Applied Psychology: Research, Training and Practice

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Edited by: Rowan Bayne & Gordon Jinks

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    About the Editors and Contributors

    Rowan Bayne is Emeritus Professor of Psychology and Counselling at the University of East London where he was a core tutor on counselling and psychotherapy courses for over thirty years. His books include How to Survive Counsellor Training: An A-Z Guide (with Gordon Jinks) (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010) and The Counsellor's Guide to Personality: Understanding Preferences, Motives And Life Stories (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013).

    James Beale is a Senior Lecturer in Sport & Exercise Psychology in the School of Health, Sport and Biosciences at the University of East London. James specialises in the applied domain where he has over ten years experience. James has worked in a number of sports including, but not limited to, Premier League Football, First Class County Cricket and Elite League Speedway.

    Professor Jenny Bimrose is Deputy Director of the Institute for Employment Research, University of Warwick She has over thirty years of experience teaching, researching and managing in higher education, acted as an expert on careers guidance to various government bodies and the Council of Europe and published extensively in the area of careers. Many recent research projects have focused on the theory, policy and practice of career counselling and guidance. She is co-editor of the British Journal of Guidance and Counselling.

    Dr Ilona Boniwell is a Principal Lecturer, the Founder and Inaugural Programme Leader for the on-campus Masters Degree in Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP), currently leading international and distance learning MAPP developments. Her research interests include: subjective time use, time perspective and hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Ilona is also interested in practical applications of positive psychology, being a qualified coach and a developer of educational programmes.

    Mary Boyle is Professor Emeritus of Clinical Psychology at the University of East London where she was Director of the Clinical Psychology Doctorate until 2006. She was also an NHS psychologist initially in adult services and more recently in womens health. Her main interests are in critical analyses of the medical model and the development of alternatives, and in feminist approaches to womens health. She has published widely in these areas.

    Ray Bull is Professor of Forensic Psychology at the University of Leicester. In 2010 he was elected by acclaim an Honorary Fellow of the British Psychological Society for the contribution made to the discipline of psychology and in 2008 he received from the European Association of Psychology and Law an Award for Life-time Contribution to Psychology and Law. His books include Bull, R. (ed.) (2011) Forensic Psychology - A Four Volume Set of Readings (London: Sage and Wilcock) and R. Bull and R. Milne (2008) Witness Identification in Criminal Cases (Oxford: Oxford University Press).

    Dr Maria Castro is Senior Lecturer and Academic Tutor for the Professional Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at the University of East London. Previously, she was an NHS Clinical Psychologist in Older Peoples Services. Marias core interests are in creative and collaborative praxis, particularly with people and communities largely marginalised, and in teaching, learning and researching as dialogical processes.

    Brian R. Clifford (PhD) is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at the University of East London and Honorary Research Professor at Aberdeen University. He has published over two hundred research papers, reports, chapters and monographs and four books, two in the area of forensic psychology (eyewitness psychology). His main research interests lie in the application of memory research in real-life situations, especially children's and adults recall and recognition abilities. He has successfully supervised over 26 PhD candidates in these fields. He has taught high-level research methodology to postgraduates for many years. He has served as an expert witness in several cases within the UK where issues of testimony and identification have been in dispute. He has also written several chapters on the nature and scope of experimental psychologists as expert witnesses.

    Dr Sarah Davidson is a Consultant Clinical Psychologist at the Tavistock and Portman Foundation NHS Trust and the Deputy Clinical Director on the Professional Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at the University of East London. She is the Psychosocial Advisor for the British Red Cross and leads the MScin International Humanitarian Psychosocial Consultation at the University of East London.

    Colin Feltham is Emeritus Professor of Critical Counselling Studies, Sheffield Hallam University. His most recent publications include Critical Thinking in Counselling and Psychotherapy (Sage, 2010), The Sage Handbook of Counselling and Psychotherapy (3rd edn, co-edited with Ian Horton, Sage, 2012) and Failure (Acumen, forthcoming).

    Clive Fletcher is an Honorary Professor at Warwick Business School, Professor Emeritus at Goldsmiths College, University of London, and Managing Director of Personnel Assessment Ltd. Clive is a Fellow of both the British Psychological Society and the Royal Society of Medicine. He has published nearly two hundred books, chapters, journal articles and conference papers in the field of occupational psychology, mainly in relation to leadership assessment and development in work settings. Clive has acted in a consultancy capacity to many organisations in both private and public sectors.

    Dr Mark Fox is Programme Director for the Professional Doctorate in Educational and Child Psychology at the University of East London. He has worked as an educational psychologist for over thirty years both for local authorities and the voluntary sector where he was head of the Advisory and Assessment Services at SCOPE. He has written extensively on the training and evidence base for educational psychology. His professional interest is in children with severe and multiple disabilities and developing their quality of life.

    Kenneth Gannon (PhD) is Research Director on the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology programme at the University of East London. Dr Gannons research interests lie in the broad area of health psychology.

    Irvine Gersch (PhD) is Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of East London. He has served as Chairperson of the British Psychological Society Training Committee for Educational Psychology and as a member of the DfES working group on the future role and training of educational psychologists. He has co-edited three books, and published chapters in books and articles in the fields of listening to children and pupil involvement, behaviour management, school leadership, systems analysis, management, educational psychology training, conciliation and mediation in special needs and teacher stress. In 2002, he received the British Psychological Society's annual award for Distinguished Contributions to Professional Psychology.

    Dr Carla Gibbes is the Programme Director for the Doctorate in Occupational Psychology at the University of East London. A Chartered Occupational Psychologist, Carla is active as an external consultant to many public sector organisations. Her research interests include work-life balance, post-traumatic stress disorder and susceptibility to stress.

    Chris Hackley is Professor of Marketing in the School of Management at Royal Holloway, University of London, teaching advertising and marketing. He has also taught social and introductory psychology as an Associate Lecturer for the Open University. Chris was already a management academic when he obtained his BSc Hons Social Science and Postgraduate Diploma in Psychology by distance learning. He learnt social psychological discourse analysis from Potter and Wetherell (1987) and he applied some of this knowledge to his qualitative PhD research into the creative development process in advertising agencies. His research interests focus on the linguistic and socio-cultural understanding of marketing and consumption. Recent projects have engaged with policy issues related to alcohol and young people and UK television product placement. His most recent book is the second edition of his text Advertising and Promotion: An Integrated Marketing Communications Approach, published by Sage in 2010.

    David Harper (PhD) is Reader in Clinical Psychology at the University of East London. He is a co-author of Deconstructing Psychopathology (Sage, 1995), a co-editor of Qualitative Research Methods in Mental Health and Psychotherapy (Wiley, 2012) and co-author of Psychology, Mental Health and Distress (Palgrave MacMillan, 2013).

    James Hartley is Research Professor of Psychology at the University of Keele, Staffordshire, UK. His main research interests are in written communication, but he is also well known for his research into teaching and learning in higher education. His publications include Designing Instructional Text (3rd edn, Kogan Page, 1994); Learning and Studying: A Research Perspective (Routledge, 1998); (with Alan Branthwaite) The Applied Psychologist (2nd edn, Open University Press, 2000); and Academic Writing and Publishing (Routledge, 2008).

    Nicky Hayes is a Chartered Psychologist specialising in social and organisational issues. She is now semi-retired, but during her academic career she conducted research into subjects as varied as organisational cultures, team management, the psychology of interactive science exhibits and exam stress. She also had a varied teaching career, which involved teaching psychology in colleges and universities at levels ranging from GCE to postgraduate degree work Her extensive knowledge of psychology, and ability to draw connections between different specialisms, meant that she was much in demand for her broad-ranging and informative guest lectures, both in the UK and abroad. In 1997 she was awarded the British Psychological Societys Award for Distinguished Contributions to the Teaching of Psychology, and she is a Fellow of the British Psychological Society and an Honorary Life Member of the Association for the Teaching of Psychology. She has published over 20 books, and her clear writing style opened up an interest in psychology for both new readers and struggling students.

    Dr Kate Hefferon is a Chartered Psychologist, Senior Lecturer and Co-Programme Leader on the Msc in Applied Positive Psychology at the University of East London. Her research interests lie within the area of post-traumatic growth, physical activity, health and well-being.

    Mark Holloway is the Programme Director for the MSc in Occupational & Business Psychology at the University of East London. A Chartered Occupational Psychologist, Mark is active as an external consultant and is currently working on specialist projects with the Department for Education and the Ministry of Defence. His research interests include impostors and deception in the workplace.

    Dr Ashok Jansari got his degree in Experimental Psychology from Kings College Cambridge and then his Doctorate at the University of Sussex where he conducted research on memory and amnesia. Following a two-year postdoctoral fellowship in the United States at the University of Iowa Hospitals & Clinics, he has created an extensive research programme looking at different aspects of memory loss including the development of rehabilitation regimes, the creation of a virtual reality assessment of brain damage, impairments in face-recognition (known as prosopagnosia or face-blindness) and synaesthesia or cross-sensory perception (in which an individual upon hearing the word Monday will claim to see the colour red). In 2004, he was awarded the International Neuropsychological Societys Cermak Award for the best research in memory disorders and in 2011 he was awarded a Live Science residency at the Science Museum in London to run the largest ever study on face-recognition in the UK.

    Gordon Jinks is Principal Lecturer in Counselling and Psychotherapy at the University of East London's School of Psychology, where he is programme leader for the MA/Postgraduate Diploma in Counselling & Psychotherapy, and leader in collaborative provision, responsible for managing links with programmes at the Tavistock Centre for Couple Relationships, the Psychosynthesis Education Trust and East London NHS Trust among others. He has led the development of innovative undergraduate programmes in counselling, counselling studies and counselling and mentoring at the University of East London and previously at York St. John. As a practitioner he has worked in university counselling services and in the mental health field (for the NHS and MIND) as well as in private practice. He is an integrative practitioner and has a particular interest in how clients learn from therapy and go on to apply that learning as new issues arise in their lives. Earlier in his career he worked for sixteen years as a psychiatric nurse and nurse tutor in Yorkshire and Lanarkshire. His first degree was in physics and he maintains a laymans interest in the ways the universe is not only stranger than we imagine, but stranger than we can imagine.

    Carolyn Kagan is Professor of Community Social Psychology at Manchester Metropolitan University and Director of the Research Institute for Health and Social Change. She is also a qualified social worker and registered counselling psychologist. She has written widely about community psychology and has worked on local and international participative and collaborative research projects for over thirty years in fields including learning disability poverty women and community activism, migration, community participation, and university-community engagement. She is a founder editor of the international journal Community, Work and Family.

    Richard Kwiatkowski (PhD) is a Senior Lecturer in Organizational Psychology at Cranfield Business School. He has been focused on developing people and organisations for over 25 years in a variety of contexts. He is both a Chartered and Registered Occupational Psychologist and a Counselling Psychologist. He is a former Chair of the British Psychological Societys Division of Occupational Psychology and of the British Psychological Societys Ethics Committee and a former associate editor of The Psychologist

    Nelica La Gro is a Senior Lecturer in the School of Psychology, University of East London and has worked as programme leader for the p/g Diploma in Career Guidance (QCG). She is a fellow of the Higher Education Academy, on the ICG Research Committee and has recently qualified in mediation and conflict resolution. She has contributed to EU funded research projects over the last decade and has a keen interest in the development of innovative approaches to professional learning.

    Dr Ho Law is an International Consultant and Practitioner Psychologist, Registered Occupational Psychologist, Chartered Scientist, Chartered Psychologist, Registered Applied Psychology Practice Supervisor, Fellow of the Chartered Management Institute, Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine, and Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society. Ho has had over twenty-five years' experience in psychology and management consultancy. He delivered numerous workshops/conference seminars and carried out consultancy work in the UK and abroad (the East and West). Ho values diversity in people, and respects their cultures and believes in equal opportunities for all. He was one of the first equality advisors to the Assistant Permanent Under Secretary of State in the Home Office, and the Deputy Chair of the British Psychological Society Standing Committee for Promotion of Equal Opportunities. Ho is passionate about helping people to develop their talents and achieve their full potential through coaching and mentoring. Ho was the first Head of Profession in Coaching (Association for Coaching, 2004). He is a founding member and Chair (2010) of the British Psychological Society Special Group in Coaching Psychology and founding Director and member of the International Society for Coaching Psychology. He is the principal author of The Psychology of Coaching, Mentoring & Learning (Wiley, 2007), interviews editor of Counselling Psychology Quarterly and consulting editor of The Coaching Psychologist. He has published over forty papers and received numerous outstanding achievement awards including the Local Promoters for Cultural Diversity Project in 2003, the Positive Image (Business Category) in 2004 and Management Essentials Participating Company 2005. At the University of East London School of Psychology, Ho is a Senior Lecturer (0.5), Admissions Tutor and Leader in the MSc coaching/coaching psychology distance Learning programme and Leader in the coaching and mentoring BSc modules. He is also the Director of Studies, supervising PhD students: one is The Role of Space In Learning: Spatio-Educational Experiences of Female Students within Emirati Higher Education'; and another is The Impact Evaluation of Creating a Coaching Culture within a Third Level Educational Institution in the Gulf'.

    Chris Lewis is a Registered Occupational Psychologist, an Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society and a Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society. He is Principal of the consultancy Aver Psychology. He was Course Director of the MSc in Occupational Psychology at the University of East London for seventeen years and is a past chair of the British Psychological Society Division of Occupational Psychology. His main interests are assessment and the critical evaluation of current psychometric methodology. He has authored many widely used psychometric tests, over 100 papers and technical reports and a number of books and book chapters including Employee Selection (2nd edn, Stanley Thornes, 1992).

    Dr P. Alex Linley is a Chartered Psychologist and Founding Director of Capp (www.cappeu.com). He works as an organisational consultant applying strengths psychology to organisational development and people practices, serving a range of major global clients. Alex has written, co-written or edited more than 150 research papers and book chapters, and seven books, including Positive Psychology in Practice (Wiley, 2004), The Strengths Book (CAPP Press, 2010) and the Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology and Work (Oxford, 2010).

    Professor Susan Llewelyn is Director of the Oxford Doctoral Course in Clinical Psychology, Professor of Clinical Psychology at Oxford University and Senior Research Fellow at Harris Manchester College, Oxford. She trained at Sheffield and Leeds Universities and has worked in both the NHS and university sectors in Nottingham, Sheffield, Dorset, Southampton and Edinburgh. She has a particular interest in the psychological therapies, and her clinical work has concerned therapeutic interventions for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Sue also has a specific interest in professional issues, leadership and teamwork and has written or co-authored six books and over one hundred academic and professional papers.

    Ruth E. Mann (PhD) is a Chartered and Registered Forensic Psychologist employed by the National Offender Management Service. Her particular area of expertise is the assessment and treatment of sexual offending. In 2010, Ruth received the British Psychological Society Division of Forensic Psychology senior award for her contribution to forensic psychology in the UK.

    Professor Rachel Mulvey is a Fellow and Past President of the Institute of Career Guidance; she is also a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy. Rachel was Vice-Chair of the Parliamentary task force on the career guidance profession that reported in October 2010. She is on the steering group for a pan-European research team looking at innovative training of career guidance. Her own research centres on public policy for career guidance and graduate employability. Rachel is Professor of Career Guidance.

    Jill Mytton (MSc) is a Chartered Counselling Psychologist in private practice. She is also currently working part time as a research supervisor on the Doctorate in Existential Counselling Psychology and Psychotherapy at the New School of Psychotherapy and Counselling, London. Prior to this she was the Course Leader on the Counselling Psychology Doctoral Programme at London Metropolitan University. She has served on the Division of Counselling Psychology Committee as the Lead for conference for several years. In addition to contributing chapters to three books, she is the co-author with Windy Dryden of Four Approaches to Counselling and Psychotherapy (Routledge, 1999). As part of her own doctoral programme she is studying the relationship between mental health and being raised in fundamentalist sects/cults.

    Paula Nicolson is Professor Emeritus of the University of London (Royal Holloway) in Critical Social Health Psychology, and an Organisational Consultant with Psychological Solutions London and Fitzrovia Organisational Consulting. Her research background includes health psychology issues in studies of domestic violence, sexuality, chronic illness, leadership in health care organisations and postnatal depression. She is a Chartered Psychologist, Fellow of the British Psychological Society, Academician of the Academy of Social Sciences, a member of the Tavistock Society of Psychotherapists (Allied Professions) and a Registered Practitioner Psychologist (Health Psychology). She is currently developing her private practice through further specialist training as a psychodynamic couple psychotherapist.

    Paul R. Penn (PhD) is a Lecturer in Psychology at the University of East London and co-ordinator of the Virtual Reality Laboratory. He has research interests in the application of technology to the assessment and rehabilitation of brain damage and has published numerous works within this field. His other key interests centre around developing skills and employability provisions for psychology undergraduates. Paul is a Fellow of the Higher Education Academy, a Chartered Psychologist and a member of the British Psychological Society division for Teachers and Researchers in Psychology.

    John Radford led the development of Psychology at West Ham College of Technology, a predecessor of the University of East London, from 1965, later becoming Dean of Science. He introduced Psychology as an A-level subject in 1970, and founded the Association for the Teaching of Psychology. He received the first awards of the British Psychological Society, of which he is a Fellow and Honorary Life Member, for Distinguished Contributions to the Teaching of Psychology and for Lifetime Achievement in Psychology Education. He has published eighteen books and numerous papers on many topics, including the teaching of psychology, higher education, child prodigies, the psychology of religion, gender differences, personality and individual differences, science fiction and Sherlock Holmes.

    Donald Ridley is the Programme Director for the MSc in Applied Psychology at the University of East London. A Chartered Occupational Psychologist, Donald is expert in error prevention and safety critical systems. His research interests include the assessment of mental workload and the development of public sector organisations in the former Soviet Union.

    Mary Robinson (PhD) is Associate Tutor/Senior Educational Psychologist at the University of East London.

    F. David Rose (PhD) recently retired as the Dean of the School of Psychology and Pro Vice-Chancellor at the University of East London. He is now Emeritus Professor. For many years he has been involved in environmental enrichment research and has published extensively on brain damage rehabilitation and the possible applications of virtual reality in this area. He was responsible for establishing the first virtual reality laboratory in the UK.

    Volker Thoma (PhD) is a Senior Lecturer at the University of East London. His research area is on dual processing in visual recognition of objects and in the area of decision-making, including the neuroscientific basis of cognition. He previously worked as a researcher in object recognition and visual attention at University College London and the University of California, Los Angeles. As a former human factors researcher at the Fraunhofer Institute of Industrial Science in Stuttgart he gained experience in the area of human-machine interaction, working on the design of interfaces such as ticket machines, computer software, as well as internet and virtual reality applications.

    Dr Christian van Nieuwerburgh is Programme Leader for the MSc in Coaching and Coaching Psychology at the University of East London, Executive Coach for the West Midlands Coaching Pool and Chief Executive of the International Centre for Coaching in Education.

    Christopher Whiteley (DClin Psy) is a Consultant Clinical Psychologist working in Specialist Addiction Services with East London NHS Trust. He is also an Honorary Clinical Tutor with the University of East London Professional Doctorate in Clinical Psychology. Christophers clinical and research interests are in the associations between substance use and mental health.

    Dr Marcia Wilson is a Principal lecturer in Sport Psychology and the Field Leader for Applied Sport and Exercise Sciences at the University of East London. Marcias main area of research focuses on expectancy theory in sport. Marcia has extensive applied-sport psychology experience, mainly working with young elite female footballers.

    Introduction

    This book is a considerable revision and expansion of the first edition. It includes eleven new chapters and several substantial updates.

    The book is intended for three groups of people:

    • psychology undergraduates who are considering a career in applied psychology and wondering which of the many possibilities is the most attractive and practical for them;
    • students on MSc psychology courses who want an overview of issues and new directions in applied psychology;
    • tutors on those MSc courses who, by definition, are shaping and developing applied psychology.

    The book is organised into three parts. The first part is a general context for applied psychology including a critique of questions about evidence-based practice. The second part discusses research, practice and training in the traditional areas of applied psychology, eight relative newcomers and four areas not always regarded as applied psychology: counselling, coaching, careers guidance and lecturing. The latter group are examples of disciplines that are intrinsically psychological but do not require a psychology degree for a career in them, such as nursing, occupational therapy, social work, human resources (HR) and management. The third part is a roundtable of expert practitioners commenting on the new directions they would like to see in their areas of applied psychology.

    There is no definitive answer to the question What is applied psychology?' but the British Psychological Societys (BPS) Directory of Chartered Psychologists and the Directory of Expert Witnesses (2002 version), now an online publication at www.bps.org, made a detailed, brave, though probably quixotic, attempt. It distinguished fourteen broad areas in which chartered psychologists offer services and one hundred and eight specialist services within those areas. The fourteen broad areas are all represented in this book.

    Training and practice in applied psychology has been firmly structured around such specialisms as clinical, educational, etc. for many years. In an incisive and radical critique of this situation, Peter Kinderman (2005) noted the anomaly of different approaches to training, pay and conditions in some of the specialisms when the psychologists in many of them work in ‘very similar ways’, and he argued that the resulting problems include both a general public who are confused about applied psychology and students who are deterred from a career in applied psychology. He proposed a revolution, to a three-year doctoral programme in applied psychology with specialisms in the third year only, and a unified career structure with five levels: undergraduate, associate psychologist, applied psychologist in doctoral training, applied psychologist with a particular specialism, and consultant. Thus, there would be a single route of training and a single career path. So far, any such revolution is happening slowly at best.

    For authoritative and up-to-date information on becoming a chartered psychologist and on other aspects of careers and training in applied psychology, contact the BPS (www.bps.org.uk; phone: 0116 254 9568). The BPS will also give details of conversion courses for people who want to be eligible for postgraduate training in psychology but who do not have a psychology degree that is recognised by the BPS.

    Acknowledgements

    A warm thank-you to our authors and to our editors, Michael Carmichael, Sophie Hine and Alana Clogan, especially in uncertain and demanding times for universities and publishers.

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