Approaches to Positive Youth Development
Publication Year: 2007
Scientific research and science-guided practice based on the promotion of an individual's strengths constitutes a radical shift in a new and growing area of study within the field of human development. Its trademark term is `positive youth development'. This approach to human development is based on the idea that, in addition to preventing problems, science and practice should promote the development of competencies, skills, and motivation in order to enhance individuals' developmental pathways. Approaches to Positive Youth Development is based on this concept and brings together authors from across Europe and America who are leaders in their respective fields. The main focus of the book, beyond a clarification of the paradigmatic foundations, concerns the major contexts of adolescents and young adults, namely, neighborhoods and leisure ...
- Front Matter
- Back Matter
- Subject Index
- Section I: Introduction
- Chapter 1: Approaches to Positive Youth Development: A View of the Issues
- Section II: Models of Positive Development in Adolescence and Young Adulthood
- Chapter 2: Developmental Assets: An Overview of Theory, Research, and Practice
- Chapter 3: Civic Engagement as an Expression of Positive Youth Development
- Chapter 4: Empathy-Related Responding: Its Role in Positive Development and Socialization Correlates
- Chapter 5: Soci(et)al Scaffolding of Individual Growth across the Life Span
- Section III: Multiple Contexts of Positive Youth Development
- Chapter 6: Perceived Social Inequity and Responses to Conflict among Diverse Youth of Color: The Effects of Social and Physical Context on Youth Behavior and Attitudes
- Chapter 7: Not You! Not Here! Not Now!
- Chapter 8: Life Chances and Opportunities in Times of Social Change: Evidence from Two British Birth Cohorts
- Chapter 9: Social Control and Adolescent Development: A View from Life-Course Criminology
- Chapter 10: Social Support and Positive Development: Looking on the Bright Side of Adolescent Close Relationships
- Chapter 11: The Long Way to Entrepreneurship: Personality, Parenting, Early Interests, and Competencies as Precursors for Entrepreneurial Activity among the ‘Termites’
- Section IV: Interventions and Social Policy
- Chapter 12: Adolescent Spirituality and Positive Youth Development: A Look at Religion, Social Capital, and Moral Functioning
- Chapter 13: Youth Political Activism: Sources of Public Hope in the Context of Globalization
- Chapter 14: Macrosocial Worries as a Source of Positive Youth Development: Results of a 20-Year Longitudinal Study and Policy Implications
- Chapter 15: From ‘I’ to ‘We’: Development of the Capacity for Teamwork in Youth Programs
- Chapter 16: Prevention against Substance Misuse: Life Skills and Positive Youth Development
- Chapter 17: Building Resources in the Context of Socioeconomic Disadvantage: Lessons from Research for Social Policies
Introduction, editorial arrangement and Chapter 1 © Rainer K. Silbereisen and Richard M. Lerner 2007
Chapter 2 © Peter L. Benson 2007
Chapter 3 © Lonnie Sherrod 2007
Chapter 4 © Nancy Eisenberg 2007
Chapter 5 © Jutta Heckhausen 2007
Chapter 6 © Davido Dupree, Margaret Beale Spencer, and Suzanne Fegley 2007
Chapter 7 © Jacquelynne S. Eccles and Corinne Alfeld 2007
Chapter 8 © Ingrid Schoon 2007
Chapter 9 © John H. Laub, Elaine Eggleston Doherty, and Robert J. Sampson 2007
Chapter 10 © Karen S. Mooney, Brett Laursen, and Ryan E. Adams 2007
Chapter 11 © Eva Schmitt-Rodermund 2007
Chapter 12 © Pamela Ebstyne King 2007
Chapter 13 © Constance Flanagan, Amy Syvertsen, and Laura Wray-Lake 2007
Chapter 14 © Klaus Boehnke, Daniel Fuss, and Mandy Boehnke 2007
Chapter 15 © Reed W. Larson 2007
Chapter 16 © Karina Weichold 2007
Chapter 17 © Cigdem Kagitcibasi 2007
First published 2007
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Notes on Contributors[Page vii]
Ryan E. Adams is an Assistant Professor at the University of Cincinnati where he studies adolescent relationships (e.g., parent-child relationships, friendships, and romantic relationships). In addition to understanding the basic characteristics of and links between different types of relationships, his research also examines the function of relationships in determining the effects of negative life experiences, such as peer victimization.
Corinne Alfeld is the Research Director for the Talent Identification Program (TIP) at Duke University. Her interests center on adolescent development in educational settings, particularly in maximizing opportunities for achievement.
Peter L. Benson is President and CEO of Search Institute (Minneapolis, MN), a nonprofit research center. His research focuses on positive youth development, community development, thriving in adolescence, and social change.
Klaus Boehnke is a Professor of Social Science Methodology at Jacobs University Bremen (previously the International University Bremen). His research interests lie in the field of interdisciplinary youth research with a focus on political socialization.
Mandy Boehnke is a Research Associate and Lecturer in the empirical and applied sociology unit of the Department of Sociology at University of Bremen. Her research interests focus on questions of family and youth sociology and psychology.
Elaine Eggleston Doherty received her Ph.D. in criminology and criminal justice from the University of Maryland, College Park in 2005 and is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Her interests include crime, drug use, and deviance over the life course, juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice, and longitudinal methodology.
Davido Dupree is a Research Project Manager at the Center for Health Achievement Neighbourhood Growth and Ethnic Studies (CHANGES) at the University of Pennsylvania's Graduate School of Education. Through his current work Dr. Dupree [Page viii]has explored the themes of cognitive development, resiliency, and cultural competence among racially and ethnically diverse youth from low resource communities.
Jacquelynne S. Eccles is the McKeachie Collegiate Professor of Psychology and Education at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Her interests include expectancy-value models of achievement-related choices, the role of personal and social identities in life choices related to educational, occupational, and leisure activities, multicontextual influences on development across the life span, and both social and psychological influences on thriving.
Nancy Eisenberg is Regents' Professor of Psychology at Arizona State University. Her research interests focus on socioemotional development, including emotional development, the development of emotion-related regulation, social competence and adjustment, moral development (e.g., empathy, altruism, moral reasoning), and the role of socialization.
Suzanne Fegley is a Research Manager at the Center for Health Achievement Neighborhood Growth and Ethnic Studies in the Graduate School of Education at the University of Pennsylvania. She is currently exploring processes related to healthy outcomes among multiethnic children and adolescents. Her research interests include self/identity, resiliency, coping processes, and social cognition.
Constance Flanagan is a Professor of Youth Civic Development in Penn State University's College of Agricultural Sciences where she codirects the Intercollege Minor in Civic and Community Engagement. Her research concerns young people's theories about the social contract, i.e., their views of the rights and responsibilities that bind members of society together and the factors in families, schools, and community-based organizations that promote civic values and competencies in young people.
Daniel Fuss is a postdoctoral fellow at the empirical and applied sociology unit of the Department of Sociology of University of Bremen. In recent years he has been working on several projects in the realm of political sociology and its methods.
Jutta Heckhausen is Professor of Psychology at the Department of Psychology and Social Behavior at the University of California, Irvine, where she established the research laboratory on life-span development and motivation. Her research addresses motivational processes involved in development across the life span, particularly the way in which individuals at different points in the life span try to control their own development.
Cigdem Kagitcibasi is Professor of Psychology at Koc University, Istanbul and a founding member of the Turkish Academy of Sciences. She holds several honors and awards, among them, the American Psychological Association Distinguished Contributions to the International Advancement of Psychology Award (1993) and the International Association of Applied Psychology Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions (1998). Her recent publications, as author or co-author, include: Family, [Page ix]Self and Human Development Across Cultures: Theory and Applications (2007), Families Across Cultures (2006), Understanding Social Psychology Across Cultures (2006).
Pamela Ebstyne King is Research Assistant Professor of Family Studies in the Center for Research and Child and Adolescent Development in the School of Psychology at Fuller Theological Seminary and ordained in the Presbyterian Church (USA). She researches and teaches in the areas of positive youth development, spiritual and moral development, and theological perspectives of development.
Reed W. Larson is the Pampered Chef Endowed Chair in Family Resiliency and is a Professor in the Departments of Human and Community Development, Psychology, and Educational Psychology at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research focuses on the daily developmental experience of adolescents, particularly in the context of youth development programs.
John H. Laub is Professor of Criminology and Criminal Justice at the University of Maryland, College Park. His areas of research include crime and deviance over the life course, juvenile delinquency and juvenile justice, and the history of criminology.
Brett Laursen is a Professor of Psychology and Director of Graduate Studies at Florida Atlantic University. His research concerns closeness and conflict in parent-child, friend, and romantic relationships and their influence on adolescent adjustment.
Richard M. Lerner is the Bergstrom Chair in Applied Developmental Science and the Director of the Institute for Applied Research in Youth Development in the Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Development at Tufts University. Lerner is the author or editor of 63 books and more than 450 scholarly articles and chapters.
Karen S. Mooney is Assistant Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois at Springfield. Her research focuses on the quality of adolescent friendships and romantic relationships and how different patterns of relationship quality are associated with adjustment outcomes.
Robert J. Sampson is chair of the Department of Sociology and the Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences at Harvard University. His research interests include crime, the life course, neighborhood effects, and the city.
Eva Schmitt-Rodermund is Director of the Division for Academic and Student Affairs and Professor at the Department of Developmental Psychology at the University of Jena. Her research interests concern human development across the life span, with an emphasis on adolescence. Her main research foci deal with the acculturation of immigrants and career development.
Ingrid Schoon is Professor of Psychology at City University, London, and is Director of the Centre for the Study of Human Development and Well-being. Her research [Page x]interests lie with the study of the life course, variations in transition pathways, risk and resilience, biographical agency, gender, and social inequalities.
Lonnie Sherrod is Professor of Psychology in Fordham University's Applied Developmental Psychology Program (ADP) and Director of the ADP Program, and Co-Director of CARES (Center on Action, Responsibility, and Evaluation Studies). His area of research is Youth Political Development, and he has co-edited special issues of the Journal of Research on Social Issues (1998) and Applied Developmental Science (2002) on the topic.
Rainer K. Silbereisen is currently Professor and Head of the Department of Developmental Psychology at the University of Jena (Germany), Adjunct Professor of Human Development and Family Studies at the Pennsylvania State University (USA), and Director of the Center for Applied Developmental Science. He is a fellow of the American Psychological Association and member of the European Academy of Sciences (London). A psychologist by training, over the last several years he has been involved in interdisciplinary large-scale research on the role of social change and migration in positive and maladaptive human development, utilizing a cross-cultural and biopsychosocial format. With the help of foundations he has established training opportunities for young investigators from countries short in scientific infrastructure. He has edited about 20 books and contributed to more than 250 scholarly research articles.
Margaret Beale Spencer is the board of overseer's Professor of Applied Psychology and Human Development (APHD) in the Graduate School of Education and a Professor of Psychology (School of Arts and Sciences) at the University of Pennsylvania. Her program of research focuses on resiliency and vulnerability, particularly emphasizing the contributions of gender, race, cultural socialization, context, and socioeconomic status.
Amy Syvertsen is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies at Pennsylvania State University. She is interested in promoting adolescents’ civic development as a means of guiding good choices and responsible behavior.
Karina Weichold is Assistant Professor at the Center for Applied Developmental Science and the Department of Developmental Psychology at the University of Jena, Germany. Her research focuses on the development of problem behaviors and positive developmental outcomes (in particular during adolescence), applying a biopsychosocial and life-span perspective. She is interested in applying findings to the development and evaluation of intervention strategies with the aim of preventing problem behaviours and the promotion of positive development in children and adolescents.
Laura Wray-Lake is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of Human Development and Family Studies at Pennsylvania State University. She is interested in the development of values and the relationship between values and civic engagement.
The future of civil society in the world rests on the promotion of positive development and on a commitment to positive and socially just community contributions by the young. Adolescents represent at any point in history the generational cohort that must next be prepared to assume the quality of leadership of self, family, community, and society that will maintain and improve human life.
In Approaches to Positive Youth Development we sought to advance both basic and applied developmental sciences in the study of adolescence, and the progress of theoretical and practical understanding of positive youth development, by providing a meeting place for those already involved in the topic and for those who can bring fresh insights from more basic research on antecedents and forms of positive development. In a sense this aim is already mirrored in the background of the editors: one belongs to the pathfinders of the scientific study of positive youth development and the other has been involved in research on social change.
We believe that the remarkable changes of our times (some even claim that the social contract between generations is at risk) require a focus on the conditions for thriving despite new challenges and obstacles to healthy development. With many in the field we share the view that human development rests on interaction and transaction with contextual opportunities, which are themselves organized in many interconnected levels, from society and culture to families and peers, with other less proximal contexts such as the workplace or the neighbourhood in between.
This concept of the person-context interchange is obviously owed to the late Urie Bronfenbrenner who gave the field and the editors personally so much. We dedicate this book to his memory.
Earlier versions of the chapters for this book were presented at a 2004 conference on ‘Positive Development: Linking Individuals, Communities, and Social Policies’, held at the Dorotheenhof in the city of Weimar, Germany, with the support of the German National Science Foundation (DFG) and the Center for Applied Developmental Science (CADS) at the University of Jena. We thank all the conference participants for lively discussions in a very productive group. Not all conference contributions could be included in this book. All authors were very open to our suggestions when editing the book and in part responded with substantial revisions. We thank them and the team that made the conference possible, in particular Annett Weise and Karina Weichold.
[Page xii]Richard M. Lerner thanks both the National 4-H Council and the John Templeton Foundation for supporting his work. Both editors also thank those who have worked extensively on this book, particularly Verona Christmas-Best, Katrin Müller, Jennifer Davison, Lauren Sweeney, and Nancy Pare, and the editorial staff at SAGE Publications, especially Michael Carmichael.