Arms Control: The New Guide to Negotiations and Agreements

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Jozef Goldblat

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  • Part I: Analytical Survey

  • About PRIO

    The International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO) is an independent, international institute for peace and conflict research, founded in 1959. It was one of the first centres of peace research in the world and is Norway's only peace research centre. Its foundation and early influence were instrumental in projecting the idea of peace research.

    PRIO's publications include the Journal of Peace Research. published bi-monthly, and the quarterly Security Dialogue. PRIO's scholarly work is published in peer-reviewed journals, as well as in books, reports and conference papers, some of which can be accessed at http://www.prio.no

    PRIO's overall research is organized into four Strategic Institute Programmes:

    • Conditions of War and Peace
    • Foreign and Security Policies
    • Ethics, Norms and Identities
    • Conflict Resolution and Peacebuilding

    International Peace Research Institute, Oslo

    Fuglehauggata 11, N-0260 Oslo, Norway

    Telephone: +47 22 54 77 00 Telefax: +47 22 54 77 01

    Email: info@prio.no

    http://www.prio.no

    ___________

    SIPRI is an independent international institute for research into problems of peace and conflict, especially for those of arms control and disarmament. It was established in 1966 to commemorate Sweden's 150 years of unbroken peace.

    The Institute is financed mainly by the Swedish Parliament. The staff and the Governing Board are international; The Institute also has an Advisory Committee as an international consultative body.

    SIPRI's major research projects are:

    • Armed conflicts and prevention
    • Arms production
    • Arms transfers
    • Chemical and biological weapons
    • European security
    • Export controls
    • Military expenditure
    • Military technology
    • Integrating Fact Databases in the Field of International Relations and Security

    SIPRI publishes its research findings in books and on the Internet at http://www.sipri.org

    Stockholm International Peace Research Institute

    Signalistgatan 9, SE-169 70 Solna, Sweden

    Telephone: +46 8/655 97 00 Telefax: +46 8/655 97 33

    Email: sipri@sipri.org

    http://www.sipri.org

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    Tables and Figures

    On the Accompanying CD-ROM

    Part II. Agreements and Parties

    Introductory Note

    1Selected Pre-World War II Agreements
    1868Declaration of St Petersburg
    1899Hague Declaration (IV,2) concerning asphyxiating gases
    1899Hague Declaration (IV,3) concerning expanding bullets
    1907Hague Convention (IV) respecting the laws and customs of war on land, Annex
    1907Hague Convention (V) respecting the rights and duties of neutral powers and persons in case of war on land
    1907Hague Convention (VIII) relative to the laying of automatic submarine contact mines
    1907Hague Convention (IX) concerning bombardment by naval forces in time of war
    1907Hague Convention (XIII) concerning the rights and duties of neutral powers in naval war
    1919Covenant of the League of Nations
    1920Treaty concerning the archipelago of Spitsbergen (Spitsbergen Treaty)
    1921Convention relating to the non-fortification and neutralization of the Aaland Islands (Aaland Islands Convention)
    1923Convention for the limitation of armaments adopted at the Conference on Central American Affairs
    1925Protocol for the prohibition of the use in war of asphyxiating, poisonous or other gases, and of bacteriological methods of warfare (1925 Geneva Protocol)
    1928Pact of Paris for the renunciation of war as an instrument of national policy (Kellogg-Briand Pact)
    1936Convention regarding the regime of the Straits (Montreux Convention)
    2Post-World War II Agreements
    1945Charter of the United Nations
    1948Convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide (Genocide Convention)
    1949Geneva Convention (IV) relative to the protection of civilian persons in time of war
    See also 1977 Protocols I and II
    1954Convention for the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict (Cultural Property Protection Convention), (First) Protocol
    See also 1999 Second Protocol
    1954Treaty of economic, social and cultural collaboration and collective self-defence among Western European States (modified 1948 Brussels Treaty)
    1954Protocols to the 1948 Brussels Treaty (Paris Agreements on the Western European Union), Annexes to Protocol No. III
    1956Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency
    1959Antarctic Treaty
    See also 1991 Protocol on Environmental Protection (Madrid Protocol)
    1961Agreed principles for disarmament negotiations: Joint Statement by the USA and the USSR (McCloy-Zorin Statement), Exchange of letters between the USA and the USSR
    1963Memorandum of Understanding between the USA and the USSR regarding the establishment of a Direct Communications Link (Hot Line Agreement), Annex
    1963Treaty banning nuclear weapon tests in the atmosphere, in outer space and under water (Partial Test Ban Treaty, PTBT)
    1964Unilateral statements by the USA, the USSR and the UK regarding the reduction of fissionable materials production
    1967Treaty on principles governing the activities of states in the exploration and use of outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies (Outer Space Treaty)
    1967Treaty for the prohibition of nuclear weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean (Treaty of Tlatelolco), as amended, Additional Protocols
    1968United Nations Security Council Resolution 255 on security assurances to non-nuclear-weapon states
    1968Treaty on the non-proliferation of nuclear weapons (Non-Proliferation Treaty, NPT)
    1971Treaty on the prohibition of the emplacement of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction on the seabed and the ocean floor and in the subsoil thereof (Seabed Treaty)
    1971The structure and content of agreements between the International Atomic Energy Agency and States required in connection with the NPT (NPT Model Safeguards Agreement, INFCIRC 153)
    See also 1997 Model Additional Safeguards Protocol
    1971Agreement between the USA and the USSR on measures to reduce the risk of outbreak of nuclear war (US-Soviet Nuclear Accidents Agreement)
    1972Convention on the prohibition of the development, production and stockpiling of bacteriological (biological) and toxin weapons and on their destruction (BW Convention)
    1972Agreement between the USA and the USSR on the prevention of incidents on and over the high seas (Incidents at Sea Agreement)
    See also 1973 Protocol to the Incidents at Sea Agreement
    1972Treaty between the USA and the USSR on the limitation of anti-ballistic missile systems (ABM Treaty), Agreed Interpretations and Unilateral Statements
    See also 1974 Protocol and 1997 Memorandum of Understanding relating to the ABM Treaty
    1972Interim Agreement between the USA and the USSR on certain measures with respect to the limitation of strategic offensive arms (SALT I Agreement), Protocol
    1973Protocol to the 1972 Incidents at Sea Agreement
    1973Agreement between the USA and the USSR on the prevention of nuclear war
    1974Protocol to the 1972 ABM Treaty
    1974Treaty between the USA and the USSR on the limitation of underground nuclear weapon tests (Threshold Test Ban Treaty, TTBT), 1990 Protocol replacing the 1974 Protocol
    1974Joint statement by the USA and the USSR on strategic offensive arms (Vladivostok Accord)
    1974Declaration of Ayacucho
    1974United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3314(XXIX) on the definition of aggression
    1975Convention on registration of objects launched into outer space (Registration Convention)
    1975Document on confidence-building measures and certain aspects of security and disarmament, included in the Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (Helsinki CBM Document)
    1975United Nations General Assembly Resolution 3472 B(XXX), Declaration on Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zones
    1976Treaty between the USA and the USSR on underground nuclear explosions for peaceful purposes (Peaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty, PNET), Agreed Statement, 1990 Protocol replacing the 1976 Protocol
    1976Agreement between France and the USSR on the prevention of the accidental or unauthorized use of nuclear weapons
    1977Convention on the prohibition of military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques (Enmod Convention), Annex, Understandings
    1977Agreement between the UK and the USSR on the prevention of accidental nuclear war
    1977Protocol (1) Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the protection of victims of international armed conflicts (1977 Protocol I)
    1977Protocol (II) Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the protection of victims of non-international armed conflicts (1977 Protocol II)
    1978Statements on security assurances made in connection with the First Special Session of the UN General Assembly devoted to disarmament
    1978Final Document of the First Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly devoted to disarmament
    1979Soviet Statement on the Backfire bomber
    1979Treaty between the USA and the USSR on the limitation of strategic offensive arms (SALT II Treaty), Protocol, Statements by the USA and the USSR of data on the numbers of strategic offensive arms
    1979Agreement governing the activities of states on the moon and other celestial bodies (Moon Agreement)
    1980Convention on the physical protection of nuclear material, Annexes
    1981Convention on prohibitions or restrictions on the use of certain conventional weapons which may be deemed to be excessively injurious or to have indiscriminate effects (CCW Convention or Inhumane Weapons Convention), Protocol I on non-detectable fragments, Protocol II on prohibitions or restrictions on the use of mines, booby-traps and other devices, Protocol III on prohibitions or restrictions on the use of incendiary weapons, Amended Article I of the CCW Convention
    See also 1995 Protocol IV and 1996 Protocol II (as amended) to the CCW Convention
    1982United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
    1985South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone Treaty (Treaty of Rarotonga), Annexes, Protocols
    1987Agreement between the USA and the USSR on the establishment of Nuclear Risk Reduction Centers, Protocols
    1987Treaty between the USA and the USSR on the elimination of their intermediate-range and shorter-range missiles (INF Treaty), Memorandum of Understanding, Protocols
    1987Agreement between the USA, Belgium, the FRG, Italy, the Netherlands and the UK regarding inspections relating to the INF Treaty (Western Basing Agreement)
    1987Agreement between the USSR, the GDR and Czechoslovakia regarding inspections relating to the INF Treaty (Eastern Basing Agreement)
    1988Agreement between the USA and the USSR on notifications of launches of intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles
    1988Agreement between Pakistan and India on the prohibition of attack against nuclear installations and facilities
    1989Final Declaration of the Paris Conference on the prohibition of chemical weapons
    1989Agreement between the USA and the USSR on the prevention of dangerous military activities (DMA Agreement), Annexes, Agreed Statements
    1989Agreement between the USA and the USSR on reciprocal advance notification of major strategic exercises
    1990Agreement between the USA and the USSR on destruction and non-production of chemical weapons and on measures to facilitate the multilateral convention on banning chemical weapons (US-Soviet Chemical Weapons Agreement), Agreed Statement
    1990Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE Treaty), as amended by the 1999 Agreement on Adaptation, Protocols
    1990Charter of Paris for a New Europe, Supplementary Document
    1991United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 imposing arms restrictions on Iraq and establishing the UN Special Commission on Iraq (UNSCOM)
    1991Treaty between the USA and the USSR on the reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms (START I Treaty), Annexes, Protocols, Memorandum of Understanding, Agreements, Statements, Declarations
    See also 1992 Lisbon Protocol to the START I Treaty
    1991US President's announcement regarding unilateral reductions of nuclear weapons
    1991Protocol on Environmental Protection to the 1959 Antarctic Treaty (Madrid Protocol)
    1991Soviet President's announcement regarding unilateral reductions of nuclear weapons
    1991United Nations Security Council Resolution 715 on the monitoring of Iraqi compliance with arms restrictions
    1991Guidelines for conventional arms transfers agreed by the permanent members of the UN Security Council
    1991Cartagena Declaration on renunciation of weapons of mass destruction
    1991UN General Assembly Resolution 46/36 on transparency in armaments, Annex: Register of conventional arms
    1992Joint Declaration by South and North Korea on the denuclearization of the Korean Peninsula
    1992Treaty on Open Skies, Annexes
    1992Tashkent Document: Joint Declaration and Agreement on the principles and procedures for implementing the 1990 CFE Treaty, Protocols
    1992Protocol to the 1991 START I Treaty (Lisbon Protocol)
    1992Final Document of the Extraordinary Conference of the states parties to the 1990 CFE Treaty (Oslo Document), Annexes
    1992Joint Understanding between the USA and Russia on further reductions in strategic offensive arms (De-MIRVing Agreement)
    1992Joint Statement by the USA and Russia on a Global Protection System
    1992Guidelines for sensitive missile-relevant transfers (Missile Technology Control Regime, MTCR), (revised 1987 Guidelines), Annex
    1992Helsinki Document of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe: Summit Declaration and Decisions
    1992Concluding Act of the negotiation on personnel strength of conventional armed forces in Europe (CFE-I A Agreement)
    1992Joint Declaration by Pakistan and India on the complete prohibition of chemical weapons
    1993Treaty between the USA and Russia on further reduction and limitation of strategic offensive arms (START II Treaty), Protocols, Memorandum of Understanding
    See also 1997 Protocol to the START II Treaty, Joint Agreed Statement and Exchange of letters
    1993Convention on the prohibition of the development, production, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons and on their destruction (CW Convention), Annexes
    1994Agreement between the USA and Russia to de-target strategic nuclear missiles, contained in the Moscow Declaration of the US and Russian Presidents
    1994Joint Declaration by the UK and Russia on the de-targeting of nuclear missiles
    1994Agreed Framework between the USA and North Korea
    1994Code of Conduct on politico-military aspects of security, included in the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe Budapest Decisions
    1995United Nations Security Council Resolution 984 on security assurances
    1995NPT Review and Extension Conference decision on strengthening the review process for the NPT
    1995NPT Review and Extension Conference decision on principles and objectives for nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament
    1995NPT Review and Extension Conference decision on extension of the Non-Proliferation Treaty
    1995NPT Review and Extension Conference resolution on the Middle East
    1995Protocol IV to the 1981 Convention on prohibitions or restrictions on the use of certain conventional weapons which may be deemed to be excessively injurious or to have indiscriminate effects (Protocol on blinding laser weapons)
    1995Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Bangkok), Annex, Protocol
    1996Treaty on the African Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone (Treaty of Pelindaba), Annexes, Protocols
    1996Agreement between Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (as a joint party) and China on confidence building in the military field in the border area
    1996Amended Protocol II on prohibitions or restrictions on the use of mines, booby-traps and other devices to the 1981 Convention on prohibitions or restrictions on the use of certain conventional weapons which may be deemed to be excessively injurious or to have indiscriminate effects (Protocol IL as Amended)
    1996Agreement on sub-regional arms control concerning Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia (Florence Agreement)
    1996Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice on the legality of the threat or use of nuclear weapons, given upon request of the UN General Assembly
    1996Wassenaar Arrangement on export controls for conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies, Appendices
    1996Comprehensive nuclear test-ban treaty (CTBT), Annexes, Protocol
    1996Agreement between India and China on confidence-building measures in the military field along the line of actual control in the India-China border areas
    1996OSCE Lisbon Document
    1997Joint Statement by the USA and Russia concerning the 1972 ABM Treaty
    1997Joint Statement by the USA and Russia on parameters on future reductions in nuclear forces
    1997Agreement between Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan (as a joint party) and China on the mutual reduction of armed forces in the border area
    1997Model Protocol additional to the agreement(s) between state(s) and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards (Model Additional Safeguards Protocol, INFCIRC 540), Annexes
    See also 1971 NPT Model Safeguards Agreement
    1997NATO-Russia Founding Act on mutual relations, cooperation and security
    1997Protocol to the 1993 START II Treaty, Joint Agreed Statement by the USA and Russia, US-Russian exchange of letters on early deactivation of certain strategic nuclear delivery vehicles
    1997Memorandum of Understanding (on Succession) between Russia, the USA, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine relating to the 1972 ABM Treaty
    1997Agreed Statements and Common Understandings between Russia, the USA, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine relating to the 1972 ABM Treaty
    1997Agreement between Russia, the USA, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine on confidence-building measures related to systems to counter ballistic missiles other than strategic ballistic missiles, Joint Statement, US Statement
    1997Inter-American Convention against the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms, ammunition, explosives, and other related materials, Annex
    1997IAEA Guidelines for the management of plutonium, Annexes
    1997Convention on the prohibition of the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines and on their destruction (APM Convention)
    1998European Union Code of Conduct on arms exports
    1998Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
    1998Political Declaration of Mercosur, Bolivia and Chile as a zone of peace
    1998Joint Statement by the USA and Russia on the exchange of information on missile launches and early warning
    1998Declaration of a moratorium on the importation, exportation and manufacture of light weapons in West Africa (ECOWAS Moratorium)
    1998United Nations Security Council Resolution 1209 on illicit arms flow
    1998European Union Joint Action concerning the spread of small arms and light weapons, Annex
    1999Memorandum of Understanding between India and Pakistan relating to confidence-building measures
    1999Second Protocol to the 1954 Cultural Property Protection Convention
    1999United Nations Disarmament Commission Report on the establishment of nuclear-weapon-free zones on the basis of arrangements freely arrived at among the states of the region concerned
    1999United Nations Disarmament Commission Guidelines on conventional arms control/limitation and disarmament
    1999Inter-American Convention on transparency in conventional weapons acquisitions, Annexes
    1999Vienna Document of the negotiations on confidence- and security-building measures (1999 Vienna CSBM Document), Annexes
    1999Code of Conduct for the implementation of the 1998 ECOWAS moratorium
    1999United Nations Security Council Resolution 1284 establishing the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) on Iraq
    2000Nuclear Suppliers Group Guidelines for transfers of nuclear-related dual-use equipment, materials, software, and related technology (Nuclear Dual-Use Guidelines, revised 1992 ‘Warsaw Guidelines’), Annex
    2000Nuclear Suppliers Group Guidelines for nuclear transfers (revised 1977 ‘London Guidelines’), Annexes
    2000Memorandum of Agreement between the USA and Russia on the establishment of a joint center for the exchange of data from early warning systems and notifications of missile launches, Appendices, Joint Statements
    2000Agreement between the USA and Russia concerning the management and disposition of plutonium designated as no longer required for defense purposes and related cooperation (Plutonium Management and Disposition Agreement, PMDA)
    2000Joint Statement by the USA and Russia on the Strategic Stability Cooperation Initiative
    2000OSCE Document on small arms and light weapons
    2001Protocol against the illicit manufacturing of and trafficking in firearms, their parts and components and ammunition (Firearms Protocol), supplementing the 15 November 2000 United Nations Convention against transnational organized crime
    2001United Nations Programme of Action to prevent, combat and eradicate the illicit trade in small arms and light weapons in all its aspects
    2002Treaty between the USA and Russia on Strategic Offensive Reductions
    2002Joint Declaration on the new strategic relationship by the USA and Russia
    2002Declaration by the heads of state and government of NATO member states on NATO-Russian relations: a new quality

    Foreword

    This volume describes and analyses the international arms control agreements concluded from the Hague Declarations and Conventions of the 1800s to those concluded in the first years of this century. Together with the documents reproduced on the accompanying CD-ROM, it provides the most comprehensive survey of arms control available anywhere.

    Jozef Goldblat, an acknowledged expert with long experience in the field, places arms control in the political context of the times. The history of arms control negotiations – both those that had led to agreements and those that failed to do so – is itself instructive. However, the applicability of the established norms and the lessons learned from their implementation must be assessed in the light of the challenges faced today and predictably on the horizon. Jozef Goldblat does this and provides pointers for action to be taken to further develop the law of arms control.

    While major accords were reached in the 1990s owing to the new atmosphere of mutual trust immediately after the end of the Cold War, the weapons of mass destruction have not been abolished. The world continues to live in the fear that they will be used, by state or non-state actors. In the situation of today, characterized by the prevalence of intra-state wars coupled with international terrorism and by unilateral action taken in the field of armaments by militarily powerful states, arms control is needed more than ever. Hence the timeliness of the present book.

    Jozef Goldblat has published comprehensive surveys of arms control negotiations and agreements in 1978 and 1982 (for SIPRI) and 1994 (for PRIO). The present study was supported by two grants. PRIO received a grant from the Ford Foundation, and SIPRI received a grant from the Volkswagen Foundation through the Centre for European Security Studies (CESS). We are grateful for this support.

    SteinTønnesson, Director, PRIO
    Adam DanielRotfeld, Director, SIPRI, June 2002

    Preface

    Both progress and reversals have characterized the field of arms control since 1994, when the last edition of this book appeared. New agreements on weapons of mass destruction and conventional arms have been concluded, and the humanitarian law of armed conflict has been strengthened by new restrictions on the use of the means of warfare. Non-governmental organizations have played an important role in generating popular support for the reduction and elimination of arms and have engaged in monitoring states' compliance with the assumed obligations; a new type of multilateral diplomacy is emerging, based on a partnership between state authorities and the civil society.

    At the beginning of this century, disarmament efforts began to lose momentum. The need for negotiated agreements, subject to strict verification, began to be questioned, mainly in the United States, a major party to most of the agreements concluded in the past. For the first time, an arms control treaty was abrogated by the withdrawal of a party. This action may undermine the validity of several other treaties and create an international climate of mistrust that would be disastrous for arms control. By 2002, multilateral negotiations on further arms control measures had come to a standstill.

    The fight against international terrorism should not divert the attention of governments from the dangers of the arms races between states. The setback in arms control may be taken advantage of by terrorists.

    Arms control remains an essential building-block of the edifice of peace that the United Nations has endeavoured to construct ever since it undertook to free the world from the scourge of war. It is therefore imperative that the arms control process be put back on track. The present publication is intended to facilitate the achievement of this goal by providing a comprehensive guide for politicians, diplomats, military officers, teachers, students, journalists and non-governmental organizations.

    The achievements and failures of arms control are described, analysed and assessed in Part I of this book; tables, graphs and maps illustrate the intricate issues discussed. Part I also contains a glossary and select bibliography.

    Part II, presented on the accompanying CD-ROM, contains full texts or excerpts of over 150 documents adopted since the 1800s as well as lists of the signatories and parties to arms control agreements as of early 2002. The electronic search function provides a useful tool to the reader. In addition to the entries for Part I, the table of contents and the detailed index include entries for the titles of the documents reproduced in Part II.

    Acknowledgements

    I am very grateful for the invaluable research assistance of Ragnhild Ferm Hellgren and editorial assistance of Connie Wall, both at SIPRI. I also thank SIPRI librarians Christer Berggren and Christine-Charlotte Bodell for their expert help in preparing the document collection. I am indebted to both PRIO and SIPRI for their support. Adam Daniel Rotfeld, SIPRI Director 1991–2001, encouraged and supported the project in many important ways, as did Dan Smith, the previous PRIO Director, and Stein Tønnesson, current Director. Ingeborg K. Haavardsson, PRIO Information Director, coordinated production of the book with SAGE Publications. Several chapters benefited from review by prominent individuals in the arms control community.

    JozefGoldblat, July 2002

    Typeset by Connie Wall, SIPRI; index by Peter Rea, UK.

    Acronyms

    ABACCArgentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials
    ABMAnti-ballistic missile
    ACAAgency for the Control of Armaments
    ACVArmoured combat vehicle
    AIFVArmoured infantry fighting vehicle
    ALCMAir-launched cruise missile
    ANZUSAustralia-New Zealand-United States (Treaty)
    APMAnti-personnel mine
    ASATAnti-satellite
    ASBMAir-to-surface ballistic missile
    ASEANAssociation of South-East Asian Nations
    ATBMAnti-tactical ballistic missile
    ATTUAtlantic-to-the-Urals (zone)
    BCCBilateral Consultative Commission
    BICBilateral Implementation Commission
    BMOBallistic missile defence
    BWBiological weapon
    BWCBiological Weapons Convention
    CANWFZCentral Asian Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone
    CATConventional arms transfers (talks)
    CBMConfidence-building measure
    CBWChemical and biological weapons
    CCDConference of the Committee on Disarmament
    CDConference on Disarmament
    CFEConventional Armed Forces in Europe (Treaty)
    CISCommonwealth of Independent States
    CISACCommittee on International Security and Arms Control
    COCOMCo-ordinating Committee for Multi lateral Export Controls
    COPREDALPreparatory Commission for the Denuclearization of Latin America
    CORRTEXContinuous reflectometry for radius versus time experiments
    CRAMRAConvention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities
    CSBMConfidence- and security-building measure
    CSCEConference on Security and Co-operation in Europe
    CTBTComprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty
    CTBTOComprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization
    CWChemical weapon
    CWCChemical Weapons Convention
    DCDisarmament Commission
    DEWDirected-energy weapon
    DMADangerous Military Activities (Agreement)
    ECOSOCEconomic and Social Council (of the United Nations)
    ECOWASEconomic Community of West African States
    EEZExclusive economic zone
    EMPElectromagnetic pulse
    ENDCEighteen-Nation Committee on Disarmament
    EnmodEnvironmental modification
    EUEuropean Union
    EuratomEuropean Atomic Energy Community
    FOBSFractional orbital bombardment system
    FRGFederal Republic of Germany
    FRYFederal Republic of Yugoslavia
    FSCForum for Security Cooperation
    FYROMFormer Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia
    GCSGlobal Control System
    GDRGerman Democratic Republic
    GLCMGround-launched cruise missile
    GPALSGlobal Protection Against Limited Strikes
    GZAGeographical zone of application
    HNEsHydronuclear experiments
    IAEAInternational Atomic Energy Agency
    ICBLInternational Campaign to Ban Landmines
    ICBMIntercontinental ballistic missile
    ICJInternational Court of Justice
    ICRCInternational Committee of the Red Cross
    ILOInternational Labour Organization
    IMOInternational Maritime Organization
    IMSInternational Monitoring System
    INESAPInternational Network of Engineers and Scientists Against Proliferation
    INFIntermediate-range nuclear forces
    InterpolInternational Criminal Police Organization
    IPPASInternational Physical Protection Advisory Service
    IPSInternational plutonium storage
    IRMIntermediate-range missile
    ISMAInternational satellite monitoring agency
    JCCJoint Consultative Commission
    JCGJoint Consultative Group
    JCICJoint Compliance and Inspection Commission
    JDECJoint Data Exchange Center
    JMCJoint Military Commission
    JNCCJoint Nuclear Control Commission
    KEDOKorean Peninsula Energy Development Organization
    LPARLarge phased-array radar
    LTBTLimited Test Ban Treaty
    LWRLight-water reactor
    MADMutual assured destruction
    MBFRMutual and Balanced Force Reduction
    MIRVMultiple independently targetable re-entry vehicle
    MNLHMaximum national levels for holdings
    MOUMemorandum of Understanding
    MOUSMemorandum of Understanding on Succession
    MOXMixed-oxide (fuel)
    MTCRMissile Technology Control Regime
    MW(e)Megawatt-electric
    NATONorth Atlantic Treaty Organization
    NGONon-governmental organization
    NMDNational missile defence
    NPTNon-Proliferation Treaty
    NRCNATO-Russia Council
    NRRCNuclear Risk Reduction Center
    NSGNuclear Suppliers Group
    NSSNational seismic station
    NTMNational technical means (of verification)
    NWCNuclear weapons convention
    NWFZNuclear-weapon-free zone
    OASOrganization of American States
    OAUOrganization of African Unity
    OPANALAgency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean
    OPCWOrganisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
    OPPOther physical principles
    OSCEOrganization for Security and Co operation in Europe
    OSIOn-site inspection
    PALPermissive Action Link
    PAROSPrevention of an arms race in outer space
    PCASEDProgramme for Co-ordination and Assistance for Security and Development
    PLNSPre- and post-missile launch notification system
    PMDAPlutonium Management and Disposition Agreement
    PNETPeaceful Nuclear Explosions Treaty
    PRCPeople's Republic of China
    PTBTPartial Test Ban Treaty
    R&DResearch and development
    RVRe-entry vehicle
    SALTStrategic Arms Limitation Talks/Treaty
    SALWSmall arms and light weapons
    SAMSurface-to-air missile
    SCCStanding Consultative Commission
    SCCCCommon System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials
    SDFSelf-defence Forces
    SDIStrategic Defense Initiative
    SFRYSocialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
    SLBMSubmarine-launched ballistic missile
    SRAMShort-range attack missile
    SRMShorter-range missile
    STARTStrategic Arms Reduction Talks/Treaty
    SVCSpecial Verification Commission
    THAADTheater High-Altitude Area Defense
    TLETreaty-limited equipment
    TMDTheatre missile defence
    TNTTrinitrotoluene
    TTBTThreshold Test Ban Treaty
    UNUnited Nations
    UNCLOSUN Convention on the Law of the Sea
    UNEPUN Environment Programme
    UNESCOUN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
    UNGAUN General Assembly
    UNIDIRUN Institute for Disarmament Research
    UNMOVICUN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission
    UNSCUN Security Council
    UNSCEARUN Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation
    UNSCOMUN Special Commission on Iraq
    VEREXVerification experts (group)
    WEUWestern European Union
    WHOWorld Health Organization
    WMOWorld Meteorological Organization
    WTOWarsaw Treaty Organization
    ZOPANZone of Peace, Freedom and Neutrality

    Glossary

    Anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systemSee Ballistic missile defence and National missile defence.
    Anti-personnel mine (APM)Landmine designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person and that can incapacitate, injure or kill one or more persons.
    Anti-satellite (ASAT) weaponWeapon designed to interfere with, damage or destroy earth satellites in orbit.
    Anti-submarine warfare (ASW)Activities involved in the detection, identification, tracking and destruction of hostile submarines.
    Association of South-East Asian Nations (ASEAN)Established in 1967 to promote economic, social and cultural development as well as regional peace and security in South-East Asia.
    Atlantic-to-the-Urals (ATTU) zoneZone of application of the 1990 CFE Treaty, the 1992 CFE-I A Agreement and the 1999 Agreement on Adaptation of the CFE Treaty, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Ural Mountains. It covers the entire land territory of the European states parties (excluding part of Turkey) and the territory of Russia and Kazakhstan west of the Ural River.
    Australia GroupGroup of states formed in 1985 to discuss chemical and biological weapon-related items which should be subject to national regulatory measures.
    Ballistic missileMissile that is lifted into space by a booster rocket and then descends towards its target in a free-falling ballistic trajectory.
    Ballistic missile defence (BMD)Weapon system designed to defend against a ballistic missile attack by intercepting and destroying ballistic missiles or their warheads in flight.
    Binary chemical weaponShell or other device filled with two chemicals of relatively low toxicity which mix and react while the device is being delivered to the target, the reaction product being a super-toxic chemical warfare agent, such as a nerve agent.
    Biological weapon (BW)Weapon containing living organisms (as well as the means of their delivery) which are intended to cause disease or death in humans, animals or plants, and which for their effect depend on the ability to multi ply within the target organism. See also Toxins.
    Boost phaseFirst phase of a ballistic missile flight.
    BreakoutSudden abrogation or massive violation of an arms control agreement.
    Breeder reactorNuclear reactor that produces more fissile material than it consumes while generating power.
    Chain reactionContinuing process of nuclear fissioning in which the neutrons released from a fission trigger another nuclear fission.
    Chemical weapon (CW)Chemical substance – whether gaseous, liquid or solid – as well as the means of its delivery, intended for use in war because of its direct toxic effects.
    Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)Established in 1991 as a framework for multilateral cooperation among former Soviet republics.
    Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Organization (CTBTO)Established by the 1996 CTBT to deal with questions of compliance with the Treaty and as a forum for consultation and cooperation among the parties.
    Conference on Disarmament (CD)Multilateral arms control negotiating body.
    Confidence- and security-building measure (CSBM)Measure undertaken to promote confidence and security through military transparency, openness and demonstration of a nation's lack of hostile intent, as distinguished from a measure actually reducing military capabilities.
    Confidence-building measures (CBM)Measure undertaken to help reduce the danger of armed conflict and of misunderstanding or miscalculation of military activities.
    Conventional weaponWeapon not having mass destruction effects. See also Weapon of mass destruction.
    ConversionTerm used to describe the reallocation of resources from military to civilian use.
    Counter-proliferationMeasures or policies to enforce the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction.
    Cruise missilePilotless, guided weapon-delivery vehicle which sustains flight at subsonic or supersonic speeds through aerodynamic lift, generally flying at very low altitudes to avoid radar detection, sometimes following the contours of the terrain. It can carry a conventional or non-conventional warhead.
    DecoyFacsimile of a weapon system or component (such as a missile warhead) designed to complicate attempts to destroy or disable the actual weapon.
    Deterrence strategyStrategy to prevent war by confronting a potential aggressor. with the prospect that the response to his attack would bring unacceptable damage upon himself. See also Mutual assured destruction (MAD).
    Directed-energy weapon (DEW)Weapon system based on the delivery on the target of destructive energy in the form of a beam of light or of particles with nearly the speed of light.
    Dual-capableTerm that refers to a weapon system that can carry either conventional or non-conventional explosives.
    Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)Established in 1975 to promote trade and cooperation and contribute to development in West Africa.
    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP)Burst of electromagnetic energy produced by a nuclear explosion which may damage electrical and electronic equipment at great distances.
    European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom or EAEC)Established in 1957 to promote the development of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and to administer the nuclear safeguards system covering the European Union member states.
    European Union (EU)Established in 1957 as the European Community, it deals with economic cooperation and elaborates a common foreign and security policy for EU member-states.
    Fall-outSpread of radioactive particles from clouds of debris produced by a nuclear explosion.
    Fertile materialMaterial composed of atoms that readily absorb neutrons. See also Chain reaction.
    First-strike capabilityCapability to launch an attack on an adversary's strategic nuclear forces that would eliminate the retaliatory, second-strike capability of the adversary.
    Fissile materialMaterial composed of atoms which can be split by neutrons. Uranium-235 and plutonium-239 are the most common fissile materials.
    FissionProcess whereby the nucleus of a heavy atom splits into lighter nuclei with the release of substantial amounts of energy, as in a fission-type nuclear weapon (atomic weapon).
    FusionProcess whereby light atoms, especially those of the isotopes of hydrogen, combine to form a heavy atom with the release of very substantial amounts of energy, as in a thermonuclear weapon (hydrogen weapon).
    Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS)See Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI).
    Group of Seven/Eight (G7/G8)Group of the seven leading industrialized nations which have met informally at the level of heads of state or government since the 1970s; from 1997 Russia has participated with the G7 in meetings of the G8.
    Heavy waterIsotope of hydrogen. Serves as a moderator and coolant in a heavy water reactor (HWR).
    HerbicidesChemical (or biological) agents that destroy plants. See also Chemical weapon and Biological weapon.
    Intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM)Ground-launched ballistic missile with a range longer than 5,500 kilometres.
    Intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF)Nuclear forces with a range of from 1,000 kilometres up to and including 5,500 kilometres. See also Theatre nuclear forces.
    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)Established in 1957 to promote the peaceful uses of atomic energy and ensure that such uses do not further military purposes.
    International Court of Justice (ICJ)Principal judicial organ of the United Nations. set up in 1945.
    IsotopesNuclides with the same atomic number but different mass numbers.
    Joint Consultative Group (JCG)Established by the 1990 CFE Treaty to promote the objectives and implementation of the Treaty.
    Joint Compliance and Inspection Commission (JCIC)Forum to resolve questions of compliance, clarify ambiguities and discuss ways to improve implementation of the 1991 START I and 1993 START II treaties.
    Kiloton (kt)Measure of the explosive yield of a nuclear weapon equivalent to 1,000 tons of trinitrotoluene (TNT) high explosive. (The bomb detonated at Hiroshima 111 World War II had a yield of about 12–15 kilotons.)
    LandmineAnti-personnel or anti-vehicle mine, emplaced on land.
    LaserAcronym for a device which operates by the principle of ‘light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation’. Lasers use narrow focused light beams to provide powerful directed force for a variety of applications.
    LauncherEquipment which launches a missile. ICBM launchers are land-based launchers which can be either fixed or mobile. SLBM launchers are missile tubes on submarines.
    Light waterOrdinary water which serves as a moderator and coolant in a light water reactor (LWR).
    Megaton (Mt)Measure of the explosive yield of a nuclear weapon equivalent to 1 million tons (1,000 kt) of trinitrotoluene (TNT) high explosive.
    Mid-course phaseFlight of ballistic missile warhead through space after the boost phase but before re-entry.
    MineMunition placed under, on or near the ground or other surface area, designed to be detonated or exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person or vehicle.
    Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR)Informal international military-related export control regime, established in 1987 to limit the spread of weapons of mass destruction by controlling missile delivery systems.
    ModeratorComponent of a nuclear reactor that slows neutrons, thereby increasing their chances of fissioning fertile material.
    Multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVs)Several re-entry vehicles, carried by a single ballistic missile, which can be directed to separate targets along separate trajectories.
    Mutual assured destruction (MAD)Concept of reciprocal deterrence which rests on the ability of the nuclear weapon powers to inflict intolerable damage on one another after suffering a nuclear attack. See also Deterrence strategy.
    National missile defence (NMD)Anti-ballistic missile system prohibited under the 1972 ABM Treaty – capable of defending the national territory of a state against an attack from strategic ballistic missiles.
    National technical means (NTM) of verificationTechnical means of intelligence, under the control of a state, which are used to monitor compliance with arms control agreements.
    Nerve agentChemical warfare agent that interferes with or inhibits the transmittal of nerve impulses by disrupting the enzyme reactions in the nervous system; it carries a degree of lethality considerably greater than that of the agents used in World War I. See also Chemical weapon.
    NeutronElementary particle slightly heavier than a proton, with no electric charge. See also Proton.
    Neutron bombEnhanced radiation nuclear warhead which kills by radiation rather than by blast.
    Non-Aligned Movement (NAM)Established in 1961 as a forum for consultations and coordination of positions on political, economic and arms control issues among non-aligned states.
    North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)Established in 1949 by the North Atlantic Treaty (Washington Treaty) as a Western defence alliance. Article 5 of the treaty defines the member-states' commitment to respond to an armed attack on any party.
    Nuclear fuel cycleSystem of nuclear installations consisting of uranium mines, ore processing, conversion, enrichment and fuel fabrication plants, reactors, spent fuel storages, reprocessing plants and associated storage.
    Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG)Coordinates export controls on nuclear materials; also known as the London Club.
    Nuclear weapon-grade materialMaterial with a sufficiently high concentration either of uranium-233, uranium-235 or plutonium-239 to make it suitable for a nuclear weapon.
    Nuclear weaponsCollective term for atomic and hydrogen weapons of all types and their delivery systems. See also Fission and Fusion.
    Nuclear siloHardened underground facility for a fixed ballistic missile, designed to provide protection and to act as a launching platform.
    NuclideNuc1ear species characterized by the number of protons (atomic number) and number of neutrons. The total number of protons and neutrons is called the mass number of the nuclide.
    Open Skies Consultative Commission (OSCC)Established by the 1992 Open Skies Treaty to resolve questions of compliance with the Treaty.
    Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW)Established by the 1993 Chemical Weapons Convention to oversee implementation of the Convention and resolve questions of compliance.
    Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE)Initiated in 1973 as the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe, the CSCE was renamed the OSCE in 1995. Its Forum for Security Co-operation (FSC) deals with CSBMs and arms control.
    Organization of African Unity (OAU)Established in 1963 to promote African international cooperation and harmonization of, inter alia, defence policies. In 2001 the OAU member-states decided that the Organization would be replaced by the African Union.
    Organization of American States (OAS)Group of states in the Americas, which adopted a charter in 1948 with the objective of strengthening peace and security in the western hemisphere.
    PayloadWeapon and penetration aids carried by a delivery vehicle.
    Peaceful nuclear explosion (PNE)Nuclear explosion for non-military purposes, such as digging canals or harbours or creating underground cavities.
    Penetration aidsTechniques and/or devices employed to increase the probability of penetrating the opponent's defences and reaching the intended target.
    Permissive Action Link (PAL)Locks which prevent a nuclear weapon from being used without authorization.
    PlutoniumRadioactive element which occurs only in trace amounts in nature, with atomic number 94 and symbol ‘Pu’. As produced by irradiating uranium fuels, plutonium contains varying percentages of the isotopes 238, 239, 240, 241 and 242.
    PrecursorChemical reagent which takes part in the production of a toxic chemical.
    ProtonElementary particle with a positive electric charge.
    RadarAcronym for ‘radio detection and ranging’, referring to a device that uses the emission of electromagnetic energy for the detection and location of objects.
    Reprocessing plantFacility separating the plutonium and uranium present in spent reactor fuel.
    Re-entry vehicle (RV)Part of a ballistic missile which carries a nuclear warhead and penetration aids to the target. It re-enters the earth's atmosphere and is destroyed in the final phase of the missile's trajectory. A missile can have one or several RVs and each RV contains a warhead.
    Safeguards systemSystem under which the IAEA checks nuclear activities of states to guard against attempts to divert nuclear material and equipment intended for peaceful use to not-permitted military purposes.
    Second-strike capabilityAbility to launch, in response to a nuclear attack, a retaliatory strike large enough to inflict intolerable damage on the opponent. See also Mutual assured destruction.
    Small arms and light weapons (SALW)According to the 1997 UN experts' report, small arms are those designed for personal use, and light weapons are those designed for use by several persons serving as a crew. (These definitions are not yet internationally agreed.)
    Short-range nuclear forces (SNF)See Theatre nuclear forces.
    South Pacific ForumGroup of South Pacific states, which proposed the South Pacific Nuclear Free Zone established by the 1985 Treaty of Rarotonga.
    Spent nuclear fuelFuel removed from a nuclear reactor after use. See also Nuclear fuel cycle.
    Standing Consultative Commission (SCC)Established by the 1972 ABM Treaty as the body to which parties could refer issues regarding implementation of the Treaty.
    Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI)Programme of research and development of systems capable of intercepting and destroying nuclear weapons in flight and thus protecting the whole territory of the USA against a massive Soviet nuclear missile attack. The programme was pursued by the United States in the 1980s.
    Strategic nuclear weaponsICBMs and SLBMs as well as bombs and missiles carried on aircraft of intercontinental range (over 5,500 kilometres).
    Strategic stabilitySituation in the relation of forces between potential adversaries which leads them to conclude that an attempt to settle their disputes by military means would constitute a risk of unacceptable proportions.
    Subcritical experimentsExperiments in which the configuration and quantities of explosives and nuclear materials used do not produce a critical mass, i.e., there is no self-sustaining nuclear fission chain reaction.
    Submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM)Ballistic missile launched from a submarine, with a range in excess of 600 kilometres (as defined in the 2000 US-Russian MOU on notifications of missile launches).
    Sub-Regional Consultative Commission(SRCC)Established by the 1996 Agreement on Sub-Regional Arms Control (Florence Agreement), it is the forum for the parties to resolve questions of compliance with the agreement.
    Tactical nuclear weaponLow-yield, short-range nuclear weapon deployed with general-purpose forces along with conventional weapons; sometimes referred to as battlefield nuclear weapon. See also Theatre nuclear forces.
    TelemetryTransmission of electronic signals by missiles to earth; monitoring these signals helps to evaluate the missile's performance.
    Theatre missile defence (TMD)Weapon systems designed to defend against non-strategic nuclear missiles by intercepting and destroying them in night.
    Theatre nuclear forces (TNF)Nuclear weapons with ranges of up to 5,500 kilometres. In the 1987 INF Treaty, nuclear missiles were divided into intermediate-range (1,000–5,500 kilometres) and shorter-range (500–1,000 kilometres). Also called non-strategic nuclear forces. Nuclear weapons with ranges of up to 500 kilometres fall in the category of short-range nuclear forces.
    Throw-weightTotal weight of a ballistic missile's re-entry vehicle(s), penetration aids and targeting devices, that is, the militarily significant portions of the missile sent towards the target, as distinct from launch-weight, which is the weight of a fully loaded ballistic missile at the time of launch.
    ToxinsPoisonous substances which are products of organisms but are inanimate, not capable of reproducing themselves, as well as chemically created variants of such substances.
    Treaty-limited equipmentCategories of equipment on which numerical limits are established by the 1990 CFE Treaty and the 1999 Agreement on Adaptation of the CFE Treaty.
    TritiumRadioactive isotope of hydrogen; an essential ingredient of thermonuclear weapons.
    United Nations (UN)World intergovernmental organization founded in 1945 ‘to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war’.
    United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC)Body established by the UN Security Council to undertake responsibilities previously mandated to the United Nations Special Commission on Iraq (UNSCOM) with regard to the verification of compliance by Iraq with ceasefire Resolution 687 (1991).
    United Nations Register of Conventional ArmsVoluntary reporting mechanism set up in 1992 for UN member states to report annually their imports and exports of seven categories of conventional arms.
    UraniumNaturally occurring radioactive element with atomic number 92 and symbol ‘U’.
    Uranium enrichment plantInstallation for increasing the concentration of uranium-235 in uranium through isotope separation processes. Highly enriched uranium is used for nuclear fission weapons.
    WarheadPart of a weapon which contains the explosive or other material intended to inflict damage.
    Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO)The WTO, or Warsaw Pact, was established in 1955 by the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance between the USSR and seven East-Central European countries: Albania (withdrew in 1968), Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania. It was dissolved in 1991.
    Wassenaar ArrangementArrangement on Export Controls for Conventional Arms and Dual-Use Goods and Technologies, formally established in Wassenaar, the Netherlands, in 1996, which aims to prevent the acquisition of armaments and sensitive dual-use goods and technologies for military uses by states whose behaviour is cause for concern to the member states.
    Weapon of mass destructionAs defined in 1948 by the Commission for Conventional Armaments, these weapons include atomic explosive weapons, radioactive material weapons, lethal chemical and biological weapons, and any weapons developed in the future which have characteristics comparable in destructive effect to those of the atomic bomb or other weapons mentioned above.
    Western European Union (WEU)Established by the 1954 Protocols to the 1948 Brussels Treaty and the 1954 Modified Brussels Treaty, it is at present essentially intended to ensure the respect of obligations stemming from Article V (mutual assistance in case of aggression) of the Modified Brussels Treaty.
    YieldEnergy released in an explosion. See also Kiloton and Megaton.
    Zangger CommitteeEstablished in 1972, the Nuclear Exporters Committee (called the Zangger Committee after its first chairman) is a group of nuclear supplier countries that meets informally to coordinate export controls on nuclear materials.
  • Appendix

    Table A1 Parties to the Major Arms Control Agreementsa Status as of 1 January 2002

    Table A2 Parties to the Major Agreements on Humanitarian Law of Armed Conflicta Status as of 1 January 2002

    Table A3 Membership of Multilateral Weapon and Technology Export Control Regimes Status as of 1 January 2002

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    About the Author

    Jozef Goldblat holds university degrees in international relations, law, economics and linguistics. He has been studying the problems of arms control since the late 1950s and has been involved in disarmament negotiations in various capacities, including service for the United Nations. He was active in international commissions responsible for verification of compliance with armistice agreements, has written reports, articles and books on truce supervision, the arms race and disarmament problems, which have appeared in several languages, and has lectured at several universities. From 1969 to 1989 he directed the arms control and disarmament research programme at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). In 1980 he assisted the UN Secretary-General in preparing a report on a comprehensive nuclear test ban. He is Vice-President of the Geneva International Peace Research Institute (GIPRI). He is also Associate Editor of Security Dialogue, a journal published by the International Peace Research Institute, Oslo (PRIO), and Resident Senior Fellow at the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) in Geneva. Among the recent publications, he is the author of Arms Control: A Guide to Negotiations and Agreements (SAGE, 1994) and The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime: Assessment and Prospects (The Hague Academy of International Law, 1997) and the editor of Nuclear Disarmament: Obstacles to Banishing the Bomb (LB. Tauris, 2000). His book Arms Control Agreements: A Handbook (Taylor & Francis, 1983) received a CHOICE Award, and in 1984 Jozef Goldblat was awarded the Pomerance Award by the NGO Committee on Disarmament in recognition of his scholarship in the field of disarmament and arms control.


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