Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology


Edited by: Richard W. Brislin

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  • Front Matter
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  • Cross-Cultural Research and Methodology Series

    Series Editors

    Walter J. Lonner, Department of Psychology, Western Washington University (United States)

    John W. Berry, Department of Psychology, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada)

    Volumes in this series:

    Volume 4 Myerhoff/Simić LIFE'S CAREER-AGING

    Volume 5 Hofstede CULTURE'S CONSEQUENCES

    Volume 6 Williams/Best MEASURING SEX STEREOTYPES, Revised Edition

    Volume 7 Pedersen/Sartorius/Marsella MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES


    Volume 9 Cushner/Brislin INTERCULTURAL INTERACTIONS (2nd edition)

    Volume 10 Dasen/Berry/Sartorius HEALTH AND CROSS-CULTURAL PSYCHOLOGY



    Volume 13 Williams/Best SEX AND PSYCHE


    Volume 15 De Vos/Suárez-Orozco STATUS INEQUALITY



    Volume 18 Kim/Triandis/Kagitçibasi/Choi/Yoon INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM


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    About the Series

    The Sage Series on Cross-Cultural Research and Methodology was created to present comparative studies on cross-cultural topics and interdisciplinary research. Inaugurated in 1975, the series is designed to satisfy a growing need to integrate research method and theory and to dissect issues from a comparative perspective; a truly international approach to the study of behavioral, social, and cultural variables can be done only within such a methodological framework.

    Each volume in the series presents substantive cross-cultural studies and considerations of the strengths, interrelationships, and weaknesses of its various methodologies, drawing upon work done in anthropology, political science, psychology, and sociology. Both individual researchers knowledgeable in more than one discipline and teams of specialists with differing disciplinary backgrounds have contributed to the series. While each individual volume may represent the integration of only a few disciplines, the cumulative totality of the series reflects an effort to bridge gaps of methodology and conceptualization across the various disciplines and many cultures.

    When Richard Brislin was corresponding with the contributing chapter authors shortly after he had invited them to prepare manuscripts for this volume in the series, he asked them to keep two audiences in mind. The first audience, he said, should be undergraduate students. He correctly assumed that the very broad base represented by chapters in this volume would be appealing to many college and university faculty who might select it as a text, or a supplement to a text, in undergraduate courses dealing with cultural factors in human behavior. For this reason, the book contains the basics and not complex theoretical issues. Brislin identified the second audience as practitioners who would benefit from a review of the concepts being presented. For instance, clinical and counseling psychologists would benefit from Juris Draguns's chapter; industrial/organizational psychologists, from the overview of Harry Hui; those interested in culture and epidemiology, by Lisa Ilola's chapter; and so forth. The title, Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology, is, therefore, appropriate. We believe that the book will be attractive to a variety of relative newcomers as well as seasoned cross-culturalists, and especially to those who are looking for a fairly comprehensive and clearly written sketch of current knowledge with a cross-cultural focus in several different areas of the social and behavioral sciences.

    As series editors, we want to point out two things that may help in understanding the nature of this volume. First, this is not the first book with the title Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology. The first book carrying that title was the collection of readings resulting from the second international conference of the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology (that book was edited by Berry and Lonner, and was published by Swets and Zeitlinger in 1974). The current book, however, is much more applied (in the real sense of that word) than the 1974 book. Second, this current book is somewhat of a companion to Volume 8 in the series Field Methods in Cross-Cultural Research (edited by Lonner and Berry, and published by Sage in 1986). In combination, these two books would provide the cross-cultural researcher with specific methodologies and information on how they may be used in different applied areas.

    We want to express our thanks to Rich Brislin for doing a characteristically excellent job of organizing and editing the book as well as convening the 1989 workshop at the East-West Center's Institute of Culture and Communication. We also want to thank Helen de Leon Palmore, Program Officer at ICC, for the key role she played in making the workshop a successful and pleasant experience. At the workshop, drafts of all chapters were presented and discussed, and the whole process was a productive and smooth operation resulting in this very welcome addition to the series.


    Rich would like to acknowledge a number of people whose efforts were indispensable. The unwavering support of Dr. Victor Hao Li, president of the East-West Center, and Robert Hewett, Director of the Center's Institute of Culture and Communication, made the entire project possible. A number of people took on tasks at various stages during the book's preparation. These tasks included reading chapters and suggesting sentences in need of clarification, assisting at the conference that brought the chapter authors together, assisting in the preparation of indices, and identifying places were examples would help in the exposition of theoretical points. Heidi Denecke, Tamara Echter, Sharon Gorman, John Howe, Fran Mularski, Shakti Rana, Vasanthi Ranganathan, and Tammy Stein involved themselves in these tasks, and the authors join Rich in expressing their gratitude.

  • Author Index

    About the Authors

    John W. Berry was born and raised in Quebec, Canada. He was educated there and at the University of Edinburgh (Ph.D., 1966). After three years at the University of Sydney, working on projects with Aborigines (cognition and acculturation), he settled in at Queen's University (Kingston, Canada), where he is now a professor of psychology. His interests center on cross-cultural psychology including the role of ecological and cultural factors in development, the psychology of acculturation and ethnic relations in plural societies, and cross-cultural research methods. He is a past Secretary-General and a past President of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology; Associate Editor of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology; and a member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Psychology.

    D. P. S. Bhawuk is an alumnus of the East-West Center and is now Manager, Management Training, Royal Nepal Airlines Corporation, Kathmandu. He has a degree in mechanical engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology and also a management degree (M.B.A.) from the University of Hawaii. He has trained maintenance and frontline personnel for 10 years. He has been a workshop leader for the East-West Center's Summer Workshop for the Development of Intercultural Coursework. He received the Distinguished Service Award for the year 1989, the highest honor conferred on participants and fellows by the East-West Center.

    Richard W. Brislin is Research Associate at the Institute of Culture and Communication, East-West Center, in Honolulu, Hawaii. He attended Pennsylvania State University and received a Ph.D. in psychology in 1969. Since coming to the East-West Center in 1972, he has directed programs for international educators, cross-cultural researchers, and various specialists involved in formal programs that encourage intercultural interaction. One of these programs overlapped with a conference to develop the Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology (1980; Harry Triandis, senior editor), of which he is a coeditor. His other books include Cross-Cultural Research Methods (1973, with W. Lonner and R. Thorndike); Cross-Cultural Orientation Programs (1975, with P. Pedersen); Cross-Cultural Encounters: Face to Face Interaction (1981); the three-volume Handbook of Intercultural Training (1983, coedited with D. Landis); and Intercultural Interactions: A Practical Guide (1986).

    Kenneth Cushner is Assistant Professor of Education and Associate Director of the Center for International and Intercultural Education in the College of Education at Kent State University. He has been a degree scholar with the Institute of Culture and Communication at the East-West Center and has written in the areas of cross-cultural training and international education. He is coauthor of the textbook Intercultural Interactions: A Practical Guide. He has worked extensively with educational programs for teachers and youths on five continents.

    Juris G. Draguns is Professor of Psychology at Pennsylvania State University, University Park. He received his Ph.D. at the University of Rochester. He has held visiting appointments at the Johannes Gutenberg University in Mainz, Germany, the East-West Center in Honolulu, Hawaii, and the Flinders University of South Australia. His research interests in cross-cultural psychology include personality, psychopathology, and complex social behavior. He is the author of numerous publications in psychological, psychiatric, and interdisciplinary journals, and coeditor of the Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology, Volume 6, Psychopathology and of Counseling Across Cultures.

    C. Harry Hui, who received his Ph.D. from the University of Illinois, is a member of the Psychology Department, University of Hong Kong. In addition to research interests in industrial psychology, he has published a number of scholarly papers on the topic of individualism and collectivism. Some of his work has been integrated into formal training programs to prepare business people to work in cultures other than their own.

    Lisa Marie Ilola was born in England to a Japanese American and a Finnish national. She lived and/or attended school throughout the United States, in Maryland, California, Alabama, Florida, and New York. Her first two years of college were completed in England and the final two years of the Bachelor of Theology were completed while attending the Seventh-Day Adventist Theological Seminary, Far East, in the Philippines. She earned a Master of Public Health from Loma Linda University, California, and a Ph.D. in Educational Psychology from the University of Hawaii at Manoa. She worked in health education in Finland from 1982 to 1985. She is currently Director of the Division of Educational Services, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria.

    Çigdem Kâgitçibşi is Professor of Psychology at Bogaziçi University, Istanbul, Turkey. She received her Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley; she taught there and at Columbia University, and was a visiting scholar at Harvard. She was involved in a nine-country cross-cultural study on the value of children. Her numerous publications include her edited volumes Sex Roles, Family and Community in Turkey (Indiana University Press, 1982) and Growth and Progress in Cross-Cultural Psychology (Swets, 1987), a selected papers volume from the 8th International Congress of Cross-Cultural Psychology (IACCP), Istanbul (1986). She is the Deputy Secretary General of IACCP.

    Uichol Kim was born in Korea. His family emigrated to Canada in 1968. As an undergraduate at the University of Toronto, he majored in psychology and Korean studies. He pursued his graduate training in cross-cultural psychology at Queen's University. His cross-cultural research has focused on cultures of East Asia, especially Korean people living in Korea and abroad. His research interests include topics such as acculturation, ethnic relations, individualism and collectivism, indigenous knowledge, quality of life, and sociohistorical analysis of scientific psychology. Currently, he is Assistant Professor at the Department of Psychology, University of Hawaii.

    Kwok Leung (Ph.D., Illinois) is Chinese by birth and teaches psychology at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. His research interests include distributive and procedural justice, conflict resolution, cultural collectivism, and organizational psychology.

    Walter J. Lonner is Professor of Psychology and Director of the Center for Cross-Cultural Research at Western Washington University, Bellingham (Washington 98225, U.S.A). He is founding Editor and currently Senior Editor of the Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. From 1986 to 1988 he served as President of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology. He is coauthor of Cross-Cultural Research Methods (1973, with R. Brislin and R. Thorndike) and is coeditor of the Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology (1980).

    R. Michael Paige is Associate Professor of International and Intercultural Education in the Department of Curriculum and Instruction, and Associate Director and Head of the Education and Training Division in the Office of International Education at the University of Minnesota. He received his Ph.D. in International Development Education from Stanford, served as a Peace Corps Volunteer in Turkey, and has worked in Indonesia, Thailand, and the Philippines as a professional cross-cultural trainer and educational researcher. He is the editor of Cross-Cultural Orientation: New Conceptualizations and Applications (1986).

    Janak Pandey (Ph.D., Kansas State University) is Professor at the Centre of Advanced Study in Psychology and is also currently Dean, Faculty of Arts, Allahabad University. He has published extensively in scholarly journals on social influence processes and on contemporary social and environmental issues (e.g., poverty, crowding) that are relevant to socioeconomic change in developing societies. Recently, he edited a three-volume set, Psychology in India: The State-of-the-Art (Sage, 1988). Earlier, he served as the Deputy Secretary General and at present is a member of the Executive Committee of the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology. He developed and taught cross-cultural psychology courses at Wake Forest University in the summer of 1984 and again in 1986–1987 as a visiting Fulbright professor.

    Durganand Sinha, educated in Patna and Cambridge universities, has taught at Patna University, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, and established the Department of Psychology in Allahabad University, which was later upgraded as a Centre of Advanced Study in Psychology. He was Director of ANS Institute of Social Studies, Patna, for over five years. He was a National Lecturer and National Fellow of the University Grants Commission, and has just retired as the ICSSR National Fellow. He has been President (1980–1982) of the International Association for Cross-Cultural Psychology, member of the Executive Committee of International Association of Applied Psychology (1972–1986) and International Union of Psychological Science since 1980. His current research interests are human development, cross-cultural psychology, and psychology in developing countries.

    Harry C. Triandis is Professor of Psychology at the University of Illinois. He is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, a past President of the International Association of Cross-Cultural Psychology, two divisions of the American Psychological Association, and the Interamerican Society of Psychology; he is President Elect of the International Association of Applied Psychology.

    He received an honorary degree from the University of Athens, Greece, for his cross-cultural work. He is the senior editor of the Handbook of Cross-Cultural Psychology.

    Pei-Guan Wu earned his B.A. at Zhongshan University, Guangzhou, People's Republic of China, and is currently pursuing a master's degree in psychology at the Chinese University of Hong Kong. He is interested in values, intergroup bargaining, and work motivation.

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