?

    Some of these issues are at least partially addressed in the articles recommended in the bibliography. Also, several books are now available that specifically deal with treatment for battered women—treatment that acknowledges their abuse and moves them toward healing and social support. In particular, Empowering and Healing the Battered Woman by Mary Ann Dutton (1992b) offers an excellent guide for conducting therapy with battered women.

    Another related use of assessment for battered women is in evaluations for legal situations: divorce hearings, custody cases, and self-defense charges. Expert testimony and forensic work may require some of the same considerations involved in assessing a woman to determine appropriate treatment and service. Conducting an extensive abuse history, dangerousness assessment, safety plan, and appropriate diagnosis, for instance, would be warranted. The court often has different standards for evaluation, however. The findings of an evaluation must address certain provisions in the law, such as mens rae, requiring a person to be capable of understanding responsibility for a crime. The presentation of an evaluation in court also requires a special form, expertise, and finding not addressed in the scope of this book. Those wanting more information on mental health assessment and legal issues might contact the National Clearinghouse for the Defense of Battered Women, based in Philadelphia (phone 215-351-0010), for more advice in this regard.

    Using This Book
    Training Uses

    The use of this book may depend on the relationship of battered women's programs to mental health services in their respective communities. On the one hand, some battered women's advocates have already built collaborative relationships with mental health clinicians to serve the needs of battered women in shelters and the community. Battered women's programs may have staff psychologists or consulting psychologists who review the mental health needs of shelter residents and provide treatment consistent with the shelter's programs and aims. Some advocates also maintain linkages with mental health services, permitting the shelter to refer battered women to those services.

    On the other hand, some battered women's advocates continue to question the collaboration with mental health services because of the consequences that mental health diagnoses sometimes hold for battered women. They also resist the encroachment of mental health treatment into their ongoing work with battered women, because some psychological assessments appear to blame abused women or lessen batterers’ responsibility for the violence. Some battered women report being retraumatized in mental health clinics or psychological facilities and resist further involvement with them.

    Most advocates find themselves somewhere between full collaboration and outright caution. They make referrals to supportive mental health clinicians and are involved in training mental health clinicians in their communities, much as other advocates train police or nurses.

    These materials may be used in several different ways to meet the range of program and community situations suggested above. They may be used

    • As the basis of a workshop for mental health clinicians or as supplemental material in a workshop
    • As a resource given directly to mental health clinicians who inquire about woman battering or who have some contact with battered women's programs
    • As a source to address specific needs, objectives, or requests; the assessment tools and safety planning portion, for instance, might be distributed to mental health clinicians currently receiving shelter referrals
    • As a reference for clinicians already familiar with woman battering who want more information on ways to respond to the problem
    • As a reference for local mental health, family service, and psychological associations that may have representatives on a communitywide domestic violence task, policy, or study group
    • As an overview to familiarize battered women's staff with mental health issues they may want to address
    • As a text in clinical psychology, social work, or counseling programs; the book offers an efficient compilation of available information and a synthesis of issues facing the field

    The information presented here is probably best introduced in the context of cross-training experiences and a sustained exchange between battered women's advocates and mental health clinicians in the community. In this way, a more substantial understanding of the issues and dialogue to advance such understanding is likely to evolve.

    Notes

    1. A task group of the American Psychological Association recently completed a report of recommendations for clinicians dealing with family violence. The report offers an overview of several forms of family violence, including woman battering, with summaries of issues, general knowledge, and preferred practices. The report, Violence and the Family: Report of the American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Violence and the Family (American Psychological Association, 1996), is available from the American Psychological Association (order department: 1-800-374-2721). The recommended practices, although sensitive to the expertise of advocates, draw primarily from the perspective of clinical psychologists working against family violence and do not provide the details for a woman battering protocol or developing collaborations presented in this book.

    2. The term woman battering is used through this book to refer to the physical abuse of women by their intimate male partners. The term battering may refer to a wide range of physical abuse, including grabbing, pushing, shoving, slapping, punching, choking, pulling hair, burning, kicking, forced sex, using weapons, and throwing things. Physical battering is often accompanied by an array of controlling behavior and psychological abuse in the form of insults, accusations, threats, intimidation, financial control, and social isolation. Any level or combination of abuse can cause fear or control. Battered women sometimes refer to their partner as only having to clench his fist to invoke fear and get what he wants.

    Woman battering is used instead of domestic violence because domestic violence may imply child abuse, elder abuse, or sibling abuse. Similarly, the terms family violence and spouse abuse imply assault among family members other than male violence against intimate female partners. Woman battering is distinguished from abuse among same-sex partners, other relatives, acquaintances, or strangers because it tends to have unique dynamics, effects, and problems. Many of the tools, however, such as safety planning, can be applied to any adult relationships characterized by abuse.

  • Appendix: A Survey of Battered Women's Advocates

    withSusanSchechter, MSW

    There have been many speculations about what needs to be done to improve the response of mental health services to women battering. Some advocates point to the need for woman battering training or assessment tools and procedures. Others raise broader concerns about the differences in assumptions, organization, and practices of mental health services that ultimately need to be addressed to accommodate battered women. At the same time, numerous developments suggest cooperation between advocacy for battered women and mental health treatment. There have been joint trainings on women battering and mental health, study groups on diagnosis and assessment, and treatment manuals for therapists.

    A survey of advocacy programs for battered women suggests that battered women's programs predominately deal with the criminal justice system (Edleson, 1993). They assist in obtaining protection orders from the civil courts, help with the prosecution of batterers, and assist women in divorce or custody cases. In the process, advocates have contact with district attorneys and prosecutors, private attorneys and legal aid services, magistrates and judges, and probation and parole officers. Also, many advocates provide training for police, criminal justice officials, and other agencies and organizations and do policy work around interventions, funding, and services for battered women.

    From a national listing of battered women's programs, researchers randomly surveyed 379 advocacy programs in the United States (Edleson, 1993). Three fourths of the programs reported working with other agencies and systems on behalf of battered women. Only a third reported working with health and mental health services. This result may reflect the fact that the vast majority (87%) of advocacy programs offer counseling and emotional support along with information, referrals, and representation for battered women. Many battered women's advocates may consequently feel that battered women's services offer sufficient “treatment” for most battered women, or may feel that the mental health services are not beneficial to many battered women.

    Increased collaboration with mental health services may be shown to improve the well-being and safety of battered women. Battered women's programs tend to offer primarily short-term crisis-oriented services. Many women are likely to benefit from services that extend beyond the scope of these programs. Also, related research implies that mental health services coupled with advocacy are likely to be more effective and beneficial. For instance, studies of the coordination of battered women programs and the criminal justice system indicate improved and more effective intervention on behalf of battered women (Gamache, Edleson, & Schock, 1988; Steinman, 1988). Battered women advocates have helped bring about increased arrests, convictions, and court mandated counseling of batterers.

    To assess the relationship of battered women's programs and mental health services better, the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence conducted a survey of state domestic violence coalitions in the spring of 1994. A mailed survey was developed to estimate the extent of existing cooperation between battered women's programs and mental health services, problems and barriers to cooperation and innovations and possibilities for collaboration. The survey represents the perspective of battered women's advocates and should be complemented by future surveys of mental health professionals. The experience of those specializing in working with and for battered women offers an important first step in developing a strategy to improve mental health services’ response to battered women, however. Battered women's advocates have a direct involvement in the issues facing battered women, and have observed the problems that battered women encounter in obtaining and receiving mental health services.

    Methodology

    The survey was conducted through a mailed questionnaire to the 50 state coalitions for domestic violence. These coalitions represent and coordinate the battered women's programs in their respective states. To varying extents, they offer technical assistance, staff training, program development, legal advice, and state funding to local shelters. They also initiate policy recommendations and legislative action to their respective state governments. State coalitions vary in size and sophistication. The majority of the state coalitions have between two and five staff members, and several coalitions have been operating for 15 years or more. Pennsylvania and Texas coalitions have over 20 staff members working on a variety of state projects, and additionally house national projects such as the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence and the National Domestic Violence Hotline. Approximately 10 states have less than two staff members coordinating communication among their state battered women's programs and between state legislatures and the women's programs. As of 1994, all the state coalitions received funding from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services to maintain operations and coordinate provisions of the Violence Against Women Act.

    Coalitions not responding to the mailed questionnaire within a month were contacted by phone and asked to submit the completed survey to the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence. Thirty state coalitions returned completed surveys reporting for 896 battered women's programs. The number of completed surveys represents a response rate of 60% of the existing state coalitions. The 20 state coalitions not responding to the survey were compared to the responding coalitions in terms of size, number of shelters, and model programming.1 The nonrespondents were not dissimilar on any of these criteria, suggesting that the responding sample may be fairly representative of the states as a whole. Approximately one quarter of the completed surveys were based on the state coalitions polling the battered women's programs in their states, and the rest were estimates made by state coalition staff reflecting their experience working with their state's programs. The average number of programs per state was 31, ranging from a few in Hawaii to 106 in New York.

    The survey was developed by one policy and one research consultant to the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence, based on preliminary discussions and interviews with approximately 10 national, state, and local advocates. The three-page questionnaire mailed to the state coalitions consisted of two main parts. The first part included three inventories of practices between battered women's programs and mental health services. The inventories listed practices initiated or received by battered women's programs during the previous 2 years. The second part comprised seven open-ended questions inquiring about major barriers or problems, collaborative innovations and improvements, state guidelines or standards, training materials, needed tools or materials, and recommended actions for the National Resource Center.

    The responses for the two inventories about the relationship of battered women's programs and mental health services were tabulated as follows: The total number of women's programs that had done or received certain practices was divided by the total number of women's programs represented by the responding state coalitions (Tables 2.1 and 2.2). The inventory for training materials currently in use was analyzed using the percentage of state coalitions indicating “yes” for each item. The open-ended questions were categorizations of the responses listed by each state coalition (Table 2.3). The percentages in Tables 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3 are the number of states with a response corresponding to that particular category divided by the total number of states responding to that question. All the reporting state coalitions responded to the open-ended question asking about major barriers to cooperation between battered women's programs and mental health services (Table 1.1); only one half to three quarters of the states offered answers to the other open-ended questions about training materials used, needed tools or materials, existing innovations, and recommendations for the National Resource Center.

    Conclusion

    The survey of state coalitions of battered women's programs produced several instructive findings presented in Part I of this book. A majority of the women's programs already have a relationship with mental health services through mutual referrals, consultation, and training. A substantial portion of state coalitions report significant obstacles to furthering these relationships or developing new ones where none currently exit, however. The barriers include inappropriate mental health treatment, mental health clinicians’ lack of understanding about women battering, mental health clinicians’ lack of respect for battered women's advocates, and costly and inaccessible services. The survey respondents call for more training information and materials to help address these barriers and share more of advocates’ expertise with mental health clinicians. A variety of innovations to bring together battered women's advocates and mental health clinicians are already underway and hold promise for further collaborations. More needs to be done to advance these emerging efforts and to establish a coordinated national initiative, however. According to the respondents, a national organization such as the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence might help compile and refine training materials, build linkages with mental health professional organizations, and develop criteria for referrals, agency assessment, and certifications.

    Despite these apparent trends, the survey also revealed a great range of concerns and practices. The differences from state to state and from one community to another were striking. Battered women's programs in some states have developed elaborate cooperative relationships with mental health services and are eager to advance these relationships. In other communities, there is great distrust and little interest in collaboration, often because of the philosophical and professional differences mentioned in Chapter 1. Moreover, some disagreement exists among advocates themselves on how best to proceed on many important issues, especially when and where to refer battered women with mental health problems. The support of training and referral among the coalitions and their respective programs is, nonetheless, very clear. A need remains for more refined and developed materials, materials for a variety of audiences (including graduate students), and a compilation of assessment protocols.

    The efforts and prospects of collaboration pose new questions and issues that might best be resolved through further collaboration. One place to start is with some of the basics that this book attempts to compile. The one resounding theme throughout the survey is that for collaboration to increase, mental health clinicians need to be better apprised of the expertise of battered women's advocates. They need to be made aware of the nature of woman battering and its effects, and they need to be more informed about the difficult safety issues that face battered women and the complications that mental health diagnoses and treatment bring to many battered women. They need to be informed of the services that battered women's programs can offer and the work the programs do.

    This agenda is obviously one-sided, because many battered women's advocates feel as if their expertise has been neglected by many mental health clinicians. The survey suggests, too, that many women's services are eager for the professional assistance of mental health clinicians as possible referral sources, consultants, board members, and intervention colleagues. The ultimate goal is for a communitywide response to women battering that offers women the comprehensive assistance they need and deserve. The survey suggests that advocates see that happening in collaboration with mental health clinicians.

    Note

    1. The states not responding were California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Idaho, Iowa, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, Montana, New Mexico, North Carolina, Oregon, South Dakota, Washington, Wisconsin, and Wyoming.

    Recommended Bibliography

    Overviews
    American Psychological Association (1996). Violence and the family: Report of the American Psychological Association Presidential Task Force on Violence and the Family. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
    Browne, A. (1993). Violence against women by male partners: Prevalence, outcomes, and policy implications. American Psychologist, 48, 1077–1087. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.48.10.1077
    Gondolf, E. (1990). Psychiatric response to family violence. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Gondolf, E. W., & Fisher, E. R. (1991). Wife battering. In R.Ammerman & M.Hersen (Eds.), Case studies in family violence. New York: Plenum.
    Jordan, C., & Walker, R. (1994). Guidelines for handling domestic violence cases in community mental health clinics. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 45, 147–151.
    Koss, M., Goodman, L., Browne, A., Fitzgerald, L., Keita, G. P., & Russo, N. F. (1994). No safe haven: Male violence against women at home, at work, and in the community. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10156-000
    Saunders, D. (1992). Woman battering. In R.Ammerman & M.Hersen (Eds.), Assessment of family violence: A clinical and legal sourcebook. New York: John Wiley.
    Schechter, S. (1987). Guidelines for mental health practitioners in domestic violence cases. Washington, DC: National Coalition Against Domestic Violence.
    Schechter, S. (1994). Survey of battered women state coalitions on mental health services. Harrisburg, PA: National Resource Center on Domestic Violence.
    Warshaw, C. (1993). Domestic violence: Challenges to medical practice. Journal of Women's Health, 2, 73–80. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jwh.1993.2.73
    Warshaw, C. (1995). Violence and women's health: Old models, new challenges. In Center for Mental Health Services, Dare to vision: Shaping the national agenda for women, abuse, and mental health services (pp. 67–85). Holyoke, MA: Human Resource Association.
    Worell, J., & Remer, P. (1992). Feminist perspectives in therapy: An empowerment model for women. New York: John Wiley.
    Battering Assessment Instruments
    Girder, L. (1990). Mediation triage: Screening for spouse abuse in divorce mediation. Mediation Quarterly, 7, 365–376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/crq.3900070408
    Hudson, W., & McIntosh, S. (1981). The assessment of spouse abuse: Two quantifiable dimensions. Journal of Marriage and the family, 43, 873–884. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351344
    Marshall, L. (1992). Development of the Severity of Violence Against Women Scales. Journal of Family Violence, 7, 103–121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00978700
    Rodenburg, F., & Fantuzzo, J. (1993). The measure of wife abuse: Steps toward the development of a comprehensive technique. Journal of Family Violence, 8, 203–227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00988769
    Sanders, D., Lynch, A., Grayson, M., & Linz, D. (1987). The inventory of beliefs about wife beating: The construction and initial validation of a measure of beliefs and attitudes. Violence and Victims, 2, 39–57.
    Schwartz, M., & Mattley, C. (1993). The Battered Woman scale and gender identities. Journal of Family Violence, 8, 277–287. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF00988773
    Shepard, M., & Campbell, J. (1992). The abusive behavior inventory: A measure of psychological and physical abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 291–305. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626092007003001
    Smith, P. H., Earp, J. A., & DeVellis, R. (1995). Measuring battering: Development of the Women's Experience with Battering (WEB) Scale. presented at the Fourth International Family Violence Conference, Durham, NH, July 24.
    Straus, M. (1979). Measuring intrafamily conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scales. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 75–88. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/351733
    Tolman, R. (1989). The development of a measure of psychological maltreatment of women by their male partners. Violence and Victims, 4, 159–177.
    Related Assessment Instruments
    Briere, J., & Runtz, M. (1989). The trauma symptom checklist (TSC-33): Early data on a new scale. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 151–163. (Effects of childhood sexual abuse on adults). http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626089004002002
    Horwitz, M., Wilner, N., & Alvarez, W. (1979). Impact of Event Scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41, 209–218.
    Keane, T., Malloy, P., & Fairbank, J. (1984). Empirical development of an MMPI subscale for the assessment of combat related post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 888–891. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.5.888
    Morrison, E. (1988). Instrumentation issues in the measurement of violence in psychiatric inpatients. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 9, 9–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01612848809140906
    Ruch, L., Gartrell, J., Amedeo, S., & Coyne, B. (1991). The sexual assault symptom scale: Measuring self-reported sexual assault trauma in the emergency room. Psychological Assessment, 3, 3–8. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.3.1.3
    Saunders, B. E., Kilpatrick, D. G., & Resnick, H. S. (1989). Brief screening for lifetime history of criminal victimization at mental health intake: A preliminary study. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 267–758. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626089004003001
    Watson, C. (1990). Psychometric post-traumatic stress disorder measurement techniques: A review. Psychological Assessment, 2, 460–469. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1040-3590.2.4.460
    Lethality and Dangerousness
    Campbell, J. C. (1986). Nursing assessment of risk on homicide with battered women. Advances in Nursing Science, 8, 36–51.
    Gondolf, E. W., & Hart, B. (1994). Lethality and dangerousness assessments. Violence Update, 4, 7–10.
    Hart, B. (1990). Assessing whether batterers will kill. Ending Men's Violence Network Newsletter, 8, 16.
    Saunders, D. G. (1994). Prediction of wife assault. In J.Campbell (Ed.), Assessing the risk of dangerousness: Potential for further violence of sexual offenders, batters, and child abusers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Sherman, L., Schmidt, J., Rogan, D., & DeRiso, C. (1991). Predicting domestic homicide: Prior police contact and gun threats. In M.Steinman (Ed.), Woman battering: Policy responses. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
    Teplin, L., Abram, K., & McClelland, G. (1994). Does psychiatric disorder predict violent crime among released jail detainees? A six-year longitudinal study. American Psychologist, 49, 335–347. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.49.4.335
    Diagnosis and Treatment
    Bograd, M. (1984). Family systems approaches to wife battering: A feminist critique. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 54, 558–568. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1984.tb01526.x
    Brown, L. S. (1992). A feminist critique of personality disorders. In L. S.Brown & M.Ballou (Eds.), Personality and psychopathology: Feminist reappraisals. New York: Guilford.
    Dutton, M. A. (1992). Empowering and healing the battered woman: A model for assessment and intervention. New York: Springer.
    Janoff-Bulman, R., & Frieze, I. (1983). A theoretical perspective for understanding reactions to victimization. Journal of Social Issues, 39, 1–17. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-4560.1983.tb00138.x
    Rieker, P., & Carmen, E. (1984). The gender gap in psychotherapy: Social realities and psychological processes. New York: Plenum. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4684-4754-5
    Rieker, P. P., & Carmen, E. H. (1986). The victim-to-patient process: The disconfirmation and transformation of abuse. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 56, 360–370. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-0025.1986.tb03469.x
    Schellenback, C., Trickett, P., & Susman, E. (1991). A multimethod approach to the assessment of physical abuse. Violence and Victims, 6, 57–73.
    Veltkamp, L., & Miller, T. (1990). Clinical strategies in recognizing spouse abuse. Psychiatric Quarterly, 61, 179–187. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01064967
    Walker, L. E. A. (1989). Psychology and violence against women. American Psychologist, 44, 695–702. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.44.4.695
    Walker, L. E. A. (1994). Abused women and survivor therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/10153-000
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    Astin, M., Lawrence, K., & Foy, D. (1993). Posttraumatic stress disorder among battered women: Risk and resiliency factors. Violence and Victims, 8, 17–28.
    Campbell, J. C. (1990). Battered woman syndrome: A critical review. Violence Update, 1(4), 1, 4, 10.
    Campbell, J. C. (1993). Post-traumatic stress in battered women: Does the diagnosis fit?Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 14, 173–186. http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/01612849309031615
    Douglas, M. A. (1987). The battered woman syndrome. In D. J.Sonkin (Ed.), Domestic violence on trial. New York: Springer.
    Dutton, M. A. (1992). Assessment and treatment of PTSD among battered women. In D.Foy (Ed.), Treating PTSD: Procedure for combat veterans, battered women, adult and child sexual assaults. New York: Guilford.
    Herman, J. L. (1992). Trauma and recovery. New York: Basic Books.
    Janoff-Bulman, R. (1992). Shattered assumptions: Toward a new psychology of trauma. New York: Free Press.
    Kemp, A., Rawlings, E. I., & Green, B. L. (1991). Post-traumatic stress disorder in women: Diagnosis and treatment of battered woman syndrome. Psychotherapy, 28, 21–34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.28.1.21
    Assessment Research
    Gondolf, E. W. (1992). Discussion of violence in psychiatric evaluations. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 334–349. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626092007003004
    Jacobson, A. (1989). Physical and sexual assault histories among psychiatric outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 146, 755–758.
    Jacobson, A., Koehler, J., & Jones-Brown, C. (1987). The failure of routine assessment to detect histories of assault experienced by psychiatric patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 38, 396–389.
    Jacobson, A., & Richardson, B. (1987). Assault experiences of 100 psychiatric inpatients: Evidence of the need for routine inquiry. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 908–913.
    Kurz, D. (1987). Emergency department responses to battered women: Resistance to medicalization. Social Problems, 34, 69–81. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/800730
    McFarlane, J., Parker, B., Soeken, K., & Bullock, L. (1992). Assessing for abuse during pregnancy. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267, 3176–3178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03480230068030
    McLeer, S. V., & Anwar, R. (1989). A study of battered women presenting in an emergency department. American Journal of Public Health, 79, 65–76. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.79.1.65
    McLeer, S. V., Anwar, R., Herman, S., & Maquiling, K. (1989). Education is not enough: A systems failure in protecting battered women. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 18, 651–653. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0196-0644%2889%2980521-9
    Rose, K., & Saunders, D. G. (1986). Nurses’ and physicians’ attitudes about women abuse: The effects of gender and professional role. Health Care for Women International, 7, 427–438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07399338609515757
    Stark, E., Flitcraft, A., & Frazier, W. (1979). Medicine and patriarchal violence: The social construction of a “private” event. International Journal of Health Services, 9, 461–493. http://dx.doi.org/10.2190/KTLU-CCU7-BMNQ-V2KY
    Sugg, N. K., & Inui, T. (1992). Primary care physician's response to domestic violence: Opening Pandora's box. Journal of the American Medical Association, 267, 3157–3178. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1992.03480230049026
    Warshaw, C. (1989). Limitations of the medical model in the care of battered women. Gender & Society, 3, 506–517. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/089124389003004008
    Impact Research
    Aguilar, R. J., & Nightingale, N. N. (1994). The impact of specific battering experiences on self-esteem of abused women. Journal of Family Violence, 9, 35–46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01531967
    Astin, M. C., Lawrence, K. J., & Foy, D. W. (1993). Posttraumatic stress disorder among battered women: Risk and resiliency factors. Violence and Victims, 8, 53–68.
    Foy, D., Sipprelle, R., Rueger, D., & Carroll, E. (1984). Etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans: Analysis of premilitary, military, and combat exposure influences. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 79–87. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.52.1.79
    Gleason, W. J. (1993). Mental disorders in battered women: An empirical study. Violence and Victims, 8, 29–40.
    Gondolf, E. W., & Fisher, E. R. (1988). Battered women as survivors: An alternative to treating learned helplessness. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
    Graham, D., Rawlings, E., & Rimini, N. (1988). Survivors of terror: Battered women, hostages, and the Stockholm Syndrome. In K.Yllö & M.Bograd (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Hamilton, J. A. (1989). Emotional consequences of victimization and discrimination in special populations of women. Psychiatric Clinicians of North America, 12, 35–51.
    Horwitz, M. J., Wilner, N. U., & Alvarez, W. (1979). Impact of event scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41, 209–218.
    Housekamp, B. M., & Foy, D. W. (1991). The assessment of posttraumatic stress disorder in battered women. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 367–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/088626091006003008
    Rosewater, L. B. (1988). Battered or schizophrenic? Psychological tests can't tell. In K.Yllö & M.Bograd (Eds.), Feminist perspectives on wife abuse. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Walker, L. E. A. (1984). The battered woman syndrome. New York: Springer.
    Medical Sociology
    Anspach, R. R. (1988). Notes on the sociology of medical discourse: The language of case presentation. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 29, 357–375. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136869
    Fisher, S. (1986). In the patient's best interest: Women and the politics of medical decisions. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
    Kuipers, J. C. (1989). Medical discourse in anthropological context: Views of language and power. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 3, 99–123. http://dx.doi.org/10.1525/maq.1989.3.2.02a00010
    Mishler, E. (1981). Viewpoint: Critical perspectives on the biomedical model. In E.Misheler (Ed.), Social contexts of health, illness and patient care. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
    Mishler, E. (1984). The discourse of medicine: Dialectics of medical interviews. Norwood, NJ: Ablex.
    Russell, L. (1994). Educated guesses: Making policy about medical screening tests. Berkeley: University of California Press.
    Waitzkin, H. (1984). Doctor-patient communication: Clinical implications of social scientific research. Journal of the American Medical Association, 252, 2441–2446. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.1984.03350170043017
    Waitzkin, H. (1985). Information giving in medical care. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 26, 81–101. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2136599
    Waitzkin, H. (1989). A critical theory of medical discourse: Ideology, social control, and the processing of social context in medical encounters. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 30, 220–239. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/2137015
    Batterer Issues
    Dutton, D. G., & Starzomski, A. (1993). Borderline personality in perpetrators of psychological and physical abuse. Violence and Victims, 8, 327–339.
    Edleson, J. L., & Tolman, R. M. (1992). Intervention for men who batter: An ecological approach. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
    Gondolf, E. W. (1988). Who are those guys? Towards a behavioral typology of men who batter. Violence and Victims, 3, 187–203.
    Gondolf, E. W. (1993). Male batterers. In R.Hampton (Ed.), Family violence: Prevention and treatment. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452231983
    Gondolf, E. W., & Foster, R. A. (1992). Wife assault among V.A. alcohol rehabilitation patients. Hospital and Community Psychiatry40, 74–79.
    Hamberger, L. K., & Hastings, J. E. (1988). Characteristics of male spouse abusers consistent with personality disorders. Hospital and Community Psychiatry, 39, 763–770.
    Pence, E., & Paymar, M. (1993). Education groups for men who batter: The Duluth model. New York: Springer.
    Saunders, D. G. (1992). A typology of men who batter: Three types derived from cluster analysis. American journal of Orthopsychiatry, 62, 264–275. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0079333
    Sonkin, D. J. (1987). The assessment of court-mandated male batterers. In D. J.Sonkin (Ed.), Domestic violence on trial. New York, Springer.
    Sugarman, D., & Hotaling, G. (1989). Violent men in intimate relationships: An analysis of risk markers. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 19, 1034–1048. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1989.tb01237.x
    Guides for Battered Women
    Ackerman, R., & Pickering, S. (1995). Before it's too late: Helping women in controlling or abusive relationships. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications. (A guidebook especially for men in abusive relationships where there are also drug or alcohol problems.)
    Bowker, L. (1986). Ending the violence: A guidebook based on the experiences of one thousand battered wives. Holmes Beach, FL: Learning Publications. (Personal and formal strategies that have helped end woman abuse.)
    Gondolf, E. (1989). Man against woman: What every woman should know about violent men. Blue Ridge Summit, PA: TAB/McGraw Hill. (A frank discussion of the reasons for men's violence and the prospects for changing.)
    Jones, A., & Schechter, S. (1992). When love goes wrong: Strategies for women with controlling partners. New York: HarperCollins. (An analysis of abuse as a means of control and degradation that includes practical advice and methods for obtaining safety and change.)
    NiCarthy, G. (1986). Getting free: A handbook for women in abusive relationships. Seattle, WA: Seal. (One of the most popular guides for women on dealing with abuse.)

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    About the Authors

    Edward W. Gondolf, EdD, MPH, is Professor of Sociology at Indiana University of Pennsylvania (IUP) and Associate Director of Research for the Mid-Atlantic Addiction Training Institute (MAATI). At MAATI, he conducts funded research on the relationship of alcohol abuse to domestic violence and the response of the civil court, domestic violence court, medical practitioners, and alcohol treatment clinicians to domestic violence. He recently served as Research Consultant to the National Resource Center for Domestic Violence funded by a 3-year grant from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and continues to serve on the advisory board of the National Domestic Violence Hotline.

    Dr. Gondolf has authored six books on wife abuse, including Men Who Batter: An Integrated Approach to Stopping Wife Abuse (1985), Battered Women as Survivors: An Alternative to Treating Learned Helplessness (1988), Psychiatric Response to Family Violence: Identifying and Confronting Neglected Danger (1990), as well as over 60 research articles on men who batter and community development. Psychiatric Response, based on a study funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), analyzes data from 382 psychiatric patients to document the clinical neglect of reported family violence in favor of identifying mental disorders.

    Angela Browne, PhD, is a social psychologist with expertise in the area of family violence. During the 1980s, she conducted research on cases in which battered women kill their abusers in self-defense and authored the book When Battered Women Kill (1987). Since 1988, she has acted as Consulting Psychologist to Bedford Hills Maximum Security Prison for women in New York State. She has authored numerous articles and book chapters, including both the American Medical Association's and the American Psychological Association's review and policy statements on violence against women, as well as the National Academy of Sciences’ report on violence between intimates. She is a coauthor of No Safe Haven: Male Violence Against Women at Home, at Work, and in the Community (1994).

    Susan Schechter is Clinical Professor at the University of Iowa School of Social Work and a research associate at the university's Injury Prevention Research Center. She is the author of several books and monographs about domestic violence, including Women and Male Violence: The Visions and Struggles of the Battered Women's Movement, When Love Goes Wrong, (coauthored with Ann Jones), and Guidelines for Mental Health Practitioners in Domestic Violence Cases. She has directed and founded several clinical and advocacy programs, including AWAKE, Advocacy for Women and Kids in Emergencies at Children's Hospital, Boston, which is the first program in a pediatric hospital for battered women with abused children. She is currently a consultant to the National Resource Center on Domestic Violence and to the Family Violence Prevention Fund's Family Preservation—Domestic Violence Curriculum project and its Domestic Violence-Child Protection project.


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