If you don't get funded the first time, try, try, and try again. Three times is probably the most resubmissions anyone should attempt. Revising and resubmitting an application is easier than preparing an original submission in some ways and harder in others. It is easier because the bulk of the project has already been written in the form required by the funding source. But it is harder because the revisions require the PI to think again about the project, and to think in a way that is directed by the reviewers' comments and perceptions. Finally, it is difficult simply because criticism precipitates emotional reactions, no matter how experienced the investigator. This chapter presents some guidance for interpreting the reviewers' comments and for ...