Applied Psychology: Current Issues and New Directions

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Edited by: Rowan Bayne & Ian Horton

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  • Part I: Practice and Training

    Part II: Generic Issues

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    List of Contributors

    The editors would like to thank the following for their contributions to this book: Martyn Baker, Jane Gibbons and Neil Rees (Chapter 1); Alan Labram (the trends and career development section, Chapter 2); Mary Robinson and Mark Turner (the training issues section, Chapter 2); an anonymous trainee occupational psychologist (case study of becoming a chartered occupational psychologist, Chapter 3); Kasia Symanska (Chapter 4); Ian Horton (Chapter 8); Niru Williams (a day in the life of a counsellor, Chapter 8).

    All the writers of Chapters 113 were members of the School of Psychology, the University of East London (UEL), at the time of writing.

    Bipasha Ahmed PhD is a lecturer in social psychology. Her current research interests are in critical and narrative approaches to psychology, especially ‘race’, gender and class issues. She has published and presented research on the social construction of racism and feminist psychology and is currently involved in research into experiences of sexual abuse within the Asian community and how it is dealt with by service providers.

    Irina Anderson PhD is a senior lecturer in psychology. Her research interests include issues in sexual violence, attribution and counterfactual reasoning theories (particularly in relation to rape), and discourse and conversation analysis.

    Martyn Baker PsyD is a senior lecturer in clinical psychology and Deputy Director of the Doctoral Degree in Clinical Psychology. His interests are in personal construct psychology and the impact of religious commitment on the clients and staff of clinical psychology services.

    Rowan Bayne PhD is Reader in Counselling and a chartered occupational psychologist. His main interests are in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and assertiveness. He has written, co-written and co-edited several books, including New Directions in Counselling (Routledge, 1996) and The Counsellor's Handbook (Nelson Thornes, 1999, 2ed.).

    Jenny Bimrose PhD was Head of the Centre for Training in Careers Guidance for over 20 years. Currently she is Principal Research Fellow at the Institute for Employment Research, University of Warwick, and has also been a practitioner in careers guidance. She is also Chair of the Research Committee for the Institute of Career Guidance and a member of its Ethics and Standards Committee. Her research interests include guidance practice in the UK and women's career development.

    Mary Boyle PhD is Professor of Clinical Psychology and Director for the Doctoral Degree in Clinical Psychology at UEL. As well as having a strong interest in training and education (she is a past Chair of the BPS Committee on Training in Clinical Psychology), she is an active clinician and researcher. Her main research interests are in critical and feminist approaches to women's health and clinical psychology. She is the author of Schizophrenia: A Scientific Delusion? (Routledge, 2002) and Rethinking Abortion: Psychology, Gender, Power and the Law (Routledge, 1997).

    Brian R. Clifford PhD is Professor of Psychology and was a founder member of the DCLP, now Division of Forensic Psychology. He has published over 200 peer-reviewed research papers, chapters and monographs and four books, two in the area of forensic psychology (eye-witness psychology). His main research interest is in the application of memory research in real-life situations, especially children's and adults' recall and recognition abilities. He has taught high-level research methodology to postgraduates for many years. He has served as an expert witness in several cases within the UK where issues of testimony and identification have been in dispute.

    Paul Curran MEd is an associate tutor and senior educational psychologist.

    Christine Doyle PhD is a chartered occupational psychologist who has had many years of experience as an educator in the university sector. She has acted as a facilitator on management development programmes in the NHS and local government. She specializes in selection, assessment, appraisal and management development, but also contributes to other areas in occupational psychology such as the design of environments and of work and occupational stress and gender issues at work. She wrote Work and Organizational Psychology: An Introduction with Attitude (The Psychology Press, 2002).

    Irvine S. Gersch – see roundtable contributors.

    Jane Gibbons PhD is a clinical tutor.

    Ernie Govier BSc is Deputy Head of School. He was co-editor of A Textbook of Psychology (Sheldon Press, 1980) which was the first general textbook produced in the UK for advanced level psychology. His research interests lie in the field of psychological sex differences and occupational choice. He was the UK consultant for the Channel 4 television series ‘Why Men Don't Iron’ which has been shown world-wide.

    David Harper PhD is a senior lecturer in clinical psychology. Having worked as a clinical psychologist in NHS adult mental health services since 1991, David is currently Year II Academic Year Tutor on UEL's Doctoral Degree in Clinical Psychology. He is interested in critical and social constructionist perspectives in mental health and psychosis generally, specifically discourse analytic research into user and professional perspectives on ‘paranoia’. He has published widely and is a co-author of Deconstructing Psychopathology (Sage, 1995).

    Ian Horton MA, FBACP is Principal Lecturer in Counselling and Psychotherapy. He has been a chair or member of several British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy committees and is particularly interested in the practical and theoretical integration of counselling. He has co-written and co-edited five books, including Issues in Professional Counsellor Training (Cassell, 1995), The Needs of Counsellors and Psychotherapists (Sage, 1997) and the Handbook of Counselling and Psychotherapy (Sage, 2000).

    Alan Labram MSc is a field tutor and educational psychologist.

    Nelica La Gro MSc is a lecturer in careers guidance. She has worked in the voluntary, local authority and private sectors, in addition to higher education. Her research interests and publications include evaluation studies of career guidance delivery systems, contribution to transnational projects and investigation of exchanges of meaning in the careers counselling interview.

    Mark R. McDermott PhD is a chartered health and clinical psychologist. His recent publication topics include: psychosocial antecedents of coronary artery disease; individual differences in resistance to social influence (‘rebelliousness’); social cognition variables as predictors of risky single occasion drinking; and defining health psychology.

    Gladeana McMahon Dip. Couns. FBACP was a part-time senior lecturer in counselling and is a BACP senior registered counsellor and counselling supervisor and a BABCP-accredited cognitive-behavioural psychotherapist who is UKCP, CBT and UKRC Ind. Couns. registered. She has edited, co-edited, authored or co-authored several books including The Handbook of Counselling in Britain (Routledge, 1997) and Confidence Works – Learn to be Your Own Life Coach (Sheldon Press, 2001).

    Tony Merry MA is a senior lecturer in counselling and has a private practice as a counsellor and supervisor. He has a special interest in person-centred counselling, and is author and co-author of a number of books on the person-centred approach. His most recent book is Learning and Being in Person-centred Counselling (2nd edn) (PCCS Books, 2002).

    M. Rachel Mulvey PhD is Head of the Centre for Training in Careers Guidance. She is a full member and registered practitioner of the Institute for Careers Guidance and a NICEC associate (National Institute of Careers Education and Counselling). Her research areas are managerialism and professionalism, the role of ethics in practice and strategy, distance working and the transnational element of applied research in careers.

    Jill Mytton MSc is a chartered counselling psychologist. She is a senior lecturer and current Course Director for the MSc Counselling Psychology course. Previously she has worked in primary care and in an Employment Assistance Programme at London Transport. Jill is currently the Honorary Secretary for the Division of Counselling Psychology. Her research areas are trauma and its treatment, and the relationship between mental health and religion.

    John Radford – see roundtable contributors.

    Neil Rees PhD is a clinical tutor.

    Anne Ridley BSc is a final-year PhD student, studying the effects of anxiety on eye-witness testimony.

    Mary Robinson MSc is an associate tutor and senior educational psychologist.

    David Rose PhD is the Head of the School of Psychology. Before he joined UEL in 1994 he was Reader in Psychology at Goldsmiths College. His main research interest is in rehabilitation following brain damage and, in particular, virtual-reality applications to rehabilitation.

    Kasia Symanska MSc is a part-time senior lecturer in counselling psychology and a UKCP registered counsellor.

    Mark Turner MSc is an academic and professional tutor in educational psychology.

    James J. Walsh PhD is a senior lecturer in psychology. His research interests are in health psychology and personality. Recent publications include work on the predictors of risky drinking, the role of identity in health behaviour and the relationship between perfectionism and statistics anxiety.

    Christopher Whiteley D. Clin. Psych. is a clinical tutor in clinical psychology and is currently Year I Clinical Tutor on UEL's Doctoral Degree in Clinical Psychology. Christopher is also a clinical psychologist in the NHS working in a specialist addictions service with an inner-city trust. He is interested in associations across drug use, mental health and criminal justice problems in inner-city populations.

    Niru Williams PG Dip. Couns. is Acting Head of the Counselling and Advisory Service.

    Sheila Wolfendale – see roundtable contributors.

    The Roundtable

    Ian M. Cockerill PhD is an honorary senior research fellow in the School of Medicine, University of Birmingham and, for more than 20 years, taught in the School of Sport and Exercise Sciences at Birmingham. He is Chair of the British Psychological Society's Sport and Exercise Psychology Section and is now working in private practice. He has published six books in the areas of sport and exercise psychology, the latest of which is Solutions in Sport Psychology (Thomson, 2002).

    Cary L. Cooper is currently BUPA Professor of Organizational Psychology and Health in the Manchester School of Management, and Deputy Vice Chancellor of the University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology (UMIST). He is the author of over 80 books (on occupational stress, women at work and industrial and organizational psychology), has written over 400 scholarly articles for academic journals and is currently founding editor of the Journal of Organizational Behaviour, co-editor of the medical journal Stress and Health and the President of the British Academy of Management.

    Michael W. Eysenck is Professor of Psychology at Royal Holloway, University of London. He has published 25 books and approximately 130 research articles and book chapters. These publications cover a wide range of topics. However, his main research area is anxiety and cognition. He was the founding editor of the European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, and he has been Visiting Professor at the University of South Florida.

    Colin Feltham PhD is Reader in Counselling at Sheffield Hallam University. He has been co-editor of the British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, has had 17 books published in the area of counselling and psychotherapy and edits three book series for Sage Publications. His latest book is What's the Good of Counselling and Psychotherapy? The Benefits Explained (Sage, 2002).

    Clive Fletcher PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at Goldsmiths College and Managing Director of Personnel Assessment Ltd. He is the author of nearly 200 publications and conference papers, mostly in the field of selection and assessment in work settings. He is a former chairman of the BPS Occupational Psychology Section and serves in varying board capacities for a number of UK and international companies.

    Irvine S. Gersch PhD is Professor of Educational Psychology and Course Director of the MSc in Educational Psychology at UEL. He has published widely in the areas of listening to children, systems work, behaviour management, conciliation in SEN, educational psychology practice and training. He co-edited Meeting Disruptive Behaviour (Macmillan, 1990), and his latest book is Resolving Disagreement in SEN: A Practical Guide to Mediation and Conciliation (Routledge, 2002). He is a member of the government's working party on the future role and training of educational psychology.

    Nicky Hayes is a fellow of the British Psychological Society, a honorary life member of the Association for the Teaching of Psychology and the 1997 recipient of the BPS Award for Distinguished Contributions to the Teaching of Psychology. She is an experienced researcher and consultant, with specialisms in both social and organizational psychology as well as in the psychology of exams. She is also the author of several well-known psychology textbooks and lectures in psychology at Bradford University.

    Chris Lewis is a consultant, a chartered occupational psychologist and a partner in Aver Psychology. He was Course Director of the MSc in Occupational Psychology at UEL for 17 years and is a past chair (three times) of the BPS Occupational Psychology Division. His main interests are assessment and psychometrics and he is the author of over 100 papers and technical reports and of Employee Selection (2nd edn) (Hutchinson, 1992).

    Geoff Lindsay is Professor of Educational Psychology and Special Educational Needs at the University of Warwick, where he is also Director of the Centres for Educational Development, Appraisal and Research. He is a past president of the British Psychological Society and is currently chair of the Society's Working Group on Statutory Registration and convener of the European Federation of Psychologists Association Standing Committee on Ethics. His latest book is Researching Children's Perspectives, co-edited with Ann Lewis (Open University Press, 2000).

    Sue Llewelyn PhD is Course Director for the Oxford Doctoral Course in Clinical Psychology and Supernumery Fellow of Harris-Manchester College, University of Oxford. She was a member of the Mental Health Act Commission and has been involved in clinical psychology training since 1989. She is currently Chair of the Committee on Training in Clinical Psychology which accredits all British clinical psychology courses. She is the author of over 65 book chapters, academic and professional papers, 4 books and over 40 national and international conference presentations.

    Stephen Newstead PhD is Professor of Psychology at the University of Plymouth and currently holds the position of Dean of the Faculty of Human Sciences. He was a member of the Psychology RAE Panel in 1992 and 1996, has been a QAA subject reviewer, chaired the Psychology Benchmarking exercise in 2000–1, and currently chairs the ESRC Psychology Panel for the recognition of postgraduate programmes. From 1995–1996 he was President of the British Psychological Society.

    Paula Nicolson is Professor of Health Psychology at the School for Health and Related Research (ScHARR), University of Sheffield. Her research interests are in women's reproductive health, including sexual behaviour and post-natal depression and gender/power relations at work. She is the author of several books, including Post-natal Depression: Facing the Paradox of Loss, Happiness and Motherhood (Wiley, 2001) and Having it All: Choices for Today's Superwoman (Wiley, 2002).

    John Radford PhD is Emeritus Professor of Psychology at UEL, where he led the Department of Psychology from 1965 to 1982, later becoming Dean of Science and Assistant Director of the then polytechnic. He introduced psychology as a subject for GCE A-level and founded the Association for the Teaching of Psychology. He was chair of the Psychology Board of the CNAA for six years. He is a fellow and honorary life member of the British Psychological Society, of whose Award for Distinguished Contributions to Teaching Psychology he was the first recipient. He is sole or joint author of 17 books, some of which have been translated into Finnish, Hebrew, Japanese, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbo-Croat and Spanish, and of numerous chapters and articles.

    Sheila Wolfendale PhD is Professor of Educational Psychology in the School of Psychology at UEL, and is Course Director of the Doctorate in Educational Psychology for practising educational psychologists. She has had 22 books published, as sole author, editor and as co-editor, in the areas of educational psychology, special educational needs, early years and child development, and parental involvement. Her latest book is Parent Partnership Services for Special Educational Needs: Celebrations and Challenges (David Fulton, 2002).

    Preface

    In 1962 Glenys Turner, a young lecturer at what was then called West Ham College of Technology, began teaching psychology to four students who were studying for a general degree of the University of London. Forty years later, within the School of Psychology in a much expanded institution, now called the University of East London (or UEL for short), over 50 full-time academic staff and numerous part-time staff are teaching psychology to over one thousand students on 3 undergraduate and 12 postgraduate programmes. Our postgraduate programmes span educational, clinical, occupational and counselling psychology, counselling, psychotherapy and careers guidance. Of these, three are professional doctorates – a development in psychology education nationally and one in which the School of Psychology at UEL has played a leading role. Through university validation arrangements the School of Psychology has links with students from three external organizations, the Psychosynthesis and Education Trust, Relate and the London Marriage Guidance Council.

    We therefore have a strong emphasis on applied psychology. A crucial factor in the successful teaching of applied psychology is the active involvement of the staff of the School of Psychology at UEL in those activities for which they seek to train their students. The school now offers a wide range of consultancy services and short courses through its recently established Psychology Services Centre, and has a proud record and an extensive portfolio of research on applied psychology. More generally, we seek to give equal weight to teaching, research and professional practice as a basic principle of development.

    The School of Psychology, within the institution's various incarnations as West Ham College of Technology, North East London Polytechnic, the Polytechnic of East London and, since 1992, the University of East London, has always been in the forefront of educational developments in psychology. This is perhaps unsurprising. Professor John Radford, its head from 1967 to 1982, is internationally known for his work on the teaching of psychology. We are proud to have worked with him on some of his numerous publications on the subject: Ernie Govier as joint editor of the text A Textbook of Psychology (1980), for A-Level psychology, and David Rose as joint editor of The Teaching of Psychology. Method, Content and Context (1980), Teaching Psychology: Information and Resources (1984) and A Liberal Science: Psychology Education, Past, Present and Future (1989). The British Psychological Society's award to John Radford of its inaugural prize for outstanding contributions to the teaching of psychology in 1996 was richly deserved. Subsequent heads have made their own particular contributions, of course, but John Radford had already ‘set the scene’.

    The range and diversity of our teaching and professional activities within the School of Psychology at UEL provide the impetus for this book. Its purpose is, partly, to celebrate the inspiration, innovation and achievement of both current and former staff. However, we also wish to discuss and to share our experiences and our thoughts about a range of issues which we have encountered during our development. For example, early on in this process of development, colleagues debated the distinction between ‘pure’ and ‘applied’ psychology, the relative merits of theory-driven vs. non-theory-driven research, and the appropriate boundaries between ‘academic’ and ‘professional’ psychology, or between ‘scientific’ and ‘practitioner based’ psychology. A useful framework for discussion of many of these issues has been John Radford's distinction among the subject (‘the organization of content and resources for teaching purposes’), the discipline (‘an inquiry into certain problems that seem to be related, and the associated body of method and knowledge’) and the profession (‘a set of people who devote much of their working time to such a group of problems and to trying to find practical solutions to them’) of psychology (see Radford and Rose, 1989).

    Three issues, in particular, have exercised us in recent years. All are to do with boundaries. The first concerns the external boundaries of professional psychology, the second the boundaries between areas within professional psychology and the third and most challenging issue concerns the cultural boundaries of professional psychology.

    First, we run postgraduate professional programmes in mainstream areas of psychology side by side with programmes in counselling, psychotherapy and careers guidance. While a large majority of our staff have qualifications accredited by the British Psychological Society a significant number have, instead, qualifications accredited by the British Association for Counselling and Psychotherapy and the Institute for Careers Guidance. Yet the overlap among the expertise of these staff, the areas they teach and the professional activities they support is striking. For us this mixture of qualifications, experience and approaches within the school is very positive and enriching. We supported the introduction of the Register of Chartered Psychologists by the British Psychological Society, for all the reasons presented at the time but particularly in order to protect the public. However, our experience suggests that the effectiveness and vibrancy of professional training in psychology are greatly enhanced by an eclectic and inclusive approach: too rigid an approach to external boundaries will ultimately be to the detriment of the profession. The ‘issue’ is to manage the tension between, on the one hand, protecting both members and non-members of the profession and, on the other, the open mindedness, eclecticism and inclusivity which we believe are essential to the development of our profession in a rapidly changing world.

    Similarly, there is an issue relating to boundaries between different specialist areas within professional psychology. This is not new, of course, and in The Psychologist over the years there have been numerous discussions of whether or not, or the extent to which, we should formally recognize the significant overlaps between the main areas of professional psychology and work towards recasting the boundaries within the profession. Importantly, should there be a generic core training for all? Given the range of our applied courses at UEL we are especially well placed to form a view about generic core training. Already there is significant collaboration between our programmes and there is little doubt it could be greatly extended. The issue here is where lies the balance between the need for generic skills and high-level specialist knowledge? How far should generic core training extend, and when and how should more specialist training be introduced? How much of the specialist training requirements should come before the award of a formal qualification, and how much of it should be provided on a continuing professional development basis? A related sub-issue concerns the boundaries between the activities of chartered psychologists within the current specialist professional areas of psychology and less qualified ‘assistants’ in those areas. Recent years have seen a proliferation of assistant psychologist posts in clinical psychology and there have been suggestions that a somewhat similar system within educational psychology may be the only way to maintain an adequate service to children, parents and teachers. Needless to say this is intricately related to the issue we have just discussed and has important implications for those who provide the professional training.

    The third issue we should like to highlight, the cultural boundaries of psychology, we believe to be the most challenging. It also has particular relevance to the context within which we teach psychology at UEL. An important part of our university's vision is to ‘Support social, cultural and economic inclusion, diversity and development’. The ethnic and cultural diversity of our student community in the School of Psychology is a source of great pride, therefore. Yet with diversity comes a responsibility to develop the subject, the discipline and the profession of psychology both to reflect and embrace this diversity. We are making progress: see, for example, the recent and highly acclaimed book by a member of our clinical psychology team, Nimisha Patel and her colleagues (Patel et al., 2000). However, we have a long way to go. This challenge is one which is faced by the whole profession of psychology if it is to have as much influence in the first half of the twenty-first century as it has had in the last half of the twentieth century. As we have said, it is again a question of boundaries but also inclusivity and a desire to embrace change.

    These issues and many others are considered in the present volume. We hope you will find it enjoyable, thought provoking and useful. Within these pages the editors, Rowan Bayne and Ian Horton, include a detailed list of thanks and acknowledgements. It only remains for us to thank them for all their hard work and to congratulate them on the result.

    DavidRoseErnieGovier

    Introduction

    This book is intended for three groups of people:

    • Third-year psychology students who are considering a career in applied psychology and wondering which of the many possibilities is the most attractive and practical for them.
    • Students on MSc psychology courses who want an overview of issues and new directions in one or more branches of applied psychology.
    • Tutors on those MSc courses who, by definition, are shaping and developing their subject.

    The book is organized into two parts. The first reviews nine branches of applied psychology and the second contains discussions of four generic issues and a roundtable of eminent psychologists commenting on trends and new directions. Each chapter in part one has a broadly similar structure: summary focus on what practitioners actually do, focus on training, questions for reflection and discussion and suggestions for further reading.

    Part I of the book reviews practice and training in the three traditional branches of applied psychology (clinical, educational and occupational psychology), three relative newcomers (counselling, forensic and health psychology) and three areas not always regarded as applied psychology (careers guidance, counselling – rather than counselling psychology – and lecturing). Careers guidance and counselling (psychotherapy) are examples of disciplines which are intrinsically psychological but which do not require a psychology degree to study them or for a career in them. Other disciplines in this category, though perhaps to a lesser extent than careers guidance and counselling, are teaching, nursing, social work and management.

    A further rationale for the choice of topics in Part I was outlined in the Preface. However, the nine areas chosen clearly provoke the question: ‘Well, what is applied psychology?’ There is no definitive answer, but the British Psychological Society (BPS) publication, The Directory of Chartered Psychologists and The Directory of Expert Witnesses (2002), makes a detailed, brave though probably quixotic attempt. It distinguishes 14 broad areas in which chartered psychologists offer services and 108 specialist services within those areas, discussing each area and service briefly (pp. 3–16). The broad areas are represented in this book, with three main exceptions: clinical neuropsychology, psychological services in social service settings, and market, social and consumer research.

    There are also two appendices to Part I: extracts from a PhD student's diary and notes on continuing professional development (CPD). Extracts from a PhD student's diary are included to give some flavour of this particular career, or pre-career, choice. Wider-ranging discussions and advice are readily available (for example, Phillips and Pugh, 1994; Bearman, 2002; Murray, 2002). The subject of the second appendix, continuing professional development, seems a clear new direction. The BPS decided in 2002 to make it mandatory (The Psychologist, May 2002: 219), and procedures and requirements were being developed at this time by the Standing Committee on CPD. Psychiatrists, for example, in an approach adopted in 2001, are expected to meet in groups of four to six to review their individual plans. We include an example of a psychologist's plan for her own CPD, though this approach, and structured CPD generally, will suit some styles of working much more than others, when quite different styles can be equally effective.

    Part II first discusses some generic issues for applied psychology in four areas: research as an art and science; evidence-based practice as a recent development with strengths and limitations; sexism as an example of the forms of oppression psychology has been accused of; and higher education as the troubled context for the training discussed in this book.

    A special feature of Part II is the concluding roundtable of 14 eminent applied psychologists, commenting on current trends and desirable new directions in their own fields or generally. The branches and areas represented are clinical, educational and occupational psychology, life-work balance (which, like many specialisms, would be claimed by various branches), counselling, sport psychology, health psychology, lecturing in psychology, higher education, ethics, personality and, finally, a view on the dynamism of modern applied psychology generally.

    For Careers Information

    The BPS is the authoritative and up-to-date source of information on becoming a chartered psychologist and other aspects of careers and training in applied psychology (http://www.bps.org.uk; phone: 01162 549568). They will also give details of conversion courses for people who want to be eligible for postgraduate training in psychology but who do not have a recognized psychology degree.

    RowanBayneIanHorton

    Acknowledgements

    David Rose suggested the initial idea for a book. A committee worked on the idea through its earliest stages: Liz Attree, Brian Clifford, Paul Curran, Susan Goodrich, Ian Horton, Ros Java, Nelica La Gro, Sarah Lewis, John Radford, James Walsh and Sally Wilden. A subgroup then developed the resulting outline further: Ian Horton, Paul Curran and Sarah Lewis.

    The authors did magnificently to keep (roughly) to schedule in the face of increasing work pressures (see Chapters 9 and 13). Susy Ajith, as before, word-processed calmly and swiftly. Very warm thanks to those named above, and to the many other people who contributed.

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